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Dinwiddie County Markers
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Burgess — S 63 — Battle of Hatcher’s Run5-7 February 1865
Hoping to cut Lee’s supply route into Petersburg, in February 1865 Grant ordered two army corps led by Major Generals Gouverneur K. Warren and Andrew A. Humphreys to seize the Boydton Plank Road. The Confederate corps commanded by Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon successfully blocked Warren’s attacks at nearby Dabney’s Mill on 6-7 February, and Warren’s corps withdrew to its previous position. The brief Union campaign enabled Grant to extend his lines, and cost the Confederates the life of Brig. Gen. John Pegram on 6 February. — Map (db m6486) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Burgess — Brigadier General John Pegram
Near this site Brigadier General John Pegram was killed in the Battle of Hatcher's Run on February 6, 1865 — Map (db m6490) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Burgess — The Battle of Hatcher’s RunTo Cut the Remaining Supply Lines, February 5-7, 1865
By early 1865 the Federal army’s two remaining objectives along the Petersburg front were the Boydton Plank Road, an intermediate wagon supply route into the city, and the South Side Railroad, a major transportation artery from Lynchburg and the Shenandoah Valley. Union forces had already cut the Weldon Railroad as far south as Hicksford (now Emporia), forcing the Confederates to unload supplies at the station there, load them on wagons, and haul them cross-country through the Meherrin River . . . — Map (db m6501) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Burgess — The Battle of Hatcher’s RunFighting Around Dabney’s Sawmill, February 6-7, 1865
On February 6, the Union forces pressed onward towards the South Side Railroad. Around 1 p.m., Major General Gouverneur K. Warren’s Fifth Corps sent out two divisions under the leadership of Major General Samuel Crawford and Major General Romeyn Ayres to reconnoiter south of Hatcher’s Run. Their left was to be protected by David M. Gregg’s cavalry along the Vaughan Road at its crossing of Gravelly Run. Confronting the Federals this day were two divisions of Gordon’s Corps led by generals John . . . — Map (db m6504) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Church Road — K 307 — Battle of Five Forks
Four miles south is the battlefield of Five Forks. To that point Pickett retired from Dinwiddie Courthouse in the night of March 31, 1865. Sheridan, following, attacked him in the afternoon of April 1, 1865. The Confederates, outnumbered and surrounded, were overwhelmed. This defeat broke Lee's line of defense around Petersburg and forced him to retreat. — Map (db m18860) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — A Final Stand
With their left at the Angle crashed and their center near the Five Forks intersection overrun, the Confederates made a final stand here, in and around Gilliam’s field. Across the open ground to your right, Brig. Gen. George Armstrong Custer led two Union cavalry brigades in a wild charge against the Confederate right flank. Southern horsemen under Maj. Gen. W.H.F. Lee held off the Federals. Across the road to your left, infantrymen of Brig. Gen. Montgomery Corse’s Virginia brigade struggled . . . — Map (db m6215) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Attack on the Angle
“When we moved toward Five Forks…we were not expecting any attack that afternoon, so far as I know. Our throwing up works and taking position were simply general matters of military precaution.” - Major General Fitzhugh Lee, CSA You are standing on the left (east) flank of the Confederate line at Five Forks. Here the earthworks turned abruptly northward, forming an angle. Few of the 1,000 North Carolinians gathered behind these trenches on the afternoon of April 1, 1865, . . . — Map (db m6213) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Battle of Dinwiddie Court House
(front) In Memoriam Battle of Dinwiddie Court House Dedicated to the Confederate and Union soldiers who gave their lives in the Battle of Dinwiddie Court House, sometimes called Chamberlain’s Bed, in the last brief victory of the Army of Northern Virginia, March 31, 1865. General Sheridan’s troops were defeated and forced back to Dinwiddie Court House by the Confederates led by Generals Pickett, W.H.F. Lee and Fitzhugh Lee. The last rebel yells were heard here. General . . . — Map (db m17670) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Battle of Five Forks
Here at Five Forks on April 1, 1865 10,000 Confederates, commanded by General Pickett, were overwhelmed by about 50,000 Federal troops, led by General Sheridan, thereby opening the way to the Southside Railroad making further defense of Petersburg and Richmond impossible. Withdrawal to Appomattox followed. Dedicated to the memory of the valiant Dinwiddie soldiers, as well as to all soldiers of the South and North, taking part in this encounter. Presented by the Dinwiddie Confederate . . . — Map (db m6225) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — S 62 — Campaign of 1781
The British cavalryman Tarleton, returning to Cornwallis from a raid to Bedford, passed near here, July, 1781. — Map (db m17704) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — S 56 — Chamberlain's Bed
That stream flows into Stony Creek a mile west. On March 31, 1865, Pickett and W.H.F. Lee, coming from Five Forks, forced a passage of Chamberlain's Bed in the face of Sheridan's troops, who were driven back to Dinwiddie Courthouse. — Map (db m17701) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Crawford’s Sweep
The decisive Union movement at the Battle of Five Forks was, for the Federals, a fortunate mistake. While one Union division struck the Confederate left at the Angle, Brig. Gen. Samuel W Crawford’s division passed too far north and missed the Confederate line altogether. Instead, Crawford’s lines swept westward to the Confederate rear, cutting the main Confederate escape route here along Fords Road. Crawford then pushed across the fields in front of you, toward the rear of the Confederate . . . — Map (db m6217) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Death of Pegram
Late afternoon, April 1, 1865. Confederate infantrymen waited behind rude, muddy earthworks lining the White Oak Road. Young Colonel William R.J. Pegram tended to his artillery: three guns in this field, three others farther to the west (your right). Then came the Federals. Sheridan’s dismounted cavalry attacked frontally. Later, Warren’s infantry swept down from the east. After fierce fighting, the Confederate positions around the intersection collapsed. In the melee fell Colonel Pegram, . . . — Map (db m6224) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Digging In
“Hold Five Forks at all hazards…” Just before noon on April 1, 1865, 10,000 Confederates under Maj. Gen. George E. Pickett arrived here at Five Forks. They immediately started digging and by mid-afternoon had constructed a rough earthwork that extended along the White Oak Road for nearly two miles. You are standing at the center of that Confederate line. Weary, wet, and hungry, the Confederates waited – aware that if they yielded, nothing would stand between the . . . — Map (db m6226) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Dinwiddie Court HouseTurning North — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen, Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling stock. After burning stores at Ream’s Station on June 22, the Federals rode south for eight miles to make the Confederates think the Weldon R.R. (to N.C.) was the object of the raid. Wilson’s men turned west to Dinwiddie Court House to intersect the . . . — Map (db m17556) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — S 54 — Dinwiddie Courthouse
Sheridan advanced to this place on March 29, 1865, while Warren was attacking Anderson about three miles north. On March 31 Sheridan moved south but was checked by Pickett and driven back to the courthouse. That night Pickett withdrew to Five Forks. — Map (db m17669) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — 17 — Early Education in Dinwiddie CountyDinwiddie, Virginia — Dinwiddie County
