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Frederick County Markers
Maryland (Frederick County), Adamstown — Carroll's Mill
Stone structure nearby was flour mill built in 1812 by Charles Carroll of Carrollton (1737-1832), wealthy landowner and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Site was within his 17,000-acre wilderness tract called "Carrollton Manor." He deeded the mill to Sarah Ann Hoffman in 1821, and subsequent owners were named Doub, Copeland and Smith. — Map (db m10449) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Adamstown — Carrollton ManorGreen Corn March — Antietam Campaign 1862
On Saturday, September 6, 1862, the Army of Northern Virginia was spread along the entire length of Buckeystown Turnpike all the way to Frederick. The soldiers camped in the fields on either side of the road on the evenings of September 5-6, and by the next day most of the army was camped south of Frederick. On their way the Confederates stripped the nearby fields of green corn. Too much of this corn put many of the soldiers out of commission for several days with . . . — Map (db m1738) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South Mountain gaps, Lee . . . — Map (db m1520) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — 19th Century BackpackerThe Civil War Soldier — Antietam Campaign 1862
An unnamed citizen of Frederick City said the following of the Confederates he had beheld marching through his hometown: “I have never seen a mass of such filthy strong-smelling men. Three in a room would make it unbearable, and when marching in column along the street the smell from them was most offensive... The filth that pervades them is most remarkable... They have no uniforms, but are all well armed and equipped, and have become so inured to hardships that they care but little for . . . — Map (db m1521) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — Battle at South MountainA Natural Barrier — Antietam Campaign 1862
The Battle of South Mountain erupted on September 14, 1862, when elements of the Union army tried to drive the Confederate rear guard from Crampton’s, Fox’s, and Turner’s Gaps and break through to the western side of the mountain to attack Confederates there. When Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia marched into Maryland earlier in the month, he was looking for supplies and recruits for a possible invasion of Pennsylvania. He hoped while resting men at Frederick . . . — Map (db m1519) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — Civil War Hospital SiteHenry Shoemaker House
Civil War Hospital Site The Henry Shoemaker House was used as a hospital site during the Maryland Campaign 1862. Private Property courtesy of S.H.A.F — Map (db m4953) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — John Collins
Native of Frederick County, skilled hunter and a superintendent of provisions with the Lewis and Clark expedition, John Collins was the first Marylander to cross the North American continent. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were charged by Thomas Jefferson to lead an expedition to find a water route to the Pacific. From 1804 to 1806 the Corps of Discovery traveled 8,000 miles as they documented their encounters with inhabitants, identified natural resources and mapped the interior of western North America. — Map (db m1904) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — Maryland Campaign of 1862 / The Lost Orders
(Left Side) On September 4, 1862, General Robert E. Lee, hoping to shorten the war by winning a decisive victory on Northern soil, crossed the Potomac River into Maryland. Lee planned to draw the Army of the Potomac through South Mountain into Pennsylvania and fight on ground of his choosing. His plan depended on securing his supply line down the Shenandoah Valley past Harpers Ferry—then garrisoned by nearly 13,000 Federal troops. When the Federals did not withdraw, Lee decided to . . . — Map (db m2040) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — South Mountain SummitWhat an Ideal Location for a Break!
As early as 1750, Robert Turner bought land here on the top of South Mountain. The date of construction is unknown, but by 1790 a full-fledged inn was in operation at “Turner’s Gap.” Since then, the building has been in almost continuous use as an inn, tavern or private residence. After the steep climb up South Mountain’s slope, horsemen, stagecoach drivers and passengers, even drover and teamsters, reveled in the luxury of the famous “Mountain House.” During its . . . — Map (db m1600) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — T.P. 1 — Turner's Pass Tablet T. P. 1
Between September 4th and 7th, 1862, the Army of Northern Virginia, General Robert E. Lee, commanding, crossed the Potomac near Leesburg and occupied Frederick, Maryland. On the 10th a movement was made to surround and capture the Union forces at Harper's Ferry. Early that morning Major-General T. J. Jackson, with Jackson's (Stonewall) Division and the divisions of R.S. Ewell and A.P Hill, left Frederick, marched over South Mountain at this Pass, crossed the Potomac near Williamsport on the . . . — Map (db m1594) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — T. P. 2 — Turner's Pass Tablet T. P. 2
In the advance of the Union forces to repel the invasion of Maryland by the Confederates, the Army of the Potomac commanded by Major General Geo. B. McClellan, moved northward from Washington with its front extending from near the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to the Potomac River. On September 12th, Cox Kanawha Division of the Ninth Corps, occupied Frederick. On the 13th Pleasonton's Union cavalry, moving from Frederick on the National Road, forced the passage of Catoctin Mountain, Stuart's . . . — Map (db m1595) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — T. P. 3 — Turner's Pass Tablet T. P. 3
Hill's five brigades were encamped at and around Boonsboro to prevent the escape of the Union forces at Harper's Ferry, through Pleasant Valley. Informed that two Union brigades were approaching Turner's Pass, Hill, on the evening of September 13, ordered Colquitt's and Garland's Brigades from Boonsboro, to dispute the passage of the mountain. Colquitt, with Lane's battery of Georgia Artillery, moved nearly to the east foot of the mountain and formed north of this road. During the night . . . — Map (db m1596) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — T. P. 4 — Turner's Pass Tablet T. P. 4
Cox’s Division of the Ninth Corps moved from Middletown at 6 A. M., September 14, by the Frederick and Hagerstown Pike, turned to the left at Koogle’s Mill, on the Catoctin, nearly four miles southeast of this, and, marching on the old Sharpsburg road, at 9 A. M. encountered Garland’s Brigade immediately south of Fox's Gap one mile south of this. A severe contest resulted in the death of General Garland, the dispersion of his Brigade, and Cox established himself on the crest of the mountain. . . . — Map (db m1597) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — T. P. 5 — Turner's Pass Tablet T. P. 5
During the contest at Fox's Gap, Hooker's (First) Corps was operating east and northeast of this point. The First Corps left the Monocacy at daybreak, passed through Frederick and Middletown and between 3 and 4 P. M., leaving Gibbon's Brigade on the main pike, turned to the right at Bolivar, nearly two miles southeast of this, and, marching on the old Hagerstown road, passed Mt. Tabor Church and formed line about one and a quarter miles east of this, Meade's Division on the right, Hatch's on . . . — Map (db m1598) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Bolivar — T. P. 6 — Turner's Pass Tablet T. P. 6
When Hooker moved to the right at Bolivar by way of the Hagerstown road, Gibbon continued on the main road and attacked Colquitt, in position about 700 yards southeast of this point. He drove Colquitt's skirmishers and reached the bend in the road in Colquitt's front, but was unable to drive Colquitt, and bivouacked in his front. When darkness put an end to the engagement, Cox's Division of the Ninth Corps held the summit of the mountain, south of Fox's Gap. Hooker's First Corps gained the high . . . — Map (db m1599) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Braddock Heights — Hagan’s TavernIf walls could talk..
The National Road has borne witness to many notorious comings and goings. The quiet atmosphere you’ll find at Hagan’s Tavern today is quite different from the raucous bawdiness of yesteryear. This tavern was a “place where the old bloats of the neighborhood would gather on Saturday and public days to run horses, fight chickens, drink bad whiskey, and black each others eyes.” It was also a political stomping ground where “cooping” commonly occurred, a practice . . . — Map (db m2247) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Braddock Heights — The Braddock-Washington Monument
In April 1755, Frederick Town was a planning center for a major campaign in the French and Indian War (175-1763). General Edward Braddock arrived from England and later 1,400 British Troops joined him to stop the French from taking land claimed by Britain. While in Frederick for twelve days, General Braddock met with several people including Maryland Proprietary Governor Horatio Sharpe, Benjamin Franklin, and Colonel George Washington. Washington joined with Braddock's command. In May 1755, the . . . — Map (db m68946) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — Berlin
First called Berlin, later Barry, and finally named Brunswick in 1890, the town's fortunes fluctuated with the times. The canal was built here in 1834 and a large gristmill, powered by canal water, was built on the canal across from the towpath. During the Civil War the town grew to 500 people but dwindled to 200 by 1890. In that year the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad built its switchyard center and repair shops here. The town continued to prosper until the railroad moved most of its operations elsewhere. — Map (db m4333) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — BrunswickFormerly Berlin — Gettysburg Campaign
Union troops pursuing the Confederate army to Virginia after the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863 crossed the Potomac River here. Called Berlin at the time of the Civil War, this town truly experienced the challenges of life on the border. Both the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad here were military targets. The town would be relocated, grow and gain its new name as the railroad achieved greater commercial influence after the war. Still, it was an important . . . — Map (db m1863) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — Brunswick
The area now known as Brunswick was prime for growth for over a century before the C&O Canal reached this location in 1834. Originally the site of a trading post and ferry, the water crossing here provided a route for settlers heading west into Virginia's interior. In 1787, this river crossing resulted in the creation of the Town of Berlin.

Berlin was primarily a canal town until 1888. The B&O Railroad then supplanted the water transportation system in importance with a seven mile freight . . . — Map (db m61864) HM

Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — M-5 "JEB Stuart" Tank
In 1921, a group of Veterans built and dedicated this park to honor WWI Veterans. Originally, a WWI Howitzer Cannon was located on this concrete pedestal. The citizens of Brunswick were called upon to donate the cannon for the WWII scrap drive. The defense department promised a tank would be provided following the WWII victory. A M-5 "Jeb Stuart" Tank was presented to the people of Brunswick on August 31, 1946. The M-5 Stuart Tank was an American light reconnaissance tank used during WWII. The . . . — Map (db m26716) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — One Time RivalsB&O Railroad and C&O Canal
The Brunswick Railroad Museum and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park Visitor Center exist side by side today, just as the transportation modes did when first arriving here in 1834. However, the early relationship between canal and railroad was stormy at best.

The Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) Canal was a continuation of George Washington’s vision for a vital route west to help unify the country and to benefit the Nation’s Capitol. Not willing to accept trade superiority over . . . — Map (db m60881) HM

Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — Train No. 286 Bell Memorial
(below the window) Preserve the memory of train crew by ringing this bell for Ricky, Jimmy and Jim. (above the window) The bricks which make up the base of the bell memorial came from the B & O roundhouse that once stood in Brunswick, Maryland. The bell is similar to the one that was aboard car #7762 on #P-286 on February 16, 1996. (adjacent stone marker) In memory • Ricky Orr, Engineer • Jimmy Major Jr., Conductor • Jim Quillen, Asst. Conductor • Heroes of P#286 . . . — Map (db m1981) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Brunswick — Water Power
Canal water was an important ingredient in the production of "C.F. Wenner's Choice Family Flour." Brunswick businessman Charles F. Wenner drew surplus water from the canal near Lock 30 to power the wheels and turbines of his flour mill. Wenner was one of several 19th century entrepreneurs who expanded the use of the C&O Canal beyond navigational purposes. Along the canal other businessmen built mills that processed items such as corn, wheat, cotton, and lime. The mills served as the foundation . . . — Map (db m4334) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Buckeystown — “Carrollton”
Patented for 10,000 acres to Charles and Daniel Carroll, Mary and Ellinor Carroll 1st April 1724. It was from this tract that Charles Carroll assumed the title “Charles Carroll of Carrollton” when signing the Declaration of Independence. — Map (db m1736) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Buckeystown — Buckeystown
This street scene photo taken on the bridge crossing Rocky Fountain Creek around 1870, clearly shows the three white tannery buildings on the east side of Buckeystown Pike. The tanning of animal hides was the town's earliest industry. The red brick house on the hill above the tannery buildings is the Baker family home. Daniel Baker purchased the property from the Buckeys in 1830. Across the street on the west side of Buckeystown Pike at the top of the hill, is a red brick house built circa . . . — Map (db m19385) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Buckeystown — Buckeystown ParkSoldiers’ Shortcake — Antietam Campaign 1862
On the south end of this park, the road from Urbana to Buckeystown crossed the Monocacy River over a stone bridge. Some of the Confederate troops camped here on September 6, 1862, while some crossed the bridge to bivouac on a knoll overlooking the river on the south side of the road on William Graff’s farm. On September 13, Union Gen. William B. Franklin’s VI Corps passed by here on the march from Urbana, and halted for an hour at the apple and peach orchards near the Dalaplaine (Michael’s) . . . — Map (db m1737) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — “Sealed With Their Lives”
Just before the Confederate line along Mountain Church Road gave way, Brigadier General Howell Cobb arrived in Crampton’s Gap with his Georgia and North Carolina troops. After meeting with Colonel Thomas Munford, who had been directing the battle, Cobb allowed Munford to deploy Cobb’s troops. Munford ordered the 15th North Carolina to the Arnoldstown Road. There they took a position behind a stone wall facing Whipp’s Ravine. The 24th Georgia was ordered into the ravine while Cobb’s Legion . . . — Map (db m2060) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South Mountain . . . — Map (db m1958) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Bartlett Leads the Way
Colonel Joseph J. Bartlett, the Commander of the Second Brigade of Franklin’s First Division, found himself in a curious position. As a brigade commander, Bartlett chose both the field across which Franklin’s Corps would attack and the formation for the attack. Bartlett wrote: “I suggested the formation of the three brigades, in column of regiments, deployed, two regiments front, at 100 paces interval between lines (that would give us six lines); that the head of the column should be . . . — Map (db m2151) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Battle for Crampton’s Gap“Sealed With Their Lives” — Antietam Campaign 1862
The Battle of South Mountain struck Crampton’s Gap late in the afternoon of September 14, 1862, when Union Gen. William B. Franklin finally ordered an attack against Confederate Gen. Lafayette McLaws’s force here. As the Confederate defensive line along the Mountain Church Road began to disintegrate, Gen. Howell Cobb arrived in Whipp’s ravine with reinforcements to stop the Federal onrush. Soon, they were surrounded on three sides. Lt. Col. Jefferson Lamar, leading Cobb’s Georgia Legion, . . . — Map (db m1909) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Brownsville Pass: Semmes’ Gamble
General Robert E. Lee directed Major General Lafayette McLaws to close in on the Federal garrison at Harper’s Ferry via Elk Ridge, west of South Mountain. McLaws’ route from Frederick took him through Middletown, where he turned southwest on the Middletown-Burkittsville Road. At Burkittsville, he marched southwest to Brownsville Pass. McLaws left Brigadier General Paul Semmes and his brigade at the western foot of the mountain at Brownsville on September 11. Semmes stayed at Brownsville until . . . — Map (db m2159) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Burial: A Most Disagreeable Task
The treatment of soldiers killed in action depended on which army held the battlefield after the guns fell silent. At South Mountain a few men from each Union regiment were assigned to burial details. To prevent the spread of disease, they lined up the dead where they fell and hurriedly buried them in shallow trenches. Under the best of circumstances it was not pleasant duty. The burial details processed their own dead first, often identifying bodies by notes pinned to the dead soldiers' . . . — Map (db m2145) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — BurkittsvilleHouses of Worship Become Houses of Misery — Antietam Campaign 1862
Union surgeons turned Burkittsville, a quiet rural village of some 200 people, into a hospital complex after the September 14, 1862, Battle of Crampton’s Gap. The building in front of you, the German Reformed Church, was Hospital D. Twenty-year-old Henrietta Biser gasped when she saw the church pews strewn in the front yard and “a pile of amputated limbs lying just inside the door of the church. Blood was running...over the floor...and things were torn to pieces.” Henry M. Wiener . . . — Map (db m1864) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Burkittsville: Henry Burkitt’s Town
The first settlers in this area cleared their farm land and raised their families along two Indian trails that crossed here. Joshua Harley, one of these pioneers and a veteran of the American Revolution, started the settlement’s first dry goods store. In 1824 Harley’s store became Harley’s post office. Henry Burkitt moved here from Pennsylvania about 1825 and laid out a town along the east-west trail, subdividing larger tracts bought from his neighbors. In 1829, Burkitt donated property on . . . — Map (db m2051) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Chew’s Ashby Artillery
Captain R. Preston Chew organized Chew’s Ashby Artillery, the first “horse artillery” in the Confederate army, in November 1861. He named it for Colonel Turner Ashby. Chew’s battery bosted a 3 in ordinance rifle, a 12-pounder smoothbore howitzer, and an English Blakeley rifle. Blakeley guns were not commonly used during the Civil War. The battery, attached to Colonel Thomas T. Munford’s cavalry brigade, crossed the Potomac River on September 7. They followed Munford to Burkittsville . . . — Map (db m2055) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Cobb’s Brigade McLaw’s Division C.S.A.Lt. Col. Jefferson M. Lamar & Cobbs Georgia Legion
Cobb’s Brigade McLaw’s Division C.S.A. ———— At 1 P.M. on September 14, 1862, Cobb’s Brigade under Gen. Howell Cobb of Athens, GA. marched from Sandy Hook to Brownsville at the west foot of South Mountain. At 4 P.M., as Cobb’s Brigade reached Brownsville, word came that the Union VI Corps, numbering 12,000 troops, was attacking Crampton’s Gap. The sole Confederate troops stationed there were Col. William A. Parham’s Brigade augmented . . . — Map (db m1964) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 5 — Confederate ForcesMunford’s Brigade and Mahone’s Brigade
Confederate Forces Col. T. T. Munford, 2nd Virginia Cavalry, Commanding, Munford’s Brigade, 2nd & 12th Virginia Cavalry. Mahone’s Brigade, Lt. Col. Wm. A. Parham, 41st Virginia, Commanding. 6th, 12th, 16th, 41st, and 61st Virginia Infantry (September 14, 1862) Upon the approach of the Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, Munford’s Cavalry fell back through Jefferson and Burkittsville and prepared to dispute the passage of South Mountain. Mahone’s Brigade was marched over Crampton’s Pass . . . — Map (db m2045) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 1 — Crampton’s Pass Tablet C.P. 1
Between September 4th and 7th, 1862, the Army of Northern Virginia, General Robert E. Lee, Commanding, crossed the Potomac near Leesburg, and occupied Frederick, Maryland. On the 10th a movement was made to surround and capture the Union forces at Harpers Ferry. Early that morning General T. J. Jackson with Jackson’s (Stonewall) Division and the Divisions of R. S. Ewell. and A. P. Hill left Frederick, marched over South Mountain at Turner’s Pass, six miles north of this, crossed the Potomac . . . — Map (db m2020) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 3 — Crampton’s Pass Tablet C.P. 3
(September 14, 1862) Upon the approach of the Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, from Jefferson, Col. T. T. Munford, Commanding Cavalry Brigade, prepared to dispute its advance through this Pass. Mahone’s Brigade, Lt. Col. Parham, Commanding, was put in position at the foot of the mountain, with the Cavalry, dismounted, on either flank. Chew’s (Va.) Battery of Horse Artillery and two guns of Grimes’ Portsmouth (Va.) Battery were placed half way up the mountain; later in the day Grimes’ guns . . . — Map (db m2023) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — First New Jersey Brigade
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Infantry and Hexamer’s Battery September 14, 1862 Late in the afternoon the brigade advanced from the fields north and west of Burkittsville, charged up the mountain, carried this point and followed the enemy to the west foot of the mountain. Loss in the brigade 40 killed, 134 wounded. — Map (db m2061) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Forest of NeedwoodEstate of Governor Thomas Sim Lee — 1745-1819
Member Maryland Convention 1775 Signer Association of Freemen Governor of Maryland 1779-82, 1792-4 Delegate Continental Congress 1783-4 Member state convention which ratified the Constitution 1788. — Map (db m58776) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — GATH: The Man and His Mountain
George Alfred Townsend, known by his pen name of “GATH,” was born in Georgetown, Delaware, in 1841. One of the youngest and most renowned special correspondents of his time, he reported on politics and war in both the United States and abroad. In 1860, Gath’s natural talent and classical education earned him a job with the Philadelphia Inquirer. In 1861 he transferred to the New York Herald, where he reported on the Civil War. Noted for investigative . . . — Map (db m2038) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Gath's Empty Tomb
During the 19th century few people bought burial lots in public cemeteries as we do today. Instead, a small parcel of their own land was usually set aside as a private cemetery. If enough money was available, a mausoleum (tomb) was often built for certain family members.

Gath, concerned with his own burial, built this lonely tomb about 20 years before his death, which came on April 15, 1914, in New York City. By this time his great wealth had dwindled and the near penniless. Gath was . . . — Map (db m60905) HM

Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — George Alfred TownsendA Man and His Mountain — Antietam Campaign 1862
None of the structures you see here in Crampton’s Gap existed during the battle on September 14, 1862. George Alfred Townsend constructed all the stone buildings and walls, as well as the Correspondents’ Arch, between 1884 and 1896. Townsend, perhaps the most widely published Civil War correspondent of his time and the author of 21 books, wrote under the pseudonym GATH, which was derived from his initials plus the letter H. His father, a Methodist minister, gave Townsend a strong . . . — Map (db m1931) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 2 — Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws' Command
C. S. A. Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws' Command (September 12-13, 1862) McLaws’ Command consisted of Kershaw’s, Barksdale’s, Semmes’ and Cobb’s Brigades of his own Division and R. H. Anderson’s Division of six Brigades-Wilcox’s, Mahone’s, Featherston’s, Armistead’s, Wright’s and Pryor’s. On the morning of the 12th, Kershaw and Barksdale crossed Pleasant Valley, ascended Maryland Heights at Solomon’s Gap and moving along the crest of the heights, attacked and drove the Union forces from the . . . — Map (db m2021) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Maryland Campaign of 1862 / The Lost Orders
(Left Side) On September 4, 1862, General Robert E. Lee, hoping to shorten the war by winning a decisive victory on Northern soil, crossed the Potomac River into Maryland. Lee planned to draw the Army of the Potomac through South Mountain into Pennsylvania and fight on ground of his choosing. His plan depended on securing his supply line down the Shenandoah Valley past Harpers Ferry—then garrisoned by nearly 13,000 Federal troops. When the Federals did not withdraw, Lee decided to . . . — Map (db m2039) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — 6 — MausoleumGathland State Park — Walking Tour Stop 6
Townsend regarded Gapland as a lasting monument to himself and his craft and wanted to rest here for all time. Townsend designed and erected his Mausoleum in 1895. Its four vaults were intended to house his remains and those of his wife and parents. A large iron likeness of his pet Great Dane, which Townsend sketched while staying at The Waldorf Hotel, was placed atop the tomb to keep vigil in his afterlife. But fate would not have it so. Townsend died at his daughter's home in New York City on . . . — Map (db m65854) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Medal of Honor Recipients
In July 1862 Congress authorized the president to present medals to soldiers of the United States Army for gallant and meritorious service. On September 14, 1862, two soldiers so distinguished themselves during the fighting at Crampton’s Gap that they would later be awarded this “Congressional Medal of Honor.” The 4th Vermont pursued Munford’s retreating Virginians from the stone wall near the foot of South Mountain to an unused wagon track on the eastern slope of the mountain. . . . — Map (db m2152) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Mell Rifles & Troup Light Artillery
(Front Side): The Mell Rifles, Co. D, Cobb’s Legion Infantry, was raised in Athens, GA. in July 1861, by Patrick Hues Mell, Baptist minster and Vice Chancellor of the University of Georgia. After Mell resigned due to his wife’s death, Thomas U. Camak was named commander. John Boswell Cobb, Robert Goodman, and W.A. Winn were named lieutenants. Noncommissioned officers were J.F. Wilson, Wm. A. Gilleland, S.P. Kenney, G.W. Barber, J.J. Mattox, and L.H. Horne. The unit fought throughout . . . — Map (db m2044) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Padgett’s Field: Confederate Last Stand
On September 14, 1862, this area was an open field belonging to George W. Padgett. A wooden, rail fence lined the road on the east. A low, stone wall bordered the field to the west. As the shattered remnants of Brigadier General Howell Cobb’s force streamed up Whipp’s Ravine and through the gap toward the safety of Pleasant Valley, Cobb attempted to check the retreat. He would put up a “last ditch” defense here on the summit of Crampton's Gap. With most of his troops in headlong . . . — Map (db m2144) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 4 — Sixth Army Corps
U. S. A. Sixth Army Corps. Major Gen. W. B. Franklin, Commanding (September 14, 1862) The Sixth Corps consisted of two Divisions commanded by Major Generals H. W. Slocum and W. F. Smith. On the march of the Army of the Potomac through Maryland, this Corps with Couch’s Division, Fourth Corps, temporarily attached, formed the left of the advancing line. It moved through Tennallytown, Darnestown, Poolesville and Barnesville, reaching Buckeystown, west of the Monocacy, 12 miles southwest of . . . — Map (db m2024) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — The Battle of South Mountain
In September, 1862, after the second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee led his victorious Confederates on their first invasion of the North. At Frederick, Md. he boldly divided his army. Three columns (No. 1) were to surround and capture the Federal garrison at Harpers Ferry and then reunite with Lee and Longstreet (No. 2) at Boonsboro and Hagerstown and continue north. Gen. George McClellan’s strong Union army (No. 3) was hot on Lee’s heels, threatening to overrun his divided units. . . . — Map (db m2032) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — The Stage is Set
On the evening of September 13, 1862, Confederate cavalry under Brigadier General Wade Hampton and Colonel Thomas Munford occupied the Crampton’s Gap/Burkittsville vicinity. Early on the 14th, Major General J.E.B. Stuart, en route to Harpers Ferry, met with Munford and Hampton. Stuart took Hampton’s cavalry with him, leaving Munford’s 2nd and 12th Virginia Cavalry regiments behind. Late that morning Munford, who had fewer than 300 troopers, spotted a large Federal force approaching his position . . . — Map (db m2150) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Troup Light Artillery
Organized in 1858 as the National Artillery, this unit changed its name to the Troup Light Artillery in honor of the former Georgia governor George W. Troup. It became a part of Cobb’s Legion when the war began. During the Maryland Campaign, the battery had two ten-pound Parrott rifles and two smoothbore bronze howitzers, a twelve-pounder called “Jennie” and a six-pounder named the “Sallie Craig.” Cobb’s Legion, including the Troup Light Artillery, was part of Major . . . — Map (db m2143) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — War CorrespondentsMemorial Arch
Speed - Heed Sept. 14 - 62 - 96 To the Army Correspondents and Artists 1861-65 Whose toils cheered the fireside Educated provinces of rustics into a bright nation of readers and gave incentive to narrate distant wars and explore dark lands. Erected by subscriptions 1896 (North side) O wondrous youth Through this grand ruth Runs my boy's life, its thread The General's fame, the battle's name The rolls of maimed and dead I bear with . . . — Map (db m13977) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Dickerson — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4–6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South . . . — Map (db m4028) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Dickerson — Gettysburg CampaignInvasion & Retreat
After stunning victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, Virginia, early in May 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee carried the war through Maryland, across the Mason and Dixon Line and into Pennsylvania. His infantry marched north through the Shenandoah Valley and western Maryland as his cavalry, led by Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, harassed Union supply lines to the east. Union Gen. Joseph Hooker, replaced on June 28 by Gen. George G. Meade, led the Army of the Potomac from the Washington . . . — Map (db m4033) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — "To Lift a Nation"
Three firemen raised a flag at ground zero in silent tribute to those brave firefighters who answered the call. This noble flag is raised permanently in honor of those heroes and all who serve this great nation. May God continue to bless America! Sculptor: Stan Watts. — Map (db m19023) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Amleto Cardinal CicognaniNational Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes
In Memoriam Amleto Cardinal Cicognani Apostolic delegate to the United States 1933-1958 Cardinal Secretary of State 1958-1973 Under Pope John XXIII - Paul VI While serving as apostolic delegate to the United States Amleto Cardinal Cicognani frequently sought the beauty and spiritual solace of this historical sanctuary through private pilgrimages - often, with a bouquet of flowers to present to our Lady in thanksgiving. His great devotion inspired a vision of the . . . — Map (db m17365) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Army of the PotomacJuly 1 1863
First Corps Marched from Marsh Run. Eleventh Corps from Emmitsburg to Gettysburg. Second Corps from Uniontown via Taneytown to near Gettysburg. Third Corps from Bridgeport via Emmitsburg to the Field of Gettysburg. Fifth Corps from Union Mills via Hanover and McSherrystown to Bonaughtown. Sixth Corps from Manchester en route to Gettysburg. Twelfth Corps from Littlestown via Two Taverns to the Field of Gettysburg. Second Cavalry Division marched from Manchester to Hanover Junction from whence . . . — Map (db m19296) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Army of the PotomacJuly 4, 1863
First and Second Brigades, First Cavalry Division marched from Westminster and the Reserve Cavalry, First Cavalry Division from Gettysburg en route to Frederick. Second Brigade Second Cavalry Division from Westminster via Emmitsburg to Monterey. The Third Brigade, Second Cavalry Division from Gettysburg to Hunterstown and the Third Cavalry Division from Gettysburg via Emmitsburg to Monterey. Fight at Monterey Gap Pa. and skirmishes at Fairfield Gap Pa. and near Emmitsburg Md. — Map (db m19298) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Coaches James G. Deegan and James J. Phelan
Universitas Sanctae Mariae Ad Montes Marylandia Fundata Ab Joanne DuBois This boulder honors Coaches James G. Deegan and James J. Phelan for their combined century of dedicated service to Mount St. Mary's University. For over five decades these two men coached with virtue, character, and distinction, and motivated countless scholar athletes and colleagues nationwide.Their spirit of excellence will always inspire us. Faith * Discovery * Leadership * Community — Map (db m7743) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Cornerstone of the Old Church on the Hill
Laid by Father John DuBois in 1807. — Map (db m19028) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Corpus Christi Chapel
Built in 1906. Replaces the Old Grotto, 1808 - 1906. — Map (db m19030) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Daughters of Charity"O, it was beyond description" — Gettysburg Campaign
Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton founded the Roman Catholic community of the Sisters of Charity of Saint Joseph's here in 1809 (after 1850, called Daughters of Charity). The sisters played a prominent role during the Civil War as nurses and human service workers, providing compassion in an otherwise violent and painful epoch. They continued Mother Seton's ministry of charity, bringing solace and healing to the wounded of both armies, sometimes at their own peril. Father James Francis Burlando, C.M., . . . — Map (db m9483) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — EmmitsburgRoad to Gettysburg
President Abraham Lincoln replaced Army of the Potomac commander Gen. Joseph Hooker with Gen. George G. Meade on June 28, 1863, as the army pursued Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Meade placed Gen. John F. Reynolds, I Corps commander, in charge of the Federal army’s left wing, which consisted of I, III, and XI Corps. The next day, I Corps marched to Frederick from Middletown and camped in the western suburbs, but by dawn on June 30, had departed for Emmitsburg, where it . . . — Map (db m1546) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Emmitsburg Longrifles
The longrifle was a distinctly American weapon developed on the frontier for accuracy and distance. Produced mainly in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, it became known as the “Kentucky” rifle after a popular song commemorated its use by a regiment of Kentucky marksmen in the 1814 Battle of New Orleans. Emmitsburg gunsmiths crafted some of the finest longrifles of the 18th and 19th centuries. The work of master gunsmith John Armstrong (1772–c.1842) is especially noted for superior mechanical quality and decorative artistry. — Map (db m1532) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Emmitsburg Sisters of Charity
1809 - 1984 Dedicated to Emmitsburg Sisters of Charity The community of Sisters of Charity was founded in this valley on July 31, 1809, by Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton. The Sisters served the citizens of Emmitsburg and the environs both spiritually and physically. They soon answered the call of the Bishops of the United States throughout the country and established the first parochial schools, orphanages and hospitals. Prior to the Battle of Gettysburg, the Armies of the North and of the . . . — Map (db m9618) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Fallen Firefighters Memorial
Dedicated October 4, 1981. National Emergency Training Center. Emmitsburg, Maryland. "Dedicated to the thousands of Firefighters who have lost their lives in the very act of saving others." Ronald Reagan, President. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA — Map (db m19021) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Gen. John F. Reynolds"Dear Kate" — Gettysburg Campaign
On the last day of June 1863, Emmitsburg became a Union army supply base. Union Gen. John F. Reynolds, commanding the left wing of the Army of the Potomac (I, III, and XI Corps), arrived as I Corps came into Emmitsburg to obtain needed supplies, camp, and muster to receive pay before marching five miles north across the Mason-Dixon line to Marsh Creek. On July 1, Reynolds traveled the Emmitsburg Road toward Gettysburg. Early on that first day of battle, a sharpshooter killed him. This place . . . — Map (db m9489) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Interstate and Defense Highways
The first US Army Transcontinental Motor Convoy departed Washington DC for San Francisco on July 7, 1919, to survey roads and test vehicles for military purposes. On the second day, the convoy was forced to detour around a wooden covered bridge on this site. Among the 24 officers who participated in the expedition was Lt. Col. Dwight D. Eisenhower, who later recalled that the experienced contributed to his keen interest in efficient interstate travel. On June 29, 1956, President Eisenhower . . . — Map (db m8488) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Mother Seton's Rock1809 - 1821
Here on Sunday afternoons Mother Seton "seated on a rock known as Hers," taught Christian Doctrine to the children of The Mountain Parish. "They that instruct many to Justice shall Shine as the Stars for all Eternity." - Daniel XII, 3. — Map (db m19031) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Mount Saint Mary's College
1808 - 1983 Dedicated to Mount Saint Mary's College Quote from Helmans History of Emmitsburg: "- The great fire occurred June 15th, 1863 it originated in the livery stable of Guthrie & Beam, consuming over fifty buildings in all; the fire commenced at eleven o'clock in the night, did not get it under control until seven in the morning; the hotel was the last to burn. People in the country heard the Church bells ring; some came within a mile of town, looking at the blazing houses, but . . . — Map (db m9619) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Pangborn Memorial CampanileNational Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes
Ave Maria This monument is dedicated to the glory of God and His Blessed Mother. It is erected on the site of the “Old Church on the Hill,” which was built in 1805 Father John Dubois, founder of Mount Saint Mary’s College and Seminary here on Saint Mary’s Mount. Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton worshiped, and it was here that her sister-in-law, Harriet Seton, was converted to the Catholic faith. Here the image of our Blessed Mother shines forth as a . . . — Map (db m17360) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton
Describing the conversion of her sister-in-law, Harriet: Harriet left the log house on the evening of Friday, July 21, 1809, between 10 and 11 o'clock to seek the solitude of the Old Church on the Hill... "Harriet stealing up to the church by the light of the full moon in deepest silence, her arms crossed upon her breast and the moon's reflection on her pale but heavenly countenance... I saw the falling tears of love and adoration, while we said miserere and then te deum, which from her . . . — Map (db m19034) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Site of Father Dubois House
