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Henrico County Markers
282 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 32
Virginia (Henrico County), Geln Allen — CabooseNo. 904
The first Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad (RF&P) cabooses were wooden construction built as early as 1904. Over the years, they were modified to keep them in service or sold. The RF&P purchased its first modern, all steel cabooses in 1970 from the International Car Company in Kenton, Ohio for $29,741. Shortly thereafter, Southern Iron and Equipment of Atlantic, Georgia built additional cabooses numbered 921 through 923 and 931 through 933. The first three cars from . . . — Map (db m25373) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC 5 — American Legion Post 244
World War I and II veterans organized the Glen Allen American Legion Post 244 in 1946. Sheppard Crump, a member of the First Caucus of the American Legion and later the Adjutant General of Virginia was the first Commander. Dr. Alexander McLeod, World War I veteran and legionnaire, donated the land to build the Post. The first Post shared a steel Quonset Hut structure with the National Guard built from state and private funds in 1949. It burned in 1962. This brick structure replaced it later in the year. — Map (db m25364) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — Box CarFreight Service
In the early years of operation, RF&P railroads derived little revenue from its freight service. Most goods were transported by river and then by wagon. After the Civil War, the railroad was joined with others to form a national system. Freight service increased dramatically because of the railroad’s location along routes that connected to the vibrant East Coast markets. In the 1880s, RF&P became an important link for the transportation of fruits and vegetables from the South to the . . . — Map (db m25372) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC-15 — Coal Pit School
The African-American school most likely took its name from the nearby Springfield Coal Pits. The one room school established about 1905 was once supervised by Virginia Estelle Randolph, the eminent black educator. It had forty-six students by 1913. The school also served as a meeting hall for the Mt. Vernon Baptist Church up until 1918. In 1955, the pupils moved to the larger Vandervall School (now Pemberton Elementary). The County of Henrico purchased the property, and in 1976 Our Lady of . . . — Map (db m27100) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — Courtney Road Service StationThe Birth of Modern Automotive Services
Before there were gas stations, motorists would get a drum of fuel from an industrial depot, bring it home, and store it. Soon after, consumers got their gasoline at the blacksmith shops and hardware and grocery stores. Still others received gasoline from horse drawn tanks that made house calls. In the early 1900s, gas producers standardized their station designs to better package the image of their petroleum products. The “House with Canopy” design of the Henrico County gas . . . — Map (db m24597) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC-28 — Courtney Road Service Station
The 1920s were the boom years for construction of gas stations in the United States due to an increase of cars, improved roads and low gas prices. By 1929, there were 143,000 "filling" stations across the nation. Many were built in the "House with Canopy" design of the Courtney Road Service Station, a style that was a 1916 Standard Oil Company prototype. In 1938, the Barlow family owned the station and surrounding land. Selling Sinclair Gasoline and Oil Products, the station was operated by Mr. . . . — Map (db m36266) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — Echo LakeA Place to Meet, A Sense of Community
Echo Lake was formed in the mid-19th century from Meredith Branch a 3.5-mile between Broad Street and the Chickahominy Swamp. During the late 1800s, the lake powered a flour mill. Echo Lake earned its name because you could hear your voice echo when you called out across the water. In 1909, Jacob E. Lewis, an African-American farmer and preacher, bought Echo Lake and established it as a recreation area for African-Americans. After his death, there were unsuccessful attempts by commercial . . . — Map (db m27099) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — Forest LodgeOpulence in Glen Allen
John Cussons built Forest Lodge as a resort along the Richmond, Fredericksburg, & Potomac Railroad where it intersects with Mountain Road in Glen Allen. The luxurious hotel had 125 rooms and stood six stories high. It took six years to build and was completed in the early 1880s. Cussons, a successful entrepreneur, spared no expense for the construction of the building. The Victorian structure featured elaborate woodworking and handpainted murals of landscapes and portraitures throughout . . . — Map (db m24601) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC-29 — Forest Lodge Belvedere
This Belvedere, meaning "beautiful view" was one of three Forest Lodge towers. Forest Lodge, constructed in the 1880s by Captain John Cussons, was a six-story hotel on 1000 acres in Glen Allen, west of the railroad tracks. Cussons created gardens, a hunting preserve, ponds stocked with fish, and a park populated with deer and peacocks. The resort boasted over 100 guestrooms, a grand ballroom, boating facilities and a theatre. Cussons envisioned the Lodge as a popular train stop between New York and Florida. The Lodge was demolished in 1992. — Map (db m36268) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — E 10 — Glen Allen
Called Mountain Road Crossing when rail service began in 1836, the settlement which came to be known as Glen Allen took its name from the homestead of a local landowner, Mrs. Benjamin Allen. Its most noted resident was Captain John Cussons, a native Englishman, Confederate scout, author, and entrepreneur. Cussons made his residence here after the Civil War and founded a successful printing company. Later he built a fashionable resort hotel known as Forest Lodge adjacent to the railroad tracks. — Map (db m15821) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC 1 — Glen Allen Baptist Church
The Reverend Alexander Sands organized the Glen Allen Baptist Church on February 23,1868. The Congregation first met in a rose arbor nearby belonging to Mrs. Susan Sheppard Allen. On July 4,1868, the new church held a feast and raised $400 to build the sanctuary. After the Hopkins family of Walkerton donated this site, church members built a frame structure, with three windows and a door, which opened in the winter of 1869. Members of the Glen Allen Baptist Church have worshipped here, in different sanctuaries, since that time. — Map (db m24568) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC-12 — Glen Allen School
In 1886, Elizabeth Jane Holladay established the first Glen Allen School when she began teaching children in her home. In 1899, the school was moved to a one-room building on Mountain Road. It was relocated to Old Washington Highway in 1911. Constructed at a cost of $10,000, it had no central heating or indoor plumbing. Between 1914 and 1925, three wings were added. In the 1930's an auditorium/gymnasium and home economics cottage were constructed. The school ended operation at this site in . . . — Map (db m24570) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — John CussonsA Pioneer and Entrepreneur
John Cussons, the son of John and Elizabeth (Jackson) Cussons, was born in Hornscastle, Lincolnshire, England in 1838. His adventurous spirit led him to America in 1855 and he spent four years in the Northwest living with the Sioux Indians. In 1859, he moved to Selma, Alabama and became half owner of the “Morning Reporter.” When the Civil War started, he joined the Confederate army and served as a scout. He was quickly promoted to lieutenant. After a handful of victories, the . . . — Map (db m24599) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — Meadow FarmThe Road to Yellow Tavern
Union Gen. Philip Sheridan used the Mountain Road during his 1864 raid toward Richmond. His lengthy column of 12,000 horsemen passed here on the morning of May 11. The troopers spread out to destroy many miles of railroad track at Ashland, Allen’s Station (now known as Glen Allen), and Hungary Station. Shortly after passing here, Sheridan’s men encountered J.E.B. Stuart’s 3,000-man command blocking their route, which brought on the Battle of Yellow Tavern. The Sheppard family lived at . . . — Map (db m15819) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — EA 1 — Meadow Farm
The land comprising Meadow Farm was first patented by William Sheppard in 1713. In 1800, Sheppard family slaves thwarted plans for a well-organized slave uprising known as Gabriel's Insurrection. The farmhouse was built in 1810. Dr. John Mosby Sheppard practiced medicine at Meadow Farm between 1840 and 1877. The last private owner of Meadow Farm, Major General Sheppard Crump, was a founding member of the American Legion and Adjutant General of Virginia from 1956-1960. Until 1960, the Sheppard . . . — Map (db m15820) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC-31 — Mercer Hugh Cosby Farm
Significant for its ownership by one African-American family dating back to the late 1800s, Mercer Hugh Cosby built the farmhouse in the 1880s on 52-acres. He grew tobacco and had an orchard on the property. The farm passed to his youngest son William in 1952. William Darl Cosby Sr. became a prominent educator in Henrico County, following his service in World War II. He worked as a teacher and principal through the period of school desegregation in 1969. Until his death in 2006, Mr. Cosby was . . . — Map (db m64014) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — EA 5 — Mountain Road
Mountain Road was originally an Indian trail. It became the main thoroughfare from Richmond to Charlottesville in the 1700s. During the American Revolution, the Marquis de Lafayette traveled this road on his march to Yorktown. Thomas Jefferson used it on his trips to Richmond and Williamsburg. During the Civil War, on 11 May 1864, Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan encountered Confederate skirmishers as his men destroyed the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad tracks here at Glen Allen. . . . — Map (db m15822) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad Company
The Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad (RF&P) ran from Richmond to Washington, D.C. With only 113 miles of track, it was one of the shortest in the nation but it was the link between the North and the South. Train service existed 157 years from 1834-1991. There were many independent railroads which had agreements with the RF&P. In conjunction with these lines, RF&P provided continuous service from New York to Florida. Sleeper cars were available as early as 1867. An electric . . . — Map (db m28944) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC 2 — Shady Grove United Methodist Church
A group of neighbors, meeting in a cooper shop near the present site, organized a church in 1852. With five dollars, they purchased one acre of land from the estate of Thomas Maxwell and erected the first building in 1855. It was used as a school during the 1880s. The present sanctuary, which dates from 1900, now has several additions. The church grounds have increased to more than five acres through gifts and purchases. Until 1954, when it became a separate station, Shady Grove was one of four churches on the Goochland Charge. — Map (db m25360) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC 7 — Sheppard and Baker's Grant
The Sheppard's Way subdivision was part of the original 400 acre land grant made to William Sheppard and Richard Baker in 1713. They obtained it through the "Headrights System" by paying for the passage of eight people from England to the Virginia Colony. The Sheppard's descendants lived on this parcel called Meadow Farm until 1993. In 1899, this location was the site of the first Glen Allen School. Elizabeth Holladay, the school's founder and only teacher, taught here until 1901. — Map (db m24569) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — HC-34 — Springfield School
African-American students attended this two-room 1920s structure. It was one of approximately 22 schools under the supervision of the pioneer educator, Virginia E. Randolph. Multiple grades were taught with students ranging in age from seven to eighteen. Students studied a tradtional school curriculum as well as home economic skills such as sewing and cooking. Following the closure of Springfield School around 1950, the structure became a private residence and students were sent to Virginia . . . — Map (db m64015) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — Steel CoachNo. 522
The Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation built this all-steel coach in 1923. This coach was later modernized and included features such as air conditioning, double-glazed metal windows, cable curtains, and rotating reclining seats with adjustable headrests and footrests. As passenger service increased, the entire RF&P line was double tracked between 1902-1907. There were also four new passenger stations built. They were Alexandria (1905), Washington (1907), Richmond (1919) and Fredericksburg . . . — Map (db m28945) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — U.S. Railway Post Office Car
Government regulations required Railway Post Office cars in 1910. The RF&P owned five. American Car & Foundry built this one in 1916. Some of the first steel cars were postal cars. They were important revenue sources for the railroad. The elimination of the postal cars caused some of the less profitable passenger trains to be eliminated. This car was one of the last cars removed from service by the Post Office Department in 1970. Mail Service personnel had a complicated system of sorting . . . — Map (db m28946) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — W 221 — Virginia Estelle Randolph
The daughter of parents born in slavery, Virginia Randolph (1874-1958) taught in a one-room schoolhouse beginning in 1892. A gifted teacher, she became in 1908 the nation's first Jeanes Supervising Industrial Teacher, a position sponsored by the Anna T. Jeanes Fund of Philadelphia for black Southern education. Randolph developed the Henrico Plan, teaching both traditional subjects and vocational skills. Henrico County named two schools in her honor here in 1915 and 1957. In 1969 the schools . . . — Map (db m25365) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — EA 2 — Walkerton
Constructed in 1825 for John Walker on Mountain Road, once a major route between Richmond and the western Piedmont of Virginia, Walkerton served as a tavern in 1828 and 1829. Since that time it has been a hotel, store, voting precinct, and private dwelling. It is the largest brick 19th-century tavern still standing in Henrico County. Walkerton is notable for a hinged, swinging, two-segment partition that was used to enlarge an upstairs room to accommodate guests. Members of the Hopkins family . . . — Map (db m15823) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glen Allen — EA 6 — Wickham's Line
In the first phase of the Battle of Yellow Tavern on 11 May 1864, Brig. Gen. Williams C. Wickham and his Confederate cavalry were posted just south of this location below Old Francis Road. Wickham's men fired on Brig. Gen. George A. Custer's Union troopers as they charged Brig. Gen. Lunsford L. Lomax's line on the Federal left flank, preventing Custer's advance. Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, the Federal commander, then sent Col. George H. Chapman's regiment to attack Wickham's line. This freed . . . — Map (db m15848) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — A Place of Refuge