Prior to the Civil War, Dinwiddie County was home to several private academies for those who could afford to pay for their education. While it was mostly affluent males who were educated, Pegram’s Academy, Female Academy, Girard Heartwell School for Girls, Oak Forest female School and Col. William Davis’ Girls School were among those that catered to young women. In these schools, young ladies were prepared socially and culturally to enter the world. Meanwhile, education for . . . — Map (db m26834) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — Five Forks Battlefield
has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States. — Map (db m6220) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — S 42 — Gravelly Run Quaker Meeting House
Quakers began settling the region by the end of the 17th century. Named for nearby Gravelly Run stream, the meetinghouse was built by 1767. It became the religious center for the Quakers in Dinwiddie and surrounding counties. In the early 1800s the yearly meeting for the Upper Monthly Meeting was frequently held at Gravelly Run. Membership began to decline then because the Quakers refused to bear arms and opposed slavery. As a result, several members moved to Ohio, Tennessee, and Indiana, and the meetinghouse was abandoned in the 1830s. — Map (db m17662) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — S-80 — Quaker Road Engagement29 March 1865
This was the first in a series of attempts by Grant’s army to cut Lee’s final supply line – the South Side Railroad – in spring 1865. Here at the Lewis farm, Union forces led by Brig. Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain engaged Confederates under Maj. Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson. After sharp fighting, the Union troops entrenched nearby along the Boydton Plank Road and Johnson withdrew to his lines at White Oak Road. The Union army cut the rail line four days later, after capturing Five Forks on 1 April. — Map (db m32648) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — S 46 — Raceland
Nearby stands Raceland, also known as Rice's Tavern, built ca. 1750. The building originally was a simple story-and-a-half dwelling with a hall-and-parlor plan. Subsequent additions transformed it into a two-story Federal-style house. It has been used as a tavern and private home. William "Racer Billy" Wynn, renowned owner of fine horses during the early 19th century, lived here. Wynn had stables and a racetrack on the property and briefly owned Timoleon, considered one of the fastest Thoroughbreds of the 1810s. — Map (db m17663) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — S 45 — Scott's Law Office
Just to the west stands the law office occupied in early life by Lieutenant-General Winfield Scott, commander of the United States Army, 1841-1861. Scott, born near here, June 13, 1786, was admitted to the bar in 1806 and entered the army in 1808. He died, May 29, 1866. — Map (db m17668) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — The Battle of Five ForksPetersburg National Battlefield
For nine months, an ever-lengthening fortified line had protected Petersburg. On April 1, 1865, at this obscure county crossroads, that Confederate line finally stretched to its breaking point. "In its Result, it was to our country as Waterloo to Europe." —General Thomas T. Munford, CSA The siege left the Confederate lines around Petersburg thinly manned—barely able to protect the last remaining supply line into the city, the South Side Railroad. On April 1, 10,000 . . . — Map (db m71591) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — The Union Cavalry Attacks
“I was exceedingly anxious to attack at once, for the sun was getting low, and we had to fight or go back.” - Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan On March 31, 1865, Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan retreated down this road to Dinwiddie Court House, driven by Pickett’s Confederates. On April 1, the Federal cavalrymen returned – with a vengeance. Late that afternoon Sheridan deployed his two divisions in a two-mile line on both sides of this road. A half mile in . . . — Map (db m6214) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — K 337 — The War of 1812 / Winfield Scott
(side 1) The War of 1812 Impressment of Americans into British service and the violation of American ships were among the causes of America’s War of 1812 with the British, which lasted until 1815. Beginning in 1813, Virginians suffered from a British naval blockade of the Chesapeake Bay and from British troops’ plundering the countryside by the Bay and along the James, Rappahannock, and Potomac rivers. The Virginia militia deflected a British attempt to take Norfolk in . . . — Map (db m78064) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Dinwiddie — S 55 — Vaughan Road
Hancock moved by it to his defeat at Burgess Mill, October 27, 1864, and in 1865, Grant moved his forces on it from the east to attack Lee's right wing. On March 29, 1865, Sheridan came to Dinwiddie Court House over it in the operations preceeding the Battle of Five Forks. — Map (db m17700) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Ford — Ford's DepotThe Destruction Begins — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling stock. The Wilson-Kautz raiders reached this point at sundown on June 22, and destroyed two trains and military supplies. A passenger train from the west stopped just short of the station, reversed course and backed all the way to Burkeville (about 35 . . . — Map (db m18840) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), McKenney — K 321 — Birthplace of Roger Atkinson Pryor
Nearby is Montrose, the birthplace of Roger Atkinson Pryor, born 19 July 1828. Pryor practiced law before becoming a journalist and briefly owned newspapers in Richmond and Washington, D.C., in the 1850s. He served his Virginia district in the U.S. House of Representatives (1859-1861). During the Civil War, he served in the Confederate Congress and was a Confederate brigadier general and scout. He moved to New York City after the war and became a prominent lawyer. In 1890 he was appointed to . . . — Map (db m26839) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), McKenney — K 303 — Butterwood Chapel
Butterwood Chapel, one of three Anglican chapels constructed in Dinwiddie County in the 18th century, was built by 1763 on or near this site. It probably was the first church built after the creation of Bath Parish in 1742. The Reverend Devereux Jarrett, a father of Methodism in Virginia, ministered to the congregation before the disestablishment of the Church of England in 1786. Capt. Henry D. Dickerson, C.S.A., revived the church after moving his family here to the Darvills community by 1865. . . . — Map (db m31054) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), McKenney — S 69 — Darvills School
A public school operated here as early as the 1880s. In 1907, three other one-room schools nearby were consolidated here as Darvills Graded School, which was expanded and made a high school in 1913. It was the heart of community activities, notably the annual Darvills Fair, which began in 1916 and continued through the 1930s. Late in 1941, as World War II approached, the U.S. government began condemning 46,000 acres here to establish Camp Pickett. The school closed in 1942 and its buildings . . . — Map (db m31055) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), McKenney — K 304 — Sallie Jones Atkinson1860-1943
Sallie Jones Atkinson, prominent educator and community leader in Dinwiddie County and her husband, John Pryor Atkinson, gave the land on which Sunnyside High School was built in 1911. By her vision, tireless industry, and determination, the school became the first eight-month rural school accredited in Virginia. Mrs. Atkinson also served on the state committee that worked to secure Governor Montague's approval for women's suffrage. — Map (db m26838) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), McKenney — S 40 — Sapony Episcopal Church
Sapony Episcopal Church stands approximately 1.5 miles to the north. This simple frame building was first constructed in 1725-1726. The Rev. Devereux Jarratt served as rector here and at two other congregations in Dinwiddie County from 1763 until his death in 1801. He was a prominent figure of the Anglican, later Episcopal, Church. During the Great Awakening, he preached to large audiences in Southside Virginia and North Carolina and influenced the Methodist movement. The graves of Jarratt and . . . — Map (db m26841) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — “A Determination That Knew No Such Word as Fail”The Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