This cross marks the site of Father Dubois house in which Mother Seton and her associates lived from Jun 21, to July 31, 1809. "Blessed be God in His Angels and in His Saints." — Map (db m19033) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — Site of St. Joseph's College
On this site St. Elizabeth Ann Seton, the first U.S. native to be canonized, founded an academy for girls in 1809. A high school was later added and in 1902 St. Joseph's College was chartered as a three year institution for women. In 1914 the college was recognized as a four year college empowered to award degrees in the arts and sciences. It closed in 1973. The alumnae association founded in 1897 is still active. — Map (db m9474) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — St. Elizabeth Ann SetonFounder of the Sisters of Charity
Born Aug. 28, 1774, in New York, she came to Emmitsburg from Baltimore June 24, 1809, occupying stone house on these grounds July 31. The following year, in White House visible from here, she organized nation's first Roman Catholic Parochial School. After her death Jan. 4, 1821, she was buried in "the little wood." In 1846 her body was re-interred in mortuary chapel. Canonized a saint by Pope Paul VI Sept. 14, 1975, she is the first native of the United States so honored. — Map (db m9473) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — St. Joseph's Valley Camp"I did not see it multiplied, but saw it there!" — Gettysburg Campaign
About 80,000 Union troops settled here in Saint Joseph's Valley as June 1863 drew to a close, "until the grounds around were actually covered with Soldiers." Emmitsburg was placed under martial law, and the Vincentian priests at Saint Joseph's Church had to get passes to come and go. Those encamped on and around these grounds included Gens. George G. Meade, Oliver Otis Howard, and Philippe Regis De Trobriand. Gen. Carl Schurz and his staff were accommodated here in the White House built by . . . — Map (db m9485) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — The John Hughes Cabin
John Hughes, class of 1826, fourth bishop (1838) and first archbishop of New York (1850-1864), born in County Tyrone Ireland (1797), immigrated in 1817. A gardener and mason, Hughes was employed the 10th of November, 1819, by Fr. John DuBois (founder of Mount Saint Mary's in 1808 and third bishop of New York (1826-1838) "Receiving as compensation, board, lodging and private instruction." Until the fall of 1820, when he moved into the two-story log house on the terrace (built 1809), John Hughes . . . — Map (db m9621) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — The Spirit of the American Doughboy
1917 1918 Emmitsburg In The Great War This memorial erected and dedicated in honor of those from Emmitsburg District who served in The World War The Supreme Sacrifice Made By Bentzel, Arthur H*         Hahn, Martin Luther*     Rowe, Francis Edward* Elder, Francis Xavier*   Ohler, Vernon Ross*     Schley, Reading* Gelwicks, Charles F.*    Reifsnider, Robert B.*  Spalding, Henry D.* [List of 123 names in three columns] Colored Soldiers Beatty, Albert . . . — Map (db m44058) HM WM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — The White House
This reconstruction log building, faced with clapboard and painted white, was occupied by Mother Seton and her little community in February 1810. At the close of the year the school numbered thirty boarders and forty day pupils. In 1817 this school, Saint Joseph's Academy, was chartered by the State of Maryland. The apostolate of Catholic education begun here by Mother Seton continued to flourish after her death. Elizabeth Seton died in this house in 1821. — Map (db m9617) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — This Cavalry Group
This calvary group replaces the "old wooden cross" erected by John Dubois of which Mother Seton writes in her journal for the year 1815 --- "Quiet dinner at the Grotto before the old cross, yet standing after winter storms", memorializes forever the Christian faith and rugged courage of this giant of God, John Dubois. — Map (db m19036) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — White Ash Tree
The tree was a Maryland State Champion White Ash approximately 175 years old when on July 10, 2001 a storm with tornado-like winds took off one of the major limbs and decay was discovered inside the remaining limbs. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources and the Antietam Tree Company examined the tree and recommended removal due to the tree being structurally unsound and an appreciable hazard to life and property. — Map (db m19025) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Emmitsburg — William Elder, Sr.
William Elder, Sr., named this land Mount Saint Mary's & established (ca. 1743) his home "Pleasant Level" and the Elder Cemetery on the plain below. His family deeded (October 24, 1793) this mountain land for a church. In respect for the living God & in honor of our Elder forbears. this plaque is dedicated, June 18, 1989. Old William, your children have come home. — Map (db m17389) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — “The Great Baby Waker”
On April 22, 1783, this historic cannon announced the end of the American Revolution here on the western frontier of the new nation Cat at the Mount Aetna forge near Hagerstown, this iron fortification gun entered service at the New Frederick Barracks in 1783, then the home to 1,500 German prisoners of war. After the war, this gun fired Independence Day salutes for the local militia. In 1831, it welcomed the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to Frederick. On November 25, 1844, improper loading . . . — Map (db m2737) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — 14th New Jersey Infantry Regiment
(Upper Plaque):Erected by the State of New Jersey to commemorate the heroic services of the 14th Regiment New Jersey Volunteer Infantry 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 6th Corps Army of the Potomac, at the Battle of Monocacy, MD July 9th 1864. ********* The 14th Regiment New Jersey Volunteers was organized on the Monmouth Battle Ground and mustered in to the United States service near Freehold, New Jersey, August 26th 1862 and was mustered out June 18th 1865 near Washington, . . . — Map (db m13301) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4–6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South . . . — Map (db m2708) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4–6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South . . . — Map (db m2807) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4–6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South . . . — Map (db m18382) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — A Crossroads of American HistoryThe Frederick Square Corner
The Square Corner, at the intersection of Patrick and Market Streets, has long been the commercial and financial heart of Frederick. It is here that the National Road meets several important north-south roads that lead to Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Washington, D.C. The Square Corner has witnessed both dramatic and ordinary events for over two hundred and fifty years. British, Hessian, and Tory prisoners marched through town during the Revolutionary War, while Union and Confederate armies . . . — Map (db m2748) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — A Good Night's RestFrederick's Hotel Block
This part of downtown Frederick has long been a place of lodging and hospitality for travelers along the National Road. Kimball's Inn, Talbott's Tavern, the City Hotel and the Francis Scott Key Hotel have occupied this site for over two hundred years. Among the many notable travelers was Revolutionary War hero, Frenchman Marquis de Lafayette. He was a visitor to Frederick on a triumphal tour of America. "He was received with pomp and parade. He last night attended a public dinner at Talbott's . . . — Map (db m2822) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — B & O Railroad Station"No malice in my heart" — Antietam Campaign
At this intersection, President Abraham Lincoln spoke from a railroad car platform to Frederick residents assembled in the street on October 4, 1862. He had just returned from viewing the battlefields of South Mountain and Antietam and had called on Gen. George L. Hartsuff who was recuperating here from a wound suffered at Antietam. Lincoln was about to board a train for Washington. “I return thanks to our soldiers for the good services they have rendered, the energy they have shown, the . . . — Map (db m60166) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Barbara Fritchie House“Shoot if you must this old gray head, but spare your country’s flag.” — Antietam Campaign 1862
As the Confederate army marched through Frederick on September 10, 1862, feisty local Unionists—mostly women—showed their defiance by waving the Stars and Stripes. The poet John Greenleaf Whittier immortalized one of them in “The Ballad of Barbara Fritchie” about a year later. Spoilsport historians have since pointed out that Stonewall Jackson’s column never passed her house and that the story of the aged Fritchie—who did wave such a flag from her porch when the . . . — Map (db m2693) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Battle of Frederick"Best little battle of the war" — Early's 1864 Washington Raid
(preface) Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early drove Union Gen. David Hunter into West Virginia after the Battle of Lynchburg, Va., clearing the Shenandoah Valley of Federal forces. To draw Union troops from Petersburg, Early launched a raid on Washington D.C., on June 23, 1864. Union Gen. Lew Wallace delayed the Confederates at Monocacy, giving Petersburg reinforcements time to stiffen the capital's defenses. Early probed briefly on July 11-12 and withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley, . . . — Map (db m76651) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Battle of Monocacy
The Battle that saved Washington Here along the Monocacy River on July 9, 1864, was fought the battle between Union forces under General Lew Wallace and Confederate forces under General Jubal A. Early. The battle, although a temporary victory for the Confederates, delayed their march on Washington one day, thereby enabling General Grant to send veteran reinforcements from Petersburg, Virginia to the defenses of Washington in time to forestall the attack by the Confederates and thus save the . . . — Map (db m3218) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Best Family Farm
8:30 a.m. July 9, 1864 The John T. Best family was going about its chores of tending cows, hogs, chickens, and fields of wheat, oats, and corn. The Bests were used to working amid soldiers, for Union and Confederate troops had camped here on the South Hermitage farm several times since the Civil War broke out in 1861. This time, however, Confederate sharpshooters in the barn and artillery on the ridge behind the house hammered Union troops at the bridges spanning the Monocacy River on the . . . — Map (db m3223) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Birthplace of William Tyler Page
Birthplace William Tyler Page Oct. 19, 1868 Author of The American's Creed Placed by Frederick, Chapter, D.A.R. — Map (db m2820) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Braddock, Washington, and Franklin
On April 23, 1755 At a Tavern located near this spot General Edward Braddock Colonel George Washington and Benjamin Franklin Met to plan the British assault on Ft. Dusquesne During the French & Indian War This plaque erected by the Kiwanis Club of Frederick June 8, 1998 — Map (db m2725) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Brush Creek Crossing
A wagon road crossed Brush Creek at this location connecting the Georgetown Pike with roads to Baltimore. As Federal troops withdrew from the battlefield, they passed Gambrill's Mill and followed this road toward Baltimore, leaving the field to the Confederate victors. — Map (db m3272) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Burning of the Bridge
12:00 noon July 9, 1864 Confederates wearing captured blue uniforms had killed or wounded several Union skirmishers who had been sent across the Monocacy River to hold the Georgetown Turnpike and B&O Railroad bridges "at all hazards." The two sides traded shots all morning, but about noon Union Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace could see that the Confederates were about to overwhelm his troops. He ordered the wooden covered bridge set ablaze. Wallace had delayed the enemy, but he also had trapped his own . . . — Map (db m3270) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Capital For A SummerFoiling Maryland Secession
The building in front of you, Kemp Hall, was the capitol of Maryland during the spring and summer of 1861, as the state came perilously close to leaving the Union. Because secession would have placed the U.S. capital, Washington, D.C. between the Confederate states of Maryland and Virginia, President Abraham Lincoln could not let it happen. Two weeks after the Confederate capture of Fort Sumter, South Carolina, Maryland Gov. Thomas H. Hicks called the General Assembly into special session . . . — Map (db m67247) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — City HallFormer Frederick County Courthouse — Antietam Campaign 1862
Connections with the Civil War abound around this Courthouse Square, where the first official act of defiance against the British crown - the 1765 Stamp Act Repudiation - occurred almost a century earlier. In 1857, Roger Brooke Taney, Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court and a former resident who is buried in Frederick, wrote in the Dread Scott Decision that the Constitution's freedoms did not extend to African-Americans, one of the steps on the road to war. Taney and his brother-in-law, . . . — Map (db m2815) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Clustered Spires of Frederick
John Greenleaf Whittier immortalized Barbara Fritchie and the town of Frederick in his poem about the elderly Frederick resident who supposedly displayed the Union flag as Southern soldiers marched by on September 10, 1862. On July 9, 1864, Confederate General Jubal Early held up the town! "...we are going to make a demand upon the banks Frederick of $200,000, and if the demand is granted, very good, if not then the town will be reduced to ashes." The Mayor, Alderman, and Common . . . — Map (db m3290) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Confederates Invade Maryland
7:00 a.m, July 9, 1864 Confederate troops under Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early streamed through the gaps of South Mountain and the Catoctins and headed south past Frederick. Bound for Washington, D.C., they were stopped here at the Best family farm by Union troops defending the bridges over the Monocacy River. General Early decided a head-on attack would be too costly and spread his men across these farmlands. While Maj. Gen. Stephen D. Ramseur pinned down the Union center, Early sent Brig. Gen. . . . — Map (db m3246) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Evangelical Lutheran Church
This tablet is erected to the Glory of God and in grateful recognition of those who organized this congregation and have maintained it for two hundred years 1738   Congregation organized. 1743   Log church built on the Monocacy. 1746   Log church built on present parsonage site. 1747   Adoption of constitution for congregation drawn by Henry Melchior Muhlenberg. 1752   Stone church begun at rear of this building. Erection halted by French and Indian War. Completed in . . . — Map (db m14022) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Federal Retreat4:30-5:00 p.m. July 9, 1864
The Northerners held, then lost, then retook the Thomas house grounds as the fighting ebbed and flowed in the stifling heat. Casualties mounted quickly on both sides. Union Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace could see that his numbers were dwindling and that the Confederates were coming in waves. Wallace gave the order to retreat. "Under a raking of fire of both musketry and artillery," his troops pulled back and fled to the northeast past Gambrill Mill to the road to Baltimore. The Confederates had won . . . — Map (db m3274) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Federals Take a Stand
7:00 a.m., July 9, 1864 After skirmishing on July 8 with Confederates west of Frederick, MD, Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace’s 5,800 Union troops—many of them “raw and untried”—took a stand at the Monocacy River. Wallace carefully chose this critical intersection of the river, road, and railroad to prevent Jubal A. Early’s 15,000 to 16,000 Confederates from attacking Washington. Wallace positioned Brig. Gen. James B. Ricketts’ veteran troops on the river’s south bank. He sent . . . — Map (db m3247) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Final Resting PlaceFrancis Scott Key
In the final months of his life Francis Scott Key enjoyed visits to Terra Rubra farm, his boyhood home not far from Frederick Town. He thought and wrote about the end of life and his hopes of immortality in a life to come.

