|Texas (Gillespie County), Doss — 10068 — Lange's Mill|
|Established in 1849 by Doss brothers. Operated 1859-1878 by William F. Lange; 1878-1888 by Julius Lange. Its products were famed throughout the region. One of the last of the old burr mills in Texas; one of few in as perfect a state of preservation. Near by on a cliff are Indian pictographs. — Map (db m91745) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Doss — 12788 — Squaw Creek Primitive Baptist Church|
|Ten charter members constituted Squaw Creek Primitive Baptist Church in 1901, and Elder S.N. Redford served as pastor from 1901 until 1907. Services were held in homes and in the Squaw Creek School until 1911, when members began meeting in the Bethel Missionary Baptist Church building, which they purchased in 1924. New facilities were constructed over time to meet the congregation’s needs. A brush arbor at the rear of the property sheltered meetings of the Friendship Association of Primitive . . . — Map (db m91743) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Doss — 10108 — St. Peter Lutheran Church|
|Organized by German Lutherans in September 1896 under a brush arbor at nearby Lange’s Mill, this church has been part of Gillespie County history for over 100 years. A frame church building erected in 1898 was replaced by this Gothic Revival structure in 1912-1913. Built by church members using native limestone, the building features a central projecting bell tower and pressed metal steeple with cross, stone quoins, and arched Gothic windows.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1988 — Map (db m91744) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — A Lasting Friendship|
|During Fredericksburg’s 150th anniversary, we celebrate the enduring friendship between the Comanche Nation and the people of Gillespie County.
We honor the Comanches who helped to create and preserve this relationship and their descendants who have continued the friendship.
Chiefs Old Owl, Santana, Ketemoczy, Buffalo Hump and Horseback, who were among about 20 chiefs present in 1847 at the San Saba River Peacy Treaty Summit and at the Fredericksburg Treaty signing with John O. . . . — Map (db m94228) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10011 — Bethany Lutheran Church|
| Early settlers in Fredericksburg worshiped together in a community church, the Vereins Kirche. On March 27, 1887, the Rev. John Heinzelmann and about 80 families organized a separate congregation known as Die Evangelische Kirche (The Evangelical church). Early worship services were conducted in the Vereins Kirche and later in the Southern (First) Methodist Church. By 1889 the members were able to build their own sanctuary at 107 E. Austin Street. A cornerstone-laying . . . — Map (db m35863) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10090 — Birthplace of Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, USN|
|Typical early Fredericksburg home built 1866 by Carl Basse. Property of the Henke family since 1873. Heinrich Henke, early settler, Confederate freighter, had butcher counter on front porch; meat processing was done in back yard; there the horses that pulled meat vending car were stabled. Shop later built on foundation of stone walls surrounding lot.
He and his wife Dorothea (nee Weirich) added the long dining room and kitchen with sloped roof to accommodate their twelve children. Many . . . — Map (db m94092) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10017 — Cherry Spring Schoolhouse|
|School classes for the children of German immigrants in the Cherry Spring community were held in homes until 1885, when this limestone schoolhouse was completed on land donated by H. Bratherich. On dedication day, students formed a parade to the new building. The Cherry Spring schoolhouse served the nearby residents until 1962, when it was consolidated with Fredericksburg. Today it is a landmark of early education in Gillespie County.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1988 — Map (db m91632) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10018 — Christ Evangelical Lutheran Church|
|German Lutherans in the community of Cherry Spring began meeting together for worship in the 1850s. Diedrich Rode (1828-1925), a licensed lay minister, provided space in his home for worship services and Sunday school. Christ Church congregation was officially organized in 1905. John and Mary Rode Wendel gave land for a church building in December 1905, and a rock sanctuary was completed in 1906. Services were conducted in the German language until 1922, when occasional English services were . . . — Map (db m91642) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10021 — County Jail of 1885|
|This two-story stone structure served as the fourth jail for Gillespie County, organized in 1848. It was constructed by the firm of C.F. Priess and Bro. in 1885. The ground floor housed a holding area and living quarters for the jailer. The second floor had two steelclad cells located against the east wall and maximum security cells in the center and at the back. The building was used as a county jail facility until 1939.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1980 — Map (db m94291) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10022 — Crabapple School|
|German immigrants who came to Fredericksburg in the late 1840s and who later settled in this area erected a native limestone school which opened in 1878 with about 40 students. The land was donated by farmer Mathias Schmidt who according to local tradition earned the privilege by winning a foot race. Facilities added over the years include a teacherage and space for a post office, Lutheran church, and community band. Crabapple school merged with Fredericksburg’s independent school district in . . . — Map (db m91631) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10025 — Cross Mountain|
|This marl and limestone hill, elevation 1,915 feet, was an Indian signal point, advancing news of the intrusions of white settlers. The hill was first recorded and described by the German geologist, Dr. Ferdinand Roemer in 1847. A timber cross found on the hilltop the same year suggests that Spanish missionaries recognized it as a landmark on the path from San Antonio to Mission San Saba. John Christian Durst (1825-1898), arriving with his family in 1847 from Germany, received a town lot and 10 . . . — Map (db m71921) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10104 — Diedrich Rode Complex|
|This group of building was constructed by German native Diedrich Rode (1828-1905). The three-story limestone residence was completed in 1880 and featured a third floor storage area for wool and cotton produced on the land. A Lutheran, Rode served as an early minister and held services in the betkapelle, a prayer chapel on the east side of the second floor. In addition to his ranching, he also taught school. A landmark in the Cherry Spring community, the homesite was sold to Willie Kothe in . . . — Map (db m91644) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10029 — Domino Parlor|
|The original part of this stone structure containing a cellar with a vault ceiling, was built in the early 1850s on property owned by John Schmidtzinsky, a pioneer area settler. Once used as a pharmacy, it housed H. R. Richter's Jewelry store in the early 1900s. Richter also sold musical instruments, and the front room was used for concerts. His family lived in the rear section of the building. In recent years a cafe and a domino parlor have been located here.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1980 — Map (db m61849) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Early History of Fredericksburg, Texas|
Fredericksburg, the county seat of Gillespie County, is steeped in history.