As the Vermonters pushed closer to the Confederate fortifications, they encountered the multiple rows of obstructions specifically designed to pin down an attacking force. Here, the Confederates extracted a terrible toll on the desperate Federals, who struggled to find their way through the tangled tree limbs while absorbing a deadly fire from the enemy line. “With a cheer we went on getting through the abatis the best we could,” remembered Lieutenant Robert Pratt of the 5th . . . — Map (db m15324) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — “A Great Struggle is Now Impending”The Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
The Union high command began making preparations to attack the Confederate lines on the Boisseau Plantation shortly after the capture of the Rebels’ picket line on March 25. Final orders arrived on the afternoon of April 1 for a dawn assault the following morning. Major General Horatio G. Wright, commander of the Union Sixth Corps, took several steps to ensure that his offensive would be successful. He assigned axmen and sharpshooters to precede the infantry to remove the obstructions and . . . — Map (db m15313) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — “Our Line of Battle was so Thin”The Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
The Confederate troops who defended this portion of the works belonged to Brigadier General James H. Lane’s North Carolina Brigade. These Tarheels assumed responsibility here on March 30 after McGowan’s Brigade moved several miles west to plug a gap in the overstretched Southern defenses. Lane’s four regiments, perhaps 1,200 men on the morning of April 2, protected about half a mile of entrenchments, part of their old sector to the northeast plus McGowan’s former front. The soldiers stood some . . . — Map (db m15375) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — “The Cannons’ Flashes Lit Up the Terrible Scene”The Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
At various intervals along their lines, Confederate defenders constructed gun emplacements, called redans, such as the one in front of you. Each redan would hold as few as one or as many as six cannons. Virtually every square inch of ground in front of the works could be fired upon from two redans, creating a deadly crossfire for any attacker. Cannons in these redans would be positioned in one of two ways. Guns en barbette were fired from raised platforms over the fortification walls allowing . . . — Map (db m15377) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — “The Strongest Line of Works Ever Constructed”The Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
The main line of entrenchments behind you was only one part of the entire defensive network established here by the Confederates. Southern soldiers removed all the trees in front of their works to create a clear field of fire. They used the wood to improve their fortifications, build winter quarters, or as fuel for heating and cooking. They also established a variety of obstructions in front of their lines. Abatis, a French military term, served essentially as the Civil War-version of . . . — Map (db m15381) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — “We Fought Desperately”The Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
The passage of the picket posts and abatis shattered regimental formations in the Vermont Brigade. The attack degenerated into a rush of disorganized men rather than an example of textbook tactics. Orderly Sergeant Thomas H. McCauley of the 2nd Vermont bore the brigade flag at the head of this mass of determined soldiers. The bluecoats tumbled into the moat and then scaled the steep walls of the Confederate line. Troops from the 18th and 37th North Carolina awaited them along with . . . — Map (db m15309) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — 1st Lieutenant Evander McNair RobesonThe Breakthrough — Pamplin Historical Park
1st Lieutenant Evander McNair Robeson Company K, 18th North Carolina Infantry, Lane’s Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, Third Corps Resident: Bladen County, North Carolina Enlisted: April 1861 A comrade of Robeson’s wrote about the battle on April 2, 1865: “The men of Lane’s Brigade were some twenty feet apart in the trenches when the final attack was made. Our thin line could make but feeble resistance. We detained them, however, until the lines were broken beyond us.” . . . — Map (db m15325) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — 1st Lieutenant Octavius Augustus WigginsThe Breakthrough — Pamplin Historical Park
1st Lieutenant Octavius Augustus Wiggins Company E, 37th North Carolina Infantry, Lane’s Brigade, Wilcox’s Division, Third Corps Resident: Halifax County, North Carolina Enlisted: June 1862 Wiggins was wounded near here during the Breakthrough on April 2, 1865: “I received a scalp wound, the muzzle of the gun being in such close proximity to my head as to blow powder into my face, nearly destroying my eyes and knocking me senseless upon the ground. Of course, I was . . . — Map (db m15326) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — A Mysterious Historic FeatureThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
The shallow depression in front of you marks the location of what was once a substantial dwelling. Archaeologists excavated this site in 1997 and discovered a well-preserved brick foundation and flooring. The artifacts recovered from the site suggest that the house dates to the early 19th century. This building was part of the Tudor Hall plantation owned by the Boisseau family. Research has not revealed who lived here, but it is possible that members of the family or plantation employees, such . . . — Map (db m15407) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — A.P. Hill Memorial
To the memory of A.P. Hill, Lt - Gen CSA He was killed about 600 yards northwardly from this marker, being shot by a small band of stragglers from the Federal lines on the morning of April 2nd, 1865. Erected by A.P. Hill Camp Sons of Confederate Veterans - Petersburg, Va. — Map (db m3595) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — After the Breakthrough: April 2, 1865The Banks House — Pamplin Historical Park
Following their breakthrough near the Boisseau and Hart Farms, Federal soldiers of Major General Horatio G. Wright’s Sixth Corps poured over the earthworks southwest of Petersburg and into the Confederate rear. Some Federals penetrated as far as a mile behind the Confederate lines tearing up the tracks of the South Side Railroad. By 6:00 a.m., the Sixth Corps regrouped to exploit its success. 1. The Death of A. P. Hill (6:30 A.M. – 6:45 A.M.) When word arrived of the Breakthrough, . . . — Map (db m15428) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Battlefield TerrainThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
This bridge spans a small branch of Arthur’s Swamp. The ravine created by this streamlet had important consequences for both the defending Confederates and the attacking Union troops. The earthen mounds immediately in front of you are the remains of a military dam designed by Confederate engineers. Notice how the fortifications end on either bank of the stream. Rather than build earthworks across the stream and post soldiers in a swamp, the engineers relied on this dam to impound the water. . . . — Map (db m15418) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Brother vs. BrotherThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
Near here, the 6th Maryland Infantry (Union) made their penetration of the Confederate fortifications. Major Clifton K. Prentiss, a 29-year-old from Baltimore, helped lead his unit in the Breakthrough only to fall wounded with a rifle ball in his chest. Some distance to your right and a little later in the battle, Private William S. Prentiss also suffered a severe wound, one that would require the amputation of his right leg. William Prentiss served in the 2nd Maryland Battalion, a Confederate . . . — Map (db m15332) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — S 51 — Burgess Mill
