|Arizona (Coconino County), Cameron — Cameron Originally Tanner's Crossing|
|Named for one of Arizona's first U.S. Senators. A pioneer in development of trails and copper mines in Grand Canyon. Near here was the site of Tanner's Crossing of the Little Colorado River on the Mormon Trail from Utah via Lee Ferry to settlements in Arizona and New Mexico. — Map (db m80764) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — "The Gandy Dancer"|
|Section crews were the laborers who built the railroads in the beginning and have continued throughout the years to maintain them. These crews were most efficient in moving heavy sections of rails when they all worked in unison. To accomplish this they sometimes used songs or some other method of keeping a beat. The tools used were manufactured by the Gandy Tool Company, hence the term, "Gandy Dancer." The tools shown here are the spike maul, rail gauge, wrench, clawbar, and rail tongs.
Clyde "Ross" Morgan, Sculptor — Map (db m33265) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Gathering Place|
| ]Panel 1:]
Between 1100 and 1200, more people lived in this area than ever before, or since. Located along routes linking large populations to the northeast and south, villages here were well situated for trade. As people, goods, and ideas converged on the area, a complex society of several thousand evolved. This particular village became the heart of a thriving community and was a landmark, a gathering place, and a ceremonial center.
It is remarkable that this land, so dry and . . . — Map (db m60079) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past|
|Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native plants that grow in this high-desert environment; how the eruptions of Sunset Crater Volcano affected the ancient inhabitants; and the plaza where daily activities such as cooking and grinding corn took place.
The whole picture of this prehistoric . . . — Map (db m60114) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment|
You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the defense theory? We do know this is one of the larger pueblos in Wupatki National Monument and could have been the home for many families. You are welcome to speculate about what will be found here, as we do.
What happened? Exact . . . — Map (db m60089) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes|
|Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse annual rainfall forced the inhabitants to catch and save as much water as they could, or walk miles to other sources.
Since the use of the area by modern ranchers, the land has undergone other dramatic changes. Cattle grazing stripped much of the . . . — Map (db m60105) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Aubineau / Andreatos Building 1893/1952|
Aubineau Building: The earliest buildings on this site were wood frame saloons, which burned in 1886 and 1888 and 1892. In 1892, ownership passed to Julius Aubineau, who later became Mayor of Flagstaff and is credited with installing the town's first water system, a pipeline from the Peaks. Aubineau built the present brick building in 1893, using it as a liquor store. It was later a saloon, a cafe, and a market.
The El Patio Cafe was located here from 1930-1965. A stucco exterior . . . — Map (db m33267) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Aubineau Building 1912|
|Because of its prime location, this corner, containing two lots, was one of the earliest in Flagstaff to be developed. Pioneer merchant J. R. Kilpatrick built New Town's sixth building here in December 1883. This wooden store building burned in the big Valentine's Day fire of 1886.
Kilpatrick rebuilt, erecting a two-story brick store on the west lot in 1886. In 1887 he built a one-story brick building on the east lot, increasing it to two stories in 1888. Fire destroyed the east building . . . — Map (db m33269) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Babbitt Brothers Building 1888|
|In 1888, David Babbitt, who had been running a lumber yard on this site, decided to construct a general store. Starting in late summer, he built a 35 X 70 foot structure on this corner, with the long side of the building running west along Aspen Avenue. He used red Moencopi sandstone, locally quarried, as his principal material.
His brothers William, George, Charles and Edward eventually joined him in the enterprise. In 1891, when Coconino County was formed, it had no office building, so . . . — Map (db m59504) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Beale Road|
|In 1857 Congress authorized Navy Lieutenant Edward F. Beale to survey a wagon road along the 35th parallel from Fort Defiance, New Mexico Territory, to the Colorado River. A secondary mission was to test the feasibility of using camels in the Southwest. In the fall of 1857, the Beale survey party passed through what is now Flagstaff, Arizona, with approximately 50 men, 100 mules, 10 wagons, 22 camels, and over 300 sheep. The eventual route passed by this location, and later became Fort Valley . . . — Map (db m33348) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Beale Wagon Road 1857 - 1882|
|From 1857-60, Lt. Edward F. Beale and a crew of 100 men completed the first federal highway in the southwest from Fort Smith, Ark. to Los Angeles, Calif. at a cost of $200,000. The wagon road was used extensively by immigrants en route to California and livestock men with large herds of cattle and sheep until 1882. — Map (db m33346) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Box Canyon Ruins|
|The Box Canyon ruins are typical of many pueblos found in this region. Early inhabitants constructed walls of nearby sandstone and limestone, and used local soils to cement the stones together. The flat roofs were built of timbers laid side-by-side, covered with smaller branches and finally plastered over with mud.
Smoke was vented from the rooms through a square hole in the ceiling, which frequently served as the only access to the room. Doorways were small and windows almost . . . — Map (db m60094) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Buffalo Park|
|The City of Flagstaff purchased this land in 1959 from the United States Forest Service.
In 1964, James Potter, Sr., long-time resident, entrepreneur and Flagstaff Chamber of Commerce President, led the effort to form a non-profit organization, lease the site from the city, and operate Buffalo Park as a tourist attraction and wildlife refuge for elk, deer, antelope, and of course, bison. A blend of Old West and Navajo culture was represented with stagecoach rides, cowboy storytellers and . . . — Map (db m33347) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Bushmaster Park|
|Bushmaster Park is named in memory of Flagstaff's Company I-158th Infantry Regiment, Arizona National Guard, and their sacrifices for freedom made in New Guinea, the Phillipine Islands and Japan from 1941 to 1945.
"No greater fighting team ever deployed for battle."
General Douglas MacArthur — Map (db m60932) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Church of the Nativity 1888-1930|
|In 1888, at the insistence of a group of Catholic
Laymen, The First Catholic Church in Flagstaff was built of brick on the south side of town. It was moved in 1911 to a temporary site just west of and across the street from the present permanent gothic structure, of native volcanic rock, which was completed and dedicated in 1930. — Map (db m33336) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Coconino Chop House 1898|
|The Hoxworth family was the first to develop this lot, when H. H. Hoxworth built a hardware and furniture store here in January 1884. The property was owned by his father, George Hoxworth, a wounded Union veteran of the Battle of Shiloh.
Like all the other buildings on this block, the original store was destroyed in the fire of 1886. George Hoxworth replaced the building with a two-story wooden storefront, which burned in the fire of 1888. Soon afterward ownership passed to Dr. G. F. . . . — Map (db m33268) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life|
An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other plants for food, and cooking. It would have also been used for meetings, conducting trade, and as a controlled play area for children. During the warmer months, the plaza received extensive use from dawn until after dusk; rooms inside the pueblo were . . . — Map (db m60110) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Donahue Building 1888|
|This building for many years was the home of J. J. "Sandy" Donahue's famous Senate Saloon. After earlier frame buildings on the site had been destroyed by fire, Donahue built the present brick structure in 1888.
An important figure in Flagstaff's early history, Donahue held public office and participated in many civic improvements; but he was also a free-wheeling gambler, drinker and spender. Donahue became overextended and lost the property on a mortgage foreclosure.
A small number . . . — Map (db m33266) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Downtowner 1921 - 1935|
|The K.J. Nackard family came to Flagstaff in 1912 and opened a small general store at 106 E. Railroad Avenue. The store was successful. In 1921, Nackard built a home on this property, just a stone's throw from the store.
Soon afterwards, automobile travel began to increase in Flagstaff as Route 66 was created and advertised. Until 1932, when the underpass was built, traffic on Route 66 came by this location, making it a natural place for a motel.