Key died at his daughter’s home in Baltimore, January 11, 1843, and was buried nearby in Old St Paul’s Cemetery. In 1866, Key’s family moved his remains to a plot in this cemetery where he could lie as he wished in the shadow of Catoctin Mountain.

In 1898 the Key . . . — Map (db m75758) HM WM

Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Fleeing for Their Lives
8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. July 9, 1864 Distressed that their main escape route had been burned, the stranded Federal skirmishers fought on as they faced periodic Confederate attacks. Late in the afternoon, they gradually fell back towards the Baltimore & Ohio bridge. About 5:00 p.m., they noticed their compatriots retreating across the Gambrill Mill property toward the Baltimore Pike and fled across the railroad bridge to join them. The skirmishers had protected the Union center and the escape . . . — Map (db m3271) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Former Site of Tory Gaol
A log jailhouse (gaol), built to house British prisoners or Tories, stood on this site in June, 1776. The tiny two story gaol was 30 feet long and 20 wide. The six-room facility held prisoners throughout the Revolutionary War. Converted to a stable after the war, the building stood until 1846. — Map (db m4960) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Francis Scott KeyThomas Johnson Barbara Fritchie
Francis Scott Key Author of “The Star Spangled Banner”Born in Frederick County, Maryland, 1779. Died in Baltimore 1843 and there buried. Removed to Federick 1866 and interred in family lot. In 1898 the remains of Francis Scott Key and Mary Tayloe Lloyd Key, his wife, were placed within the crypt in the base of the monument erected by the Key Monument Association of Frederick, Maryland. Thomas JohnsonFirst governor of Maryland and a nationally known personage during . . . — Map (db m2731) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — FrederickA Town becomes a City
Frederick Town was founded in 1745 when Daniel Dulany the Elder carved out an eastern portion of his 7,000 acre parcel patented as "Tasker's Chance." The town was then laid out in an orderly grid with Patrick Street designated as the east-west thoroughfare and Market Street running north-south. Most agree that the first house in town was built at the northeast corner of Patrick Street and Maxwell Alley by schoolteacher John Thomas Schley in 1746. National Road mile stone 45 now stands in front . . . — Map (db m2805) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Frederick’s Poet LawyerFrancis Scott Key
Born in what was then northeast Frederick County, Key’s parents first brought him to “Frederick-Town” to be baptized. His parents often rode to the county seat here. Key walked these streets whenever the family came to Frederick. After attending school in Annapolis and studying law for four years, Key opened a law office near here. He argued cases in the old court house where today’s City Hall is located. He later appeared before the U.S. Supreme Court, and practiced law until . . . — Map (db m67248) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Gambrill House
James H. Gambrill prospered as a miller after the Civil War, and the family moved up in the world - from a modest dwelling on the lowlands near the mill to this 17-room house on the hill. The three-story frame structure, built about 1872, has mansard roof and central tower distinctive of Second Empire mansions. From their elegant new home, called Edgewood, the Gambrills had excellent views of their milling and farming operations, the City of Frederick, and the Catoctin Mountains. (Sidebar): . . . — Map (db m3273) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Gambrill Mill
Mill owner James H. Gambrill used his wits to survive the turmoil. A Southern sympathizer, he sold flour to Northern troops as they set up their line of defense on his land. During the battle he took refuge inside the mill with Samuel S. Thomas and two friends who had escaped their four-day impressment in the Union army. The Federals turned the mill into a makeshift field hospital even though it was under near-constant fire. When the fighting ended, the four men emerged from their hiding place . . . — Map (db m3262) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Gen. Bradley T. JohnsonA Visitor in His Own Hometown — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington
(preface) In June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee sent Gen. Jubal A. Early’s corps from Richmond battlefields to the Shenandoah Valley to counter Union Gen. David Hunter’s army. After driving Hunter into West Virginia, Early invaded Maryland to attack Washington, D.C., draw Union troops from Richmond, and release Confederate prisoners held at Point Lookout. On July 9, Early ordered Gen. Bradly T. Johnson’s cavalry brigade eastward to free prisoners. The next day, Johnson sent Maj. . . . — Map (db m75747) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — General Edward Braddock
General Edward Braddock traveled over this road in April 1755 (in a coach and six horses purchased from Gov. Horatio Sharpe of Maryland)after a protracted conference in Frederick with Benjamin Franklin and others concerning the securing of teams, wagons and supplies for the expedition against Fort Duquesne. — Map (db m1247) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — General LaFayette
Friend of America and Liberty Arrived at the bridge nearby on his way to Frederick December 29, 1824 —————— Created by a delegation of citizens including the gallant Lawrence Everhart who had come to escort him into the city Lafayette made here an address expressing thanks for the hearty welcome —————— Erected by Sergeant Lawrence Everhart Chapter Sons of the American Revolution September 17, 1926 — Map (db m2326) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — George Washington
On August 5 and 6, 1785, and again June 30 and July 1, 1791, was the guest of Thomas Johnson at the latter's manorial residence which stood on the site of the present farm house, about 150 yards east of this point. Thomas Johnson, a member of the Continental Congress from Maryland, on June 15, 1775 nominated Washington for commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. Johnson later became the first governor of Maryland. — Map (db m1538) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Gettysburg CampaignInvasion & Retreat
After stunning victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, Virginia, early in May 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee carried the war through Maryland, across the Mason and Dixon Line and into Pennsylvania. His infantry marched north through the Shenandoah Valley and western Maryland as his cavalry, led by Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, harassed Union supply lines to the east. Union Gen. Joseph Hooker, replaced on June 28 by Gen. George G. Meade, led the Army of the Potomac from the Washington . . . — Map (db m2792) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Gordon’s Decisive Attack
3:00-4:30 p.m. July 9, 1864 So profuse was the flow of blood from the killed and wounded of both sides of these forces that it reddened the stream [on the Thomas Farm] for more than 100 yards below. Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon The first Confederate troops to cross the Monocacy River had been repulsed by the Federals massing across the Thomas farm. Then Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon's infantry emerged over the crest of Brooks Hill and with rebel yells and flying banners, swept down the hill . . . — Map (db m3280) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Graves, Monuments, and Memorialsof the American Civil War
In Mount Olivet Cemetery are the graves of Union and Confederate soldiers who fought in the battles of South Mountain, Antietam, Gettysburg, and Monocacy. Near the graves is the Confederate Monument, and the Memorial to children who fought and died in the Civil War. Nearby is the monument at the grave of Frederick's Barbara Fritchie. — Map (db m2733) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Headquarters of Generals Robert E. Lee“Stonewall” Jackson and Longstreet
Headquarters of Generals Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson, and Longstreet Sept. 6-9, 1862 Here was written the famous lost order No. 191 and the proclamation to the people of Maryland. — Map (db m1589) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Hessian Barracks - Witness to History
1777 Built at direction of Maryland General Assembly 1778-79 Quartered Hessian and Convention prisoners captured at Bennington and Saratoga 1782 Quartered Hessian and Bayreuth Yager Regiments following Cornwallis' surrender 1799 Quartered French sailors of the L'Surgent captured by U.S.S. Constellation 1802-03 Served as staging center for Lewis and Clark Expedition 1812 Quartered U.S. troops during War of 1812 1824 Visited by General LaFayette 1840-42 Used as silk work . . . — Map (db m2739) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — History of the Monocacy River Valley
The earliest inhabitants of the Monocacy River Valley lived here about 12,000 years ago. These Native Americans lived in territorial, semi-nomadic groups dependent upon hunting, fishing, and food gathering. When European settlers first came to Maryland, they encountered Native Americans who depended upon farming and who had established villages, being less reliant on hunting and gathering. River valleys such as the Monocacy provided desirable settlement areas, and by the time of permanent . . . — Map (db m3287) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Home of Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney
Home of Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney and his wife Anne Key -- Erected by Frederick Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution 1938 — Map (db m2821) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Hospitals in FrederickCaring for the Wounded
In this building, soldiers who died in one of the many area hospitals following the battles of South Mountain, Antietam, Gettysburg, and Moncacy were embalmed and prepared for interment at nearby Mount Olivet Cemetery or for shipment home. James Whitehall, the owner of the building, was both a furniture maker and undertaker, as were many furniture makers then. Dr. Richard Burr, a contractor with the U.S. Army, embalmed the bodies of officers and soldiers in this building. He gave public . . . — Map (db m2806) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — In April 1861
The Legislature of Maryland Met Here In Special Session -------- At this assembly a bill regarded as equivalent to an ordinance of secession from the Union was introduced but failed of passage ---------- Erected by the Kiwanis Club of Frederick — Map (db m2722) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Jacob EngelbrechtA Frederick Diarist on the National Road
In 1826, Jacob Engelbrecht moved to the house across the street near Carroll Creek. He began reporting on the National Road cavalcade that was going by his front door. His priceless diary recorded everything he saw. Travelers he observed included: The famous: General Winfield Scott, Presidents Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison and Senator Henry Clay rode through, traveling to the Capital City. The ordinary: “A drove of turkeys amounting to nearly four hundred from Westmoreland . . . — Map (db m2706) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — John Thomas Schley
In memory of John Thomas Schley Founder of Frederick and Ancestor of many prominent Americans Born Aug. 31, 1712 in Mörzheim, Germany Died Nov. 24, 1790 in Frederick, Md. — Map (db m14025) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Jug BridgeAn engineering marvel for early America
In 1800, travelers expected to ford rivers or use ferries that were slow and often risky in bad weather. The Baltimore and Frederick-Town Turnpike Company, building the first leg of the National Road in 1805, set out to revolutionize American roads. One of the results was an amazing five-arch stone bridge across the Monocacy River. Leonard Harbaugh built the bridge in 1808 for a cost of $55,000. Mr. Harbaugh's signature was a distinctive stone "demijohn" placed on the bridge's east end, . . . — Map (db m2321) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Jug Bridge Monument
The stone demijohn and memorial plaque, placed by the Sons of the American Revolution, were originally located on a bridge crossing the Monocacy River about 2 miles east of this site. The stone bridge of four arches and two 65-foot spans was constructed in 1808. It collapsed on March 3, 1942. The Francis Scott Key Memorial Foundation, Inc., provided funds for relocation of these monuments. When it was learned that French General Lafayette was planning to visit the United States in 1824, a . . . — Map (db m2324) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Kemp Hall
1861-1961 In the year 1861 the legislature of Maryland, called into extraordinary session by Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks, held session in this building owned by the Evangelical Reformed Church (now the Evangelical and Reformed - United Church of Christ). After convening in the court house on April 26, the senators and delegates assembled here on April 27. The senators on the second floor and the delegates on the third floor. A peace and safety bill was referred to a joint committee and . . . — Map (db m2720) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Laboring Sons Memorial Ground
Laboring Sons Cemetery A cemetery was established at this site in 1851 by the Beneficial Society of the Laboring Sons of Frederick to provide a burial ground for citizens of color. The Beneficial Society had been formed in 1839 “for the purpose of relieving or alleviating, both spiritually and temporally, any member of us, who may be distressed . . .and to see that his mortal remains be interred with decency.” The society remained active for more than 100 years, and this ground . . . — Map (db m14024) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Major General George Gordon Meade
(Front Face): Took command of the Army of the Potomac Under orders from President Lincoln Seven hundred feet North of this marker June 28, 1863 He pursued the Confederates and at Gettysburg July 1,2,3 Fought the decisive battle of the Civil War Marked by The Pennsylvania Historical Commission 1930 (Right Side): This Boulder was taken from a point near Devil's Den on the Battlefield of Gettysburg (Left Side): In tribute to Major General George Gordon Meade on June . . . — Map (db m2800) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Market & Patrick Streets"Scarcely any possibility of crossing the street" — Gettysburg Campaign