An old mill stood here, with earthworks. On October 27, 1864, General Hancock, coming from the south, attempted to cross the run here and reach the Southside Railroad. He was supported on the east by Warren's (Fifth) Corps. The Confederates, crossing the run from the north side, intervened between the two Union forces and drove them back. — Map (db m17697) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — S-48 — Cattle (Beefsteak) Raid
Leaving from a point along the Confederate right flank on Boydon Plank Road on 14 Sept. 1864, Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton took about 3,000 Confederate cavalrymen and rode more than 100 miles around the rear of the Union army. Reaching Coggins’ Point on the James River on the 16 Sept., the raiders successfully captured almost 2,500 head of cattle from the Federals and returned to their lines relatively unmolested. The next day the cattle were penned in the field east of the Boydton Plank Road until . . . — Map (db m14775) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — I 6 — Central State Hospital
Established in 1869 in temporary quarters at Howard's Grove near Richmond. In 1870 it came under control of the State. In 1885 it was moved to the present location, the site of "Mayfield Plantation", which was purchased and donated to the State by the City of Petersburg. The first hospital in America exclusively for the treatment of mental disease in the Negro. — Map (db m19000) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Confederate Fort Gregg
“Men, the salvation of Lee’s army is in your keeping.” – Maj. Gen. Cadmus Wilcox to the defenders of Fort Gregg, April 2, 1865 On the afternoon of April 2, 1865, after a morning of bludgeoning attacks all along the Petersburg lines, 5,000 Federals swept forward to attack Fort Gregg. The 300 Confederates here twice drove the Federals back, but finally the attackers reached the fort’s parapet. For twenty minutes a vicious hand-to-hand battle raged. At fight’s end, . . . — Map (db m7749) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — S 82 — Confederate Fort Whitworth
Named for the Whitworth family of Mayfield, the farm on which it was built, this outpost (a quarter-mile east) and Fort Gregg, 400 yards to the south, were constructed to protect the western approaches to Petersburg during the 1864-1865 siege. On 2 April 1865, when Gen. U.S. Grant’s army attacked the city after turning Gen. R.E. Lee’s flank at Five Forks the day before, the forts were the scene of intense fighting. The Union XXIV Corps captured the two positions, suffering 714 casualties. The . . . — Map (db m14862) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Confederate Winter HutsThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
The two mounds on the lawn in front of you mark the locations of winter huts built by soldiers of Brigadier General Samuel McGowan’s South Carolina brigade during the winter of 1864-65. McGowan’s troops established several camps in this area immediately behind the earthworks they were building. During the Breakthrough of April 2, 1865, there was some brief fighting among the huts as the men of the Union Sixth Corps pushed forward to the Boydton Plank Road and the Southside Railroad. These huts . . . — Map (db m15410) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Confederate Winter QuartersThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
Brigadier General Samuel McGowan’s South Carolina Brigade spent the winter of 1864-1865 very close to the fortifications they defended. A temporary scarcity of building materials in the early winter compelled many of McGowan’s men to rely on their tents or burrow into the ground for additional shelter. By mid-winter, however, most of these quarters had been replaced by wooden huts such as the reconstructed buildings in front of you. Small groups of soldiers banded together to share . . . — Map (db m15424) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — S 47 — Edge Hill
To the north stood William Turnbull's house, Edge Hill, headquarters of Gen. Robert E. Lee from 23 Nov. 1864 to 2 Apr. 1865 during the siege of Petersburg. Here, after dawn on 2 Apr., Lee learned of the Union attack that soon shattered his lines and spoke for the last time with Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill. Nearby, he received word of Hill's death a short time later. When the Federals approached, Lee moved his headquarters to Cottage Farm within the inner Confederate line, and that night he evacuated the . . . — Map (db m17547) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Field FortificationsThe Military Encampment — Pamplin Historical Park
Pamplin Historical Park has created these replica earthworks to suggest how this area might have looked during the winter of 1864-65. Both armies at Petersburg constructed long lines of field fortifications. Engineer officers used standard manuals in designing and constructing the earthworks. Civil War earthworks basically consisted of a parapet and a ditch. The parapet was a dirt embankment raised high enough to provide the soldiers protection from enemy cannon and rifle fire. Most of the . . . — Map (db m15427) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — First Man Over the WorksThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
In the hours, days, and years after the Breakthrough, many Union soldiers boasted that they or their regiment were the first troops to capture the Confederate works on the morning of April 2. Darkness, the chaos of the attack, and the wide Federal battle front make it impossible to credit with absolute certainty any individual or unit with that honor. Captain Charles G. Gould of the 5th Vermont, however, made the most persuasive claim that he preceded the rest of the Sixth Corps over the . . . — Map (db m15311) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Fort Conahey
“This fort has cost more labour than any other, has afforded an admirable lesson in engineering, and is one of the sights to show to strangers. Further than this I doubt the value of its elaborateness.” - Col. Charles Wainwright, USA November 20, 1864 Here, unmolested by Confederate bullets and cannons, Union engineering built the most technically elaborate fort on the Petersburg front. Fort Conahey included two tiers of guns, sturdy wooded casemates, and a unique wooden . . . — Map (db m7861) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Fort Gregg
Fort Gregg Confederate Defense Line Apr. 2, 1865 ———— Erected Apr. 2, 1914 By A.P. Hill Camp S.C.V. — Map (db m7751) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — S 50 — Hatcher's Run
Lee's right wing was defended by earthworks on this stream, here and to the east. These works were unsuccessfully attacked by Union forces, February 5-7, 1865. On the morning of April 2, 1865, they were stormed by Union troops. — Map (db m17696) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — History of the Banks HouseThe Banks House — Pamplin Historical Park
This upper middle-class dwelling is one of the earliest surviving structures in Dinwiddie County. Unfortunately, the name of original builder has been lost to time. The architectural evidence suggests that the house evolved in four phases between 1750 and 1815 reflecting increases in family size and fortune. Robert Lanier, who had purchased the house and 331 acres of land by 1815, is the earliest identified owner. Lanier raised tobacco on this property with the aid of ten slaves. Thomas Banks, . . . — Map (db m11974) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Kitchen and Servants HallTudor Hall Plantation
The design of this building is typical of slave quarters built on Virginia plantations during the 1840s and 1850s. Each side provided space for one slave family, with a room downstairs for living and working and a loft for sleeping. The right side served as the plantation kitchen. Antebellum plantations (those built before the Civil War) usually had detached kitchens to keep the heat and odors of cooking from the main house. The other side was used for washing, spinning and weaving. This . . . — Map (db m15444) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Kitchen GardenTudor Hall Plantation