Deriving its name from Prince Frederick of Prussia, this Texas town was founded on May 8, 1846, by 120 German immigrants under the auspices of the Society for the Protection of German Immigrants in Texas or “Adelsverein.”
The Vereins Kirche, the first public building in frontier Fredericksburg, was constructed in the summer of 1847 and served as a church of all faiths, a . . . — Map (db m94093) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Fairwater of USS Pintado (SS-387) — [National Museum of the Pacific War]|
| Pintado made six war patrols in enemy waters, during which she disposed of five naval vessels and ten merchantmen of the Empire of Japan, sunk or otherwise disabled, totaling 132,900 tons of enemy shipping. During her fifth patrol, she rescued all twelve crew members of the B-29 “City of Galveston.”
Pintado was awarded two Presidential Unit Citations for extraordinary heroism during her first three patrols, the Submarine Combat Patrol Insignia with three stars, and . . . — Map (db m42424) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Frank Valentin Van Der Stucken — (1858 - 1929)|
... was born in Fredericksburg, Texas on October 16, 1858. Anxiety about the Civil War caused the family to return to their native city of Antwerp, Belgium. There young Frank studied music under masters and made his first public debut of his own compositions at age 16.
In 1883 Franz Liszt sponsored a special concert of Van Der Stucken’s works in the famous Ducal Theater of Weimar, Germany. Van Der Stucken returned to America in 1884 as director of the Arion Society Chorus of New . . . — Map (db m94229) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10044 — Gillespie County|
The trails of roving Indians
crossed these hills
Settled by German pioneers
A group of Mormons settled
at Zodiac in 1847.
Created February 23, 1848
Organized June 5, 1848
Named for Richard Addison Gillespie
A Texan from 1837
A defender of the Texas frontier
Captain n the Mexican War
who fell at Monterrey,
September 22, 1846.
Fredericksburg, the county seat — Map (db m94337) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Gillespie County Armed Services Memorial|
“I bore you on eagle wings and brought you unto myself”
Dedicated to all Gillespie County citizens who gave their life in the armed services of our country
World War I
Louis J. Jordan • Henry Koch • Edward H. Klaerner • Eddie Kaiser • Alfred J. Schault • Edmund Brinkhoff • Henry Schneider • Nolan W. Tobin • Pagett McBeth • Hugh Leslie • Edwin A. Schmidt • Emil G.A. Beyer • William H. Enderlin • Max Ahrens • Edwin Tatsch
World War II
Chester E. Evens . . . — Map (db m94230) WM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Gillespie County Country Schools 1846 to 1970's — Gillespie County Country Schools Trail|
|From 1846 to the 1970’s, forty-four school districts served the educational needs of the children of Gillespie County. This marker honors the history of public education in Gillespie County and the Vereins Kirche, the first public school established in 1847 by the Adelsverein. Johann Leyendecker served as the first teacher.
The German heritage of the settlers placed great emphasis on public education even during the difficult early years of settlement. In 1858, five free public school . . . — Map (db m94226) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10056 — Holy Ghost (Heilige Geist) Evangelical Protestant Church|
|This congregation traces its origins to the first Protestant services held in Fredericksburg by the Rev. Henry Basse in 1846. Members worshiped at the old Vereins Kirche until 1888 when Carl Priess gave this lot for a new building. The first portion of the structure was dedicated in 1893. The tower houses an original bell from the Vereins Kirche. In 1948-49 the building was remodeled and enlarged, and the congregation became Holy Ghost Lutheran Church.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1981 — Map (db m94293) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Jacob Brodbeck — Father of U.S. Aviation — 1821 - 1910|
|Born and educated in Plattenhardt, Germany. Came to Texas in 1846 and settled in Gillespie County. He became the second school teacher of the Vereins Kirche. He was also involved in the development of Gillespie County by serving as county surveyor, county commissioner, school inspector, organized several schools where he also taught school plus was a music teacher.