Frederick found itself occupied alternatively by Confederate and Union armies during the Civil War. Citizens who frequented this "Square Corner" of Market and Patrick Streets saw Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia march west from here on Patrick Street, the National Road, during Lee's September 1862 Maryland Campaign. They also saw Union Gen. George B. McClellan lead his army through town in pursuit. This first Southern invasion culminated in the Battles of South Mountain and . . . — Map (db m2808) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — May 17, 1943
Sir Winston Churchill visited the Barbara Fritchie House while en route with Franklin D. Roosevelt from "Shangri-la" to Washington, D.C. — Map (db m76788) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — McCausland’s Attack
11:30 a.m. - 2:30 p.m. July 9, 1864 Brig. Gen. John McCausland's cavalry brigade forded the river, dismounted, and advanced up the slope toward the Worthington house. Thinking they would be facing inexperienced militiamen, the Confederates formed a line in front of the house and moved on foot through a cornfield toward the Thomas farm, about half a mile to the east. There, Union Brig. Gen. James B. Ricketts' seasoned troops, concealed in a field behind a fence, surprised and repulsed them. . . . — Map (db m3282) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Meade Takes Command"Come to give me trouble."
Near this spot, on the grounds of Prospect Hall, Union Gen. George Gordon Meade replaced Gen. Joesph "Fighting Joe" Hooker as commander of the Army of the Potomac on Sunday, June 28, 1863. Meade took command reluctantly because he was concerned about changing leaders in the middle of a campaign. Additionally, he felt his longtime friend Gen. John F. Reynolds was more capable and more deserving of the assignment. Meade described his appointment in a letter to his wife, "At 3:00 a.m., I was . . . — Map (db m2775) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Monocacy Battlefield
has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America 1973 National Parks Service United States Department of the Interior — Map (db m3294) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Monocacy Battlefield
Monocacy Battlefield has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 this site possesses exceptional value in commemorating or illustrating the history of the United States U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service 1973 — Map (db m41692) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Monocacy National Battlefield
Here on farmlands bordering the Monocacy River, the fate of the nation’s capital was decided July 9, 1864, when Union troops confronted Confederate soldiers marching toward Washington. Though the Confederates won this battle on Northern soil, they lost an opportunity to attack the capital city while it was lightly defended. This National Park System site preserves the Maryland countryside where this crucial engagement took place. Wayside exhibits interpreting the sequence of major events in . . . — Map (db m41915) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Monocacy National Battlefield
The Battle that Saved Washington In the summer of 1864, Confederate Lieutenant General Jubal Early launched a campaign down the Shenandoah Valley with a corps of approximately 15,000 troops. The campaign was a last attempt to carry the war to the north and relieve some pressure from General Robert E. Lee in the south. Early’s ultimate objective was to march down the Valley, to swing to the east into Maryland, and to attack and capture Washington, D.C. from the north. Learning of the . . . — Map (db m41916) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Nick of Time
On July 9, 1864, at 2:00 a.m., the last train of Union reinforcements pulled into Monocacy Junction just hours before the battle. The addition of 3,400 veterans increased Wallace's total to 6,600 men. While Wallace was successful in delaying the Confederate march on Washington, he failed to stop the Confederates from destroying the junction and damaging the railroad bridge. Railroads played a major part in the Civil War. The ability to move troops and supplies rapidly over short and long . . . — Map (db m76713) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — North Market Street"Now I shall see Cousin J. — Gettysburg Campaign
On June 28, 1863, Gen. John F. Reynolds rode into Federick to visit his cousin Catherine Reynolds Cramer and her sisters near the intersection of North Market and Second Streets. She would have much to write the rest of her family on July 1 about this reunion with him. Her delight was obvious: "When we heard the Army of the Potomac was really coming my first and constant thought was, 'now I shall see Cousin J.'" Reynolds visited his cousin that Sunday afternoon before leaving to confer with . . . — Map (db m2814) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Ramsey House
In this house President Abraham Lincoln October 4, 1862 visited General George L. Hartsuff Wounded In the Battle of Antietam Placed by Frederick Chapter DAR & Cdr. & Mrs. D.M. Page, USN 1975 — Map (db m2818) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Richfield“The Boy General of the Golden Lock”
It was here that George Armstrong Custer was first introduced as a general to the troops he would command. The first order signed by Gen. George G. Meade as the newly appointed commander of the Army of the Potomac on June 28, 1863 promoted three young captians, Custer, Elon J. Farnsworth and Wesley Merritt, to the rank of brigadier-general, at the request of Gen. Alfred Pleasonton Commander of the Union Cavalry Corps. Two of them, Custer, age 23 and Farnsworth, age 25, were notified of their . . . — Map (db m1539) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Roger Brooke Taney
Chief Justice Of the United States 1836-1864 Secretary of the Treasury 1833-1834 Attorney General Of the United States 1831-1833 Attorney General Of Maryland 1827-1831 Citizen of Frederick And lawyer practicing in the Frederick County Court 1801-1823 Born in Calvert County March 17, 1777 Died in Washington, D.C. October 12, 1864 Buried in St. John's Catholic Cemetery, Frederick, MD. — Map (db m2817) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Roger Brooke Taney
Fifth Chief Justice of The Supreme Court of the United States Born in Calvert County, Maryland, March 17,1777 Died in the city of Washington, October 12, 1864 Aged 87 years, 6 months and 25 days He was a profound and able lawyer An upright and feerless (sic) judge A pious and exemplary Christian At his own request he is buried in this secluded spot near the grave of his mother — Map (db m58159) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Rose Hill ManorUnion Artillery Reserve
You are on the grounds of Rose Hill Manor, the final home of Maryland's first governor, Thomas Johnson. During its stay near Frederick, the Army of the Potomac's large Artillery Reserve occupied these grounds. Created after the Battle of Chancellorsville, Va., in early May 1863, and commanded by Brig. Gen. Robert O. Tyler, the Artillery Reserve was an independent grouping of batteries that could be rushed to reinforce or replace divisional batteries during battle or to strengthen threatened . . . — Map (db m2803) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Slave to Soldier
On October 1, 1863, nine months after President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, Secretary of War Edwin Stanton advised Lincoln that it was a "military necessity in the State of Maryland... for enlisting all persons capable of bearing arms... without regard to color ...." A "colored troops" recruiting station was soon established at Monocacy Junction. Local slave owners received up to $300 for the enlistment of their slaves. Lincoln allowed slaves - who had their owner's consent or who had . . . — Map (db m76714) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — The Battle That Saved Washington
The Battle of Monocacy took place on July 9, 1864, in the valley before you. The battle pitted North against South, and Washington, D.C., was the prize. Richmond and Petersburg were endangered, but the Southern leader, General Robert E. Lee had sent General Early north to threaten Washington, D.C., at least to force the Union commander at Richmond, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, to send soldiers back to defend the Capital. The Battle of Monocacy was fought on Saturday, July 9, 1864. The . . . — Map (db m3292) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — The Congregation in Frederick
circa 1745 - Founded by German Reformed settlers led by schoolmaster John Thomas Schley, the Founder of Frederick City. 1934 - Became part of the The Evangelical and Reformed Church a Merger of the Evangelical Synod and German Reformed Church 1957 - Affiliated with The United Church of Christ At the Union of the E&R Church and the Congregational Churches. Houses of Worship 1743 - Log Church south of Thurmont in the Monocacy settlement shared with the German . . . — Map (db m2816) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — The Lost OrderShrouded in a Cloak of Mystery — Antietam Campaign 1862
After crossing the Potomac River early in September 1862, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee reorganized the Army of Northern Virginia into three separate wings. On September 9, he promulgated his campaign strategy - to divide his army, send Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson to attack Harpers Ferry, and send Gen. James Longstreet toward Hagerstown - was described in Special Orders No. 191, seven copies of which were distributed to his senior subordinates. A copy intended for Gen. D.H. Hill was . . . — Map (db m18381) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — The Lower Depot Neighborhood / The Frederick Brick Works
(North Facing Side): The Lower Depot Neighborhood The railroad transformed 19th century America, facilitating long-distance travel and the efficient transfer of raw materials to factories and agricultural and manufactured goods to markets. For Frederick this transformation began in 1831 when the nation's first railroad, the Baltimore & Ohio, opened a branch line to the city. The first B&O depot stood east of South Carroll Street. (Upper Right Sidebar): In 1872, the Frederick & . . . — Map (db m2823) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — The National RoadThe Road that Built the Nation
“. . . so many happy people, restless in the midst of abundance.” —Alexis de Tocqueville, 1840. Americans are an adventurous people. From past to present, they have used feet, horses, wagons, stagecoaches, canals, railroads, bicycles, automobiles, trucks and buses to “perpetually change their plans and abodes.” Centuries ago, George Washington dreamed of a highway joining east and west. In 1806, Thomas Jefferson made that roadway a . . . — Map (db m2753) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — These Barracks
1776 - 1814 These Barracks Mark the course of the struggle for American Independence Built in 1777 by the British and Hessian prisoners of the Revolutionary War, here were detained those taken at the Battles of Saratoga, Trenton, and Yorktown, also the French prisoners captured from the frigate “L’Insurgent” by the United States frigate “Constellation” the first capture of the Navy in 1799, also the British prisoners taken in War of 1812 at Bladensburg, and during . . . — Map (db m2735) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Thick of the Battle
4:00 - 4:30 p.m. July 9, 1864 The Battle of Monocacy changed from a stalemate to a rout as the final lines of Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon's three Confederate brigades swept down Brooks Hill onto the fields of Thomas farm. Both sides traded blistering gunfire around the Thomas house and outbuildings and along the ridge toward the Monocacy River. Numerous soldiers and officers lay dead or wounded on the fields and in the streams. Running low on ammunition, Union troops fell back to the Georgetown . . . — Map (db m3279) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — This Boulder Marks the National Trail — General Braddock Monument
This boulder marks the National Trail over which traveled Gen. Edward Braddock and Lieutenant Colonel George Washington 1755. — Map (db m22275) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — This Boulder Overlooks the Monocacy Battlefield
and is in memory – of – The Southern Solders who fell in the battle fought July 9, 1864 which resulted in a Confederate victory ——— Erected July 9, 1914 by the Fitzhugh Lee Chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy of Frederick, Maryland — Map (db m3215) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Thomas Farm
Col. C. Keefer Thomas, a businessman, should have stayed in Baltimore. He was so sure a war eventually would rage around that city that he moved his family to this 240-acre farm, called Araby. Soon troops were marching through or camping here in the fields where the Thomases raised corn, wheat, and other crops with slave labor. During the Battle of Monocacy, the family fled to the cellar as artillery shells and rifle shots tore up the house. There was not a moment for four years when there . . . — Map (db m3278) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Thomas Johnson
** Revolutionary Patriot ** Bosom Friend of Washington **** Diligent worker for independence and nominator of Washington for commander in chief of Continental Army ** Member of Council of Safety, Continental Congress and of Maryland Convention to ratify The Articles of Confederation *** First Governor of State of Maryland and Associate Justice Of United States Supreme Court ** To Thomas Johnson is largely due the surrender by other colonies of their claims to the great northwest . . . — Map (db m2819) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Tyler’s-Spite House
112 West Church St. Has been placed on the National Register Of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior 1814 — Map (db m2724) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — USS Francis Scott Key (SSBN 657)
Front: The first ship of the fleet named for Francis Scott Key, Author of the National Anthem. Born 1 August 1773, Died 11 January 1843. Wrote the verse for our National Anthem "The Star Spangled Banner" during the British Fleet's bombardment of Fort McHenry 14 September 1814. Prominent lay leader of the Episcopal Church 1800-1843, Distinguished Maryland Attorney 1810-1843, United States Attorney for the District of Columbia 1833-1841.