The Nackards converted their home into . . . — Map (db m59499) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Dry Land Farming|
|Volcanic activity to the south produced giant fissures or earthcracks throughout the Wupatki area in the Kaibab Limestone. This formation covers most of the western half of Wupatki National Monument. The Sinagua and Anasazi Indians who inhabited these ancient pueblos probably found the earthcracks to be the most productive farming sites. There is no evidence of streams close by which could be used for water. All of the farming was dependent on the rainfall.
Corn, squash and other crops . . . — Map (db m60098) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Flagstaff|
|Named for a pine tree stripped of its branches by a party of immigrants and used as a flagpole for a patriotic celebration on July 4, 1876. Nearby Antelope or Old Town Spring provided water and led to the establishment of a railroad construction camp when the Atlantic & Pacific pushed west in 1882. — Map (db m33330) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Flagstaff Flag - Raising|
|Historians generally agree that Flagstaff derives its name from a flag-raising ceremony held July 4, 1876, by a group of settlers from New England who were camped within sight of this historic monument.
In February and May of 1876, two groups of settlers left Boston and traveled westward, intent upon establishing a colony in the valley of the Colorado Chiquito (Little Colorado River) near present-day Winslow. Known as the first and second Boston parties, these colonist had been lured by . . . — Map (db m33365) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Flagstaff Presbyterian, Federated Community, Mexican Methodist Mission and United Methodist Churches|
|Flagstaff Presbyterian Church
1892 - 1916
Flagstaff Federated Community Church
Mexican Methodist Mission – El Divino Redentor
United Methodist Church 1927-present
The First Presbyterian congregation of Flagstaff was organized in 1891 and built this church on San Francisco and Cherry Streets. Although unfurnished, services began the following year. In 1916 Presbyterians and Methodist joined to become the Flagstaff Federated Community Church. In 1927 the . . . — Map (db m33364) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Flagstaff's Founding|
| Flagstaff was a name on a map before the area had any significant population. The first permanent settler was Thomas F. McMillan who arrived sometime in 1876. On July 4, 1876, a party of emigrants traveling from Boston to California was camped at Antelope Springs, near McMillan's homestead and in the vicinity of present-day Marshall Elementary School. In honor of the nation's Centennial, the emigrants stripped the limbs from a tall Ponderosa Pine tree and hoisted Old Glory. This event gave . . . — Map (db m41717) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Logging Wheels|
|Logging wheels were originally an integral part of the early lumber industry in Northern Arizona. Originally designed in 1870 by Silas Overpack, a Manistee, Michigan wheelwright, the wheels were used by a local farmer to help him clear his land. When logging operations began in the early 1880's, they became a vital part of the process. The wheels, originally pulled by horses, were used into the early 1900's and were even pulled by early steam tractors.
When lumberjacks felled the large . . . — Map (db m33331) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — McMillan Building 1887|
|Thomas F. McMillan (also spelled McMillon) was the father of Flagstaff. Born in Tennessee, he sought gold in California and raised sheep in Australia before moving to northern Arizona in 1876. Here he established a sheep ranch and farm just north of the present city. He prospered and became one of the leading stockmen of Arizona. It was at a spring he used as a sheep camp on July 4, 1876, that the Second Boston Party raised the flag staff that gave Flagstaff its name.
McMillan played an . . . — Map (db m33271) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Methodist Episcopal Church 1906-1916 Flagstaff Federated Community Church 1916-Present|
|Flagstaff's first congregation was formed by the Methodists in 1883 and they raised the first church five blocks east of here in 1887. In 1906 they moved here and constructed this Gothic style building of locally quarried red sandstone. The interior, originally in the Akron architectural style, featured semi-circular seating sloping down toward the elevated pulpit in the northwest corner. Services began the next year. In 1916 the Methodist and Presbyterians joined to become the Flagstaff . . . — Map (db m33337) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Railroad Depot 1926|
|The facility was originally constructed in 1925-1926 by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad as the passenger station for the Flagstaff stop. The City of Flagstaff acquired the building in 1992 using city of Flagstaff Bed, Board & Booze tax funds. The facility was renovated in 1994 with every attempt made to protect the architectural integrity of the building. The striking paint scheme reflects the southwest heritage of the station and was developed based on research and paint analysis of . . . — Map (db m78739) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Raymond Building 1911|
|As the keystone shows, this building was constructed in 1911. Its owner was R.O. Raymond, M.D., one of Flagstaffs first doctors. Raymond came west for his health. After a short stay in Williams, he moved to Flagstaff in 1906.
He was the doctor for the Arizona Lumber and Timber Company, the towns largest employer, at their company town known as Milton, where he established and ran the Milton (Mercy) Hospital, which served the whole community from 1912 -1935.
Raymond branched out into . . . — Map (db m59511) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ricket & Brooks Bldg. 1911|
|The first building on this site was a wooden structure located at 22 N. San Francisco Street dating from the early 1890s. It was the home of a saloon with a cute name, The Office. (“Honey I cant come home just yet, Im still at The Office.”)
In 1905 T.A. Rickel bought the property. F.E. Brooks bought a half interest from Rickel in 1910 and the pair added a slogan to The Office name, “A Resort for Gentlemen.”
In March 1911 Rickel and Brooks bought the lot to the . . . — Map (db m59510) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano|
|The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anasazi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over the sandy soil helped hold moisture, which was beneficial to the growing of crops.
Eventually, even Sunset Crater Volcano grew quiet, and the winds blew the cinders away and dried out the soil.
Why the Lomaki residents departed is not . . . — Map (db m60107) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Telephone Exchange 1909|
|This building was constructed in 1909 by John W. Weatherford, the man who earlier built the adjacent Weatherford Hotel. It was the headquarters for the Arizona Overland Telephone Company, housing its offices and physical plant.
Construction started in July 1909 and was finished that fall. Locally produced materials were used, including lumber, Moenkopi sandstone and red brick.
The Overland Company replaced the Flagstaff Mutual Telephone Company, which had been a strictly in town . . . — Map (db m59966) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features|
It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because of its location, but archeologists wonder why the Anasazi often built in high, hard-to-get-at places. Some theories say it was defensive. Others say it was to avoid building on croplands, or for sun and breeze. Or was it more simple? Today we often . . . — Map (db m60087) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Historic Basque Handball Court|
|Historic Basque handball court (cancha) built in 1926 by Jesus Garcia, a Spaniard who migrated to Flagstaff in 1912. He owned and operated the adjacent Tourist Home. The Basque would reportedly herd sheep, drink, chase women, or play their beloved pelota games (hard sheep skin ball). The Basque migrated westward in the late 1800s following the railways.
The 40 foot high sandstone court is one of a reported 14 remaining in America, and is the only one left standing in Arizona. — Map (db m59498) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Navajo Code Talkers|
|The original thirty-two Code Talkers were organized to develop codes based on their native language which were used extensively during World War II. These and many other Native Americans served bravely throughout the Pacific and other combat zones.
Charlie Y. Begay Roy Begay Samuel Begay John Benally Willsie Bitsie Cosey S. Brown John Brown John Chee Benjamin Cleveland Eugene Crawford David Curley Lowell Damon George Dennison James Dixon Carl N. Gorman Ross . . . — Map (db m33344) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Old Tractor|
| This 1945 Model H International Farmall, purchased by the Zanzucchi Family after World War II, was used to plow the "Fields" at the Flagstaff Dairy. The Flagstaff Dairy operated from 1904 thru 1979 and was located 3 miles west of Flagstaff on Old Route 66. It is now the home of Flagstaff Ranch Golf Club. — Map (db m78740) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Transcontinental Railroad Centennial|
|In 1866 the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad was formed to construct a railroad from Springfield, Missouri to the Pacific Ocean, a distance of 2,000 miles.