The Crew house and its outbuildings soon became one of the battlefield's most recognizable features. Little is known of the family that lived here during the war other than that they did not remain inside the home during the battle. However, Union soldiers, especially the wounded, sought out its protection. A nearby well proved especially popular, providing cool water to soothe those suffering from thirst. Sadly, many brought here did not survive. "We proceeded to the small enclosed . . . — Map (db m71462) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — A Splendid Field of Battle
Union commanders chose an ideal location to fight their last battle of the Seven Days. As many as 40 cannon covered the one-half-mile front, stretching from the slopes of Crew’s Run on your left to a similar drop to Western Run on your right. Nearly 80,000 Union soldiers spread out behind or in support of the guns. Open cultivated fields dotted by shocks of harvested wheat stretched out for half a mile. It was one of the strongest positions held by either army during the war. Throughout . . . — Map (db m34705) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Advantages of Terrain
Today, heavy woods have replaced the vast rolling wheat fields upon which the armies fought. Timber also hides the steep slopes and jagged ravines that shielded the flanks of the Union position. The rough terrain forced most of the Confederates to advance across the flat open fields astride the Willis Church road. Still, portions of two Confederate divisions attempted to negotiate this drainage that led directly to the Union position. The steep slopes protected the Southern infantrymen from . . . — Map (db m29441) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Battle Commences
A march of less than three miles from the Glendale battlefield brought the Confederates to this spot at the foot of Malvern Hill. In earlier times it was a peaceful landscape, but on July 1 a line of Union artillery with infantry supports held the crest of the hill, not 800 yards from here. Their position was in front of the West House, which can be seen in the distance. When the Southern infantry arrived in this treeless space those guns opened fire with devastating exploding shells and solid . . . — Map (db m15200) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Battle of Malvern Hill TrailRichmond National Battlefield Park
The battle of Malvern Hill is best remembered for the series of bold and bloody charges launched here by the Confederate army on July 1, 1862. This one and one-half mile trail offers hikers an opportunity to follow in the footsteps of some of the Southern soldiers in their ill-fated attack. Informational signs are located along the route, including at the locations where Union and Confederate artillery operated. The final leg of the trail returns to this parking lot after crossing the ground . . . — Map (db m14918) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Battlefield Burials
The depressions to the right of the trail probably represent former graves of Confederate soldiers. The dead of both armies received hasty battlefield burials. Most were disinterred after the war, with the Union dead going to Glendale National Cemetery and the Confederate dead probably being removed to Richmond. These woods are historic. They and the small stream that you crossed offered welcome shelter to Confederate soldiers. Several brigades, mostly under the command of General John B. . . . — Map (db m29393) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Battlefield Landscape
Photographs taken during and shortly after the war help us to understand, preserve and rehabilitate the battlefield landscape. In the 1880’s a photographer recorded a series of views of Malvern Hill to accompany Civil War articles published in Century magazine. In this image the cameraman stood here to capture the sloping fields across which the Confederates attacked. Notice the slave cabins to the left and the largely treeless landscape. Recent scene restoration has made this comparison more effective. — Map (db m15201) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — 21 — Battlefield of Malvern Hill
Against the Federals holding this eminence, the Confederates delivered repeated assaults from the North on July 1, 1862 and lost about 5,000 men in the final, indecisive Battle of the Seven Days’ Campaign. That night McClellan withdrew to Harrison's Landing, near Westover. — Map (db m14227) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Confederate Attacks Stall
General Couch found the uneven terrain in this section of the Union position less favorable for artillery. He chose to push his infantry well forward of the guns, placing brigades under Abercrombie, Howe, and Palmer on this ground to prevent the attacking southerners from staging a successful assault on the Union guns. In this vicinity, and to your right, Couch's men repelled charges of D.H. Hill's Confederate division during the heat of the battle. As the advanced Union brigades became fought . . . — Map (db m29232) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Confederate FutilityUnion Cannon Devastate the Confederates — Malvern Hill Battlefield - Richmond National Battlefield Park
Confederate attacks reached their final fury just before sunset. "The men would rush forward as they were urged," recalled a North Carolinian, "and then it seemed as though the whole line would sway back as a field of corn would before a wind." When especially bold units neared the line of Union cannon, Federal infantry rushed out in front of the artillery to repel the threat. No Confederates reached the guns. Pinched into a narrow attack front by steep cliffs on either side, Southern soldiers . . . — Map (db m29428) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — 16 — Frazier's Farmor Glendale Battlefield
Here, on the Charles City Road, the Confederate forces of Major General Benjamin Huger in their attempt to intercept the Federal withdrawal to the James opened with artillery the Battle of Frazier's Farm, June 30, 1862. — Map (db m14215) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — 17 — Frazier's Farmor Glendale Battlefield
North and South of this point lay the line of battle in which the Confederate commands of James Longstreet and A.P. Hill engaged indecisively the Federal forces in the Fourth Battle of the Seven Days’ Campaign. This spot marks the furthest Federal advance, June 30, 1862. — Map (db m14216) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — 18 — Frazier's Farmor Glendale Battlefield
Here, the Confederate line of Longstreet's Division crossed this, the Long Bridge Road. Southeasterly one-quarter mile occurred the fiercest encounter, in which the Federal forces under McCall were forced to retire at nightfall June 30, 1862. — Map (db m14222) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Freeman Marker
This is one in a series of 61 markers erected beginning in 1925 to identify the battlefields around Richmond. The tablets were the work of the Battlefield Markers Association, a group of historians committed to commemorating the Richmond battlefields. Most prominent among the association's members was Dr. Douglas Southall Freeman, the eminent biographer of George Washington and Robert E. Lee. The work of Dr. Freeman and the Association ultimately led to the purchase of battlefield lands and the . . . — Map (db m14283) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — PA 159 — Glendale (Frayser’s Farm)
In this vicinity, the Union Army of the Potomac made a stand on 30 June 1862, during its retreat from the Chickahominy River toward the James River. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan posted several Union divisions facing east and north to protect this intersection, known locally as Riddell’s Shop. In the ensuing battle, Confederate divisions commanded by Major Generals James Longstreet and A. P. Hill attacked the Union divisions of Brig. Gen. George A. McCall and Maj. Gen. Philip Kearney. The . . . — Map (db m15058) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Historic Farm Road
The armies fought the Battle of Malvern Hill across several very large and productive farms. That agricultural landscape helped shape the course of the battle. Stacks of recently harvested wheat offered feeble shelter to men of both sides. Farm buildings became battlefield landmarks. Troops used unimproved farm roads to move across the battlefield landmarks. Troops used unimproved farm roads to move across the battlefield, and no doubt some men found protective cover in the well-worn roadbeds . . . — Map (db m29429) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Malvern Cliffs
The view from here illustrates the power of the Union position atop Malvern Hill. Late in the afternoon of July 1, two Confederate brigades attacked across the treeless flat terrain below. Union guns in the Crew yard and elsewhere pounded the Confederate lines long before the Southern infantrymen could open fire with their muskets. Still, the Confederates reached the base of the hill, where they would cling to the safety of the slope. Finally at dusk, the Virginians and North Carolinians . . . — Map (db m29443) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — 22 — Malvern HillConfederate Assault
Up the face of this ridge and through the meadow to the left J.B. Magruder's troops charged the Federal positions on the crest, around the Crew House, July 1, 1862. D.H. Hill's charge was to the right, on both sides of the Willis Church Road. — Map (db m14229) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Malvern Hill
Malvern Hill is the story of Confederate infantry against massed Federal artillery – Southern valor against Union firepower. Late in the afternoon of July 1, 1862, blasts from Union cannon blanketed this field with smoke. Residents of Staunton, Virginia, more than 100 miles distant, heard the roar of those guns. Confederate infantry swarmed in front, desperate to gain a foothold near the Union guns. Their goal: drive the Federals from Malvern Hill and give Robert E. Lee the total victory . . . — Map (db m15204) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Malvern HillDay Seven of the Seven Days — Malvern Hill Battlefield - Richmond National Battlefield Park
Before you stood the Union rearguard, on Malvern Hill. Here, McClellan's line atop the plateau was only 875 yards wide. Confederate batteries were to soften the position prior to the infantry assault, but the Federal artillery proved superior. As Lee's guns rolled into position a devastating shower of exploding projectiles overwhelmed them and their crews. Through misunderstanding by Confederate commanders, Southern infantry were ordered to advance, across the Carter's Mill Road behind you, . . . — Map (db m29394) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — 20 — Methodist Parsonage
The residence of the Methodist minister, situated near this spot, was a landmark of the Battle of Malvern Hill and was directly in the line of advance of D.H. Hill's division southward against the Federal positions around the Crew house. July 1, 1862. — Map (db m14225) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — OutgunnedBattle of Malvern Hill
General Robert E. Lee hoped that a crossfire of Confederate artillery directed against the crest of Malvern Hill might silence the powerful array of Union guns and clear the way for an infantry charge. Generals Longstreet and Jackson established clusters of cannon at two places, on opposite ends of the Confederate line. This is one of those spots. Parts of several Virginia batteries fought on this ridge. Usually no more than six cannon were in position here at any one time, only about 950 . . . — Map (db m29399) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — V 51 — Pvt. Benjamin B. Levy22 Feb. 1845 - 20 Jul. 1921
Benjamin B. Levy, a young Jewish volunteer, received the Medal of Honor on 1 Mar. 1865, one of the first Jews so recognized. He entered service in the 1st New York Infantry in New York City on 22 Apr. 1861. During the Battle of Glendale (Frayser's Farm) on 30 June 1862, under heavy fire near here, Levy "took the gun of a sick comrade, went into the fight. and when the color bearers were shot down, carried the colors and saved them from capture." He later reenlisted in the 40th New York Infantry . . . — Map (db m16183) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Richmond BattlefieldMalvern Hill
The Battle of Malvern Hill was the last in the weeklong series of engagements in 1862 known as the Seven Days battles. General George B. McClellan's Union army, having been maneuvered away from its base at White House Landing east of Richmond, sought the shelter of a new position on the James River. Having reached the river, his army turned back north and on July 1 confronted the pursuing Confederates here at Malvern Hill. Less wooded in 1862, this hilltop with its steep sides provided its . . . — Map (db m29225) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — 15 — Riddell's Shop
West and Southwest, distant one-half mile lies the Battlefield of Glendale or Frazier's Farm, where the Confederate divisions of Longstreet and A.P. Hill on June 30, 1862, attacked and forced the withdrawal of Federal troops covering McClellan's march toward James River. — Map (db m14214) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — PA 230 — Seven Days BattlesMalvern Hill
Across the hill here from east to west the Union artillery was in position in the afternoon of July 1, 1862. The Union batteries overpowered the few cannon the Confederates were able to bring up. When the Southern infantry charged from the woods, they were met by a terrible artillery fire but continued to advance until they came under the fire of the Union infantry. — Map (db m14909) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — PA 235 — Seven Days BattlesMalvern Hill
Across the road here stretched the Union line of battle in the afternoon of July 1, 1862. Couch’s, Kearney’s and Hooker’s divisions were to the east of the road, Morell to the west, with Sykes in reserve. The Confederates made several attacks and, for a time, the battle trembled in the balance, but the assailants were finally repulsed. In the night the Union army withdrew to James River. — Map (db m14911) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — PA 195 — Seven Days BattlesMalvern Hill
Across the road here stretched the Confederate line of battle, facing south, in the afternoon of July 1, 1862. Jackson commanded here, Magruder to the west. Longstreet and A. P. Hill were in reserve the battle lasted intermittently. From morning to night, reaching its crisis late in the afternoon. The disjointed Confederate attacks were repulsed with heavy loss. — Map (db m14920) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — PA 220 — Seven Days BattlesMalvern Hill
Here from east to west, Berdan’s sharpshooters of Morell’s division were strung out in the afternoon of July 1, 1862. Their rapid and accurate fire harassed the Confederates as they emerged from the woods and charged up the hill. — Map (db m14931) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — PA 180 — Seven Days BattlesMalvern Hill