A nineteenth-century kitchen garden of one acre, about the size of a football field, could be maintained by one person and provide produce for 10-15 people. The management of the kitchen garden generally fell to the women of the household. The planter’s family members or slaves provided the labor necessary to maintain the garden. Pamplin Historical Park grows “heirloom” varieties of common mid-nineteenth century herbs and vegetables both for historical accuracy and to prevent these varieties from becoming extinct. — Map (db m15451) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Lieutenant Colonel George B. DamonThe Breakthrough — Pamplin Historical Park
Lieutenant Colonel George B. Damon 10th Vermont Infantry, 1st Brigade, 3rd Division (Seymour), Sixth Corps Resident: Newbury, Vermont Enlisted: August 1862 Colonel Damon’s regiment, the 10th Vermont Infantry, struck the Confederate trenches about 300 yards southwest of this position (to your left) during the attack on April 2, 1865. He vividly remembered his role in the battle: “We immediately mounted and entered the works over the most accessible passages, being the first to . . . — Map (db m15339) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Lieutenant Colonel Ronald A. KennedyThe Breakthrough — Pamplin Historical Park
Lieutenant Colonel Ronald A. Kennedy 5th Vermont Infantry, 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division (Getty), Sixth Corps Resident: Concord, Vermont Enlisted: June 18, 1861 Kennedy and his men passed this very spot during their attack on April 2, 1865. He described the action that occurred here: “About 5 a.m., at the signal from Fort Fisher, we commenced the charge; passing through the enemy’s pickets, and, taking most of them prisoners, we pushed on to the main works, through two lines of . . . — Map (db m15329) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — McGowan’s South Carolina BrigadeThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
Brigadier General Samuel McGowan, a 43-year-old lawyer and politician from Abbeville, South Carolina, commanded the troops responsible for maintaining these fortifications from October 1864 through March 1865. McGowan’s Brigade consisted of five South Carolina regiments numbering about 1,400 men during the time they spent here. Although these original fortifications have eroded relatively little since 1865, their appearance has changed significantly. Most of the fieldworks around Petersburg . . . — Map (db m15413) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Pamplin Historical Park & The National Museum of the Civil War SoldierLee's Retreat — April 2, 1865
Here, the Union’s Sixth Army Corps broke through the Confederate line defending Petersburg, causing a series of actions which eventually led to the evacuation of the city by Lee’s army that evening. Nearby, Confederate General A.P. Hill was killed in the day’s fighting. Next Stop Sutherland Station 5.1 miles — Map (db m6080) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — 15 — Petersburg State Colony for the Negro InsanePetersburg, Virginia — Dinwiddie County
In 1938 the Virginia Assembly chartered a residential care facility for mentally retarded African-American males between 8 and 21 years of age. The Petersburg State Colony for the Negro Insane, as it was named, was located on the present site of Richard Bland College about seven miles southwest of here. A female unit housing 70 women was added in 1941. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the terms “idiot”, “imbecile”, and “moron” were commonly used . . . — Map (db m23455) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Sergeant John E. BuffingtonThe Breakthrough — Pamplin Historical Park
Sergeant John E. Buffington 6th Maryland Infantry, 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division (Seymour), Sixth Corps Resident: Carroll County, Maryland Enlisted: August 1862 Sergeant John Ezra Buffington, with five other men of his regiment, stormed the ramparts of the Confederate works near this position during the attack on April 2, 1865. The commander of the brigade that included the 6th Maryland wrote after the battle, “I have made a full investigation as to who was in fact the first man from . . . — Map (db m15379) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Siege of Petersburg—Grant's Eighth OffensiveApril 2-3, 1865 Fall of Petersburg and Richmond
With the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on April 1, 1865, Confederate general Robert E. Lee's defense of Petersburg and Richmond had been lost. On April 2, Union General Ulysses S. Grant ordered a general assault against the Petersburg lines and broke through Lee's Defenses west of the city. Only a stand by Confederate troops here at Fort Gregg prevented Union forces from entering the city that night. After dark, Lee ordered the evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond. Though Grant captured the . . . — Map (db m78094) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Siege of Petersburg—Grant's Fifth OffensiveSeptember 29 - October 2, 1864 Battle of Peebles' Farm
Throughout the summer of 1864 Union General Ulysses S. Grant made several unsuccessful assaults against the Confederate defenses around Richmond and Petersburg. Then, in the fall of 1864, the Union won decisive victories on other fronts of the war. Encouraged, Grant ordered another wave of assaults against Petersburg and Richmond. Simultaneously attacked at both cities, Confederate General Robert E. Lee came very close to abandoning Petersburg. But by the end of Grant's fifth offensive Lee . . . — Map (db m78095) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Sixth Maryland Infantry Monument
The Sixth Maryland Infantry attacked over this ground in the pre-dawn hours of April 2, 1865. A portion of the regiment, led by Major Clifton K. Prentiss, poured over the Confederate works here, suffering numerous casualties in the process, including Major Prentiss. Sergeant John E. Buffington earned the Medal of Honor for his bravery during the attack. This monument is respectfully dedicated to the soldiers of the Sixth Maryland Infantry. — Map (db m48443) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Attack BeginsThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
Major General Horatio G. Wright deployed the 14,000 attackers of his Sixth Corps in a wedge-shaped formation. Although the entire battle front extended for nearly a mile, the point of the wedge was here, manned by the Vermont Brigade commanded by Brigadier General Lewis A. Grant. Some 2,200 Vermonters stepped out at 4:40 a.m. to lead the assault, their left flank hugging the ravine to your left. The rest of the Sixth Corps formed to the left and right of the Vermonters but somewhat behind them. . . . — Map (db m15307) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Banks HousePamplin Historical Park
Welcome to the Banks House. This 18th-century home was typical of other upper-middle class farms in Dinwiddie County, except for 24 hours on April 2-3, 1865 when it became military headquarters for Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant. From here, General Grant presided over the climax of the Petersburg Campaign and rode into Petersburg to meet with President Lincoln for the final time. Portions of the Banks House and its kitchen quarter are open to the public during scheduled guided tours. At . . . — Map (db m11944) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Battle of Fort Whitworth
This battery, also known as Fort Baldwin, Alexander or Anderson was garrisoned by the 19th & 48th Mississippi Infantry of Brig. Genl. Nathaniel Harris’s brigade. They were initially supported by guns of Louisiana’s Washington Artillery but these were withdrawn from the fort during the battle. At 1:00 PM on April 2, 1865, the initial assault by Union forces began on nearby Fort Gregg by Maj. Genl. John Gibbon’s XXIV Corps. Eventually Fort Whitworth was attacked by Brig. Genl. Thomas M. Harris’s . . . — Map (db m14863) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Battle of Harmon RoadThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
On the final day of the Battle of Peebles’ Farm, October 2, 1864, Union troops of Brigadier General Gershom Mott’s Third Division, Second Army Corps, moved against the Confederate breastworks at the Hart Farm. Mott had orders to determine if the trenches were vulnerable to an attack. The Federals met light resistance from Confederate cavalrymen as they marched up Duncan Road (which they called Harmon Road, after a home located near its intersection with Boydton Plank Road, today’s U.S. 1). . . . — Map (db m15397) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Battle of White Oak RoadThe Walking Trail