Back: U.S.S. Francis Scott Key SSBN-657. Launched 23 . . . — Map (db m75756) HM WM

Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Worthington House
Fields of wheat and corn surrounded the hilltop farmhouse of John T. Worthington. Few trees obstructed his views of the meandering Monocacy River and Thomas farm to the east. In the two years since buying the 300-acre farm, Worthington had seen Federals and Confederates come and go, but this time both sides were amassing troops. While the family took refuge in the cellar, he had slaves take his horses to Sugarloaf Mountain. At one point, as he greeted Confederate Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge . . . — Map (db m3283) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Frederick — Worthington-McKinney Ford
11:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m. July 9, 1864 Confederate troops succeeded in finding their way across the Monocacy River at the foot of this hill. Brig. Gen. John McCausland's 350 cavalrymen came up over the hill and assembled on the front yard of the Worthington farm. Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon's 3,000 infantrymen crossed about three hours later, swung south of the house, and proceeded over Brooks Hill to your left. The next goal of the Confederates: to maneuver around the Federals' left line on the neighboring Thomas farm. — Map (db m3285) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Jefferson — Abraham Lakin 2ndBorn Oct. 16, 1713 or 1722. Died Jan., 1796
Veteran of French and Indian War, early settler, head of family of Revolutionary patriots buried in the cemetery of homestead near here. At outset of the Revolution he and his sons Abraham, Basil, Daniel, John and his nephew Samuel were listed with the Committee of Observation of Middle District of Frederick County. Basil and another son, William, were soldiers. Two of his daughters, Nancy and Sarah, married Revolutionary soldiers. — Map (db m2025) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Jefferson — JeffersonProwling Confederates and Pretty Girls
In June 1863, Federal troops marched through Jefferson as the Army of the Potomac pursued Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, a menacing force to the west—but where was it headed? Fearing that Lee would push through the gaps in South Mountain west of Jefferson, Gen. Joseph Hooker sent Union I, III, and XI Corps to the Catoctin Valley to watch them. Many of the men marched through Jefferson June 24-28 on their way to Burkittsville, at the foot of Crampton’s Gap, and Middletown, . . . — Map (db m2100) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Jefferson — War Correspondents Memorial Arch — Walking Tour Stop 7
This stone Arch, the culmination of Townsend's architectural endeavors, was built in 1896 as a permanent memorial to newspaper correspondents, artists, and photographers of the Civil War. Standing 50 feet tall and 40 feet wide, the Arch's unusual design was inspired by two Hagerstown structures: the former B&O Railroad passenger depot which utilized a horseshoe-shaped arch, and the Antietam Fire Co. Station No. 2 which incorporated a crenellated tower. Names of 157 men from North and . . . — Map (db m65351) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Knoxville — Frederick County / Washington County
[ South Facing Side: ]Frederick CountyNamed for Frederick 5th and last Lord Baltimore. Erected out of Prince George’s County in 1748. It then included Montgomery County and all of Maryland west to the West Virginia boundary. [ North Facing Side: ]Washington CountyThe first county in the United States named for the Father of his country. Erected out of Frederick County 1776. It then included what is now Allegany and Garrett Counties. — Map (db m41770) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Lewistown — LewistownI Corps’ Muddy March
Gettysburg Campaign When the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia Invaded Maryland in June 1863, the Army of the Potomac headed north in pursuit. On Monday, June 29, a “rainy, miserable day,” the 15,000 men, 2,900 horses and mules and 475 wagons of Gen. John F. Reynolds’ I Corps, leading the Union advance, marched through Lewistown en route to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The day's march of eighteen miles began west of Fredrick and ended at Emmitsburg. This was the halfway point. . . . — Map (db m4120) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Libertytown — LibertytownHot, Humid, and Worn Out
Gettysburg Campaign On June 29, 1863, the Army of the Potomac's II Corps, commanded by Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, broke camp south of Frederick near the Monocacy River, marched into Frederick, and turned eastward on the road to Liberty (Libertytown). The men perspired as the sun rose, and the heat caused "the salty liquid to get into the eyes, causing them to burn and smart, and it ran from down under the cap, through the dust and down the sides of the face which was soon covered with muddy . . . — Map (db m4017) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — 13 West Main Street"The Lutheran Parsonage"
"Lot No. 1" on Jesserong's plat of Middletown as he laid it out in the year 1767. The Lutheran Parsonage and the two story "Lecture Hall Building" which was located to the front right of the parsonage and the little brick "Pastors Study" located behind the "Lecture Hall" were built in 1848 by the Lutheran congregation. This building was the second parsonage, the first one being located on the south east corner at Washington and Jefferson Streets which was built in 1790. The present . . . — Map (db m5301) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — 29 West Main Street
The original frame house that was constructed on this site appears to have been constructed around 1850. Since about 1885, the first floor of the building was used for a variety of Businesses, including a confectionary, a clothing store, a harness shop & cobbler. The building was used for first floor apartment uses until 1990 when the building was demolished to make way for the addition to the Grangers Mutual Insurance company. The building was later purchased by Burgess and commissioners of Middletown. — Map (db m71439) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — 301 West Main StreetT.C. Harbaugh Birthplace
This house (ca. 1830) was the birthplace of Thomas C. Harbaugh (1849-1924); One of the most popular American writers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His family moved to Ohio when he was 2 years old. Harbaugh wrote thousands of "Dime Novels" for the Beedle Company over many years, and his many articles appeared in national magazines. Also an accomplished poet, he often visited his hometown, and wrote of the beauty of the Middletown Valley. — Map (db m5302) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — 31 West Main Street
The first building on this corner was a two story, frame dwelling, built in the early 1800s. The property was purchased by the Middletown Savings Bank in 1907, and the house was soon moved to the rear of the lot. The current building was built in 1909 for the bank, which occupied it until 1937 when it was sold to the Grangers Mutual Insurance Company. Grangers used it as offices until purchased by the Burgess and Commissioners for use as a Town Hall in 1998. — Map (db m1870) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — 8 West Main StreetCirca 1800
The dwelling located here at #8 West Main Street is significant as an early 19th century vernacular log building that was modified in the ca. 1930's with the application of a simulated Flemish bond brick veneer facade. It reflects the development of the first block of West Main Street, which began with the ownership of Michael Jesserong, then Conrad Crone and finally Phillip Clovinger, who seems to have developed the entire block. This building, along with its neighbors on either side, forms a . . . — Map (db m5299) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — Appleman's Tannery
From 1790 to 1862, Philip Appleman (1755-1830) and his son John (1793-1862) operated a tannery and harness shop on the land that included this property and the four properties to your right, and extended back to South Street (now Washington Street). Several frame & log buildings & livestock pens were located in the valley behind this house. This house was John Appleman's house. Evidence suggests that it was built around 1840. John's son, Dr. Philip Sadler Appleman (1849-1924), became an . . . — Map (db m5312) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — Christ Reformed ChurchJust Before the Battle — Antietam Campaign 1862
Eight thousand Confederates under Gen. Lafayette McLaws marched by this church on September 10-11, 1862, heading south to Harper’s Ferry. Since no Federals were in the area, McLaws expected no encounters with the enemy. Unknown to him, however, Union Gen. George B. McClellan had obtained a copy of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Special Order 191 containing the Confederate plans; soon the rear of McLaw’s column was in danger. Most of McClellan’s Army of the Potomac marched west on the National Road . . . — Map (db m796) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — Clovinger HouseCirca 1800
Presumably built by Philip Clovinger, 10 West Main began as a one-story log dwelling constructed in the early 1800's. In 1821 Thomas Powell, described as Middletown's first blacksmith, acquired the property and improved the building for commercial use. C.F. Main purchased the dwelling house along with 12-14 West Main in 1911. The Main family lived in the house for a short time and the south end room was used for storing ice cream cones. The building contains a variety of late 18th century . . . — Map (db m5300) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — In Commemoration
In Commemoration of that period in Civil War history from September 14, 1862 through January, 1863 when this building was commandeered and used by the United States Federal Government as an army hospital to care for casualties resulting from the Battle of South Mountain September 14, 1862 and the Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 and other skirmishes which took place locally during these battles. Placed in tribute to the hundreds of men who died or were hospitalized within these walls by . . . — Map (db m1869) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — Joshua Beckwith HouseCirca 1867
This property (Lot 11-East Half) and one to the left were one lot when platted in 1768. They were separated in 1866. During the battle of South Mountain in 1862, this site was used to triage casualties for care in the former Wesley Methodist Church, to the right, which served as a field hospital. In 1867 Joshua Beckwith (1818-1910) purchased the lot and built this Greek revival residence. He operated a notions and millinery store on the first floor into the late 1800's. The Double Door . . . — Map (db m68968) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — Middletown“Middle of What?”
Noted for the tall white spire of the Zion Lutheran Church, Middletown has been framed by its picturesque valley for over two centuries. German Protestants, fleeing persecution in Europe, founded the community before the American Revolution. Michael Jesserong, who laid out the town, named it Middletown as he sold four lots to Conrad Crone in 1768. No one is sure what the name means. Perhaps it refers to the community as the center of its own Middletown Valley, midway between South Mountain and . . . — Map (db m415) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — MiddletownUnion Left Flank — Gettysburg Campaign
Late in June 1863, the Union Army of the Potomac pursued Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia as it invaded the North for the second time. The Federal left flank under Gen. John F. Reynolds occupied the Middletown Valley, June 25–27, holding South Mountain passes against a possible Confederate advance. In Burkittsville, III Corps guarded Crampton's Gap, I and XI Corps defended Fox's and Turner's Gaps respectively. On Saturday night, June 27, valley farmers and villagers brought . . . — Map (db m418) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — MiddletownEnemies and Friends — Antietam Campaign 1862
When Gen. Robert E. Lee and part of the Army of Northern Virginia passes through Middletown on September 10–11, 1862, they encountered a chilly reception. The inhabitants of this single-street hamlet on the National Road loved the Union, and the ragged Confederates who marched west through here epitomized what the citizens regarded as a rebellion. Confronted by openly defiant residents, the Confederates considered Middletown the most Union of all places they saw during their first trek to . . . — Map (db m21911) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — MiddletownRansom Demands — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington
(preface) In June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee sent Gen. Jubal A. Early’s corps from Richmond battlefields to the Shenandoah Valley to counter Union Gen. David Hunter’s army. After driving Hunter into West Virginia, Early invaded Maryland to attack Washington, D.C., draw Union troops from Richmond, and release Confederate prisoners held at Point Lookout. On July 9, Early ordered Gen. Bradley T. Johnson’s cavalry brigade eastward to free prisoners. The next day, Johnson sent . . . — Map (db m76668) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — Middletown in the Civil War
September, 1862, soldiers wounded in the Battle of South Mountain were hospitalized in churches here. July 1863, Gen. Meade established headquarters here as Union Forces pursued Confederates retreating from Gettysburg. July, 1864, Confederate Gen. Early occupied Middletown and collected $1,500 ransom. — Map (db m414) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — Reno Monument
Two miles to the southwest stands the monument to Major General Jesse L. Reno who was mortally wounded at the close of the fighting for Fox’s Gap in the Battle of South Mountain, September 14, 1862. — Map (db m5412) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — The Arnett Building
In the 1890's Mr. Ezra Minnick, a Well-known county magistrate, operated a little store at this location. In 1917 Mr. Ola E. Fink bought the property and built the present red brick structure where he owned and operated a general store. Sometime in the 1930's, the Gladhill furniture company used the commercial space as their retail showroom. Then in the 1950's the "American Store" (Acme) occupied this site. Later in 1978 Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Arnett purchased the building and operated a grocery store for many years. — Map (db m71455) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — The Coblentz-Long BuildingCirca 1800
Given its location, the Coblentz-Long Building has associations with the growth and development of the National Pike and with the Civil War. In 1768 Conrad Crone platted the lots of the entire block 2-14 West Main, known as Smithfield, which were not part of the original 28 lots of Middletown. The building is named on behalf of the two families that owned it for the longest period of time. The Coblentz family acquired the property in 1907 and added the commercial storefronts. In 1963 the Long . . . — Map (db m5297) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Middletown — Woodmere
This is the entrance to the 133.45 acre John Routzahn farm, established in 1866, known as Woodmere and located on the north and south sides of the Old National Pike. The brick manor house at 400 East Main Street was the original farm house built by Herman L. Routzahn in 1883. As noted in the pictures, the farm consisted of a two and a half story, seven room frame tenant house, bank barn, and wagon shed. Also on the property was a dairy house and other outbuildings. — Map (db m5311) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Myersville — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South Mountain . . . — Map (db m5923) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Myersville — Gettysburg CampaignInvasion & Retreat
After stunning victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, Virginia, early in May 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee carried the war through Maryland, across the Mason and Dixon Line and into Pennsylvania. His infantry marched north through the Shenandoah Valley and western Maryland as his cavalry, led by Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, harassed Union supply lines to the east. Union Gen. Joseph Hooker, replaced on June 28 by Gen. George G. Meade, led the Army of the Potomac from the Washington . . . — Map (db m5922) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Myersville — The National RoadThe Road that Built the Nation
“. . . so many happy people, restless in the midst of abundance.” —Alexis de Tocqueville, 1840. Americans are an adventurous people. From past to present, they have used feet, horses, wagons, stagecoaches, canals, railroads, bicycles, automobiles, trucks and buses to “perpetually change their plans and abodes.” Centuries ago, George Washington dreamed of a highway joining east and west. In 1806, Thomas Jefferson made that roadway a . . . — Map (db m5921) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), New Market — Mile Stones of the old National Pike
Looking more like an ancient tombstone, the stone marker at the bottom of the hill before you, tucked inside the guardrail, was once used to denote mileage to Baltimore along the Baltimore and Frederick-Town Turnpike, also known as the old National Pike. Long before automobiles sped along this corridor and synthetic materials were used for highway signs, mileage signs were literally carved in stone! Although it has worn away over time, handchiseled letters and numbers once read 35 M To B, . . . — Map (db m5404) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), New Market — New MarketRoads to Gettysburg
Gettysburg Campaign Late in June 1863, the Union Army of the Potomac pursued Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia as it invaded the North less than a year after the Antietam Campaign. On Monday, June 29, the Federal corps marched north toward Pennsylvania on parallel roads like the fingers of a glove, after being ordered to stay between Lee and the large Northern cities. Gen. John F. Reynolds led I Corps west of Frederick on Emmitsburg Road (present-day U.S. Rte. 15), while Gen. . . . — Map (db m4008) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), New Market — New MarketA New Town for a New Road
As Fredericktown was born in 1745, German farmers were already hauling their grain to the port of Baltimore. By the 1780s, new communities were springing up along busy wagon routes. Two speculators, Nicholas Hall and William Plummer, competed to sell lots along a strip of road just a one-day wagon trip east of Frederick. When Mr. Hall sold the first nineteen lots on June 1, 1793, the town of New Market was born. New Market was soon a major stop on a public road. After 1805, the “all . . . — Map (db m5746) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), New Market — New Market in the Civil War
This area was patrolled by Confederate troops under the command of Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee at the time of General Robert E. Lee's invasion of Maryland in September 1862. — Map (db m4015) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), New Market — New Market in the Civil War
This area was patrolled by Confederate troops under the command of Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee at the time of General Robert E. Lee's invasion of Maryland in September 1862. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and his Confederate cavalry escaping from Union forces passed through New Market on return from their raid in Pennsylvania. — Map (db m4016) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), New Midway — George Washington
On his way to Philadelphia Friday July 1, 1791 stopped in this building known as Cookerly's Tavern. — Map (db m8645) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Point of Rocks — Battle at Point of Rocks
This [railroad] company was met by the most decided and inveterate opposition, on the part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. Philip E. Thomas, President, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company The proximity of railroad tracks by the canal belies the intense battle over the right-of-way between the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. The idea route west lay on this narrow strip of land between the river and the mountains. Both the canal and the railroad . . . — Map (db m7661) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Point of Rocks — Point of RocksConfederates Capture Train — Gettysburg Campaign
In mid-June 1863, with rumors of a pending reinvasion of Maryland by Confederate forces, most Baltimore and Ohio trains stopped running past here. As tension mounted, the New York Times reported that no trains were departing Baltimore, “except the mail train to Harpers Ferry and the accommodation for Frederick.” In the predawn hours of June 17, Confederate cavalry crossed the Potomac River and attacked Union cavalry at nearby Catoctin Station, while another unit captured a military . . . — Map (db m743) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Point of Rocks — Point of RocksPoint of Rocks During the War
The rail line immediately before you served as an important means of supply and communication during the Civil War (the station, and tracks to Washington, D.C., on the southern or right side of the station were built later). Here at Point of Rocks, formerly Trammelstown, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached the banks of the Potomac River from Baltimore. This narrow strip of bottomland, which allowed passage beyond the Blue Ridge’s Catoctin and South Mountain ranges, had been the subject of a . . . — Map (db m744) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Point of Rocks — Point of Rocks
In 1832, Point of Rocks served as the western terminus for the C&O Canal and the B&O Railroad. This was not deliberate, but the result of competition as the transportation pioneers wrangled in court for rights to the narrow passage between the Potomac River and Catoctin Mountains.