In his spare time he worked on his dream of an airship, which he invented and flew on Sept. 20, 1865 on a meadow north of San . . . — Map (db m94227) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10084 — John O. Meusebach — (1812 - 1897)|
|To be a Texan, Meusebach gave up title of baron in 1845. As commissioner-general, German-Emigration Company, he founded Fredericksburg in 1846 as gateway to Fisher-Miller land grant, hunting ground of the Comanche. By emptying his firearms, he won trust of Indians and made treaty to provide for unmolested settlement. Indians called him “El Sol Colorado” (The Red Sun).
State senator, 1851. In 1854 issued colonists’ headrights.
To his family motto, he added “Texas . . . — Map (db m91648) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Lasting Friendship — by J. Hester — Pioneer Garden|
| John O. Meusebach, German settler and founder of Fredericksburg, and Penatuka Comanche chief, Santanna share a peace pipe on May 7, 1847, at the signing of the treaty between the People of Fredericksburg and the Comanche Nation. The standing Comanche represents more than twenty other chiefs also participating in the treaty. This treaty is the only known peace treaty with Native Americans in United States history thought never to be broken. The spirit of this treaty continues in Fredericksburg . . . — Map (db m35884) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Lt. Col. Jack K. Lee Fallen Hero’s Memorial|
Lt. Col. Jack K. Lee
Fallen Hero’s Memorial
U.S. Air Force
Nov. 16, 1924 - Aug. 5, 2004
WWII - Korea - Viet Nam
For God and Country
Capt. Andrew R. Houghton
A Troop, 3rd Plt., 1st Sqd., 4th U.S. Cav.,
1st Inf. Div., U.S. Army
USMA Class of 2001
Sept. 26, 1978 - Aug. 9, 2004
Operation Iraqi Freedom
1st Lt. Phillip I. Neel
2nd Plt., A Co., 3rd Bat., 8th Cav. Reg.
1st Cav. Div., U.S. Army
USMA Class of 2005
Nov. 27, 1979 - April 8, 2007
Kosovo - . . . — Map (db m94094) WM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Main Mast from Destroyer USS Foote (DD-511)|
|The main mast of the USS Foote (DD-511) mounts the SC-1 air and surface search radar known as the “bedspring”.
USS Foote (DD-511), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for Rear Admiral Andrew Hull Foote (1806-1863), who served during the Civil War.
Foote was launched on 11 October 1942 by Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; sponsored by Mrs. J.C. Aspinwall, granddaughter of Admiral Foote; and commissioned 22 December 1942, . . . — Map (db m94294) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10079 — Market Square (Marktplatz)|
| This Square, originally a two-block area which included what is now called the Courthouse Square, has been at the center of Fredericksburg since the city's founding in 1846. The area was still heavily forested when the town's Vereins Kirche was built in the center of Main street in 1847. The octagonal building served as a community church, meeting place, school, and refuge from possible Indian attacks. A county jail was built on the Square in 1852. In 1856 a public schoolhouse was . . . — Map (db m35862) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10087 — Mosel-Jorden-Duecker Haus|
|Johann Nicholas Mosel (1839-1904) was granted a 100’ x 200’ lot in Fredericksburg by the German Emigration Company in 1847. Here he built a rough limestone structure (now the northeast rooms), which might have served later as a Sunday house when he moved to an outlying farm (4 mi. W). German immigrant August William Jordan (d. 1898) bought the house in 1860. His sons sold it as a Sunday house to Henry Duecker (d. 1950), who added the frame additions in 1924.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1986 — Map (db m94292) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10089 — Nimitz Hotel — [National Museum of the Pacific War]|
| This property was purchased by Charles Henry Nimitz, Sr., in 1855. By 1860 the Nimitz Hotel was established, hosting frontier travelers and providing a home for the large Nimitz family. Expanded in the 1870s to feature a steamboat shaped facade, the hotel was a center for community activities. It was sold by the family in 1926 and underwent major alterations. In 1964 it became a museum honoring Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz and those who served with him in World War II. The steamboat facade was later rebuilt and remains a local landmark. — Map (db m42425) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10016 — Old Cherry Spring School — Das Alte Schulhaus|
|The Cherry Spring community was founded by German immigrants about 1850. Classes for schoolchildren were held in private homes. In 1859 German nobleman Wilhelm Marschall von Bieberstein deeded ten acres of land to L. Schneider, H. Bradhering, W. Kothe, C. Ahrens, C. Kothe, and F. Doering for construction of a schoolhouse. Classes were held n the original part of this building from 1860 through 1878. The schoolhouse was later used for church services and was the site of the formal organization of Christ Lutheran Church in 1905. — Map (db m91645) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10045 — Old Gillespie County Courthouse|
|Erected 1881-1882 in term of County Judge Wm. Wahrmund and Commissioners J. Dechert, F. Kneese, J. Larson and J.P. Mosel. Architect was Alfred Giles.