Here Lee met Longstreet and Jackson in the morning of July 1, 1862. D. H. Hill reported the strength of the Union position on Malvern Hill; but Lee, having cause to believe the Unionists were weakening, prepared to attack. Jackson and D. H. Hill moved on this road southward to Malvern Hill. — Map (db m15076) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — PA 190 — Seven Days BattlesGlendale (Frayser’s Farm)
This was the extreme left of the Union line at Glendale, and was held by Hooker’s Division. When McCall (just to the north) was broken, Hooker, supported by Burns’s brigade, drove the Confederates back. In the night the Union army marched southward. — Map (db m15077) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — PA 175 — Seven Days’ BattlesGlendale (Frayser’s Farm)
Willis Church Road runs from here to Malvern Hill. A large part of Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac followed this road south toward the James River, four miles ahead, near the end of the Seven Days’ Battles in 1862. On 30 June, at the Battle of Glendale / Frayser’s Farm, seven Union infantry divisions stretched across a wide arc north and west of here to keep this road open. Although Confederate infantrymen pushed to within sight of the critical road, they could not sever . . . — Map (db m15061) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — The Battle of Malvern HillStonewall Jackson’s Men Threaten the Union Right
“There was no cessation or diminution yet of the enemy’s fire – musketry here – which swept the field to such an extent that it was difficult to believe anything could escape unhurt.” - Lt. McHenry Howard, Confederate staff officer The 15,000 men of Stonewall Jackson brought to the battlefield saw little action on July 1 before dusk. Responding then to calls for help from other hard-pressed Confederates, Jackson sent most of two divisions up the front slope of . . . — Map (db m14923) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — The Battle of Malvern HillAdvance of the Excelsior Regiments
“We reached the field; here were wounded men and the dead, but we heeded them not. We relieved the 7th New York Regiment and poured in a hot fire; still they kept the field, men falling all round, but our only thought was to fire as fast as possible.” - H. C. Ford, 72nd New York Infantry The earliest Confederate attacks on this part of the battlefield came from across Western Run, a stream located several hundred yards to the northeast. Men from Couch’s division stopped . . . — Map (db m14927) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — The Battle of Malvern HillCouch Defends the Union Right
Although the best known fighting on July 1, 1862, occurred across the road to the west, half of the battlefield is situated here, in front of the West House. Union infantrymen of General Darius Couch’s division occupied the far forward slope of Malvern Hill in front of you. More than one dozen cannon posted here along this gentle crest cemented the position. Couch’s men outdistanced their artillery by several hundred yards in front, very near the Confederate lines. One New York regiment . . . — Map (db m15209) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — The Confederate High Water Mark
You have reached the farthest point to which any organized Confederate infantry advanced on July 1. Two simple wooden structures stood within this cleared area. They are thought to have housed the slaves working the Crew farm. During the twilight fighting, part of the brigade of General Paul J. Semmes reached the slave cabins and used the structures for cover. A handful of men, mostly Louisianians, pushed a few feet farther through the smoke toward the Union guns, where they met General Thomas . . . — Map (db m29436) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — The Crew House
The Crew House -- also known during the war as Dr. Mellert's -- is a key landmark of the battlefield. In 1862, numerous outbuildings were located close to the house, and a small orchard stood nearby. The original house burned in the 1870's, and this structure stands on the foundations of the wartime building. Federal artillery located in the yard anchored the left of the Union line, and other guns unlimbered in the lane to your left. — Map (db m29442) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — The Last DayMalvern Hill – 1862
July 1, 1862 Porter positions artillery seemingly hub to hub across this half-mile crest. In front, fields slope down to woods and swamp – a tough place to form a charge. As Confederates launch disjointed assaults, Federal cannon like giant shotguns saturate the open ground with canister and grapeshot. “Over five thousand dead and wounded men were on the ground,” a Union officer reported next dawn, “but enough were alive and moving to give the field a singular crawling effect.” Map (db m14922) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — The Malvern Hill Crest
Looking back to the north, you now share the view of the Union artillerists. Remember that their guns stretched all the way across the hill in front of you. Today only eight guns represent where at least thirty stood during the battle. On several occasions, when Southern infantry approached, the cannoneers willingly gave way to their own infantry supports, which rushed forward through the line of cannon and dispersed the Confederates. This often involved close-quarters fighting, and a great . . . — Map (db m29440) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — The West House
Sitting atop Malvern Hill only feet from the roaring line of Union cannon, the West House became an instant battlefield landmark. The original house dated from approximately 1831, but was rebuilt decades after the Civil War. The current structure is partly on the original brick foundation, and the entrance road is in its wartime location. The Wests owned a large farm and more than a dozen slaves to operate it. Chaplain Edward Neill from Minnesota left a vivid account of the house and its . . . — Map (db m15197) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Twilight Action
Stonewall Jackson’s wing of the Confederate army joined in the action just before darkness. Some of his infantry advanced on this side of the road, toward Malvern Hill’s crest. Broken and disoriented formations of Confederate infantry blocked their progress. In time, bits and pieces of several of Jackson’s brigades became engaged in this area, fighting until well after sunset. That evening several prominent Union generals argued in favor of a counterattack for the next morning. They believed . . . — Map (db m15199) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Union Firepower
Steep terrain on both flanks of the Union line funneled the Confederate attackers into the face of 29 Union cannon lining this ridge. Six 12-pounder Napoleon guns of Company A, 5th U.S. Artillery, fired from near this spot. During the afternoon of July 1, this battery fired 1,392 rounds of shell and canister. Most devastating was the canister - - shotgun-like blasts of iron balls fired at short range. The Confederate infantry lines melted away under the barrage. No Southerners reached the guns. — Map (db m15198) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Union Reserves
Around 15,000 men and the artillery of General Samuel Heintzelman’s Union Third Corps occupied this long stretch of open fields before you. They did not come under direct assault, but did supply reinforcements to the front line. The farm silo you can see in the distance is near the site of the Binford House. Fully two additional corps of infantry, some 25 to 30,000 men, lay in reserve beyond the Binford Farm. “I could hardly conceive any power that could overwhelm us,” . . . — Map (db m15206) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — 19 — Willis' Church
This edifice, which gave its name to the road McClellan followed from Glendale in his withdrawal toward James River, was used as a field hospital by the Confederate troops after the Battle of Malvern Hill. July 1, 1862. — Map (db m14224) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Glendale — Willis Church ParsonageThe Confederates Move Toward Malvern Hill — Malvern Hill Battlefield – Richmond Nat'l Battlefield Park
Frustrated by his failure at Glendale, Robert E. Lee gathered his army on July 1, 1862, for a final effort to destroy the Union army. But on this day, unlike his previous efforts during the Seven Days, Lee did not have a Union flank or a strung-out marching column to attack. Before him stood the powerful Union rear guard, arrayed on the plateau of Malvern Hill, about a half mile in front of you. The Willis Church parsonage (the ruins behind you) became an important landmark on July 1. Before . . . — Map (db m14916) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Granville — V 4 — Malvern Hill
Nearby stood the Malvern Hill manor house built for Thomas Cocke in the 17th century. The Marquis de Lafayette camped here in July-August 1781, and elements of the Virginia militia encamped nearby during the War of 1812. During the Civil War, 1 July 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee attacked Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Union Army of the Potomac here as it retreated to the James River from the gates of Richmond. Although he dealt Lee a bloody defeat, McClellan continued his withdrawal to Harrison's . . . — Map (db m9603) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — "Madness"
Around 5:00 p.m. the Confederate attack began when Colonel John B. Gordon’s Alabama brigade emerged from the woods behind you. Over the next three hours 15 Confederate brigades marched into a maelstrom of iron and lead. Union artillery blasted the attackers with canister—tin cans filled with dozens of cast iron balls. The effect, at close range, seemed to make men disappear. “As we came fully in sight of the Federal batteries, not 400 yards distant in our front, the open . . . — Map (db m46919) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — "The Big Guns Spoke"
This 1865 photograph shows the terrain over which the successful Union assault was made. Note the stumps where trees were removed to open a field of fire for the Confederate gunners. Your present location is in the right center of the photograph. When about halfway across the field ... one of the big guns spoke, and out through the white, woolly smoke that leaped from its throat rushed a group of black balls that looked the size of our modern baseball... and they didn't seem to move much . . . — Map (db m34711) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — “the grandest sean of all”
Beginning just after 4:00 pm and continuing into darkness, charging Confederate infantry made repeated assaults up these gentle slopes. In several places those attacks came within point-blank range of the Union lines. This ground is such a place. The position here was held by Gen. Charles Griffin’s brigade with regiments from New York, Michigan, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. Earlier in the day his men supported the artillery. Casualties were light. But with the setting sun came orders . . . — Map (db m49261) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — 48th Alabama Regiment Monument
This monument is dedicated “To the 48th Alabama Regiment Darbytown Road-August 16, 1864 Where it lost five-sixths of its men and four-fifths of its officers, and captured more prisoners than its total, and did not lose a prisoner. No men ever fought more heroically” Col. William C. Oates Col. Oates lost his right arm in this engagement. He later served as governor of Alabama. A congressman and brevet General in the Spanish-American War. Erected . . . — Map (db m66150) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — A Battlefield Landmark
The Thomas J. West house stood as a prominent part of the battlefield scene—a goal for attacking Confederates and a landmark along the Union line. Most of the fresh Federal troops marching to the front on July 1 moved past this house, coming under direct fire for the first time here. The Binford farm stretched behind the West House to the southeast. Union reserves crammed every corner of the field, awaiting their chance. “It was a great and grand sight, the like of which in all . . . — Map (db m46916) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Artillery’s Terrible Effect
Malvern Hill is barely 900 yards wide here at its narrow crest, leaving room for only a small number of the nearly 200 cannon available to the Union army on July 1. The defenders placed between two and three dozen pieces of artillery across the hill and waited. When Confederate artillery appeared on opposite fields, the better-posted Union cannon blasted them into silence. Soon the gunners turned their attention to attacking Confederate infantrymen, firing with devastating accuracy into the . . . — Map (db m46917) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Battle of GlendaleCharge of the 69th Pennsylvania Infantry — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
(sidebar) In April 1862, Union forces under Gen. George B. McClellan began a major campaign to capture Richmond, marching west from Fort Monroe up the Peninsula between the York and James rivers toward the Confederate capital. A Confederate army half their size opposed them. Slowly but inevitably, the Federal juggernaut overcame three Southern defensive lines and was soon camped in Richmond’s eastern suburbs. New commander Robert E. Lee, however, led a Confederate offensive that drove . . . — Map (db m32291) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Battle of Trent's Reach
In a daring attempt to attack the Federal supply base at City Point, 11 warships of the James River Squadron ventured downriver on the night of January 23, 1865. Confederate land batteries fired against Fort Brady as the darkened warships steamed past. One incoming shell disabled a gun in the fort. The foray ended in failure when the Confederate vessels ran into the Federal fleet downriver. Fort Brady s gunners stood ready and shelled the Confederate squadron on their return trip upriver on . . . — Map (db m56528) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — HC3 — Bethlehem Baptist Church
In 1828, nine people organized a Sunday school in a log schoolhouse, five miles from the Richmond City limits. Students from the Virginia Baptist Seminary, now the University of Richmond, helped it become the Bethlehem Baptist Church. The church received its charter on May 31, 1838 and built a new structure in 1839. It reportedly served as a first aid station during the Civil War, burned about 1870 and was rebuilt. A brick Gothic-style church opened on July 25, 1909. On November 3, 1920, this . . . — Map (db m25610) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Bombproof
This photograph was made in late fall 1864 within feet of where you now stand. Note the casual posture of these Union soldiers, despite the fact that Confederates were less than 700 yards away. As active operations gave way to winter routine, soldiers in Fort Burnham built bombproofs like this as shelters from enemy fire. This one has long since caved in. Notice the open limber chest in the foreground-artillery rounds lie piled nearby, ready in an instant to begin shelling the distant . . . — Map (db m32931) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Braving the Fire
The Union attacking force paused briefly to reorganize in the low ground behind you. Then, defying heavy infantry and artillery fire, they lunged toward the steep earth walls of Fort Harrison. From a sketch by noted artist, William Waud.