In the summer and fall of 1882 the railroad was directly responsible for the founding and development of the City of Flagstaff.
This plaque is to commemorate one hundred years of service to this community by the Transcontinental Railroad.
October 2, 1982 — Map (db m33333) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Two Spots Arizona Lumber and Timber Company Steam Engine|
| Arizona Lumber and Timber Company purchased this Baldwin steam engine in 1917 for lumbering operations in and around Flagstaff, where the engine spent its entire working life. The City of Flagstaff purchased No. 25 in 1995.
Canvas water bags hung out the engine's window & eventually rubbed off the Number 5 on each side, resulting in Two Spot's affectionate nickname.
This display is dedicated to those who worked in the Flagstaff timber industry over the last 110 years.
June 1999 — Map (db m41720) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Verkamp Building 1899|
|John G. Verkamp came to Flagstaff in the 1890s. He first worked for the Babbitts (three of his sisters were married to Babbitt brothers), then succeeded in a number of businesses on his own, including lumber, livestock and merchandising. He is best known today for the Verkamp curio store at the Grand Canyon.
In 1899, Verkamp and T.A. Rickel constructed this brick building. The men rented the upper floor to the Elks, so it was known as the Elks Hall.
The ground floor was occupied most of . . . — Map (db m59505) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Walkway of Flags 1994|
|Flags have been important to the history of Flagstaff. It was a pine tree used as a flag staff that gave the town its name when Old Glory was flown at a spring (that later became the site of Flagstaff) on the occasion of the nation's centennial—July 4, 1876.
When the city celebrated its own centennial during the year 1994, the City Council and Centennial Commission decided to fly the flags of every state, and the flags of Flagstaff's sister cities as a way of showing how Flagstaff . . . — Map (db m33338) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Weatherford Hotel 1898/1899|
|John Weatherford, who was raised in Weatherford, Texas, came to Flagstaff in 1886. He decided to stay here because he fell in love with the San Francisco Peaks at first sight. He tried his hand in several occupations, everything from saloon keeper to livery stable operator. Finally he found his niche in the mens clothing business, operating a “gents furnishing” store for many years. He was active in political, social and civic affairs.
In 1898, he built the first part of this . . . — Map (db m59507) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Wukoki|
|Wukoki, a modern Hopi word for “Big House” was once home for two or three prehistoric Indian families. The inhabitants are believed to have been of the Kayenta Anasazi culture, judging from the types of artifacts found during excavation and stabilization. This site, occupied from approximately 1120-1210 A.D. afforded its occupants a commanding view of the surrounding terrain. The unusual three-story height, combined with its position atop this Moenkopi Sandstone outcrop, lends . . . — Map (db m60078) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — 1956 Grand Canyon TWA-United Airlines Aviation Accident Site|
|1956 Grand Canyon
Aviation Accident Site
has been designated a
This tragic accident site represents a watershed moment in the modernization of America's airways leading to the establishment of the Federal Aviation Administration and national standards for aviation safety
This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America — Map (db m81861) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Albright Training Center History|
| The Horace M. Albright Training Center is a National Park Service facility for employee development. Established in 1963 and named for the National Park Service's second director, the training center serves as an educational program center for employees throughout the nation. — Map (db m39602) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Blacksmith Shop Constructed in 1908|
| In the early days of Grand Canyon Village, the blacksmith shop served as a focal point of activity. The blacksmith was a highly skilled craftsman who welded the machinery, sharpened the tools, built water tanks, repaired the wagon wheels and shod the horses and mules. In addition, he manufactured branding irons and fashioned metal into ornamental iron work. Today, the blacksmith shop still serves many of the original purposes for which it was built. — Map (db m39582) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Lodge|
| Bright Angel Hotel (below) was built around 1895 to serve stagecoach passengers. In 1905 the hotel became Bright Angel Camp, which eventually included cabins and an adjoining tent village.
In 1935 the Fred Harvey Company replaced the camp with Bright Angel Lodge, which stands here now. The lodge is one of six historic structures at Grand Canyon designed by architect Mary Colter. — Map (db m39510) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Lodge First Constructed in 1885|
| The Bright Angel Lodge, as it is known today, began as a cabin and several tents on this site in 1896. The central unit designed by Mary Jane Colter, was built in 1935. This lodge contains some of the oldest buildings in the Grand Canyon Village, which are now used as cabins. Two unusual fireplaces were constructed with the rock native to the Grand Canyon. The lodge's name is derived from Bright Angel Creek which was named by John Wesley Powell, the first explorer through the Inner Gorge of the Grand Canyon. — Map (db m39565) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Trail|
| Each year thousands of hikers enter Grand Canyon on the Bright Angel Trail. They follow a tradition - and a trail route - established by prehistoric people. For centuries humans have used this route for two key reasons: water and access. Water emerges from springs at Indian Garden, and erosion along the Bright Angel Fault creates a break in the cliffs, providing access to the springs.
When prospectors arrived here in the late 1800s, Havasupai Indians were using the route. Prospectors . . . — Map (db m39563) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Buckey O'Neill Cabin|
| In the early 1890s (exact date unknown) Buckey O'Neill built a log cabin here on Grand Canyon's south rim. It stands in front of you; it is Grand Canyon's oldest surviving historic structure.
Grand Canyon's modern era began with people like O'Neill - prospectors and adventurers who quickly found tourism more lucrative than mining. Many of their structures became rugged tourist facilities; in 1898 O'Neill's cabin became part of the Bright Angel Hotel. In 1935 when Mary Colter designed a new . . . — Map (db m39545) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — CCC Legacy|
| The nearby plaque commemorates an amazing feat achieved by members of the Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) in the 1930s - construction of a telephone line spanning the entire width of Grand Canyon. One of the poles still stands behind this wall. Beginning in 1934, CCC enrollees worked through winter snow and summer heat to survey and clear a right-of-way roughly following the Bright Angel and North Kaibab trails. Supplied by pack mules, they set 592 galvanized pipe telephone poles and . . . — Map (db m78836) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — El Tovar Hotel Begun 1903, Completed 1905|
| Named for Don Pedro de Tovar, the first European to visit the Hopi Indian villages in 1540, the hotel was constructed by Hopi Indian craftsmen at a cost of $250,000 employing logs shipped by train from Oregon and native Kaibab Limestone. The El Tovar Hotel has been host to thousands of visitors since its dedication in 1905 and is operated by the National Parks Division of Fred Harvey, Inc. The El Tovar Hotel has been listed in the Historical Registry of the United States since September 6, 1974. — Map (db m39477) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Grandview, 1898|
| "No language can fully describe, no artist paint the beauty, grandeur, immensity and sublimity of this most wonderful production of Nature's great architect. [Grand Canyon] must be seen to be appreciated."
C.O. Hall, Grand Canyon visitor, 1895.
Reports like this from early tourists aroused curiosity and stimulated Grand Canyon tourism.
The year is 1898, and you have come to decide whether the lofty reports you've heard about Grand Canyon are true. Pete Berry, . . . — Map (db m39659) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Historic Kolb Studio|
| Established in 1904 by the Kolb Brothers as a photographic studio and operated by Emery Kolb until his death in 1976. Kolb is now operated as a book store and information center by the Grand Canyon Association, a non-profit organization. Proceeds go directly to Grand Canyon National Park. — Map (db m39546) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Hopi House Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter|
| Hopi House opened on January 1, 1905, the first Grand Canyon work of architect Mary Colter. To complement El Tovar, their new hotel, the Fred Harvey Company commissioned Colter to design a building to display and sell Indian arts and crafts. Colter designed Hopi House to resemble a true Indian dwelling, modeling it after structures in the Hopi village of Old Oraibi.