Welcome to the Civil War Preservation Trust’s White Oak Road Battlefield! The battlefield walking trail is a two-thirds-of-a-mile path that takes you past six wayside signs interpreting the 1865 battle, the remains of the Confederate earthworks, and two well preserved gun emplacements. Allow one hour to walk this trail. The trail has a hard-packed walking surface; please do not stray from this trail. Beware of ticks and snakes that thrive in the woods surrounding the trail. Please stay off the . . . — Map (db m14795) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Battle of White Oak RoadFour Years of War, Ten Months of Siege
It was March 1865. The Civil War had raged across battlefields from New Mexico to Pennsylvania for four desperate years. More than three million men had fought and more than 600,000 men had died but, finally, the war was winding to a close. The Federal armies had essentially won the War in the West; Major General William T. Sherman’s men had captured Atlanta, marched to the sea to take Savannah, and moved up through South Carolina and into North Carolina. In the East, Federal Lieutenant General . . . — Map (db m14797) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Battle of White Oak RoadThe Battle of Lewis Farm
General Grant wanted to force his way around the Confederate right flank and cut the last remaining supply lines into Petersburg. The offensive began on March 29, 1865. Union Major General Philip H. Sheridan’s cavalry moved towards Dinwiddie Court House, about five miles southwest of here, to lure the Confederates out of their defensive works and to cut one of the Confederate army’s main supply lines: the South Side Railroad. At the same time an infantry corps under Major General Gouverneur K. . . . — Map (db m14805) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Battle of White Oak RoadMoving into Position
With their success at Lewis Farm, Union troops gained a foothold on one of Lee’s supply routes, the Boydton Plank Road. It was strategically necessary for the Federals to control this road because it was a major route Confederate General Robert E. Lee used to transport supplies to his army from North Carolina. On March 30, General Warren pushed his men as close to the Confederate defense line along White Oak Road as possible and had them build slight earthworks. Concerned about the Federal . . . — Map (db m14807) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Battle of White Oak RoadMarch 31, 1865
Early on the morning of March 31, 1865, Confederate General Robert E. Lee sent most of a division forward to attack the Federals from this location at White Oak Road. Fighting through the morning, the Confederate brigades enveloped and put to flight two Federal divisions in succession. Lewellyn Shaver of the 60th Alabama was posted just west of here. There, “we were in line of battle in a piece of woods in front of which distant about 50 yards lay the road. Beyond … an extensive field . . . — Map (db m14811) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Battle of White Oak RoadThe Union Counterattack
As the fight progressed, the Confederates met stiffening resistance. Lee and his subordinates realized they had too few troops to hold their advanced position. They determined to withdraw to the slight earthworks constructed by the Federal soldiers just south of this point. In the meantime, Union forces regrouped and were bolstered by reinforcements. At about 2:30 p.m., with everything in place, Union General Warren ordered a counterattack. General Robert E. Lee stood near this gun emplacement . . . — Map (db m14813) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Battle of White Oak RoadBreaking the Line
The Battle of White Oak Road left the Federals in position to block Confederate reinforcements from reaching their comrades further west. Both the Battle of White Oak Road and the Battle of Dinwiddie Court House were preludes to the climactic April 1st Battle of Five Forks; the “Waterloo of the Confederacy.” A late-afternoon attack at Five Forks, coupled with poor communication among the Southern command, allowed the Union an easy victory. Upon hearing this news, General Grant . . . — Map (db m14816) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Big HouseTudor Hall Plantation — Pamplin Historical Park
This landscape re-creates elements of a typical Southside Virginia plantation during the mid-nineteenth century. Tudor Hall, an original nineteenth-century building, was at the center of a farm that supported the owner, his family, and their slaves. The exterior has been restored to its appearance in 1864-1865. The outbuildings have been re-created by Pamplin Historical Park. Begin the self-guided tour in the basement at the rear of the building with the exhibit “A Land Worth Fighting . . . — Map (db m15438) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Boisseau Family CemeteryTudor Hall Plantation
Many nineteenth-century Virginians buried deceased family members near their homes rather than in distant church yards. While we do not know when this cemetery was established, the only grave marker on this property belonged to Martha Eliza T. Boisseau Jones, daughter of Tudor Hall’s first owners. Martha died on February 29, 1840, apparently while giving birth to twins who were buried with their mother. Martha Jones’ remains and marker were moved to Blandford Cemetery in Petersburg in 1955. . . . — Map (db m15450) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The BreakthroughThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
On the evening of April 1, 1865, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant issued orders for a massive attack against the Confederate lines defending Petersburg. Grant scheduled the assault for the following morning. In the pre-dawn darkness of April 2, the Union Sixth Corps deployed in a wedge-shaped formation aimed at the Confederate works directly in front of you. They began their attack at 4:30 a.m. In a matter of minutes they had crossed what was then one-half mile of open fields and approached . . . — Map (db m15376) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Breakthrough at Hart FarmThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
“… after going through a leaden and war hail storm, thanks to the God of Battles, I am alive and happy. Our Corps charged the enemy’s lines last night, broke their line and drove them out of sight … I never felt more like fighting than I have today and I kept my shooting iron hot for about an hour and a half, and with prayer all the time. I felt as if I was willing to give my life up freely and I felt assured I would be received in Heaven. The Confederacy is gone up. I lost part of a . . . — Map (db m15390) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Breakthrough TrailPamplin Historical Park
A walk along the Breakthrough Trail is a journey into history! On April 2, 1865, thousands of Union and Confederate soldiers clashed here to determine the fate of Petersburg and Richmond. The Breakthrough Trail leads past many original features of this battlefield, including the Hart House and some of America’s best preserved Civil War fortifications. A series of interpretive signs, many with recorded messages, helps explain the dramatic events that occurred on this hallowed ground. This . . . — Map (db m15393) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Civil War YearsThe Banks House — Pamplin Historical Park
“Christmas has come and gone. I spent it at Mrs. Banks’ where I had quite a sumptuous repast, finishing up with eggnog, cake, etc. I ate so much sponge cake that whenever you would touch me, it would be just like squeezing an India rubber ball.” - Lieutenant Edwin I. Kurisheedt, Washington (Louisiana) Artillery, CSA In the fall of 1864, the Civil War arrived at the Banks property. Confederate soldiers of Brigadier General James H. Lane’s North Carolina brigade established . . . — Map (db m11949) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Confederate FortificationsThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