Native limestone structure is distinctive in fine balance and symmetry. Second courthouse built in county; used until 1939.
Restoration and conversion to library - community hall is gift of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene McDermott.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1967 — Map (db m94289) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — Otfrid Hans Freiherr von Meusebach — [In memory of]|
| Born at Dillenburg, Nassau, Germany
May 26, 1812.
Commissioner-General of the Society for
the Protection of German Immigrants in Texas
who became a citizen of the Republic of Texas
under the name of John O. Meusebach.
Founder of Fredericksburg on May 8, 1846.
On March 1-2, 1847, he negotiated with 20 Comanche chiefs
a treaty of peace which protected the German frontier
settlements from Indian raids.
State senator in 1851.
Appointed commissioner for the "Colony of . . . — Map (db m35893) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10096 — Pinta Trail|
|Origin of the Pinta Trail is attributed to nomadic Plains Indian tribes. Early Spanish and Mexican expeditions followed the general route of the trail, which extended from San Antonio de Bexar to the San Saba River near present Menard. A survey by German immigrants in 1845 provided a wagon road over part of the trail, and, after the discovery of gold in California in 1849, the trail was utilized by U.S. Military companies seeking new routes to the western states. Use of the trail declined with . . . — Map (db m69238) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10110 — Pioneer Schandua House|
|Built before 1880, this house was purchased by John Schandua, a local merchant, shortly after his marriage to Bertha (Klein) in 1883. The front room, called "die stube", served as a bedroom and living area. The back room was used as a bedroom for their children. Gingerbread woodwork accents the posts on the front porch. The residence was used for a short time as a Sunday school building for the Bethany Lutheran Church.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1979 — Map (db m88111) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10039 — Site of Fort Martin Scott|
| Established by the United States Army
December 5, 1848
as a protection to travelers and
settlers against Indian attack.
Named in honor of Major Martin Scott,
Brevet Lieutenant Colonel,
5th United States Infantry,
killed at Molino del Rey,
September 8, 1847.
Its garrison participated in many
Occupied intermittently after 1852,
held by the Confederates, 1861-1865,
permanently abandoned in December, 1866.
Erected by the State of Texas . . . — Map (db m35905) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10106 — St. John's Lutheran Church|
|Pioneer families of Crabapple organized this church in the 1880s. Members met in a school building before erecting this sanctuary in 1897. Elder Julius Rusche supervised the design, carpentry, and native limestone masonry construction. An excellent example of Vernacular architecture with slight Gothic influences, it features a massive stone foundation, double door entry, and 4/4 wood windows with stone lintels and sills. Services were discontinued in 1962.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1994 — Map (db m91630) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10033 — The Easter Fires|
|Blazing on the hills around Fredericksburg each Easter eve, combined with a local pageant these fires recall an old tale.
In March 1847, when Comanches and whites signed a major peace treaty, the Indians lighted huge signal fires on these hills.
To calm her children's fears, one mother—recalling Easter fires in her native Germany—told them the smoke came from pots in which the Easter Bunny was dyeing eggs with flowers. As the tale spread and pioneers kindled the fires in . . . — Map (db m88112) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10048 — The Grapetown School|
|In 1882, Frederick Baag donated this tract of land for the third Grapetown schoolhouse. Completed in 1884, the structure was built with labor and materials donated by the community. All seven grades were taught by one teacher. In 1905, the facility became a county school known as Grapetown Line School, District No. 14. In 1949, the schoolhouse was closed as the district was consolidated with surrounding community schools. A total of 28 teachers taught here.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1984 — Map (db m71924) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10080 — The Marschall - Meusebach Cemetery|
|Members of the families of two former German noblemen, related by marriage, are buried in this cemetery. John O. Meusebach (1812-97), who came to the Republic of Texas in 1845 as leader of the German Emigration Company, established (1846) the town of Fredericksburg and signed (1847) an historic peace treaty with the Comanche Indians. Wilhelm Marschall von Bieberstein (1822-1902) settled in this community in 1848. First burial here was that of Marschall’s sister-in-law, Mathilda Weiss (1824-1891). — Map (db m91647) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10082 — The Meinhardt-Pfeil Home|
|The original section of this two-story limestone residence was constructed about 1850 by pioneer area settlers Albert and Doris Meinhardt. A widow in 1879, Doris sold the property to her former son-in-law G. Adolph Pfeil (d. 1926), a local cotton gin owner. He converted part of the living area for use as a blacksmith shop and later opened a soda water factory here. The house remained in the Pfeil family until 1939.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1980 — Map (db m94290) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10109 — The Schandua Building|
|Erected in 1897 of hand-hewn limestone, this structure was the home of John (d. 1900) and Bertha (Klein) Schandua (d. 1943). They lived upstairs with their children and John's hardware store was downstairs. For a time, the Masonic Lodge met upstairs in exchange for some construction costs. After John died his brother Henry married Bertha, enlarged the building, and continued the hardware business on the first floor. Hardware businesses were operated here until 1972.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1979 — Map (db m88109) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10123 — Vereins Kirche|
| [Seal of the Texas State Historical Survey Committee] [Panel 1:] Church for all denominations, school and community hall. Built, summer 1847, after the Comanche peace treaty made by John O. Meusebach, Commissioner, German Emigration Company. Located in Main Street between Courthouse and Market Square of early Fredericksburg. Razed after the celebration of fiftieth anniversary of the arrival of first settlers, 1896. Replica, first used as museum and library, constructed 1934-35. . . . — Map (db m35864) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Fredericksburg — 10127 — Walch Home|
|In 1845, Johan (John) Joseph Walch (1828-1914) migrated to Texas from Germany. In 1847 he settled in Fredericksburg, where he worked as a stonemason. Before Walch married Wilhelmine Gaertner in 1851, he erected a two-room limestone house on this lot. He also built a rock barn, which he later enlarged by adding a second story. One of the Walches' eleven children, Felix, remodeled the barn for use as a residence in 1904. — Map (db m33045) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Harper — 10077 — Site of the McDonald Massacre|
|Pioneer preacher Matthew Taylor and the families of his daughter and two sons moved here in 1863 from their homestead on the Llano River. They built a cabin on this site near the source of the Pedernales River. In August 1864, Matthew and his son Jim returned to the Llano for a load of hay, leaving in charge Eli McDonald, husband of Matthew's daughter Caroline.