When it opened, Hopi House contained sales areas and a museum. Upper floors housed Hopi families who worked here. Visitors . . . — Map (db m39478) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Hopi House Constructed in 1905|
| Designed as living quarters for Hopi artisans and as a place to sell Hopi crafts and souvenirs, this building represents the efforts of the Fred Harvey Company to revive Southwest Indian arts and crafts. Designed by Mary Jane Colter, the building was modeled after part of the Hopi village at Third Mesa, in Oraibi. It retains much of its original appearance. — Map (db m39509) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Horace M. Albright|
| Albright's contributions to the National Park Service can hardly be overstated. While working with the agency's first director, Stephen Mather, in the early years of the National Park Service, Horace Albright played a decisive role in guiding the agency. Upon Mather's departure Albright became the agency's second director.
President Jimmy Carter presented Horace Albright the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, in 1980. — Map (db m39600) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Kolb Studio|
| The Kolb Brothers: daring, persistent, Grand Canyon legends. Their studio stands before you.
Ellsworth Kolb arrived here in 1901, Emery in 1902. First located in a tent, their photo business grew with Grand Canyon tourism. They eventually produced more than 250,000 photos. Adverturers, they explored remote areas of the canyon - always with camera in hand. In 1911-1912 they shot the first motion picture of a river trip through the canyon, a film that Emery presented here for nearly 60 years. . . . — Map (db m39549) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Lookout Studio|
| The Fred Harvey Company built Lookout Studio in 1914, in part to compete with the Kolb Brothers Studio located slightly west along the rim. Called "The Lookout," Fred Harvey's studio offered telescopic views, photographs, and books about the canyon.
Designed by Mary Colter, Lookout Studio is an early example of a park structure that blends with its setting. Its low, rough-cut limestone design adheres to ideas expressed by pioneer landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead, who felt that any . . . — Map (db m39544) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mining on Horseshoe Mesa|
| In 1890 prospector Pete Berry staked the Last Chance copper claim 3,000 feet below you on Horseshoe Mesa. The Last Chance Mine began a 17-year flurry of activity here at Grandview Point.
For a while the Last Chance Mine thrived. The ore was rich; it claimed a World's Fair prize in Chicago in 1893 for being over 70% pure copper. But the high cost of packing ore to the rim, then shipping it to be refined, doomed the operation. Berry and his partners sold the mine in 1901. The new owners . . . — Map (db m39662) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mission 66|
| Responding to mounting political and public pressure, Congress authorized a ten-year program in 1955 to regenerate and modernize the national parks dubbed "Mission 66" for the target date of 1966, the National Park Service's 50th anniversary. The Albright Training Center is among the hundreds of new facilities built to accomodate the needs of the public and the National Park Service in the post World War II years.
[Drawing below text is of the Fort Necessity National Battlefield visitor center, 1964] — Map (db m39587) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mule Barns Constructed in 1907|
| The mule barn and the nearby livery stable were two of the most important buildings in the original Grand Canyon Village. In the early 1900's, when all travel within the village was by horse-drawn carriage, these huge barns were the center of all activity. Today, the daily mule rides into the canyon are one of the most popular activities in the park. — Map (db m39585) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mules and the Canyon|
| Behind you is the Bright Angel mule corral, where each morning mules greet riders and another adventure begins. Mules have carried people into Grand Canyon since sightseeers first visited here in the 1890s. For many people - including those who cannot hike - mules provide access to the inner canyon.
What is a mule?
Mules are hybrids, a cross between a male burro and a female horse.
How long do mules live? How old are the ones visitors ride?
Mules live about . . . — Map (db m39551) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Santa Fe Depot|
| "Won't you be one of the 25,000 visitors at the Grand Canyon of Arizona this summer? It is the world's scenic wonder - nothing like it."
Santa Fe Railroad brochure, 1914.
The Santa Fe train whistle that was heard here on September 17, 1901, signaled the end of Grand Canyon's frontier days. A $3.50 train ride now replaced a $20.00, full-day, jolting stagecoach ride. In coming decades, Santa Fe promotions nationwide would encourage visitors to come by rail. By the thousands, they . . . — Map (db m39569) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — The Watchtower Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter|
| Build a structure that provides the widest possible view of Grand Canyon yet harmonizes with its setting: this was architect Mary Colter's goal when the Fred Harvey Company hired her in 1930 to design a gift shop and rest area here at Desert View. Colter's answer was the Watchtower.
A perfectionist, Colter scrutinized every detail, down to the placement of nearly every stone. Each stone was handpicked for size and appearance. Weathered faces were left untouched to give the tower an ancient . . . — Map (db m39616) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Trans-Canyon Telephone Line|
| Trans-Canyon Telephone Line,
built in 1935 by CCC workers,
maintained by Mountain Bell,
has been placed on the
National Register of
by the United States
Department of the Interior. — Map (db m78832) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Museum and Ruin|
| Cohonina and ancestral Pueblo (Kayenta Anasazi) people lived in this area in prehistoric time. The ancestral Puebloans built Tusayan about AD 1185. A visit to the museum and a short walk through the remains of the village will furnish a glimpse of the way of life of people at Grand Canyon more than 800 years ago.
Excavation of the Tusayan ruin was conducted in 1930 under the direction of Harold S. Gladwin and the staff of the Gila Pueblo of Globe, Arizona. They named it Tusayan . . . — Map (db m39631) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Ruin Trail|
| Allow about 30 minutes to tour Tusayan Ruin. The 0.1 mile loop trail through the main ruin is paved and wheelchair-accessible; the side loop to a prehistoric farming site is not. Signs along the way explain the site's features. An interpretive trail guide with greater detail about Tusayan's inhabitants is available to your right.
Tusayan Ruin is a remnant of a small village of about 30 people who lived here for 25 to 30 years in the late 1100s. The architecture was typical for that period. . . . — Map (db m39633) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Verkamp's Curios|
| John G. Verkamp rented a tent from the Bright Angel Hotel in 1898 and began selling curios and Indian crafts for Babbitt Brothers' Trading Company. After several slow weeks he closed and sold his stock to the hotel. But he sensed Grand Canyon's potential and returned in 1905, building Verkamp's Curios here. The Verkamp family still owns and runs the business, now a Grand Canyon landmark. — Map (db m39571) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Happy Jack — Battle of Big Dry Wash|
|Seven miles north of this point a band of Apache Indians were defeated by United States troops on July 17, 1882. A group of tribesmen from the San Carlos Apache reservation had attacked some ranches in the vicinity, killing several settlers. Cavalry and Indian scouts were immediately sent into the field in search of the hostiles. Five troops of cavalry and one troop of Indian scouts converged on the Apaches, surrounding them at the Big Dry Wash. The resistance of the Indians was broken after . . . — Map (db m67424) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Happy Jack — General Crook Trail|
|Under the direction of General George Crook this trail was built in the early 1870's. Starting at Fort Whipple, it winds down to Fort Verde then eastward across the Mogollon Rim to Fort Apache covering 200 miles. It was used as a supply route by wagons and pack animals and as a tactical road by the cavalry during the Apache Indian Campaign. A few old trees and rocks can still be seen with original blazes which mark the mileage from various Forts. Many landmark names come from the mileage such as Thirteen Mile Rock and Twentynine Mile Lake. — Map (db m67419) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Happy Jack — General Crook Trail|
|Under the direction of General George Crook this trail was built in the early 1870's. Starting at Fort Whipple, it winds down to Fort Verde then eastward across the Mogollon Rim to Fort Apache covering 200 miles. It was used as a supply route by wagons and pack animals and as a tactical road by the cavalry during the Apache Indian Campaign. A few old trees and rocks can still be seen with original blazes which mark the mileage from various Forts. Many landmark names come from the mileage such as Thirteen Mile Rock and Twentynine Mile Lake. — Map (db m67420) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Dominguez y Escalante Expedition 1776 - 1976 Treacherous Descent|
| Text from: Historical Markers with The Arizona Department of Transportation right of way. Prepared by: Roadside Development Section April 1, 1997
Fatigued by a thirty mile ride, the padres picked their way down the rocky north slope of the Kaibab Plateau toward the light of Paiute campfires near what is now Coyote Spring, 15 miles north. The timid natives fled the approaching Spaniards. No white man had ever been in this region before.