The earthen wall in front of you is a part of the main Confederate defense line begun in 1864 and defended until April 2, 1865. You are standing behind the line facing southeast towards the Union positions about one mile away. When Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant’s forces established a toehold on the Petersburg & Weldon Railroad in August 1864, General Robert E. Lee lost his direct communication and supply line to North Carolina. This break in the rails forced the Confederates to off-load . . . — Map (db m15415) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Hart FarmThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
This extension of The Breakthrough Trail leads to the historic Hart House, a ten minute walk from here. The trail parallels the Confederate earthworks that extended across the Boisseau farm (Tudor Hall) to the neighboring Hart farm to the southwest. Pamplin Historical Park has restored the Hart House exterior to its appearance in 1865. Exhibits at the house describe the fighting that occurred there during the Battle of Peebles’ Farm on October 2, 1864 and during the Breakthrough of April 2, . . . — Map (db m15399) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Hart HouseThe Breakthrough Trail — Pamplin Historical Park
Charles H. Carr, a native of New York, purchased twenty acres from the Boisseaus of Tudor Hall in March 1859. He began construction of the house in front of you shortly afterwards. Carr died in July 1862 while enlisted in the Confederate army. In November of that year, his widow sold the house and property to John Hart, a native of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Hart completed the house and grew market crops on the farm. Most of Hart’s neighbors along Duncan Road to the south also operated small . . . — Map (db m15404) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Kitchen QuarterThe Banks House — Pamplin Historical Park
The building before you is a rare example of an original slave quarter. Milled lumber and the exclusive use of cut nails suggests that it was built around 1840 to provide two slave families with a workroom and an overhead loft for storage or sleeping. The Banks House quarter featured a weather-proof shingle roof and a tight plank floor, and was elevated for ventilation and ease of cleaning underneath. Two windows incorporated into each apartment allowed for sufficient air and light. While the . . . — Map (db m11956) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Largest Fort
Fort Fisher was the largest of the more than 30 forts that studded the Union siege lines. It included nearly 2,000 feet of parapet and could mount 19 guns. The boom of a single gun in this fort on the morning of April 2, 1865, portended the fall of Petersburg. That solitary shot signaled the opening of the final Union assaults on the city. “When the signal sounded the entire Corps, notwithstanding the orders to keep silent, sent up a mighty cheer and then dashed forward into the . . . — Map (db m7862) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Military LandscapePamplin Historical Park
Did you know the end of the American Civil War started here? On the morning of April 2, 1865 you would have been standing near the center of the battle that decided the nine-month campaign for Petersburg and Richmond. In the pre-dawn darkness of that spring morning, 14,000 Union soldiers attacked the Confederate defenses that still survive in the woods before you. After examining the recreated fortifications ahead, continue your tour at the Battlefield Center. This museum contains . . . — Map (db m69934) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — The Plantaton LandscapePamplin Historical Park
Life was a lot simpler back then…or was it? You are standing near the center of a once successful and productive mid-19th century farm. To your right is the main house, Tudor Hall, built in two stages before the Civil War. When the armies arrived here in 1864 the lives of the farm’s residents, both black and white, changed forever. In the Field Quarter to your left, exhibits, a film, and recreated environments examine the lives of slaves on Southern farms before the Civil War. Begin your . . . — Map (db m69928) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Tobacco BarnTudor Hall Plantation
Nineteenth-century farmers cut tobacco plants and placed them on sticks to be cured in tobacco barns like this one. Curing, a four-week process, preserves plants by removing moisture, and brings out the aroma and flavor. Farmers in Dinwiddie County grew a dark-leaf tobacco called Oronoco, which they cured using small fires built on the floor of enclosed tobacco barns. Its high nicotine and low sugar content made Oronoco ideal for pipes, chew, and snuff. — Map (db m15449) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Tudor HallTudor Hall Plantation
William Boisseau, a tobacco farmer, constructed Tudor Hall around 1812. Originally two rooms wide and one room deep, this style of house was popular in Dinwiddie County during the late 1700s and early 1800s. In the 1850s Joseph G. Boisseau, William’s son, renovated the house. He expanded the east side, created a central hall, and added Greek Revival details inside and out. None of the original furnishings remain, but period antiques adorn the interior. Wallpaper, floor coverings, and color . . . — Map (db m15441) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Tudor Hall BarnTudor Hall Plantation
This building is a reproduction of a nineteenth-century barn located in Isle of Wright County, Virginia. Tidewater and Piedmont farmers constructed numerous small, inexpensive barns to support their work. Virginia’s mild climate made it unnecessary to keep livestock indoors. Spaces in this barn may have provided a central location to milk cows, house draft animals, and store farm implements. The detached chicken house is home to rare breeds of poultry similar to those common in mid-nineteenth century Virginia. — Map (db m15442) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — Tudor Hall Field QuarterTudor Hall Plantation — Pamplin Historical Park
The environment in front of you recreates elements of a plantation Field Quarter of the 1800s. The slaves who provided agricultural labor on farms like Tudor Hall lived in areas like this in the years before the Civil War. The first slave dwelling on the left as you enter the yard contains a multi-media exhibit examining the institution of slavery in the United States. The second slave house is furnished as the plantation laborers might have known it. Compare the lifestyle of these people with . . . — Map (db m15456) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — S 49 — Where Hill Fell
In the field a short distance north of this road, the confederate General A.P. Hill was killed, April 2, 1865. Hill, not knowing that Lee's lines had been broken, rode into a party of Union soldiers advancing on Petersburg. — Map (db m3594) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — S-52 — White Oak Road
The extreme right of Lee’s line rested on this road, which was entrenched. General Warren, advancing against Lee’s works here, March 31, 1865, was driven back. Reinforced, Warren advanced again, forcing the Confederates to retire to the road. On it, six miles west, the Battle of Five Forks was fought next day, April 1, 1865. — Map (db m14776) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Petersburg — S-81 — White Oak Road Engagement31 March 1865
Union forces belonging to the V Corps, under Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, sought to seize the White Oak Road and sever the Confederate line of communication with Maj. Gen. George E. Pickett’s detachment near Five Forks, four miles west. From here Gen. Robert E. Lee personally supervised the counterattack to Gravelly Run by Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson’s corps. After a brief success, the Confederates were forced back into these entrenchments as Warren’s men gained the important roadway. — Map (db m14792) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Reams — North Carolina
The following North Carolina units honorably and gallantly participated in the action at Reams Station on August 25, 1864 Infantry Lane's Brigade Seventh, Eighteenth, Twenty-Eighth, Thirty-Third, Thirty-Seventh Scale's Brigade Thirteenth, Sixteenth, Twenty-Second, Thirty-Fourth, Thirty-Eighth Cooke's Brigade Fifteenth, Twenty-Seventh, Forty-Sixth, Forty-Eighth Kirkland's - MacRae's Brigade Eleventh, Twenty-Sixth, Forty-Fourth, Forty-Seventh, Fifty-Second Cavalry Gorden's - Barringer's Brigade . . . — Map (db m13792) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Reams — Ream's StationFederal Debacle: "The retreat was a route" — Wilson-Kautz Raid