Some of our men fall riddled with bullets; great gaps are rent in our ranks as the shells cut their way through us, or burst in our midst; a solid shot or shell striking directly will bore straight through ten or twenty men; here are some men literally cut . . . — Map (db m34712) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Building Fort Burnham
After capturing Fort Harrison on September 29, men of the 18th Corps concentrated on enlarging the break they had created in the Confederate defenses. Corps commander General E.O.C. Ord fell wounded as some units pushed south toward Fort Hoke. Others assaulted forts Johnson, Gregg, and Gilmer to the north. Confederate defenses stiffened. The attacks failed to capitalize on their earlier success. Southern infantrymen began construction of a new line, west of Fort Harrison, that would plug the . . . — Map (db m32932) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — HC-21 — Chatsworth School
Chatsworth School was built circa 1915 as a one-room schoolhouse for the black children of the Antioch Community. Chatsworth was one of approximately twenty black schools in Henrico County supervised by the visionary educator, Virginia E. Randolph. The Rosenwald Fund provided a matching grant to build the school. Anna T. Jeanes Funds supported instruction for students in grades one through four. It was said that the Chatsworth curriculum included everything from bookwork to banking. The school closed in 1956. — Map (db m25489) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Confederate Futility
The Confederate plan called for dozens of cannon to gather here and on the Poindexter Farm, nearly a mile to the east (your left). Their combined fire, directed at the Union batteries atop Malvern Hill, would clear the way for an infantry assault up the hill. But everything went wrong. Officers failed to collect enough cannon. Batteries came up to this ridge one at a time, were pounded by stronger and more numerous Union guns, and left the field in disarray. A similar scenario played out a . . . — Map (db m49259) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Confederate Trenches
Confederate troops, aided by slave labor, built these earthworks between 1862 and 1864. By September 1864, over 100 miles of defensive fortifications protected Richmond against attack. After several unsuccessful attempts, Union troops captured Fort Harrison and the surrounding works in September 1864. This area remained under Federal occupation until Confederate forces abandoned Richmond in April 1865. — Map (db m34716) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — HC-18 — Deep Run Baptist Church
Founded here in 1742, Deep Run Baptist Church was established as an Episcopal chapel. Modeled after St. John's Church in Richmond, it was constructed in 1749 with wooden pegs and beams that remain part of the present structure. During the Revolutionary War, the church served as a hospital for wounded soldiers, and the Marquis de Lafayette reportedly used it as a gathering place. In 1791 it became Hungry Baptist Church. In 1819 the name was changed to Deep Run Baptist. Since its beginning the . . . — Map (db m25361) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Empty VictoryFort Hoke – 1864
After capturing Fort Harrison on September 29, 1864, Union troops continued their attack against the Confederate lines that connected Fort Harrison to the James River. Here at Fort Hoke a small collection of Virginia artillerists tried valiantly to stop the Union advance. Their fire seriously wounded General E.O.C. Ord, the Union 18th Corps commander. Ord’s men overwhelmed the Confederate defenders, then occupied the fort until orders arrived to withdraw back to Fort Harrison. Fort Hoke then . . . — Map (db m15088) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — First Park Headquarters
This log structure was built in 1930 to serve as headquarters for the Battlefield Parks Corporation. This private organization comprise of Richmond citizens, worked to preserve and protect Civil War battlefields around the city. In 1927 the corporation purchased acreage around Fort Harrison, and later acquired portions of the battlefields at Cold Harbor, Gaines' Mill, Malvern Hill, and Beaver Dam Creek. In 1936 Congress created the Richmond National Battlefield Park which included all the . . . — Map (db m34709) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Fort BradyRichmond-Petersburg Campaign
(left panel) Fort Brady Visiting Richmond National Battlefield Park The concentration of Civil War resources found in the Richmond area is unparalleled. The National Park Service manages 13 sites, giving visitors an opportunity to examine the battlefield landscapes, to hear the stories of the combatants and civilian residents, and to understand the complex reasons why Richmond came to symbolize the heart and soul of the Confederacy. Regulations This is a . . . — Map (db m56525) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Fort Brady Trail
Before you looms Fort Brady, one of the best-preserved Civil War forts in the National Park Service. Like most of the fortifications built during the Civil War, Fort Brady was made of earth instead of fragile bricks. Dirt could better withstand the heavy artillery projectiles used by both sides. Union gunners who occupied Fort Brady for six months between October 1864 and April 1865 found garrison life anything but dull. Confederate gunners, stationed in batteries across the James River, . . . — Map (db m32881) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Fort GilmerRichmond-Petersburg Campaign
(left panel) Fort Gilmer Visiting Richmond National Battlefield Park The concentration of Civil War resources found in the Richmond area is unparalleled. The National Park Service manages 13 sites, giving visitors an opportunity to examine the battlefield landscapes, to hear the stories of the combatants and civilian residents, and to understand the complex reasons why Richmond came to symbolize the heart and soul of the Confederacy. Regulations This is a . . . — Map (db m37244) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Fort HarrisonRichmond Battlefield — Richmond Nat’l Battlefield Pk – 1862/64
Fort Harrison stood in 1864 as the most powerful fort in the extensive outer defenses of Richmond. Built on high, open ground, the fort and its surrounding entrenchments were built to protect the approaches to Richmond from the south. The Union army’s strongest probe toward Richmond from this direction occurred on September 29, when General Butler’s Army of the James crossed the river in two columns and struck the defenses here and at New Market Heights to the east. The Union troops captured . . . — Map (db m15491) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Fort HarrisonRichmond-Petersburg Campaign
(left panel) Fort Harrison Visiting Richmond National Battlefield Park The concentration of Civil War resources found in the Richmond area is unparalleled. The National Park Service manages 13 sites, giving visitors an opportunity to examine the battlefield landscapes, to hear the stories of the combatants and civilian residents, and to understand the complex reasons why Richmond came to symbolize the heart and soul of the Confederacy. Regulations This is a . . . — Map (db m35191) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Fort Harrison Trail
Confederate soldiers built Fort Harrison on this high point of land as part of their scheme to protect the approaches to Richmond. The Union army seized the fort after heavy fighting in September 1864, altered its appearance, and renamed it. The troops manning the fort were among the first into Richmond when the Confederate capital fell the following April. In 1862, 30-year-old Lieutenant William E. Harrison supervised the construction of the fort that eventually bore his name. Harrison . . . — Map (db m32921) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Fort Johnson
In the hours following the September 29, 1864, Federal triumph at Fort Harrison, 1,000 yards south of here, Confederate defenses stiffened. Two hundred Georgia infantrymen and Virginia artillerists filled Fort Johnson. Later in the morning they repulsed a direct attack launched by the 2nd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, a large unit converted to infantry service. The treeless plain in front of the fort gave the Confederates an excellent field of fire. Fort Johnson became the northern anchor of a . . . — Map (db m32933) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Guarding the James
After tremendous labor in a short period of time, the fort was ready for defense. By mid-October 1864, Company C, 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery brought several large cannon into the fort and mounted them along the walls facing the James River. The fort soon bristled with more than 10 large-caliber cannon and mortars. Their mission: stop Confederate ironclads and gunboats from moving downriver toward the Union headquarters and supply depot at City Point. — Map (db m32883) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Guarding the RiverFort Brady – 1864
After capturing Fort Harrison in September 1864, Federal troops built Fort Brady as a defensive post on the James River. In January 1865, Confederate ships attempted to threaten the Federal supply base downriver at City Point. Passing Fort Brady in darkness, the ships returned Union fire, disabled a large Parrot rifle, killed three Union artillerists, and wounded many in the fort. The foray, known as the battle of Trent’s Reach, ended in failure when the Confederate ironclads ran ito artillery fire and low water south of Fort Brady. — Map (db m15480) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Guns of Fort Brady
Union photographers Andrew J. Russell and T.C. Roche arrived south of Richmond in 1865 and recorded some of the most important images of Fort Brady. This view was taken from the parapet behind you and depicts the fort's fighting battery. In the six months of Fort Brady's wartime existence, these guns fired 1,356 rounds. — Map (db m32885) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Henrico CountyVirginia’s Second Settlement
In 1611, Sir Thomas Dale founded the Citie of Henricus, the second settlement in the Colony of Virginia which later became Henrico County. Henrico, named for Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales and son of King James I, became one of the original eight shires of Virginia in 1634. The county originally included land on both sides of the James River from Charles City County west to the Blue Ridge Mountains. It was later divided into ten additional counties and three cities. In 1934, exactly 300 . . . — Map (db m39688) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Hopeless Attacks
"It was a most mad enterprise, but it was ordered...It was the hottest musketry fire I was ever in. Our regiment melted under it. And we fell back sullenly-we were too exhausted and too proud to run!" Elliott Grabill, 5th United States Colored Troops "Those fellows fought well, sir. They came up at a double quick, with their guns at a right shoulder shift, and leaped into the ditch. Then they began to assist one another up the parapet and...many of them were shot down upon the . . . — Map (db m32934) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Infantry Against Infantry
Federal artillery enjoyed outstanding fields of fire at Malvern Hill. But the terrain here in front of the West House had wrinkles and hollows that could offer protection to attackers. Union General Darius N. Couch of the Fourth Corps, commanding on this side of the road, pushed his infantry in front of the cannon to defend this ground. Couch and his three brigade commanders (Howe, Abercrombie, and Palmer) had a combined 88 years of army experience. Their men each received 60 rounds of . . . — Map (db m49257) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Inside Fort BradyFort Brady – 1864
From October 1864 to April 1865 the First Connecticut Heavy Artillery was stationed here. The air shimmered with the chance of a direct hit. Almost daily, Fort Brady engaged in artillery duels with Confederate ironclads and Richmond’s outer defenses. — Map (db m15482) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Malvern Hill1862 Seven Days' Battles
(left panel) Visiting Richmond National Battlefield Park The concentration of Civil War resources found in the Richmond area is unparalleled. The National Park Service manages 13 sites, giving visitors an opportunity to examine the battlefield landscapes, to hear the stories of the combatants and civilian residents, and to understand the complex reasons why Richmond came to symbolize the heart and soul of the Confederacy. Regulations This is a partial list of park . . . — Map (db m46911) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Malvern Hill Trail
This one-and-a-half mile trail reveals one of the best preserved battlefields in the nation. More than a dozen signs describe the landscape, the progress of the battle, and its various landmarks. Parking lots at the crest of Malvern Hill and at the Parsonage ruins provide access points. If you begin at the Parsonage, you will walk the disastrous Confederate assault in the footsteps of the participants before reaching the Union line and circling back past the West House. If you start your . . . — Map (db m46910) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — HC 4 — Old Coal Pit Railroad Bed
This railroad bed carried coal from the Deep Run and Springfield Coal Pits, two miles to the northeast of here, during the nineteenth century. The line ran south for about six miles to the now abandoned Kanawha Canal on the James River. From there, the coal was transported to Richmond for domestic and industrial use. — Map (db m29574) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Powder MagazineFort Brady – 1864
Directly in front of you is the site of a powder magazine, where ammunition and gunpowder were stored. An explosion there could obliterate the fort. To bomb-proof the magazine, structural timbers were covered with a thick layer of earth. — Map (db m15483) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Richmond BattlefieldsRichmond National Battlefield Park 1862-1864
McClellan's Federals attacked in 1862, then Grant in '64, while Joseph E. Johnston and then Robert E. Lee defended. The two major assaults on the Confederate capital fanned out into a series of battles, skirmishes and marches. Tour the Battlefield Among today's suburbs remain traces of Richmond's outer defenses - forts, rifle-pits, the fields where thousands died. Visit sites close by, or use the tour route to follow the entire sequence of attacks and counterattacks. The Battles Each . . . — Map (db m34692) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Ridge Baptist Church UDC Memorial
April 3, 1953 Erected in memory of the Confederate veterans of this locality by the Chesterfield Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. The original Ridge Baptist Church building was used as a hospital during the War Between the States. — Map (db m32341) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Southern Valor vs. Union Firepower
“The battle, with all its melancholy results, proved, however, that the Confederate infantry and Federal artillery, side by side on the same field need fear no foe on earth.” Confederate General D. H. Hill As dusk approached on July 1, massed Confederate infantry made one last grand advance. Victory or defeat in the last battle of the Seven Days awaited its outcome. Dozens of Federal cannon opened fire, blasting huge gaps in the Southern ranks. Thousands fought and . . . — Map (db m46913) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Storming the Fort
... The men nobly responded to their officers' call and pour over the edge of the ditch into the dry moat, and then, scrambling up the bank, some on hands and knees, some stepping on their bayonets thrust into the clay, some on each other's shoulders, the blue column mounts the parapet, lingers a moment in a fierce blaze of musketry on its crest, and finally overflowing all barriers, pushes across the parade ground... William S. Hubbell, 21st Connecticut Infantry Captain Cecil Clay commanded . . . — Map (db m34717) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Surprise Attack