Coaxed to return, the Indians brought . . . — Map (db m39917) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Lee Ferry|
|From 1872 to 1929
principal route of travel
across the Colorado River
to Utah Settlements
First crossing made at the mouth of Paria Creek in 1864 by Jacob Hamblin. Regular ferry established by John Doyle Lee in 1872. Purchased by Latter-Day Saints Church after his death in 1877. Maintained continuously by private and public operators until 1929 when Navajo Bridge was completed. — Map (db m41998) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Lees Ferry|
|Because of long, deep canyons, Lees Ferry was the best crossing point along 500 miles (800 km) of the Colorado River.
In 1873, Mormon Church members opened a wagon road from Kanab, Utah, and built a ferryboat here. John D. Lee was the first ferryman and namesake of the site.
Pioneers, sent to settle the Little Colorado River in northern Arizona, used the ferry service. Lees Ferry grew to include a post office and a trading post. Because of the conflict between the settlers and the . . . — Map (db m41999) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — 350 — Lee's Ferry|
|John D. Lee settled here in Dec. 1872 and established ferry service thirteen months later. After her husband's death, Warren M. Johnson ran the oar-driven ferry for Emma Lee, 1875 to 1879, when the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints purchased her interest. Johnson served until 1895. He was followed by James S. Emett who sold to the Grand Canyon Cattle Company in 1909. Coconino County operated the ferry from 1910 to 1928. — Map (db m41997) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Navajo Bridge Erection Toggle Screw/Navajo Bridge State of Arizona 1927/1928|
|This Erection Toggle Screw was used in the construction of the historic Navajo Bridge to maintain bridge vertical elevations and as a means of lowering bridge sections in place.
[Plaque Mounted on Bridge]:
State of Arizona
Arch 616 feet Total Length 834 feet Height 467 feet
Arizona State Highway Commission
Geo W.P. Hunt, Governor
L.P. Mcbride, Chairman - H. Thompson, Vice Chairman - F.C. Steger, Commissioner
J.F. McDonald, Commissioner - Floyd . . . — Map (db m38469) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Mormon Lake — Mormon Dairy|
|Between 1876 and 1886, Hyrum Judd, under the direction of Lot Smith, supervised a Mormon Dairy one
mile northeast near Dairy Spring.
Beginning with a herd of 115 cows, large quantities of butter and cheese were produced. During the 1880s the herd almost doubled in number and dairy products were delivered to residents of distant
Brigham City, Sunset and St. Joseph, Arizona.
Judd closed the dairy in 1886 and moved his family to the Mormon colony at Chuichupa, Chihuahua, Mexico. — Map (db m35187) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Bureau of Reclamation Memorial Fountain|
| This fountain is dedicated to the memory of our fellow employees who died October 8, 1997 in a plane crash near Montrose, Colorado.
Their names encircle the fountain just as the accomplishments of their careers and lives encircle us.
Dedicated on behalf of all employees of the Bureau of Reclamation
November 7, 1997
[Honor Roll of Employees]
James L. Bloomfield, Electrical Engineer, Glen Canyon Field Division
William H. Duncan Jr., Branch Manager, Glen Canyon Division . . . — Map (db m40325) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Colorado River Storage Project / Glen Canyon Dam Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| Colorado River Storage Project
In recognition of the vision of the Colorado River Storage Project Act of 1956 and the significant contributions the act has made to the development of the Upper Colorado River Basin states, this plaque commemorates the 50th anniversary of the start of construction of the Colorado River Storage Project. Construction of the project has been a key factor in the development and management of water and hydropower generation in the Upper Colorado River Basin . . . — Map (db m40350) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Concrete Bucket / Concrete Core Sample Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| Concrete Bucket
This is one of several concrete buckets that poured the concrete in Glen Canyon Dam. Each bucket held 24 tons (22 metric tons) of concrete and it took over 400,000 buckets to complete the dam. The first pour of concrete occurred on June 17, 1960, the start of an around-the-clock process that continued uninterrupted until September of 1963.
Concrete Core Sample
The polished core cylinder shows the kind of materials that make up the dam. The imbedded rocks are . . . — Map (db m40342) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Crossing of the Fathers Dominguez y Escalante Expedition 1776-1976|
| Within sight of this place the Franciscan priests Dominguez and Escalante and their ten companions experienced two of the most difficult challenges among many along the 1,800 miles of their epic journey from the Spanish presidio at Santa Fe, New Mexico to Utah Lake and return.
The first white men to enter what is now "Lake Powell Country" the explorer-priests made an all but impossible ascent of the Paria River gorge via Dominguez Pass, then descended into Wahweap Basin and Padre Canyon . . . — Map (db m40324) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Dinosaur Tracks|
| The imprints were made by a one ton, twenty foot long, meat-eating dinosaur. The slab of sandstone came from a nearby side canyon.
When Dilophosaurus tracked through the silt 170 million years ago, this was a different landscape. Shallow streams meandered across a marshy plain.
Throughout Glen Canyon the red-orange layer of Kayenta sandstone appears - a lost world turned to stone, then river-cut and weathered into view. — Map (db m40326) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Emma Dean|
| A slightly larger, but reasonable replica of the 16 ft. pine rowboat in which Major John Wesley Powell first explored the canyons of the Colorado River in 1869. This craft was constructed by Walt Disney Productions and used in the river running sequences of "Ten Who Dared," a motion picture version of Powell's River Expedition — Map (db m40323) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Glen Canyon Dam Colorado River Storage Project|
the First Lady
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson
September 22, 1966
United States Department of the Interior
Stewart L. Udall, Secretary
Bureau of Reclamation
Floyd E. Dominy, Commissioner
[The following marker is inside the
Powerplant Gallery area]
Major John Wesley Powell led scientific exploration parties down the Green and Colorado Rivers in 1869 and in 1871-72. Years later Powell became a leader in government science programs, headed the U.S. . . . — Map (db m40370) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Hydroelectric Power - A Green and Renewable Energy Source Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| Glen Canyon Dam and other dams along the Colorado River provide critical water and power resources for millions of Americans in the Southwest. Recreation at the reservoirs is enjoyed by visitors from around the world.
This turbine runner was one of the original eight installed in Glen Canyon Powerplant. It was replaced as part of an efficiency upgrade in 2007. Less water is now needed to produce the same amount of energy. Water that flowed through this turbine came from . . . — Map (db m40344) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Intake Structures Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| The eight small "buildings" on the upstream face of the dam contain equipment to operate the penstock gates. Each penstock is 15 feet (4.6 meters) in diameter and carries water to one of the turbine generators in the powerplant. — Map (db m40349) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Rock Bolts / High Scaling Reclamation: Managing Water in the West|
| Rock Bolts
Since Navajo sandstone tends to fracture vertically, rock bolts lock rock slabs together, thereby minimizing rock falls into the canyon. These bolts extend from 45 to 75 feet (14-23 meters) into the canyon wall. They are assembled in 10 foot (3 meter) sections. An expansion device on the end ties the bolt solidly to the wall. The plate is 14 inches (36 centimeters) square and 2 inches (5 centimeters) thick. The bolts are cement grouted into the wall.