On August 8, 1864, at a nearby spring, Jim Taylor's wife Gill was surprised by a band of Kiowas and wounded by an arrow. Before . . . — Map (db m59741) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Luckenbach — 10074 — Luckenbach|
|Members of the Luckenbach family and other German immigrants moved here from Fredericksburg in the 1850s. They settled along Grape Creek and soon established a school for their children. The Grape Creek Post Office was in operation briefly after 1858 with William Luckenbach as first Postmaster. Later settlers included August Engel, who served as first Postmaster when the Post Office was reestablished here in 1886 under the name of Luckenbach. John Russell ‘Hondo’ Crouch and others bought the . . . — Map (db m4654) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — "Mr. Jelly Bean" — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|Beyond the Pedernales is Stonewall’s Project Head Start building—a symbol of one of President Johnson’s enduring legacies to the American people. President Johnson initiated the Head Start program in 1965; it was one of many programs that transformed the American educational system during the 1960s. Mrs. Johnson was national chairperson for this initiative. After his retirement, President Johnson occasionally visited the Head Start program here in Stonewall. He often gave candy to the . . . — Map (db m91184) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — A Grand Entrance — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|For many years this low-water crossing served as the primary access to the LBJ Ranch; for non-Texans, it served as a dramatic entry into Lyndon Johnson’s world.
Constructed in 1951, the dam and crossing were the first improvements Lyndon Johnson made to the ranch after purchasing the property. He knew that water was the key to running a successful ranching operation in the Hill Country, though there was often not enough and sometimes, all at once, too much. To remedy this, Johnson hired . . . — Map (db m91131) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — A More Perfect Society — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
It is a Society where no child will go unfed, and no youngster will go unschooled .... Where no citizen will be barred from any door because of his birthplace or his color .... Where peace and security is common among neighbors and possible among nations.
Ohio University, May 1964
Lyndon Johnson’s vision of a Great Society was cast in his hometown communities of Stonewall and Johnson City, Texas. The Hill Country of his youth, although a place of rural . . . — Map (db m91183) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — A River Runs Through — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
I first remember walking along the banks of the Pedernales when I was a boy four or five years of age.
Lyndon Baines Johnson
The Pedernales River carves out the landscape of the Texas Hill Country, stretching 106 miles from Harper to the Colorado River. Cattle ranchers, American Indians, and German settlers have all traversed its banks. Lyndon Johnson was among those with a connection to the river: “Here is where I would always return, to the Pedernales River, the . . . — Map (db m91182) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Aviation: Key to the Texas White House — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|In 1951, Senator Lyndon Johnson purchased 240 acres from his Aunt Frank Martin. Beginning with this core property, he set out to establish a home base where he could continue his work away from Washington.
To improve access to the ranch, a 3000 foot grass landing strip was added in 1953. By the time Lyndon Johnson became president a series of improvements had resulted in a 6300 foot asphalt airstrip that was suitable for a variety of aircraft. The fast and efficient JetStar allowed Johnson . . . — Map (db m91282) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Bringing Washington Home — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|Imagine a plane roaring onto a newly constructed 3,000 foot grass airstrip. It’s 1953, and Senator Lyndon Johnson has arrived at the LBJ Ranch. Initially built to improve access to the Ranch during floods, the small airstrip soon proves inadequate for Johnson’s rising political aspirations. Within eight years it is lengthened to 6,300 feet to accommodate the increasing number and size of aircraft.