You are standing where hand-to-hand fighting erupted as Union troops stormed into Fort Harrison on September 29, 1864. On top of the fort's parapet, Gen. Hiram Burnham clutched his chest after receiving a mortal wound. General George J. Stannard's division lost about 750 men killed and wounded in the attack on Fort Harrison. Butler's army lost an addition 2,200 men in the day's fighting at other nearby forts, and at New Market Heights. Confederate losses for September 29 are estimated at 500, . . . — Map (db m32929) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — The Courthouse TodayPart of a Complex of Local Services
The need to centralize the county’s government and to provide adequate jail facilities prompted local officials to take measures to build a new complex. A dedication of the new court facility at Parham and Hungary Spring roads took place in 1974. It was followed by the construction of the County Administration Building, Juvenile Court Center, and Human Services Building. In 1988, the Government Center in Eastern Henrico opened to provide services for a growing population. In 1992, as . . . — Map (db m39691) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — The Courthouses in RichmondGrowth and Consolidation
The 1752 Henrico Courthouse, a colonial-style brick structure, was built in Richmond in the middle of 22nd and East Main streets. The Declaration of Independence was read publicly for the first time from its steps on August 5, 1776. In 1824, the courthouse was in need of repair and a committee decided to completely rebuild the structure. It opened in November of 1825 and stood in the middle of 22nd Street like its predecessor. It was described as a building 70 by 46 feet, one story high, with . . . — Map (db m39690) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — The Early Courthouses in VarinaEstablishment of Justice
During the 1620s, Henrico court meetings were referred to as the Court of Upper Charles City. After the establishment of the county in 1634, the gentlemen justices of Henrico assembled for their monthly sessions either at the home of one of their members or at a local meeting place such as a tavern or church. By 1640, the Henrico Court was meeting in Varina, and in 1680, Varina “where the court house is” was designated a town by the General Assembly. The first courthouse was . . . — Map (db m39689) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — The Farthest Advance
Two small structures used as slave quarters stood in this clearing. Some of the fiercest fighting raged around them in the twilight, as men of Paul J. Semmes’ Confederate brigade used the buildings for shelter and exchanged short-range fire with counterattacking Union troops. It is unlikely that any organized Confederate formation advanced beyond these cabins; none reached the roaring line of cannon at the hill’s crest. When July 2 dawned, a line of Southern casualties stretched across the . . . — Map (db m49258) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — The Gathering Storm
Atop this knoll Confederate General D. H. Hill had an unobstructed view to the crest of Malvern Hill. In the distance stood the West farm house and fields where Union batteries waited to dispute any Southern advance. By early afternoon Hill’s five brigades, some 6,500 men, had formed under cover of the surrounding woods and slopes along Western Run. While they waited artillery shells exploded in the treetops showering the troops with pieces of iron and falling limbs. At 1:30 General Lee . . . — Map (db m46918) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — S 31-a — Tommy Edwards1922-1969
Born Thomas Jefferson Edwards here in Henrico County on 15 Oct. 1922, African American singer-songwriter Tommy Edwards composed songs recorded by well-known performers Tony Bennett, Red Foley, Tony Fontane, and Louis Jordan. He recorded for Top and National Records before joining MGM and scoring several hits, including “It’s All in the Game,” in 1951. In 1958 an updated version of the song sold more than 3,000,000 copies. He charted 13 more songs and released 12 albums before his . . . — Map (db m29573) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Union Defensive LinesFort Brady to Fort Burnham — Fort Brady - 1864
After capturing Fort Harrison on September 29, 1864, Federal troops built a 2½-mile line of fortifications connecting the Union position from Fort Harrison (later renamed Fort Burnham) to Fort Brady here on the James River. Once the fortifications were completed, Union soldiers, including United States Colored Troops shown in this 1865 photograph, occupied these earthworks until the end of the war. — Map (db m15479) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — Union Entrenchments
Union soldiers constructed these entrenchments after the September 1864 battle. This line ran continuously south for 2.5 miles connecting Fort Harrison (Burnham) to Fort Brady on the James River. — Map (db m34715) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Henrico — SA 45 — Virginia Home for Boys
The Virginia Home for Boys is the oldest boys' home in continuous service in Virginia and the second oldest in the United States. Founded as the Richmond Male Orphan Society on 30 March 1846 for the "maintenance and instruction" of orphaned boys, it was incorporated by the General Assembly on 9 March 1847. At first located on Church Hill, it moved twice before relocating to this site in 1957. Its name was changed to the Richmond Home for Boys on 23 June 1969 and to the Virginia Home for Boys on . . . — Map (db m32332) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Highland Springs — 10 — Grapevine Bridge
Here stood Grapevine Bridge across which, on the night of June 27, 1862, part of McClellan's Army moved in changing base from the Pamunkey to the James after the Battle of Gaines' Mill. "Stonewall" Jackson pursued, June 29. — Map (db m15656) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Highland Springs — PA 138 — Highland Springs
One of Richmond's earliest streetcar suburbs, Highland Springs was founded in 1890 by Edmund Sewell Read, a wealthy real estate developer from Winthrop, Mass. He named the community for the relatively high altitude and natural springs that suited his ailing wife. Read subdivided 1,000 acres into lots and named the streets alphabetically after his favorite flora, such as Daisy, Elm, and Fern. The Seven Pines Railway Company, chartered in 1888, operated from Church Hill in Richmond east to Seven . . . — Map (db m24844) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Highland Springs — HC 8 — Locomotive Club of Richmond
In 1852, Joseph and Elizabeth Tyree owned this 400 acre tract of land known as "Woodstock." After changing hands several times, the Locomotive Club of Richmond purchased 208 acres of the property and built this clubhouse in 1925. Through the middle of the property ran the Richmond and Rappahannock Railroad. After 1977, it was known as the Confederate Hills Swim and Tennis Club. It became part of the Henrico County Recreation and Parks system in 1994. — Map (db m24858) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Highland Springs — PA 105 — Seven Days BattlesGrape Vine Bridge
Here Sumner crossed the river to reinforce the part of McClellan's army fighting at Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862. Here a part of Porter's force crossed in the night of June 27, 1862 after the battle of Gaines's Mill. Here Stonewall Jackson, rebuilding the bridges destroyed by the retreating Unionists, crossed in pursuit, June 29. — Map (db m15655) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Highland Springs — PA 125 — Seven Days BattlesGolding's Farm
Half a mile northwest occurred the action of Golding's Farm at dusk on June 27, 1862, as the battle of Gaines's Mill, on the other side of the river, was ending. The Confederates, sallying from their defenses, attacked Hancock's brigade holding the right of the Union line south of the river. A severe fight followed that was ended by darkness. — Map (db m15657) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Highland Springs — 11 — The Trent HouseMcClellan's Headquarters
In the residence of Dr. Peterfield Trent, situated about 500 yards from this road, General G.B. McClellan, U.S.A., had his headquarters in May-June, 1862. Here he planned the withdrawal to James River. — Map (db m14211) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Lakeside — E 51 — Battle of Yellow Tavern
On 11 May, 1864, Confederate cavalry commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart chose ground just east of here to engage Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, who was advancing on Richmond by way of Mountain Road. Outnumbered three to one, Stuart’s troopers stubbornly resisted until vigorous attacks spearheaded by Brig. Gen. George Armstrong Custer’s Michigan brigade broke their line. As the Confederate cavalry retired east towards Telegraph Road, Sheridan’s men broke through and . . . — Map (db m3717) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Lakeside — Major General James Ewell Brown Stuart
This monument, erected in memory of Major General James Ewell Brown Stuart, C.S.A., by his cavalrymen about thirty feet from the spot where he fell mortally wounded on May 11, 1864, was dedicated June 18, 1811, by the Governor of Virginia, Fitzhugh Lee, a former division commander in Stuart’s cavalry. Re-dedicated May 9, 1964 Henrico County Civil War Centennial Commission — Map (db m15501) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Lakeside — E9 — Stuart’s Mortal Wound
One half mile to the to the east, on the old Telegraph Road, is a monument marking the field where General J.E.B. Stuart was mortally wounded on May 11, 1864. The monument was erected by veterans of Stuart’s Cavalry in 1888. — Map (db m3715) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Lakeside — E 9 — Stuart’s Mortal Wound
Late in the afternoon of 11 May 1864, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, the famous Confederate cavalry commander, was mortally wounded just east of here on Old Telegraph Road while rallying the left of his line during the Battle of Yellow Tavern. As three Michigan regiments of Brig. Gen. George Armstrong Custer’s brigade fell back after an unsuccessful frontal charge, Pvt. John A. Huff, 5th Michigan Cavalry, fired the shot that struck Stuart in the abdomen. Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee assumed command of . . . — Map (db m3718) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Lakeside — Yellow TavernStuart’s Last Battle — Lee Vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign
While Grant and Lee fought at Spotsylvania, Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took 12,000 Federal cavalry on a raid toward Richmond. After destroying a large Confederate supply depot at Beaver Dam Station, Sheridan’s troopers met 4,000 Southern cavalrymen under Gen. J.E.B. Stuart near here at Yellow Tavern on May 11, 1864. Union cavalry attacked from the west and in heavy hand-to-hand fighting drove Gen. Lunsford Lomax’s Brigade from Telegraph Road before pushing northward. Late in the day, while the . . . — Map (db m3713) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Mechanicsville — Z 147 — Hanover County / Henrico County
Hanover County Area 512 Square Miles Formed in 1720 from New Kent, and named for the Electorate of Hanover. Patrick Henry and Henry Clay were born in this county. In it were fought the battles of Gaines's Mill, 1862, and Cold Harbor, 1864. Henrico County Area 280 Square Miles An original shire formed in 1634. Named for Henrico Town, founded in 1611, which was named for Henry, Prince of Wales. The Battles of Seven Pines, Savage's Station, Glendale and Malvern Hill, 1862, took . . . — Map (db m15455) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V 48 — Action at Osborne's
On 27 April 1781, Brig. Gen. Benedict Arnold led the British army's 76th and 80th Regiments, the Queen's Rangers, and some other units in an assault at Osborne's in Chesterfield County. The Americans posted a number of Virginia Navy ships near here in a line across the James River to oppose the advance. American militia also had positions in this region. Following the attack of the British by land and water, the Americans retreated. Several ships loaded with cargo fell into British hands while . . . — Map (db m9607) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 104-a — Adèle Goodman Clark
Adèle Goodman Clark fought tirelessly to champion both women’s rights and the arts in Virginia. Clark gained prominence for pro-suffrage speeches and writings as a founding member in 1909 of the Equal Suffrage League of Virginia. She used her artwork to entice attendants to League events and took leadership roles in national suffrage organizations. In 1916, she and fellow Richmond artist Nora Houston established the Atelier, a training ground for a generation of Virginia artists. Clark promoted . . . — Map (db m47379) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — SA 30 — Ampthill
A short distance south is Ampthill House, built by Henry Cary about 1730 on the south side of James River. It was the home of Colonel Archibald Cary, Revolutionary leader, and was removed to its present site by a member of the Cary family. — Map (db m20529) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Battle at Meadow BridgeForcing a Crossing
On May 12, 1864, this crossing of the Chickahominy River was the scene of a sharp engagement between Union and Confederate cavalry The previous day, Gen. Philip Sheridan and his Union troopers fought and defeated Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and his Confederate cavalry near Yellow Tavern. Stuart was mortally wounded during that battle. That evening, under cover of darkness and a heavy thunderstorm, Sheridan led his troopers south, through the outer defenses of Richmond and into a potentially dangerous . . . — Map (db m15217) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Battle of Darbytown RoadLee’s Last Advance North of the James
A massive two-pronged Union attack on September 29, 1864, captured New Market Heights and a section of Richmond’s outer defenses including Fort Harrison. Not wishing to concede a vital part of his line to the enemy, Confederate commander Robert E. Lee ordered a counterattack the next day. The assault failed miserably. Undaunted, Lee ordered a second attempt. On October 7, with cavalry and two divisions of infantry, Lee attempted to regain the lost fortifications around Fort Harrison. It would . . . — Map (db m3688) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-26 — Belmont
Edward J. Warren, a farmer, was the first owner of the house on 100 acres in 1858. Warren, a private in the 34th Virginia Infantry, was captured by Union troops and held prisoner at Fort Monroe. The property is first referred to as Belmont in the 1880s while owned by New York native William Coggeshall. The house and property became the Hermitage Country Club in 1916 and remained so until the early 1970s. In 1977, Henrico County purchased the site from Hermitage Country Club and opened it as Belmont Recreation Center and Golf Course. — Map (db m24750) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Black Troops Attack at Chaffin’s FarmFort Gilmer – 1864
Confederate Fort Gilmer loomed as a major obstacle to any advance on Richmond. On the afternoon of September 29, 1864, several regiments of black troops stormed these works only to be driven back. A portion of the 7th United States Colored Troops, which was their official army designation, made the last of three bloody assaults and managed to reach the deep moat outside the fort’s outer wall. Nearly the entire command was killed, wounded, or captured. The fighting here was just one of several . . . — Map (db m24823) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Bombproof and CasemateFort Harrison – 1864
Bombproof Federal soldiers are standing at the entrance to a bombproof, built of earth-covered logs to shelter troops during bombardment. Magazines of similar construction stored powder and ammunition. Casemate This gun embrasure was heavily timbered and covered with earth to shield it from enemy mortar fire. The enclosed gun position was called a casemate. — Map (db m15487) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 4 — Brook Road
According to tradition, the Marquis de Lafayette marched his colonial troops from the north into Richmond on portions of present-day Brook Road late in April 1781. Established in 1812, the Brook Turnpike Company constructed a turnpike along this route from Richmond to Dabney Williamson's tavern in the vicinity of present-day Solomons Store in Henrico County. It was one of the earliest toll roads in Virginia and it improved the transport of goods between Richmond and the northern region of . . . — Map (db m15847) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V 16 — Campaign of 1781