High . . . — Map (db m40346) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Saurischia Dinosaur Tracks|
| These tracks were made by a three-toed dinosaur known as a Saurischia therapod. It lived here about 170 million years ago during the Jurassic era when the environment was tropical. The footprints are raised natural sandstone castings of the original dinosaur tracks. After the dinosaur walked through sandy mud, its dried tracks were filled by more mud which eventually hardened into rock of the Kayenta formation. Later, the Kayenta layer tilted and spalled revealing the castings as well as the . . . — Map (db m40321) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Turbine Runner|
| This stainless steel turbine runner was removed in 1989 from the Bureau of Reclamation's Crystal Dam Powerplant in Montrose, Colorado. Weighing about 8½ metric tons, it is the rotating part of a Francis-type reaction turbine (named after its inventor James B. Francis) and is the type most widely used by Reclamation. Although this runner is five times smaller than the runners inside the Glen Canyon Powerplant, it operates in the same way.
To generate hydropower, Glen Canyon Dam creates . . . — Map (db m40371) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Parks — Beale Wagon Road Americas Great Camel Experiment 1857-1858|
|In the summer of 1857 former Navy Lt. Edward F. Beale was chosen by the Buchanan Administration to develop a wagon road from Fort Defiance, New Mexico Territory (now Arizona) to the Colorado River along the 35th parallel. Secretary of War John B. Floyd also charged Beale with conducting a test to determine the suitability of camels for use by the U.S. Army in the deserts of the American Southwest. To this end, the army issued Beale 25 camels from its herd stationed at Camp Verde, Texas. Syrian . . . — Map (db m48347) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sedona — Indian Gardens Homesite of the First Settler in Oak Creek Canyon|
|In 1876 or 1877, Jim Thompson built a log cabin here and began cultivating the old Indian Gardens where the Indians had grown corn and squash long before Oak Creek was known to white men. Thompson remained here at his Indian Gardens Ranch until his death in 1917. — Map (db m33203) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sedona — 5 — Jordan Sales Building City of Sedona Landmark No. 5|
| Built circa 1938 by George Jordan as a co-op retail outlet for fruit produced and marketed by local orchard farmers, including George and his brother Walter. It was a key part in the early commercial development of Uptown Sedona and is a good example of the use of native red rock in architecture. — Map (db m40921) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sedona — No. 12 — The Hart Store, 1926|
|L.E. "Dad" Hart established Sedona's first real store in this building in 1926. The general store sold Oak Creek fruit and tourist supplies and was considered modern with gravity-drained gas pumps and the first commercial power in town. When the road out front was re-routed, Hart moved the store operations and this store became a duplex for decades. "Dad" Hart was known for generously extending credit during the Great Depression and working to get the roads to Sedona modernized. — Map (db m33202) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"|
| They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native peoples revere them.
Spanish friars christened these peaks as San Francisco Mountain in 1629 to honor their St. Francis of Assisi. The first wave of Spanish explorers, surprised that such large mountains did not spawn lakes or streams, charted them the . . . — Map (db m41664) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — As Powerful as a Volcano|
| Cinder cones erode easily and scars are slow to heal. In 1973, Sunset Crater was closed to climbing when 2-foot-wide trails eroded to 60-foot-wide swaths. Tons of cinder were shoveled back up the cone to fill hip-deep trenches. Notice the scars still visible today.
Plants will eventually return to areas where cinders are left undisturbed. Walking in barren areas dislodges soil particles forming between the cinders. Give plants a chance; stay on the trail.
...Flagstaff . . . — Map (db m41676) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Changes to Come|
| Buried under Sunset Crater's lava and cinders are perhaps dozens of pithouses. Those excavated revealed few artifacts; even building timbers had been removed. This suggests people had ample warning of the impending eruption.
The changed environment forced new adaptations, which included migration from the area. Those who stayed nearby had to adapt their traditional agricultural technology to lower elevations and cinder-covered land.
Wherever we live, changes occur around us. Some changes . . . — Map (db m41693) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Geological Infant|
| Erupting less than 1,000 years ago, Sunset Crater is the youngest in an impressive field of volcanoes all around you. The 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone we see today formed when basalt magma rose directly to the surface through a primary vent. Gas pressure produced a roaring fountain of lava estimated at 850 feet (260m) high.
Pressure blasted the lava into pieces, which cooled in flight and piled into this cone-shaped hill. As gas pressure decreased, lava oozed several times from the . . . — Map (db m41665) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Life and Landscape Transformed|
| The landscape before you has existed on Earth for less than 1,000 years, less time than Romanesque architecture or paper money. Consequently, this environment has unique scientific value.
Geologists come here to study weathering processes and soil formation. Ecologists are learning what it takes - and how long - to recolonize a new, hotter, dryer, nutrient-poor environment.
The harshness of this environment may mimic the effects of global warming and long-term drought. What we learn here . . . — Map (db m41691) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — The Birth of a Mountain|
| About 1,000 years ago, something spectacular happened in the lives of local Native peoples. Perhaps they first observed a change in animal behavior. Maybe they noticed the ground warming. Then the tremors increased in number and intensity. By the time the earth cracked open, people had their belongings packed. What followed impacted life profoundly in this corner of the Southwest.
A 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone, known today as Sunset Crater, grew where open parks and forests had been. . . . — Map (db m41689) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — The Power to Symbolize|
| As a living ancestral homeland to the Hopi, Zuni, Yavapai, Havasupai, Navajo, Western Apache, and Southern Paiute, Sunset Crater is remembered, revered, and cared for.
People return often, bringing prayers and engaging in timeless traditions. Through the land, the past comes into the present, stories are recalled and values are evoked.
Hopi people believe that their ancestors' spirits, the Katsinas, travel from the San Francisco Peaks to the Hopi villages and back each year via . . . — Map (db m41678) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Community Sharing the Land|
This was a community of relatives and neighbors. Its members worked together to haul water, hunt animals, and gather plants. They likely assisted each other with large fields on the rims. They shared walls and resources, joy and sorrow, success and failure.
While cross-canyon dwellings may seem difficult to reach, a network of paths quickly closed the gaps. Close communication between households would have been common and necessary to a cooperative lifestyle.
At least five cliff . . . — Map (db m61366) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Complex Community|
The Island Trail, visible below you, follows the sharp meander of Walnut Creek. Many cliff dwelling rooms, unique in this area, were built throughout the canyon at the level of this trail. On both rims are numerous pithouses and pueblos.
On the very top of the rock promontory or "island" before you, are more rooms. Walls were constructed to block easy access to them.
Maybe this intriguing arrangement of sites met seasonal, security, social, or ritual needs.
Walnut . . . — Map (db m61304) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Days Work|
Puebloan traditions reach far back in time and are the basis for the social organization portrayed here. What responsibilities might you have had in this community, given your age and gender?
[Photo captions read]
Hopi men plant and tend the fields; women are the expert potters and piki bread makers.
Hopi life early 1900s
Photos: Cline Library Special Collections, NAU — Map (db m61350) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Ribbon of Life|
Perhaps people living here 800 years ago called this place Wupatupqa ("long canyon"), as it is known to some of their descendants, the Hopi. It was no doubt known as a place of abundance, given its wealth of plant and animal life and the presence of water.