Throughout Johnson’s political career the Ranch was a magnet for politicians, businessmen, . . . — Map (db m91268) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Communicating with the World — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|The LBJ Ranch had but a single telephone line when Lyndon Johnson purchased the property in 1951. By the time he became vice president in 1960 the array of technology had grown to 15 local and long-distance phone lines as well as a fifty-foot-tall antenna to supply reception for three televisions—one for each network.
Despite these upgrades, Johnson’s rise to the presidency in November 1963 demanded a modern system allowing secure communications throughout the United States and the . . . — Map (db m91283) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Conserving the Landscape — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|To a Texas rancher like Lyndon Johnson, conservation meant getting the most from the soil, water, and grass. The landscape before you reflects some of President Johnson’s conservation efforts. These upper fields are terraced to control erosion and contoured to channel water into tanks (ponds). The grasses used here were, and are, genetically improved—tailored especially to this climate to provide maximum nutrition.
With diligent watering, fertilizing, and cattle rotation, these . . . — Map (db m91234) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Education for All — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
Sitting at a table on this site on April 11, 1965, President Johnson signed the landmark Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. “As a former teacher,” the president said, “I have great expectations of what this law will mean for all of our young people.”
Kate Deadrich Loney, President Johnson’s first teacher, flew from California to witness the bill-signing beside her former student. — Map (db m91135) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Farm History|
1900 - 1920
The Dawn of a New Century
The years following the turn of the century heralded sweeping changes in agriculture throughout Texas and the nation. Advances in technology led to improved irrigation and farming methods and the expanding network of railroad lines increased the availability of all types of products.
Experimental breeding programs brought new plant varieties and livestock strains designed to increase productivity, quality, and . . . — Map (db m91053) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Friendship Stones — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|For Lyndon Johnson, a traditional guest register was not enough. To commemorate the visits of dignitaries and friends to the Ranch, the Johnsons used “Friendship Stones.” Visitors etched their autographs and the date of their visit into twelve-inch blocks of wet concrete. The Johnsons incorporated the finished stones into the landscape as pavers for walkways and sidewalks.
More than 300 Johnson guests signed stones. To protect them from the weather, the stones have been removed . . . — Map (db m91314) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Generations of Johnsons — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
Here on these familiar hills under these expansive skies and under these oak trees that he loved so much, his life has come full circle ...
his roots go deep here on this spot in the hill country.
From the eulogy delivered here by the
Reverend Billy Graham
January 25, 1973
(Headstones from left to right)
Birge Alexander • Lucia Huffman Johnson Alexander • Sam Houston Johnson • Josefa Johnson Moss • Oscar Price Bobbitt • Rebekah Johnson Bobbitt • Claudia Taylor . . . — Map (db m91149) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Housing the World — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|The welcome mat at the Johnson home read, “All the World is Welcome here.” But as the house became an alternate White House it soon became clear there was not enough room. Describing the steady stream of visitors in her home, Lady Bird Johnson exclaimed, “These old walls are bursting at the seams!”
Other houses on the ranch were soon pressed into service. Here visitors learned there was a world beyond the Potomac where cattle still roamed, and rivers flowed steadily . . . — Map (db m91206) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — LBJ – The Image — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|From his childhood and throughout his political career, Lyndon Johnson drew from his western heritage. The grandson of a Chisholm Trail cattle drover never forgot that “can do” spirit of the cowboy way. The LBJ Ranch was the best place for national and world leaders, celebrities, and respected journalists to encounter the real LBJ—a progressive Westerner in a big hat, with big dreams and big goals, under a big sky.
(Lower Left Photos Caption)
Lyndon Johnson grew . . . — Map (db m91272) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Lifetime of Service — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|The Secret Service had a presence in the Johnson family for forty-six years beginning on January 20, 1961 when Lyndon Johnson was inaugurated as vice president. Over that lifetime of service, agents witnessed many events, both in Washington and Texas.
One critical event, the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, launched Lyndon Johnson’s presidency. During the next five years the Secret Service protected President Johnson round-the-clock from protestors, riots, . . . — Map (db m91316) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Longhorn Cattle and White-Tail Deer|
Why do we keep these animals in this enclosure?
A small herd of Longhorns and White-tail deer are kept in this pasture so our visitors can view these prominent icons of Texas.
“Someone has said that civilization follows the plow. West of the Missouri, the plow followed the cowboy, and the cowboy followed the Longhorn from Texas ...”
J. Frank Dobie
Spanish Retinto (Criollo) cattle started arriving in Texas by the 1520's by . . . — Map (db m91014) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Low Water Crossing — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|For many years this low-water crossing served as the primary access to the LBJ Ranch; for non-Texans, it served as a dramatic entry into LBJ’s world. The construction of this dam and crossing was the first improvement made to the ranch by Lyndon Johnson after he purchased it in 1951. In times of high water, the Johnsons had to fly out or go out the back of the ranch. The first bridge over this stretch of the Pedernales was not built until 1968.