The roads through Henrico County were important routes for the Revolutionary War campaign of 1781. To avoid British Gen. Charles Cornwallis's troops advancing from Petersburg, the Marquis de Lafayette left Richmond by 27 May and marched northward through Henrico. Cornwallis bivouacked at White Oak Swamp on the 27th, before continuing the pursuit of Lafayette. In mid June, Cornwallis joined Lt. Gen. Banastre Tarleton near Richmond, where they occupied the city by 16 June. The British troops left . . . — Map (db m15853) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-27 — Cedar Hill
Cedar Hill was constructed ca. 1820 and originally stood off Creighton Road near the Hanover County line. During the Civil War, units of Kershaw's Division of the Army of the Confederate States set up camp at Cedar Hill and built fortifications on the property. In 1998 when the house was moved it was one of only 10 remaining one-and-a-half-story frame houses existing in Henrico from the early 19th century. Cedar Hill was donated to the Henrico County Historical Society by St. Paul's . . . — Map (db m36265) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — W 3 — Charles City Road
This strategically important road ran from the Williamsburg Road southeast past White's Tavern, across White Oak Swamp, and into the Riddell's Shop intersection with the Long Bridge and Darbytown roads, eight miles distant. As Gen. Robert E. Lee's forces converged on Riddell's Shop on 29-30 June 1862 to cut off Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's retreating Union army, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Huger's Confederate division moved along the Charles City Road, which had been obstructed by felled trees. After . . . — Map (db m15923) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Chickahominy BluffRichmond Battlefield — Richmond Nat’l Battlefield Pk – 1862/64
On this ridge overlooking the Chickahominy River, General Lee, President Davis, and many other prominent Confederate officers gathered to await the start of the operations that came to be called the Seven Days Campaign. They expected “Stonewall” Jackson’s 20,000-man army to get behind the Union position near Mechanicsville, to force the Federal Fifth Corps out of its defenses. General A. P. Hill then would clear the river crossings, allowing the bulk of Lee’s army to unite with . . . — Map (db m14977) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Chickahominy Bluff1862 Seven Days' Battles
(left panel) Visiting Richmond National Battlefield Park The concentration of Civil War resources found in the Richmond area is unparalleled. The National Park Service manages 13 sites, giving visitors an opportunity to examine the battlefield landscapes, to hear the stories of the combatants and civilian residents, and to understand the complex reasons why Richmond came to symbolize the heart and soul of the Confederacy. Regulations This is a partial list of . . . — Map (db m34663) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Civil War Balloonists
Dedicated to the intrepid and patriotic men: the Civil War Balloonists, Union and Confederate, known and unknown who against ridicule and skepticism laid the foundation for this nation’s future in the sky. Inscribed hereon are the names of those who are known Erected May 30, 1962, by the City of Richmond, Virginia on the field where a century ago, a battle raged as one of these pioneers served aloft — Map (db m24824) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Confederate BulwarkFort Johnson - 1864
Fort Johnson was perfectly situated to protect Richmond. From this commanding ridge the Confederate garrison looked out across the treeless landscape that offered an open field of fire for their guns. A deep ditch protected by sharpened stakes added to the defense. The test came on September 29, 1864. That morning Federal troops captured nearby Fort Harrison, then turned their attention to Fort Johnson. From here Confederate gunners opened fire at the massing blue lines. Just before the Union . . . — Map (db m15087) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Confederate Fortifications
These northernmost fortifications along Brook Road operated as an early warning system for Confederate troops defending Richmond. Earthworks designed for artillery, located on each side of the road, blocked sudden enemy advances against the capital. A shallow trench line protecting infantrymen with rifles connected them. If necessary, both soldiers and cannons at this forward position could be withdrawn to the Intermediate Line. The walls, or parapets, of this battery position were originally . . . — Map (db m15945) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — CounterattackFort Harrison – 1864
The day after Federals captured Fort Harrison, Robert E. Lee personally directed savage Confederate counterattacks against this section of earthworks. Union forces had already closed and strengthened the rear of the fort. Armed with new repeating rifles, the Union troops held their ground. In the space of three hours they repulsed three Confederate assaults. — Map (db m15485) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V 3 — Curles Neck and Bremo
Curles Neck may take its name from the curls of the river or a family of that name. Richard Cocke, the Immigrant, patented land along the James River on the eastern side of the neck in 1636. There he built Bremo, the seat of the Cocke family for six generations. A descendant, John Hartwell Cock, relocated the family seat to Upper Bremo, in Fluvanna County early in the 19th century. In 1674 Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., the Rebel, settled on Curles Neck. In 1676 Bacon led a rebellion against the royal . . . — Map (db m9243) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Dabbs HouseLee’s First Headquarters — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
In May 1862, Gen. George McClellan’s Union army was poised on the outskirts of Richmond threatening the Confederate capital. Here, in the Dabbs House, Robert E. Lee, as new commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, opened his headquarters on June 1, 1862. Four days later, he had shaped the strategy that would free Richmond from the Army of the Potomac. Two notable conferences occurred here. The first, on June 11, brought cavalryman Gen. J.E.B. Stuart to plan with Lee the famous ride around . . . — Map (db m15930) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — SA 31 — Dahlgren's Raid
Col. Ulric Dahlgren's Union cavalry passed through this area late in the evening of 1 March 1864 before defeating the Richmond Armory Battalion at the Battle of Green's Farm, just south on Three Chopt Road. Dahlgren led his command toward Richmond on the Westham Plank Road (now Cary Street Road) for about half a mile. At Hicks's Farm, five miles from Capitol Square, about 420 of his cavalrymen encountered the local defense troops of the Departmental Battalion and the remnants of the Armory . . . — Map (db m16013) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — W 1 — Darbytown Road
During the Seven Days' Campaign, Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's and Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill's Confederate divisions moved east along Darbytown Road toward its junction with the Long Bridge Road. This junction is about three miles southwest of Riddell's Shop. Late on the afternoon of 30 June 1862, Longstreet's and Hill's divisions moved up the Long Bridge Road and attacked Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's retreating Union army at Riddell's Shop (Glendale or Frayser's Farm) on Darbytown Road. — Map (db m15921) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — W 101 — Darbytown Road / Pioneer Baptist Church
The Battle of Darbytown Road, 7 Oct. 1864, was the last large Confederate offensive north of the James River. Gen. Robert E. Lee personally supervised the operation. Attacking from the west astride the Darbytown Road, Lee’s infantry shattered the right flank of the Union army under Brig. Gen. August V. Kautz. Fleeing Union artillery batteries encountered the swampy headwaters of Four Mile Creek in the woods near Pioneer Baptist Church. The Confederates captured eight cannon there. Lee’s attack . . . — Map (db m16302) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Deep Bottom LandingA Vital Link
After the Battle of Cold Harbor in June 1864, Grant and Lee shifted their armies to Petersburg; but Grant did not wish to abandon the Richmond front entirely. He had Gen. Benjamin Butler position a small force from his Army of the James here at Deep Bottom Landing to protect the pontoon bridge which allowed Union forces to move back and forth across the James River. As part of an overall strategy to defeat Lee’s main army at Petersburg, Federal detachments launched attacks from here on July . . . — Map (db m15697) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Defending Richmond
"The fortifications constructed by the Confederate army in this vicinity & about Richmond are miles in extent & I must add that they are as strong, if not the strongestin the world." - Julian Scott, Union Army Veteran May 1865 From the war's beginning, Confederate authorities struggled with the question of how to defend Richmond. It lay vulnerable to approaches from every direction. Engineers eventually devised an integrated series of earthen fortifications. The Exterior Line nearly . . . — Map (db m55720) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Emek Sholom Holocaust Memorial — Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999
On November 6, 1955, the New American Jewish Club, a group of immigrants and survivors of the Nazi purge of European Jewry, gathered here to unveil the three center sections of this Holocaust memorial, one of the first such memorials in North America. These new citizens of the USA, having settled in Richmond, Virginia, placed here the names of 200 family members who perished in the Holocaust, whose final resting places are forever unknown. On November 7, 1999, two flanking panels were . . . — Map (db m74268) HM WM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 104 — Emmanuel Church at Brook Hill Episcopal
Built directly west by John Stewart of Brook Hill and consecrated by the Right Reverend John Johns on 6 July 1860, Emmanuel Church (Episcopal) is a classic example of late-antebellum Gothic Revival architecture. Considerable military activity took place nearby during the Civil War, when troops from both sides occupied the church. Wounded soldiers were treated there, and many Confederate soldiers lie buried in the cemetery. The Right Reverend Richard Hooker Wilmer, second bishop of Alabama and . . . — Map (db m24729) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — PA 240 — Engagement at Malvern Cliffs
On 30 June 1862, as Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his troops to attack Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's retreating Union army at Glendale, Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes brigade of Confederate troops moved down New Market Road on Lee's right. Union forces on Malvern Hill noticed dust rising above the trees and suspected the movement of the Confederates on New Market Road. As he advanced, Holmes observed the Union troops atop Malvern Hill to the east and deployed his artillery and infantry. . . . — Map (db m9247) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Fort Harrison TrailFort Harrison - 1862/1864
Both Federals and Confederates occupied this fort. Originally these earthworks were part of the 1862 Richmond line of defense. When Federal troops overran the fort in 1864, they built more than half the earthworks you will see on the tour, and defended them till the end of the war. — Map (db m15484) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Gabriel’s Insurrection
Just to the north where Brook Road crosses Brook Run creek was the rendezvous point for the largest U.S. slave revolt ever planned. It was to be here on August 30, 1800, that Gabriel, a slave from nearby Brookfield Plantation, called for hundreds of followers from across Virginia to gather after slaying their masters for a march on Richmond. The plan called for killing the white population, capturing Governor James Monroe and seizing weapons at the state magazine. The scheme collapsed when a . . . — Map (db m15944) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Gabriel’s RebellionA Failed Insurrection
Adjacent to this park, in a location known as Young’s Spring (1), Gabriel, a slave of Thomas Prosser, was appointed leader of the rebellion in the summer of 1800. He lived on Brookfield Plantation (2) in Henrico County. His objectives were to overtake the capital and convince Governor James Monroe to support more political, social, and economic equality between members of society. Gabriel targeted area slaves, white artisans, freemen, religious supporters and French sympathizers as recruits for . . . — Map (db m24744) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 102 — Gabriel's Rebellion
Gabriel, a slave of Thomas Prosser of nearby Brookfield plantation, planned a slave insurrection against Richmond on 30 Aug. 1800. The slaves intended to kidnap Governor James Monroe and compel him to support political, social, and economic equality but intense rains delayed the insurgents' scheme. Mosby Sheppard, of Meadow Farm, informed of the plot by family slaves Tom and Pharaoh, dispatched a warning letter to the governor. Monroe called out the militia and Gabriel, his plans foiled, fled . . . — Map (db m15850) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-14 — George Thorpe
On April 3, 1620, The London Company hired George Thorpe to manage the land and tenants for the proposed "university and college" on 11,000 acres on the north bank of the James River above Henrico Town. The agricultural activities of the tenants supported the school, which was established to Christianize American Indian children and introduce them to English culture. Indian attackers killed Thorpe and 347 Virginia colonists on March 22, 1622 at the beginning of the Anglo-Powhatan War. The event . . . — Map (db m9606) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 3-a — Grace Evelyn Arents
Grace Arents was a visionary social reformer and philanthropist whose quiet determination and generosity transformed Richmond. Her passions were children, nature, books, architecture, and her church. To aid the poor, “Miss Grace” established the city's first public housing and visiting nurse system; built schools, a gym, a playground, a kindergarten, and churches, introducing a sweeping array of health, educational, and vocational reforms. She also built Richmond's first free . . . — Map (db m54174) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-29 — Henrico Town
In 1611, Sir Thomas Dale established the second English settlement in Virginia called Henrico in honor of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, son of King James I. The town was located four miles southwest on a peninsula of high land on the James River. A ditch was constructed across the neck of land and a fence surrounded the town. "Henricus Citie" contained "three streets of well-framed houses, a handsome church, store houses, a hospital, and watchtowers." After the Anglo-Powhatan War began in . . . — Map (db m9612) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 2 — Intermediate Defenses
Here ran, east and west, the intermediate line of Richmond defenses during the Civil War. Near this spot on 1 March 1864 Union Brig. Gen. H. Judson Kilpatrick halted his raid that was intended to free Union prisoners and lower morale in the Confederate capital. A detachment led by Col. Ulric Dahlgren was defeated to the west of the city. On 2 March Dahlgren was killed; Southern morale soared. — Map (db m16010) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-22 — John Marshall's Farm
Near this location stood Chickahominy Farm, the country residence of U.S. Chief Justice John Marshall. Spending weekends at the farm with his wife, Marshall wrote that farming provided many hours of "laborious relaxation." Born in 1775, Marshall fought in the Revolutionary War before studying law under George Wythe. As a Henrico County representative at the 1788 Virginia convention, Marshall voted for ratification of the U.S. Constitution. During his 34-year tenure as Chief Justice (1801-1835) . . . — Map (db m20730) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — SA 57 — Joseph Bryan Park