A creek flowed intermittently through the gorge below you. Use the pictures to orient yourself; you are looking upstream. Walnut Creek rarely flows anymore, its waters impounded for use by the city of Flagstaff.
Significant . . . — Map (db m61305) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Time of Change|
When a volcanic eruption occurred near what is now Flagstaff, Arizona, people lost homes and lands they had cultivated for at least 400 years. A major life events for locals, the eruption was also visible to large population centers across the Southwest. Many people knew something significant had happened.
In the decades that followed, sparsely inhabited areas like Walnut Canyon and nearby Wupatki became densely settled.
By 1150, clustered communities replaced scattered farming . . . — Map (db m61325) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — An Efficient Design|
Overhanging ledges protected rooms from snow and rain, and shaded them during summer months. Thick walls of stone and mud insulated them from harsh winds and retained essential heat in winter.
Small doors were covered with animal skins, mats, cotton cloth, or sticks woven together. Air entered at the bottom, circled past a small fire, and carried most of the smoke out a hole above the door. — Map (db m61365) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Cliff Homes and Canyon Life|
As recently as the mid-1200s, families lived, worked, and played in Walnut Canyon. Tending crops on the rim, traveling to gather food, and collecting water from the canyon bottom were part of a daily routine.
It may be difficult to imagine living here, constantly negotiating this rugged terrain. Our motorized lives make it easy to forget that, throughout most of history, peoples' existence was much more physical.
Who Were They?
Walnut Canyon's farming community flourished . . . — Map (db m61302) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Departure|
Despite all it had to offer, in time Walnut Canyon became a difficult place for farmers to live. Drier, colder conditions meant crop failures. More people and diminished resources meant nutritional stress, disease, and conflict.
However, these stressful time brought new means of coping. By 1250, people joined others in bigger villages to the south and east where archeological evidence suggests new beliefs and rituals arose.
"Many reasons are given for clan migration in Hopi . . . — Map (db m61370) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — From Ocean to Alcove|
| Limestone forms the massive overhang above you and the ledge you are standing on. In between, softer layers of silty limestone have retreated, eroded away. All of the cliff dwelling rooms in Walnut Canyon — more than 300 — were built in natural alcoves like this.
If you have visited Grand Canyon, you have met these rocks before. This is the Kaibab Formation, the rim rock of both canyons. Below, as in Grand Canyon, are the Toroweap Formation and Coconino Sandstone.
[Diagram . . . — Map (db m61342) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Migration is not abandonment.|
Walnut Canyon was once filled with the sounds of a busy community as families hunted, planted, and harvested with the seasons. Children were born, grew up, and raised children of their own. They were neither the first nor the last to use and value what this canyon has to offer. But they left behind the greatest legacy.
When they moved on they did not give up their responsibility to care for this ancestral village and those left behind. Sites were and are revisited by descendants. Prayers . . . — Map (db m61328) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Problem Solving|
Time has worn away details that once made these rooms complete. Still, bits of evidence tell us people devised ways to make their homes comfortable, durable, and suitable for changing circumstances.
Rooms were added as families grew or storage needs increased. Some rooms in Walnut Canyon show a surprising degree of remodeling at various times suggesting generations of reuse.
Regular replastering of outside walls kept moisture out and walls sound.
Inside walls were plastered too, . . . — Map (db m61341) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Room Functions|
Most rooms in this community did not house people. Archeologists think many rooms, like the one to your left, were used to store tools, food, and water. Residents could have stored a 100-day water supply without much difficulty, given large pottery vessels and the abundant storage rooms found in the canyon.
The larger rooms here are typical of living spaces, where people slept and sought shelter from bad weather. Family size is unknown, but several people probably lived together in one . . . — Map (db m61347) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Tension and Harmony|
With its steep and sheer walls, Walnut Canyon provided homebuilding advantages along with controlled access. Living here, people were situated to monitor their world. This was not uncommon; most villages of the time had some form of passive defense and line-of-sight communication.
Horizontal ledges served as pathways connecting home to home, such as those visible across the canyon. Game trails, natural breaks, and side canyons were the avenues linking the rim to the canyon floor. . . . — Map (db m61326) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Perfect Shelter|
For each room tucked into this rock alcove, nature provided the back wall, floor, and leak-proof ceiling; no excavation was needed. Builders simply laid up unshaped blocks of limestone for side walls, enclosed the front, and opened their doorway to the canyon. Here, only two walls remain.
How to Treat a Wall
Many hands have been at work on these walls: the women who first skillfully plastered them, the vandals who defaced them, and the preservation specialists who now repair them. . . . — Map (db m61340) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Quest for Water|
During the spring thaw, snowmelt rumbled through the narrow passage below you. Water flowed again during the summer monsoon. Shaded pools held precious water after the flow ebbed. Walnut Creek was the lifeblood of the community.
Still, people had to store large quantities of water for the dry months. They likely supplemented their supply by packing snow into large pots and collecting runoff from overhanging cliffs.
Women and children probably had the task of retrieving water from the . . . — Map (db m61356) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — What Happened Here?|
"It is very dusty work to dig for relics....We dug for an hour or more, and found...cornstalks, corncobs in abundance, beans, gourds, nuts, reeds, arrows, bowstrings,...coarse cloth, a child's sandal, a measuring stick with notches at regular intervals, smoothly worn sticks of hard wood, bone needles, a fish line, soapweed needles, broken pottery, etc. In visiting other dwellings we added to these relics, and came away heavily laden."