Behind you is the East Gate to the . . . — Map (db m91317) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — 10073 — Lower South Grape Creek School|
|Area settlers built a log schoolhouse 1.5 miles south of here in 1871 along South Grape Creek. It was part of Luckenbach School Precinct No. 3 until 1889, when it was renamed Lower South Grape Creek and began to serve as District No. 21. The log schoolhouse was replaced with this structure in 1901. It is typical of early 1900s rural school buildings found in Texas' Hill Country. The stuccoed limestone building features an open plan and bell tower with a pyramidal roof. The school closed in 1960 . . . — Map (db m88113) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — 10063 — Lyndon Baines Johnson — The 36th President of the United States of America|
As a 12-year-old student attended classes of the 8th grade here at the old Stonewall school from October 1920 to June 1921. — Map (db m90992) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — 10091 — Major Israel M. Nunez — (1841 - 1906)|
Civil War veteran and stage line operator who in 1870 founded Stonewall, naming it for Confederate General “Stonewall” Jackson.
Major Nunez, who lived 2 miles south of town and had a family of 9 children, donated land in 1886 for Stonewall School No. 18. — Map (db m90990) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — President's Ranch Trail|
|Originally the Camp Swift Post Office, this building was purchased from the United States government, rebuilt by the citizens of Stonewall and dedicated as a gymnasium on May 1, 1949.
While continuing to serve the community, an international dimension was added to the history of the building when, on December 29, 1963, Chancellor Ludwig Erhard of West Germany and United States Secretary of State Dean Rusk attended a Texas-style barbecue here as guests of President Lyndon Baines Johnson, former Stonewall student. — Map (db m90993) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Sam Ealy Johnson, Sr., House — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|The scene was a common one: young Lyndon Johnson, only a few years old, toddling down the road to visit his grandparents in this house. Here he found a ready supply of apples, candy, and affection. The future president felt a powerful attraction to his paternal grandparents, Sam Johnson, Sr., and Eliza Bunton Johnson; he would always identify himself with the frontier struggles they had endured.
Sam and Eliza Johnson were among the first and most successful of hill country cattle drovers, . . . — Map (db m91208) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Sauer-Beckmann Living History Farm — Step back in time ... to experience German Texan farm life from 1915 to 1918|
|Here, costumed interpreters carry out the day-to-day activities of a turn-of-the-century German-Texas farm family. You might spot them plowing the garden with a team of horses, or watch them tend the farm animals. Daily chores include milking, gathering eggs and slopping the hogs. Household duties include cooking, scrubbing the floors with homemade lye soap, canning, churning butter and making cheese.
Johann and Christine Sauer and their four children settled this land in 1869. By 1885, . . . — Map (db m91055) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — 10071 — Site of the Andreas Lindig Lime Kiln|
|First kiln, eastern Gillespie County. Built 1874 by Andreas Lindig, trained in his native Germany in quicklime making. On his homestead, he found rock to be hauled to this site by ox-wagon, using 7 loads of rock for each “batch” of lime. Post oak wood, burned in a cooking bed, produced high heat which produced the lime. Besides that for his own use, he made lime commercially for neighbors.
Lindig’s home (built 1874, about .5 mi. s) shows endurance of cement made from his . . . — Map (db m90811) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — 12866 — Stonewall Community Cemetery|
|This cemetery originally served the settlement of Millville, laid out by Israel Nuñez, who operated a stage stop in the vicinity after the Civil War. Although he set aside land for the cemetery, it was not formally deeded until 1934 by J.O. Walker. The earliest marked gravesite is that of William Jacobs (d. 1879). The settlement of Millville became Stonewall in 1875, and the cemetery remained in active use until 1939. Burials resumed in 1966, and a cemetery association formed three years later. . . . — Map (db m90989) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — The Environmental First Lady — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|Lady Bird Johnson’s environmental ethic spanned her entire lifetime of 94 years. A child of East Texas, she spent many of her days outdoors. The sense of place that came from being close to the land never left her. She would eventually carry that with her to the White House.
The Beautification Act of 1965, known as “Lady Bird’s Bill,” is the most well-known result of her tireless work. Often associated only with wildflowers, Lady Bird Johnson emphasized that . . . — Map (db m91236) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — The Environmental President — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|Growing up in the scenic Texas Hill Country, Lyndon Johnson developed a deep appreciation and respect for the land. As part of his dream for a “Great Society” he felt a responsibility to protect the natural heritage of the United States. During his administration President Johnson signed over 300 conservation measures into law, forming the basis of the modern environmental movement.
Included among the legislation were bills to ensure clean air and protect water quality. Laws . . . — Map (db m91235) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — The Jet Age Arrives! — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|In October 1961 the United States Air Force replaced twin engine, propeller driven aircraft with the four engine Lockheed JetStar for executive transport.
Lyndon Johnson was the first Vice President to have an aircraft assigned to him. His choice was the Lockheed JetStar C-140B (VC).
As President he continued to use the JetStar for travel to and from his ranch. He jokingly referred to the plane as Air Force One Half, although it did bear the call sign Air Force One. — Map (db m91281) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — The Junction School — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|Lyndon Baines Johnson first came to this school as a four-year-old in knee breeches and a collar. Here, surrounded by 30 students spanning seven grades, he received his first formal education. The future president attended the Junction School for just a few months. But for him, its crowded classroom, simple style, and sparse supplies always symbolized the hardships of education in America.