Racing the pursuing Confederate cavalry for the safety of the Union lines at Petersburg after accomplishing most of its mission, Gen. James H. Wilson's command reached Ream's Station about 7 a.m. June 29. Two brigades of Gen. William Mahone's Confederate infantry immediately attacked, beginning a 10-hour battle. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz decided to abandon their wagons, wounded, and artillery, and cut their way through to Federal lines. At mid-afternoon Wilson issued all the ammunition . . . — Map (db m13774) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Reams — Ream's StationFirst Encounter — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling stock. The 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry, the advance guard of the Wilson-Kautz column, arrived here at Ream's Station about 7:30 a.m. on June 22 and burned the station and other buildings. The road in front of you was the Petersburg & Weldon R.R. bed. . . . — Map (db m13776) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Reams — The Battle of Reams StationAfterwards
While Robert E. Lee won the Battle of Reams Station, preventing the Federals from destroying more of the Petersburg (& Weldon) Railroad, and keeping much of his supply line intact, the Confederate victory was one in a series of tactical Southern triumphs that were actually strategic Union victories. General U.S. Grant, with more men and more supplies than General Lee, hit first one side of the Confederate line, then the other. Lee was forced to react, sending his already exhausted men scurrying . . . — Map (db m13791) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Reams — The Battle of Reams StationOak Grove United Methodist Church
In front of you is second location where the original church building stood after the Civil War. The first location was east of here and across the Civil War-era Halifax Road (now Acorn Drive). It was built around 1820 and first known as Hubbard's Meeting House; the church's name was changed to Oak Grove Methodist Church before the war. Caught between two armies during the Battle of Reams Station, the little church served as a hospital for Union troops until they could be removed to their own . . . — Map (db m13793) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Reams — The Battle of Reams StationThe Petersburg (& Weldon) Railroad
As early as September 1829, business interests in Petersburg wanted to build a railroad between Petersburg, Virginia and Weldon, North Carolina. The railroad would connect the Appomattox and Roanoke river and attract trade away from Norfolk, Virginia (which was connected to North Carolina by a canal). The Petersburg (& Weldon) Railroad was incorporated on February 10, 1830 making it one of the earliest railroads in the United States. By 1833, a trip could be made along sixty miles of the line. . . . — Map (db m13795) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Reams — The Battle of Reams StationThe Exposed Position of the Federal Artillery
The first field fortifications were built at Reams Station on July 1, 1864 by soldiers of the Union Sixth Corps while tearing up the railroad following the return of the ill-fated Wilson-Kautz cavalry raid. Hastily thrown up, the works were "L" shaped with the small arm of the "L" running north-south along the Petersburg (& Weldon) Railroad and the other face angled northwest. Whe Federal soldiers arrived at the works on August 23rd they found that the trenches had been ravaged by weather. . . . — Map (db m13797) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Southerland — Fork Inn
Built in 1803 by Fendall Chiles Sutherland (1770-1833) and Elizabeth Traylor Sutherland (1785-1864), the Sutherland homestead also served as a stagecoach stop, inn, and tavern. The first post office in southside Virginia was established here in 1831. On April 2, 1865 Fork Inn found itself on the Confederate defense line along the South Side Railroad. The ensuing battle left the house grounds occupied by Federal troops. Most of its contents were destroyed, and it was used briefly as a hospital. . . . — Map (db m15550) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Sutherland — K 313 — Appomattox Campaign (Sutherland Station)
At Sutherland Station, on 2 Apr. 1865, the Confederates made a last attempt to maintain control of the South Side Railroad. Confederate Maj. Gen. Henry Heth organized the defense before returning to the main line in Petersburg. Brig. Gen. John R. Cooke commanded in Heth’s absence. Elements of Union Maj. Gen. Nelson’s division of the II Corps troops charged the Confederate left flank, commanded by Brig. Gen. Samuel McGowan. Overwhelmed, the flank disintegrated and the rest of the line fled as . . . — Map (db m6155) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Sutherland — K 308 — Colonel John Banister
One mile to the south is the site of Hatcher's Run Plantation and the grave site of Col. John Banister (D. 1787), first mayor of Petersburg and prosperous entrepreneur. Banister represented Dinwiddie County in the House of Burgesses (1765-1775) and the conventions of 1775 and 1776. He was a member of the Continental Congress, a framer and signer of the Articles of Confederation, and a cavalry officer during the Revolution. — Map (db m19007) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Sutherland — K 305 — Engagement at Sutherland Station
On the morning of 2 Apr. 1865, Union forces arrived here by way of Clairborne Road and found Maj. Gen. Henry Heth’s Confederate division entrenched on Cox Road. During the day, Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles’s division made three distinct assaults against the half-mile-long Confederate line, which stretched from Ocran Church to Sutherland’s Tavern. The third charge forced Heth’s division out of its works and west on the Namozine Road, thereby severing Gen. Robert E. Lee’s final supply line, the . . . — Map (db m15547) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Sutherland — 16 — Rocky Branch SchoolSutherland, Virginia — Dinwiddie County
In 1911 a group of Dinwiddie County’s African-American residents established the Rocky Branch School in Sutherland. The school was a typical two-room schoolhouse. It had been moved from original location across from Ocran Methodist Church on U.S. Route 460 about two miles east of this site. Reading, writing and arithmetic were taught in grades one through seven. Each day school began with a short devotion. Students were also required to recite Bible verses and sing patriotic and gospel . . . — Map (db m26833) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Sutherland — Sutherland StationConfederate Defense Crumbles — Lee’s Retreat
The Union attack that broke the back of the Confederate defense of Petersburg and forced Gen. Robert E. Lee to evacuate the Army of Northern Virginia from the city happened here April 2, 1865. You are standing at the end of the Confederate right flank, facing south toward the Federal left flank. The South Side Railroad, Lee’s last supply line, ran just behind you. On Sunday, April 2, as the main Union assault ruptured the Confederate defenses at Petersburg, ten miles east, a detachment under . . . — Map (db m6048) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Sutherland — Sutherland StationLee's Retreat — April 2, 1865
Confederate troops formed a battle line along Cox Road to protect the South Side Railroad, but were overwhelmed after three attacks. This engagement enabled Grant’s forces to sever Lee’s last supply line, causing him to abandon Petersburg that night. Next Stop Namozine Church 10.5 miles — Map (db m6074) HM
Virginia (Dinwiddie County), Sutherland — The Battle of Sutherland
The Battle of Sutherland April 2, 1865 Dedicated in sacred memory to those valiant Confederates who remained steadfast to the end, and who gave their last full measure of devotion in defense of their homeland. Here the Confederates, under the Generals Wilcox and Heth, made a gallant stand, only to be overcome by overwhelming numbers. Dedicated April 12, 1981 — Map (db m6046) HM
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