One woman's account of her trip to Walnut Canyon as . . . — Map (db m61368) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Adam's Grocery|
|In 1926, the Old Trails Highway was officially designated U.S. Highway 66, and it became the "Main Street of America." In 1984, Williams was the last Route 66 town in America to be bypassed by the interstate highway system. Built in 1907, this building has welcomed several generations of travelers. — Map (db m33375) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Babbitt-Polson Building|
|The wood framed 1894 Polson Bros. General Store burned down in the 1901 fire and was replaced by this brick building in 1907. The Babbitt and Polson families were pioneer merchants in the area. In 1930 the building was stuccoed to create the only Art Deco style building in the Historic District. — Map (db m33384) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Bill Williams Mountain Elevation 9,264 Ft|
|This mountain was named for a colorful mountaineer, guide, and trapper who is generally credited with being the first American to explore northern Arizona – 1830 or earlier. Williams lived at different times among the Osage and Ute Indians, and earlier had been a Baptist circuit rider in Missouri. He was killed by Indians in 1849. — Map (db m33418) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Black and White Cleaners|
|Built by C. E. Boyce in 1907, this structure was a general merchandise and hardware store and shared a common wall with the Old Post Office to the west. In 1929 it became a dry cleaners with a huge array of belt driven machinery and an adobe addition at the rear of the building. — Map (db m33366) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Citizens Bank|
|This Neo-Classical Revival style building opened with much fanfare on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918. The bank was the financial center of the lumber, ranching and railroad operations in the area until it closed in 1958. The extensive terra cotta detail is found only on this building. — Map (db m33381) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Dime Store|
|In 1901, a great fire swept through Williams, burning 36 business buildings, 2 hotels and 10 homes in less than an hour. Major fires in 1903 and 1908 further dictated the need for fire-resistant stone, concrete, and brick buildings. Many of those, like this 1912 structure, survive to this day. — Map (db m33392) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Duffy Brothers Grocery Store Built 1912|
|Has been placed on the National Register
of Historic Places by the United States
Department of the Interior
Cormick E. Boyce built this large brick structure intending it to be used as a bank, although it served as a grocery store during most of its history. A few of its many unique features include refinished arched windows crafted from local pine and a beautiful original tin ceiling. The sandstone street curb was mined from local quarries and installed by the civilian conservation corps in the 1930's. — Map (db m33417) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Grand Canyon Drug Company|
|Bill Williams Mountain was named in 1851 after fabled mountain man William S. Williams, who is said to have trapped beaver in this area. In its shadow, this building circa 1912, served local needs with a pharmacy and soda fountain at the front of the building and a doctor's office to the rear. — Map (db m33389) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Lebsch Confectionery|
|The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad arrived in 1882, starting a stampede of commercial enterprise. The development of Williams as a community is indicated in part, by this ice cream and confectionery store built by Albert Lebsch in 1914. For a number of years a boot maker shared the building. — Map (db m33391) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Old Parlor Pool Hall Circa 1910|
|Has been placed on the
of Historic Places
By the United States
Department of the Interior — Map (db m33390) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Old Post Office|
|Beginning in 1926, this vintage 1907 building served as the U.S. Post Office for 36 years. This was one of the many structures built by Cormick E. Boyce, who arrived in 1881 as a freight hauler and became one of the area's leading merchants and ranchers. He was known as "The man who built Williams," — Map (db m33368) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Pollock Building|
|Built of locally quarried volcanic rock in 1901, this edifice housed a bank and many businesses displaced by the 1901 fire. These included the local newspaper, telegraph office, and eventually Arnold's, a famous Route 66 eatery. In 1928, the Masonic Lodge added the brick second story. — Map (db m33382) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Red Cross Garage|
|Built of native rock with brick facades, this 1913 garage served travelers at the end of the wagon age and beginning of the automobile era. By 1930, automobiles carried more people to the Grand Canyon than did the railroad. The opposite end of this building once housed an early bowling alley. — Map (db m33380) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Rittenhouse Haberdashery|
|In 1901, a 60-mile long railroad spur line to the Grand Canyon secured Williams the title "Gateway to the Grand Canyon." Train tickets at that time cost $3.95 serving world travelers and locals alike, this pre-1910 structure was home to a men's clothing store for more than sixty years. — Map (db m33388) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Santa Fe Railway Freight Depot|
|Built in 1901, this brick structure was the first train depot in Williams. After the Fray Marcos depot was built in 1908, this building took on freight arriving to and departing from Williams. It was moved here from across the railroad tracks in 1914 to make way for the old trails highway. — Map (db m33379) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Sultana Theater|
|This entertainment center opened in 1912 and boasted a theater and room for dances and other events. It featured silent movies until 1930 when the first "talkies" in northern Arizona were shown, drawing notadle visitors like Will Rodgers. The attached offices housed town hall for forty years.
[Note misspelling of "notable" in marker text.] — Map (db m33385) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Telegraph Office|
|Telegraph service came to Williams in 1894. The Postal Telegraph Co. was located here in 1910, when this office was built, until the 1940's. At some time the building was divided to share space with Ziriax Photo Shop. The town bandstand was located in the lot to the west for many years. — Map (db m33387) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Tetzlaff Building|
|This Victorian-Romanesque style building, designed as a saloon and bordello was built in 1897 by German tailor August Tetzlaff. Offering female company in eight cribs and an elegant parlor, it also boasted a two-story outhouse. Whiskey, pool tables and poker games provided entertainment on the ground floor, as did the Chinese restaurant and opium den located at the back of the building. This brick building stopped the devastating 1901 and 1903 fires that burned down all of "saloon row" to the . . . — Map (db m33377) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — The "World Famous" Sultana|
|Constructed of formed concrete block in 1912, this saloon and billiard hall included a buffet for the townspeople who used it as a gathering place. Named for the famous Sultana Ruby of India. During prohibition the basement speakeasy provided bootleg liquor and gambling by invitation only. — Map (db m33386) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — The Cabinet Saloon Built 1893|
|Has been placed on the National Register
of Historic Places by the United States
Department of the Interior
The Cabinet Saloon was a boisterous spot along "Saloon Row." Here railroaders, cowboys, loggers, and rowdy local residents came to spend their paychecks in saloons, gambling houses, opium dens, and houses of ill repute. In the last 100 years, various owners altered much of the Cabinet Saloon's unique character. In 1993, the building underwent a major renovation, earning it the . . . — Map (db m33378) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — William Sherley Williams|
|Sculpture by B.R. Pettit
"Old Bill" was born January 3, 1787 in North Carolina.
He died March 24, 1849. In that 62 year life span he
did a heap of living, most of it in the wilderness. In
the late 1700's and early 1800's the mountain men
were trappers. In the quest of fine furs, these master
trappers shoved ever westward in the raw, new
frontier, braving untamed Indians, Grisslies and worse -
the cold relentless winters in the vast unexplored
mountain wilderness. Their's was a . . . — Map (db m26456) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Williams — Williams, Arizona|
|The area around what now is Williams, Arizona, was first explored by a Mountain Man who came to this area in 1876, William Shirley Williams, who was called “Old Bill”.
The town site was created by a cowboy named C.T. Rogers in 1879. Railroad workers put their camp on the map when they began construction on the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad in 1880. By 1881 this camp had enough inhabitants to qualify for a post office, requiring them to pick a name. They decided on Williams, to . . . — Map (db m48351) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — Community|
| This area seems quiet and lonely today - but not 800 years ago. This valley was used for farming and hunting by the people living in Citadel, Nalakihu, and other nearby pueblos, all inhabited at about the same time. (You can see the ruins of at least eight pueblos from here).
We don't know what their language sounded like, nor exactly what their ceremonies were; but people built homes, tended crops, prayed to their gods, and raised their children here. — Map (db m41716) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — Nalakihu|
| Nalakihu - A modern Hopi name, "House Outside the Village"
Farmers lived here about 800 years ago. (Roof beams gave tree ring dates in the late 1100s.) The way the walls join show this small pueblo was not built all at once, but was added onto. Roof remains indicated parts were two stories high. The pottery seems the same as that from the large ruin on the rock ahead, so these pueblos may have been lived in at the same time.
You may enter the rooms, but remember, old walls are fragile, . . . — Map (db m41713) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — The Ballcourt A Mexican Idea at Wupatki|
| Ballcourts were common in southern Arizona from A.D. 750 to 1200, but relatively rare here in the northern part of the state. This suggests that the people of Wupatki intermingled with their southern Arizona neighbors - the Hohokam - who may have borrowed and modified the ballcourt idea from earlier contact with the Indian cultures of Mexico.
There is continued speculation about the uses of the ballcourts. Because of the work involved in building a ballcourt and the numbers that have been . . . — Map (db m41696) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — The Blowhole|
| This blowhole - a crevice in the earth's crust that appears to breathe - is one of several found in the Wupatki area. It connects to an underground passage - size, depth, and complexity unknown - called an earthcrack. Earthcracks resulted from earthquake activity in the Kaibab Limestone bedrock and have enlarged over time.
Archaelogists have yet to uncover any evidence of prehistoric structures or uses at the blowhole. Its connection to the Wupatki Pueblo remains a mystery.
Today, the . . . — Map (db m41701) HM|
|Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — Where Were The Fields?|
| Farming then did not mean vast fields like we use today. Anasazi and Sinagua people modified these small terraces to grow hand-tended corn, cotton, beans, and squash. We know the climate was about what it is now, very dry for farming. The terraces caught vital run-off from rain.
Behind you are rock circles that appear to be ruins of individual, separate rooms. These are common, but we do not know what they were used for. — Map (db m41715) HM|