A small village grew here in the early 1830’s which eventually took the name of the nearby geologic landmark. Considerable trade was done with neighbors from across the river in Virginia, desirous to send goods east via the transport lines. — Map (db m59743) HM

Maryland (Frederick County), Rocky Ridge — Old Frederick RoadA Short Night’s Rest
Late in June 1863, the Union Army of the Potomac pursued Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia as it invaded the North for the second time in as many years. On Sunday, June 28, Union Gen. Oliver O. Howard's XI Corps broke camp in the Middletown Valley, crossed the Catoctin Mountain, and bivouacked late in the day at Worman's Mill, two miles beyond Frederick at the junction of the Emmitsburg Turnpike. The men got a short night's rest, and they began marching north in the rain at 4 a.m. . . . — Map (db m3487) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Stronghold — Sugar Loaf Mountain
Has been designated a registered natural landmark under the provisions of the historic sites act of August 21, 1935. This site possesses exceptional value in illustrating the natural history of the United States. — Map (db m55471) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — "Isabella" and Casting ShedCatoctin Iron Furnace
A Village and Its Resources: The quiet village of Catoctin Furnace was a bustling industrial community that began in the 1700’s around the Iron-making complex James Johnson built the first furnace with financial assistance from Thomas Johnson, a governor of Maryland during the Revolutionary War. Attorney Baker Johnson later owned the furnace. This location was chosen because of the availability of natural resources in the area and the relatively poor transportation of that time. No . . . — Map (db m61258) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — A Tradition of ConservationCatoctin Mountain Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior
Many organizations and individuals have played a part in cultivating Catoctin Mountain Park’s legacy of conservation and education. Since the 1930’s thousands of adults and school children have participated in learning-by-doing programs. They have planted trees, built trails, and constructed roads, cabins, picnic areas, and other facilities.

They did this work under auspices of the Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, and Youth Conservation Corps. The League for . . . — Map (db m61237) HM

Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — Catoctin Furnace
An important iron furnace during the revolution owned by Governor Thomas Johnson and his brothers. Furnished 100 tons of shells used at Yorktown. — Map (db m1530) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — Catoctin Iron FurnaceNo Time For War
Gettysburg Campaign When Union Gen. John F. Reynolds’ I Corps marched by here on June 29, 1863, en route to Emmitsburg and soon to Gettysburg, his men were progressing “swimmingly.” The workers of the Catoctin Furnace had little time to notice, since the charcoal furnaces were in full blast. The landscape then looked much different than it does today. The air was filled with smoke and ash and smelled like rotten eggs, while temperatures inside the casting sheds reached upwards . . . — Map (db m1545) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — Catoctin Iron FurnaceOriginal Catoctin Furnace
The original Catoctin Furnace, located nearby on Little Hunting Creek, was in blast by 1776 and delivered 958 ten inch bombshells weighing over 31 tons to Washington’s Continental Army in 1780. A great number were used in the siege of Yorktown a year later.

The Johnson brothers built the furnace. Thomas Johnson later became the first governor of the State of Maryland.

This historic marker is dedicated and presented to the Maryland Park Service by the Sgt. Lawrence Everhart Chapter of . . . — Map (db m61259) HM

Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — Creeger House11 North Church Street
Originally built in the 1820's this house was enlarged and brick cased in 1876 for Col. John R. Rouzer, Civil War hero. Purchased by Edwin Creeger in 1924 and deeded to the Thurmont Historical Society by Mrs. Ethel Creeger in 1990. Recognized in 2008 as a historic landmark by the Thurmont Historical Society. — Map (db m66196) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — Cunningham Fallslocally known as McAfee Falls — Cunningham Falls State Park
Big Hunting Creek begins just west of this spot in a series of seeps and springs atop the Foxville Plateau. The creek flows over the Falls into Hunting Creek Lake (also known as Cunningham Falls Lake) and along MD Route 77. The creek is designated as a Catch-and-Return Trout stream. Eventually, Big Hunting Creek flows into the Monocacy River, then into the Potomac River and finally reaches the Chesapeake Bay.

The McAfee family was one of the original settlers in this area. The federal . . . — Map (db m61244) HM

Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — ThurmontFormerly Mechanicstown — Gettysburg Campaign
On June 29, 1863, Mechanicstown was full of the noise of an army on the move as Union Gen. John F. Reynolds marched I Corps to Emmitsburg. Until then, residents had only heard rumors of the advancing Confederates as nervous farmers hurried horses and personal belongings through town. Now they new the rumors were true. To guard the Federal rear, Gen. John Buford posted his reserve brigade, the First Cavalry Division, under the command of Gen. Wesley Merritt, here in Mchanicstown. After the . . . — Map (db m1540) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — Thurmont Memorial Park
Dedicated to the memory of all the men and women of this community who have served their country. In memory of the unknown veterans who gave their all in the service of their country. Established by the Town of Thurmont with the help of community citizens and local service organizations. This memorial is erected and dedicated to those of Thurmont District who served their country and in honor of those who gave their all for the cause of liberty, justice, democracy. . . . — Map (db m14030) WM
Maryland (Frederick County), Thurmont — To the Unknown DeadCo. D 6th Maryland Infantry
To the Unknown Dead 1861 - 1865 Memorial to J. [James] Edward Heffner Member Co. D 6th Md. Inf. Erected by his wife. — Map (db m14027) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Tuscarora — The Dutchman’s
George Washington on his way to Frederick, August 5, 1785 dined in a building on this site known as The Dutchman's One mile south of here is Noland's Ferry frequently used by Washington on his travels. — Map (db m36841) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Urbana — Dennis Memorial
This boulder, taken from the bed of the improved Rt. 355 (formerly US Rte. 240) previously stood approximately 50 ft to the south at a point where the old Urbana Road/Georgetown Pike (now Araby Church Road) intersects the relocated improved highway. The stone monument and plaques were dedicated on April 30, 1923 to the honor of Col. George R. Dennis, George Washington, and Marquise de Lafayette. The plaque which faced on Maryland 355 had the following inscription: This boulder . . . — Map (db m1245) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Urbana — George Washington
George Washington stopped in a building two hundred yards west of here known as Peter’s Tavern Thursday June 30, 1791. — Map (db m1740) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Urbana — Landon HouseFrom Hospitality to Hospital — Antietam Campaign 1862
Constructed in 1754 on the banks of the Rappahannock River in Virginia, this building was reconstructed here in 1846 and became Landon Female Academy. Early in September 1862, while infantry of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia rested near Frederick, Lee’s cavalry chief Gen. J.E.B. Stuart occupied Urbana to report on any Federal advance from Washington. Having received an enthusiastic welcome from the community, Stuart hosted a dance here at the academy for Confederate cavalrymen . . . — Map (db m1739) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Urbana — UrbanaCapture and Escape — Early's 1864 Attack on Washington
(preface) In June 1864, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and Gen. Jubal A. Early’s corps from the Richmond battlefields to the Shenandoah Valley to counter Union Gen. David Hunter’s army. After driving Hunter into West Virginia, Early invaded Maryland to attack Washington D.C., draw Union troops from Richmond, and release Confederate prisoners held at Point Lookout. On July 9, Early ordered Gen. Bradley T. Johnson’s cavalry brigade eastward to free the prisoners. The next day, Johnson . . . — Map (db m76643) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Walkersville — Israel's CreekMeeting House Cemetery
Internments dating from 1817 Plaque erected 1965 by Glade Valley Grange with cooperation of Methodist Church Walkersville, Maryland — Map (db m8649) HM
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