Before becoming a park, this property was part of the Young family's Westbrook estate in the 1700s and later Rosewood, home of the Mordecai family. It was a gathering place for participants in Gabriel's Rebellion in 1800. During the Civil War, Confederate troops camped here. Belle Stewart Bryan purchased this site in 1909 and donated it to the city of Richmond in memory of her husband, Richmond Times publisher Joseph Bryan. The park was designed in the English Naturalistic landscape . . . — Map (db m24751) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — EA 3 — Laurel Historic District
Laurel, first named Hungary Station, was the location of a spur railroad line to the coal fields in western Henrico County. During the Civil War the station here was burned, and Colonel Ulrich Dahlgren's body was secretly buried here in March 1864 and later reinterred in Philadelphia. Nearby stood the first public school in Henrico County. In 1890 the Laurel Industrial School for Boys was established here as an alternative to imprisonment. Several nearby buildings served the institution, later . . . — Map (db m10650) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V 32 — Nathaniel Bacon
Bacon was born in 1647 in Suffolk, England, and was educated at Cambridge University. He came to Virginia in 1673 and settled near here on the north bank of the James River at Curles Neck. In 1676 Bacon led a force of citizen-soldiers against Indians on Virginia's frontier, contrary to the policy of Governor William Berkeley. After Bacon defeated several tribes, he and his followers, branded rebels by Berkeley, captured and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion collapsed after Bacon died of a fever in October 1676. — Map (db m9242) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-11 — New Market Road
Legend indicates that the road was once an Indian trail. In the early nineteenth century, a "new market" was established in Richmond to replace the old one in Williamsburg. This road was eventually referred to as New Market Road. The 1819 Wood's map of Henrico names a village called New Market near the current intersection of New Market and Kingsland Roads. Originally called River Road, the name changed to New Market Road prior to the printing of the 1853 Smith's map of Henrico County. In . . . — Map (db m9241) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-32 — Nine Mile Road
First known as New Bridge Road, the name “Nine Mile” comes from the distance between Richmond and Seven Pines ending at Williamsburg Road. In 1888, Richmond City and Seven Pines Railway Company established a route along the road. This line provided city access for Henrico citizens and excursion trains for Richmonders. In 1892, the line was electrified for streetcars two years after developer Edmund Read founded Highland Springs. The federal government purchased the line in 1918 to . . . — Map (db m53979) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 114 — Old Dominion Building
William Lawrence Bottomley (1883-1951), the well-known architect who planned a number of sophisticated Colonial Revival houses for wealthy Richmond-area clients, also designed this large utilitarian structure. In 1946, Atlantic Rural Exposition, Inc., had it built for the State Fair of Virginia for approximately $116,000 on property then known as Strawberry Hill. The building features a two-story oval exhibition space capped by a hipped roof with twin cupolas, and has been referred to as a . . . — Map (db m29193) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V 17 — Outer Defenses
By 1864, a complex series of fortifications north of Richmond and the James River protected the capital of the Confederacy. The outer line of western defenses crossed the road (then called the Deep Run Turnpike) here. The intermediate defensive line stood about three miles southeast and the inner line a mile farther, well within the present-day limits of Richmond. On 1 March 1864, Union Col. Ulric Dahlgren briefly penetrated the outer line to the southwest on Three Chopt Road during his . . . — Map (db m16012) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — O 5 — Outer Fortifications
On the hilltops here ran the outer line of Richmond fortifications, 1862-1865. — Map (db m14971) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 6 — Outer Fortifications
The Exterior Line of Richmond's Civil War defenses crossed Brook Road near here. Occasional Union cavalry raids threatened from the north, making this portion of the city's elaborate earthen defenses especially significant. Union troops briefly captured this line on three occasion; during Stoneman's Raid in May 1863; during the Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid in March 1864; and during Sheridan's Raid in May 1864. In each case, Confederate authorities elected not to defend this ground, and the Union horsemen eventually swerved away from the city. — Map (db m47370) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-43 — Pleasants V. Pleasants
John Pleasants, Sr., nearby landowner and Quaker, requested in his will that his slaves be freed when each became 30 years old. Pleasants died in 1771, but it was not until 1782 that some of his slaves gained freedom when the Virginia General Assembly approved private manumissions. His son, Robert Pleasants, and a few other heirs freed close to 100 slaves in multiple counties. Robert Pleasants attempted to get all of the family to honor the will's stipulations, which culminated in 1798 when the . . . — Map (db m9604) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V 28 — Pocahontas
Matoaka, nicknamed Pocahontas ("playful one"), the daughter of Powhatan, was born about 1595. At age eleven, she befriended Captain John Smith and later visited the English colonists. In 1613 Samuel Argall kidnapped Pocahontas to use her as a negotiating pawn. According to tradition, she was brought to Henrico Town and cared for by the Rev. Alexander Whitaker. She was baptized and renamed Rebecca, and on 5 April 1614 she married John Rolfe. In 1616, Rolfe and their son Thomas accompanied her to . . . — Map (db m9613) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V 49 — Powhatan
In this vicinity is believed to be the birthplace of Wahunsunacock, better known as Powhatan. A village stood nearby that also bore the name Powhatan. By the time the English arrived in 1607, Powhatan was acknowledged as the paramount chief of about 30 districts, with more than 150 villages. His dominions, called Tsenacomoco, stretched approximately to the Potomac River in the north and to the fall line of the rivers to the west, and from just south of the James River eastward to the Atlantic . . . — Map (db m16300) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-30 — Proposed First University in English America
A "University and College" was authorized by the Virginia Company charter of 1618 at Henrico Town but never opened. Some 10,000 acres on the James River upstream from the new town were to provide agricultural income for the school. The college's mission was to Christianize Indian children and train them in "true Religion moral virtue and Civility." The Anglo-Powhatan War that began in 1622, the revocation of the Virginia Company's charter in 1624, and the lack of royal support for the project . . . — Map (db m9610) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 1 — Richmond DefencesIntermediate Line
Here ran the intermediate line of Richmond defences. Built in 1862-64, these defences included 25 inner forts and batteries, beyond which this continuous earthwork encircled the city. The third or outer line was distant from the capitol 4 to 7 miles. Out this road the two divisions of D.H. Hill and of James Longstreet followed Gen. R.E. Lee on June 26, 1862, for the opening battle of the Seven Days' Campaign. — Map (db m14218) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 35 — Richmond DefencesKilpatrick’s Raid
At this point, where the intermediate line of the Richmond defences crossed Brook Road, Confederate forces on March 1, 1864, repulsed Kilpatrick’s Raid, undertaken to release Federal prisoners in Richmond. On the same day, another column, under Col. Ulric Dahlgren was driven back on the Cary Street Road. — Map (db m14243) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 36 — Richmond DefencesThe Dahlgren Raid
Here March 1, 1864, two regiments of Confederate local defence troops under Col. John McAnerney defeated Federal cavalry under Col. Ulric Dahlgren, who sought to destroy Richmond and to release Federal prisoners there. On the same day Kilpatrick was repulsed on Brook Road. — Map (db m14244) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 43 — Richmond DefencesCrossing of the Intermediate Line
Near this spot the Eastern face of the Intermediate Line of the Richmond Defences crossed the Williamsburg Road. About one-fourth mile Eastward was the Junction of Williamsburg and Charles City Roads, two of the main lines of the Federal advance on the Confederate capital. — Map (db m14252) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 48 — Richmond DefencesIntermediate Line
At this point the Intermediate Line of the Confederate defences of Richmond crossed this, the Darbytown Road. This line was continuous around Richmond and lay between the outer defensive system and the inner forts. — Map (db m14257) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 33 — Richmond DefencesThe Outer Line
Here the outer line of the Confederate defences of Richmond crossed Brook Road. This line, here distant five miles from the capitol, was built in 1862-64 and extended in a half-circle from the James River near the present University of Richmond to Chaffin’s Bluff on the same river, below the city. — Map (db m16007) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 34 — Richmond DefencesThe Outer Line
Here stood part of the outer line of the Confederate defences of Richmond, built in 1862-64. On the right the line crossed Brook Road and ran North and South along the ridge where Emmanuel church stands. On the left it extended four miles Westward, thence South to James River. — Map (db m16008) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Richmond Locomotive Works
We thank you for your support This building was once the home of the Richmond Locomotive Works, one of the world's most famous steam locomotive builders. Steam engines powered the industrial revolution in the United States, and Richmond-made steam locomotives carried an enormous quantity of manufactured products across the country and around the world. The pieces you see here were all integral parts of the Richmond Locomotive Works assembly line, which . . . — Map (db m32339) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Rocketts Landing
East 1607-1707 Native Settlements and Early Colonization May 24, 1607: days after landing at Jamestown, Christopher Newport left his fellow English colonists to explore the James River. Accompanied by “five gentlemen, four marines and 14 sailors,” Newport boarded their shallop and headed upriver. The discoverers hoped to find a passageway to the Pacific, but found instead a village near the center of the Powhatan Confederacy. Its leader, Parahunt (Little . . . — Map (db m54831) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 108 — Saint Joseph’s Villa
Saint Joseph’s Villa, founded 25 Nov. 1834 and incorporated 3 Oct. 1868, is one of the oldest-operating children’s institutions in the United States. For 143 years administered by the Catholic Daughters of Charity as an orphanage and girls’ school, it first was located at 4th and Marshall Streets in downtown Richmond. Boys were first admitted in 1919. Railroad magnate Maj. James H. Dooley endowed Saint Joseph’s in 1922. The current campus opened in a new facility in 1931 as the first . . . — Map (db m1919) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — PA 163 — Seven Days BattlesGlendale (Frayser's Farm)
Here stood the center of Longstreet's line of battle in the afternoon of June 30, 1862. The Confederates, coming from the west, attacked the Union line just beyond. The battle lasted all afternoon, with varying fortunes and much hand-to-hand fighting. Near nightfall Longstreet sent in A. P. Hill to relieve his exhausted men. — Map (db m16180) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Seven Days' Battles Begin
By the final week of June 1862, the Union army lay sprawled east of Richmond, on both sides of the flooded Chickahominy River. General George B. McClellan planned to move that army within artillery range of Richmond; Confederate leader Robert E. Lee was determined to drive McClellan away from the city, even if that meant fighting a major battle. A fractured nation watched these events with intense interest. Would the war end in the summer of 1862? Lee’s bold gamble on June 26 temporarily . . . — Map (db m34665) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 3 — Sheridan Maneuvers East
In 1864, Brook Road provided the most direct avenue of approach from the north for Union cavalry raids on Richmond. After defeating Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart's Confederate cavalry at Yellow Tavern, four miles north of here, on 11 May 1864, Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan penetrated Richmond's outer defensive line on the heights above Brook Run, a half mile north. Advancing southward on Brook Road, Sheridan's force encountered Richmond's inner defensive line, near present-day . . . — Map (db m54168) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-16 — Skipwith Academy
Grey Skipwith, Sr., a midshipman in the Confederate navy purchased the original site, formerly "Fort Hill", a Civil War parade ground, in 1890. Lord Alfred Bosson designed Bekeby, an English style Tudor mansion, in 1927 for Admiral Grey Skipwith, Jr. The architecture of this home boasts 14-inch walls, 3 sandstone mantel fireplaces and a circular turret stairway with leaded stained glass windows painted with medieval scenes. A curved driveway to the mansion originally wound through wooded . . . — Map (db m25611) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Spring ParkHealing Waters
The earliest record of the property shows that Samuel Williamson owned the 400 acre tract in 1796. His son, Dabney, who inherited the property, owned a slave by the name Lewis who participated in Gabriel’s Rebellion in 1800. Lewis attempted to persuade comrades to free those arrested shortly after the rebellion unraveled. He was tried and deported. The first notation of the site being a mineral spring appears on a map in 1810. Later it is referred to as a sulphur spring. The Bloomingdale . . . — Map (db m24748) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Stuart's RidePassing through the Lines — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
(Preface): In May 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan led the Army of the Potomac up the Peninsula to the gates of Richmond. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in June and began planning a counterattack. On June 12, Gen. J.E.B. Stuart led 1,200 cavalrymen on a daring 3-day reconnaissance and discovered that the Union right flank was unsecured. Stuart's "Ride around McClellan" gave Lee the vital information he needed to launch the offensive . . . — Map (db m55719) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Surprise AttackFort Harrison – 1864
In the predawn darkness Federal soldiers storm over this outer wall. Hundreds of Confederates are asleep in their tents. Although the Federals are able to overrun Fort Harrison, General Hiram Burnham, commanding the lead brigade is killed. His troops rename the captured earthworks Fort Burnham. The fall of Fort Harrison on September 29, 1864, forces Lee to bring in more troops and build new entrenchments to stitch up Richmond’s weakened line of defense. — Map (db m15090) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V 40 — Surrender of Richmond
At daybreak on 3 April 1865, Federal troops formed to march into Richmond. A cavalry detachment under Majors Atherton H. Stevens, Jr. and Eugene E. Graves moved up the Osborne Turnpike to its junction with New Market Road. Here they met Richmond mayor Joseph Mayo, who handed Stevens a note of surrender for the city. Stevens accepted the note and had it forwarded to Maj. Gen. Godfrey Weitzel. At 8:15 A.M. at Richmond's city hall, Weitzel formally accepted the terms of surrender. The Union forces . . . — Map (db m16298) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — 12 — The Dabb HouseGeneral Lee's Headquarters.