A half century after leaving, Johnson returned. With his first teacher, Miss Kate Deadrich, at his . . . — Map (db m91132) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — The LBJ Ranch: A Living Legend — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
It was important that the Ranch continue to thrive as a working ranch, not become a sterile relic of the past.
Lady Bird Johnson, 1998
The LBJ Ranch was suddenly thrust upon the world stage when Lyndon Johnson assumed the presidency following the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Relatively unknown to the nation before November 1963, the Johnson family’s Hill Country retreat became the second most significant location in the country after the White House.
President . . . — Map (db m91271) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — The Reconstructed Birthplace — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
“I have a mighty fine grandson, smart as you find them. I expect him to be United States Senator before he is forty.”
Grandfather Sam Ealy Johnson, Sr., on young Lyndon Johnson
On this site on a rainy August night in 1908, the future 36th President of the United States was born. He was the first son of Sam Ealy Johnson, Jr.—a state legislator—and Rebekah Baines Johnson, an educator and journalist. Lyndon Baines Johnson lived here for the first five . . . — Map (db m91148) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — The Show Barn — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|Although ranching produced just a fraction of the Johnson’s income, it constituted a major portion of the President’s public identity. The Johnsons maintained two herds of cattle on the LBJ Ranch—one of them a commercial herd sold for beef, the other a herd of about 500 registered Herefords, sold for breeding purposes. The registered Herefords on the ranch today are descendants of the animals owned by President Johnson.
The show barn was the center of the ranching operation, where . . . — Map (db m91270) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — The Texas White House — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|Although he frequented Washington for much of his adult life, President Johnson always considered this house his home. During the White House years, it served as a busy office, a working ranch, and a quiet refuge from the pressures of being president in tumultuous times. The shade of the big live oak in front of you often served as a makeshift meeting room for the Johnson cabinet.
President Johnson’s capacity to influence or control events did not diminish during his stays at the Texas . . . — Map (db m91313) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — The Working Corrals — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|This, said Lyndon Johnson, was “where the cattle go out and the money comes in.” In the working pens, ranch hands tended to the herds—branding, castrating, doctoring, and, most importantly, loading cattle out for shipment after a sale. The ramp in front of you is a “loading chute” for loading cattle into trucks.
The majority of the cattle shipped off the ranch were from the Johnson’s beef herd—some of which he would simply purchase, clean up, and resell . . . — Map (db m91269) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — 10122 — Trinity Lutheran Church|
|This congregation traces its history to 1902, when it was organized in the Albert Schoolhouse. A sanctuary built here in 1902 was replaced in 1904, and this structure was erected in 1928. Worship services were conducted in the German language until 1950. A fine example of the Gothic Revival style of architecture, the church features fine details in its arched window and door openings, Gothic steeple, and original pressed metal siding.
Recorded Texas Historic Landmark — Map (db m90810) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Triumphing Over Tragedy – The Danz Family Story|
“My memory does not begin with happy things.”
– Mathilda Gruen Wagner, daughter of German immigrants, 1860s
In 1845, hundreds of hopeful German immigrants came to the Texas Hill Country in search of land, political freedom and adventure. Johann “Casper” Danz, his wife Elisabeth and their baby boy Frederick were among them.
Tragedy struck the Danz family many times. Soon after they arrived in Fredericksburg, Elisabeth and her son died from . . . — Map (db m91094) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Watering the Landscape — Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park|
|In the Texas Hill Country water is more precious than gold. The Pedernales River and the many local creeks are the main sources of water for irrigation. As droughts are common here, supplemental irrigation was necessary for President Johnson to maintain his fields of oats, winter wheat, and grass. The Valley Irrigation Systems rolled across the landscape providing previous water to a thirsty land. Johnson understood that water was priceless. He enacted several pieces of legislation to ensure . . . — Map (db m91238) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — What is the President pointing to anyway?|
|The statue which stands before you is of Lyndon Baines Johnson, the 36th president of the United States. It was donated by A.W. Moursand, a prominent attorney and past Texas Parks and Wildlife Commissioner. President Johnson wanted this statue placed on the State Park, pointing at the Pedernales River.
He once said “My first memories are of this river”. He was born and raised in the Texas Hill Country and always remained close to it by saying “I feel at home here”. — Map (db m91013) HM|
|Texas (Gillespie County), Stonewall — Within These Walls / Small Spaces, Many Faces|
Within These Walls
Discover how the Behrens family lived during the 1870s by exploring this cabin
Home Away From Home
Heinrich and Wilhemina Behrens, pictured here, emigrated from Germany but never forgot their heritage as they built their life in Texas. Like many German immigrants, they spoke German at home, lived in German communities and used German construction techniques in building their homes. Look closely at the space between the logs of the walls. The rocks and . . . — Map (db m91093) HM|