In the residence at the end of this lane, General R.E. Lee had headquarters from June 1 to June 26, 1862. Hither for conference came “Stonewall” Jackson, Longstreet, Stuart, A.P. Hill, D.H. Hill and other of his lieutenants. Here the plan for the Seven Days’ Campaign was drawn. — Map (db m15929) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-20 — The Flood of 1771
On May 27, 1771, a wall of water came roaring down the James River valley following ten to twelve days of intensive rain. As water swept through Richmond, buildings, boats, animals, and vegetation were lost. About one hundred fifty people were killed as the river reached a flood stage of forty-five feet above normal. A monument to the flood was inscribed by Ryland Randolph, of Curles, in 1771-72: "... all the great rivers of this country were swept by inundations never before experienced which . . . — Map (db m9248) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — The Fort ParapetFort Harrison – 1864
Fort Harrison (renamed Fort Burhham) as it appeared in 1864-65. At the time of construction, Fort Harrison was surrounded by open fields. — Map (db m15486) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — The Fort Under Attack
The Confederate fortifications at Brook Hill were occupied forceably three times by Union cavalry during the Civil War. The initial raid during the night of May 4, 1863 by General Stoneman’s troops was of relatively little consequence. On March 1, 1864 General Judson Kilpatrick with 3,500 cavalrymen seized this fort and shelled the inner defense line from here in preparation for an assault upon Richmond that failed. Finally, on May 11, 1864, 12,000 Federals commanded by General Philip Sheridan, . . . — Map (db m15946) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC 23 — The Markel Building
The Markel Corporation commissioned architect Haig Jamgochian, a Richmond native, to design their headquarters in 1962. The aluminum clad conical structure was inspired by a baked potatto wrapped in foil served to Jamgochian while attending an American Institute of Architect's dinner. Each floor consists of a single piece of 555-foot aluminum. They are the longest unbroken pieces of aluminum ever used as siding material. Jamgochian personally sledge-hammered crinkles into the 3rd floor siding . . . — Map (db m25620) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — The Seven Days BeginChickahominy Bluff – 1862
June 26, 1862 “We expect to be in Richmond in a fortnight,” writes a young officer in the 7th Maine. With Federal troops close enough to set their watches by Richmond’s church bells, General Robert E. Lee orders his men to strengthen the city’s defensive earthworks. Lee is gambling. While a small force holds these entrenchments, Lee intends to use most of his army to spring a counterattack. Across the Chickahominy River, near Mechanicsville, begins the second in the . . . — Map (db m14972) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Three-Chopt Road
This boulder marks the beginning of the Three-Chopt Road The British Legion under Command of Lieutenant Colonel Tarleton, passed over this road in June, 1781, when returning from the raid upon Charlottesville. Along the intersecting River Road, Earl Cornwallis led his force from the Point of Fork. The two forces united in the vicinity of this site, and entered Richmond. On June 20, 1781, Cornwallis evacuated Richmond, and marched toward Williamsburg. An old road is the soul of . . . — Map (db m16048) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V 5 — Turkey Island
Soon after landing at Jamestown in May 1607. Captain Christopher Newport, while exploring the James River discovered Turkey Island (two miles south). He named it for the large number of wild turkeys there. In 1684, William Randolph purchased Turkey Island; it then became the seat of the Randolph family. His descendants included Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, and Robert E. Lee. Robert Pickett acquired Turkey Island in 1836. During the Civil War, the large family dwelling was burned by Union . . . — Map (db m9249) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Turkey Island Mansionca. 1768
Archeologists uncovered building foundations near this location of a house believed to have been designed by Ryland Randolph in the late 1760s. Ryland Randolph (1738-1784) was the great-grandson of Pocahontas and the grandson of William Randolph and Mary Isham. William and Mary established themselves at Turkey Island in 1670. Built of brick, the central portion of the house was two stories high and capped by a large cupola or dome. The symmetry of the side wings, hipped roof and interior end . . . — Map (db m70544) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — SA 41 — Union Army Enters Richmond
Here Maj. Gen. Godfrey Weitzel, commander of the Army of the James, entered and took possession of Richmond at 8:15 A.M. on 3 April 1865 after receiving the surrender of the confederate capital a few miles east. The first units of Weitzel's command to enter the city were six regiments of Brig. Gen. Edward H. Ripley's 1st Brigade of the XXIVth Army Corps, and U.S. Colored Troops from infantry and cavalry regiments of the XXVth Army Corps. During the next twenty-four hours, the Union troops . . . — Map (db m15698) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-33 — Varina
The name derives from the resemblance of the tobacco introduced and grown by John Rolfe in 1614 to a variety grown in Varina, Spain. Varina was established as a town in 1680 and became the civil, judicial, and ecclesiastical center of Henrico County. The town became the county seat and included the first courthouse and jail, dunking stool, tavern, ferry, and racetrack, as well as Henrico Parish's church and glebe. In 1752 the county seat was moved to Richmond. The town of Varina was located on . . . — Map (db m9608) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — W 181 — Virginia Air National Guard
In 1947, Virginia received its first Air Guard unit designated as the 149th Fighter Squadron. Founded by the Virginia legislature in 1946 and recognized by the National Guard Bureau in 1947, it is directly descended from the historic 328th Fighter Squadron which earned numerous commendations for combat in Europe during World War II. The Virginia units were activated during the Korean War and the 1961 Berlin Crisis. As part of the 192d Fighter Group, it flew missions in Bosnia and Iraq after the attacks of 11 September 2001. — Map (db m24852) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — Well
This depression is all that remains of a well that was dug to provide water for the soldiers of Fort Harrison. It was probably built by Confederates before the battle, and like the fort was captured on September 29, 1864. — Map (db m15493) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — HC-19 — Westwood Club
Derived from a 1921 design by renowned golf architect Donald Ross, Westwood Golf Club served the public from 1927 to the mid-1930's. Following a change in ownership, Westwood Supper Club occupied the clubhouse from 1936 until 1950, when the Officers Club of Virginia acquired the site. Eventually extending membership to non-military families and continually expanding, the facility emerged in 1967 as Westwood Racquet Club, offering the region's first indoor tennis courts. Westwood hosted a . . . — Map (db m25619) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — W 2 — Williamsburg Road
During the Civil War, Union and Confederate armies engaged in battles along major transportation corridors. Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's defensive earthworks blocked Williamsburg Road east of here, for example, during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign. On 31 May, Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill's division marched past here to attack the Federal position. Later that day, part of Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's division joined Hill. During the Seven Days' Battles under Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee, Brig. . . . — Map (db m15922) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — SA 29 — Wilton
A short distance south is Wilton, built by William Randolph and completed in 1753. The house, which originally stood on the north side of James River below Richmond, was removed to this place by the Virginia Society of Colonial Dames, 1934. — Map (db m20528) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — V-1 — Wilton
Five miles southwest. The house was built by William Randolph, son of William Randolph of Turkey Island, early in the eighteenth century. It was Lafayette's headquarters, May 15-20, 1781, just before Cornwallis crossed the James in pursuit of him. — Map (db m24846) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 7 — Yellow Tavern
Just south of here on Brook Road (present-day U.S. Route 1) is the site of Yellow Tavern. North of the tavern, on 11 May 1864, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart deployed his Confederate cavalry to confront Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan's Union cavalry as it advanced on Richmond. It was during this engagement that Stuart was mortally wounded. Because of the proximity of the engagement to the tavern, it was officially called the Battle of Yellow Tavern. — Map (db m10652) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Richmond — E 103 — Young's Spring
Just one block southwest at Young's Spring on Upham Brook, slaves often congregated on weekends to hold religious services and social gatherings. This is where Gabriel, a slave of William Prosser, planned the slave rebellion scheduled for 30 August 1800. Gabriel and his followers plotted to capture Richmond and to demand their freedom. The attack never took place because a turbulent thunderstorm made roads and bridges to the city impassable. Governor James Monroe, learning of the plot, mustered . . . — Map (db m24740) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — HC-33 — Antioch Baptist Church
A chapel, built in 1772 at Boar Swamp, was used by Elijah Baker to gather people for worship. In 1776 the church was constituted as Boar Swamp Baptist Church, with Joshua Morris as the first pastor. In 1780 Joshua Morris and fourteen members from Boar Swamp Church established the First Baptist Church of Richmond. In 1846 the church changed its name to Antioch Baptist. The chapel burned twice and the present sanctuary was built in 1870. The church ordained numerous people and brought several . . . — Map (db m73763) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — Battle of Savage’s StationA Fighting Withdrawal — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
On the night of June 27, 1862, following the Battle of Gaines’ Mill, Gen. George McClellan ordered a withdrawal of his Union army to the James River. In the wake of the retreating army, Savage’s Station, located one half mile in front of you along the Richmond and York River Railroad, was ordered abandoned. Having served as the army’s advance supply base during the previous month, the immense stockpiles of equipment, ordnance, and commissary stores located there were to be destroyed. Hoping to . . . — Map (db m3685) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — W 12 — Battle of Savage's Station
On 25 June 1862 began the Seven Days' Battles as Gen. Robert E. Lee engaged Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, prompting McClellan to withdraw to the James River. Just north of here at 9:00 A.M. on 29 June, Brig. Gen. John B. Magruder's division attacked Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner's corps, which formed the Union rear guard near Savage's Station on the Richmond & York River R.R. Sumner gained the safety of the depot and held his ground until the fighting ended in a draw about . . . — Map (db m15666) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — 37 — Battlefield of Seven Pines
On May 31, 1862, the Right Wing of the Confederate Forces under Joseph E. Johnston advanced Eastward from this point on both sides the Williamsburg Road to attack the left of McClellan's Army which held Seven Pines and was preparing to besiege Richmond. — Map (db m14245) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — 38 — Battlefield of Seven Pines
In their Eastward attack of May 31, 1862 on Federal troops holding Seven Pines, Rodes' Brigade to the South of this highway and Garland’s Brigade to the North, supported respectively by Rains and G.B. Anderson, came under heavy fire approximately at this point. — Map (db m14246) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — 39 — Battlefield of Seven Pines
The Federal first line, against which the right wave of the Confederate Army directed the main assault of May 31, 1862, crossed the Williamsburg Road near this spot. Casey’s Redoubt, the centre of Federal resistance on this line, was 200 yards southward. — Map (db m14247) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — 40 — Battlefield of Seven Pines
Nearby stood "The Twin Houses" from the vicinity of which Confederate Troops moving eastward, charged the Federal Second Line near Seven Pines after they had stormed Casey's Redoubt and the rest of the Federal First Line on May 31, 1862. — Map (db m14248) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — 41 — Battlefield of Seven Pines
In the abatis occupying this ground and covering the second Federal line, the advance of Rodes' Brigade was halted by heavy fire after sunset, May 31,1862. The Confederate dead in this last charge were never removed. They still slumber hereabout. — Map (db m14513) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — Civil War Artillery
This is one of several replicas of 10-pound Parrott Guns (cannon) located in this area. Its maximum effective range was about 2500 yards. The Parrott was a muzzled-loaded rifled canon varying from the 10 to 250 pound projectile size. It can be recognized by the heavy wrought-iron band around the breech. It had greater accuracy and effectiveness than the more commonly used smooth-bore Napoleon Although many styles and types of guns were used in the Civil War, 90 per cent of battle firing came . . . — Map (db m26925) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — HC-35 — Decoy Airfield
At this location in World War II, the 936th Camouflage Battalion constructed a decoy airfield to protect nearby Byrd Airfield, which was converted to Richmond Army Air Base in May 1943. On 2,400 acres of farmland seized by the federal government, troops cleared land and laid out fake runways matching the orientation of Byrd Airfield. The battalion constructed buildings, airplanes and artillery pieces using cut timber, canvas, plywood and other scrap material. In September 1943, soldiers of the . . . — Map (db m73762) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — HC-13 — Elko Community Center
In November 1916, a group of approximately 100 Danish and Norwegian Americans established the Windsor Community Farm at Elko. The cooperative farm venture led by Frank and Anna Hurop was unprofitable, but members of the settlement stayed and built this community center in 1924. The hall provided a variety of early entertainment, including vaudeville acts traveling the east coast and musical entertainment by the Georgia Wildcats, Sam Workman, Sunshine Sue, and also the Carter Sisters. The hall . . . — Map (db m24859) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — W 7 — Fair Oaks Station
This intersection of the Richmond and York River Railroad with the Nine Mile Road became one of Henrico County’s best-known landmarks during the Civil War. Fair Oaks Station lay on the north side of the junction. As part of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s Confederate attack at Seven Pines on 31 May 1862, his troops under Brig. Gen. Richard H. Anderson passed here as they assaulted the Union right. On 29 June 1862, an innovative Confederate artillery piece was pushed past the intersection by a . . . — Map (db m10604) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — 45 — Fort Lee
Here, where the outer line of the Confederate defences of Richmond crossed the Charles City Road, stood Fort Lee, named after General Robert E. Lee and constructed to protect a vital line of approach to the capital city from strong or sudden attack. — Map (db m14254) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — W 5 — McClellan’s First Line
Union Brig. Gen. Silas Casey held both sides of the road here on 31 May 1862, in Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s first defensive line at Seven Pines. Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston ordered a dawn attack, but his lieutenants acted slowly. Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill waited with his division about a mile west of here for the sound of gunfire to the south that was his signal to move. Exasperated by the delay, he assaulted on his own at 1 P.M. and smashed through Casey’s position to McClellan’s . . . — Map (db m14322) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — W 9 — McClellan’s Second Line
Here, at Seven Pines, was McClellan’s second and main line of defense. The Confederates under D. H. Hill, having taken the first line, attacked this position, held by Casey and Couch reinforced by Kearny, May 31, 1862. The battle was bitterly contested until Longstreet sent in fresh troops. The Union line was broken; the Unionists fell back a mile and a half to the east. — Map (db m14326) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — 8-W — McClellan’s Withdrawal
In this vicinity a part of McClellan’s army remained for several weeks after the Battle of Seven Pines. The part of his army north of the Chickahominy was attacked by Lee, June 26-27, 1862. McClellan then began to withdraw to the James, June 28-29, 1862. — Map (db m3726) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — W 11 — McClellan's Third Line
Here ran McClellan's third line of defense, May 31 - June 1, 1862. The Confederates, taking the first and second lines on this road, did not reach the third. — Map (db m15662) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — 42 — Richmond DefencesCrossing of the Outer Line
At this point the outer line of the Confederate Defences of Richmond crossed the Williamsburg Road. Begun after the Battle of Seven Pines and subsequently much strengthened, the Eastern face of this line was a continuous earthwork from the James to the Chickahominy River. — Map (db m14251) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — W 13 — Route to White Oak Swamp and Malvern Hill
After crossing the Chickahominy River to the north at Grapevine Bridge, portions of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s retreating Union army destroyed the bridge and moved southeast along this road on 28 June 1862. After rebuilding the bridge the next day, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson’s command (which included his own division and those of Generals Richard S. Ewell, William H.C. Whiting, and Daniel H. Hill) began crossing early in the morning of 30 June. Under orders to . . . — Map (db m8134) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — W 2-a — Sandston
In 1918 as World War I ended, the Seven Pines Bag Loading Plant #3, used for gun powder packing, was dismantled. The federal government sold 600 acres of land, the electric car line, remaining plant buildings, and 230 Aladdin houses, that were erected for plant workers, to the Richmond-Fairfield Railway Company, organized by Oliver J. Sands. The Aladdin Company of Bay City, Michigan was the first company to offer in the United States kit houses with precut, numbered pieces. In 1921 Sands . . . — Map (db m24850) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — W 10 — Second Day at Seven Pines
Most of the fighting on the second day of the Battle of Seven Pines (Fair Oaks), occurred near here on 1 June 1862. Confederate Maj. Gen. Gustavus W. Smith, who had assumed command following the wounding of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston the evening before, resumed the attack in the morning. When the Union defenses proved too strong, the Confederates disengaged and retired to their original lines. Gen. Robert E. Lee, who already had been assigned to command the Confederate troops in front of Richmond . . . — Map (db m10599) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — PA 152 — Seven Days BattlesWhite Oak Swamp
Here the greater part of McClellan’s army and wagon trains crossed the swamp, June 28-30, 1862. Jackson, pursuing, arrived about noon on June 30, to find the bridge destroyed and the Unionists holding the south side. Failing to force a passage that day, Jackson rebuilt the bridge and crossed early on July 1. — Map (db m3721) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — PA 148 — Seven Days BattlesWhite Oak Swamp
On a hill just to the west Stonewall Jackson placed his artillery about midday on June 30, 1862. An artillery duel then began with Franklin, guarding the south side of White Oak Swamp, that lasted until dark. — Map (db m3722) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — PA 155 — Seven Days BattlesWhite Oak Swamp
Here Franklin, aided by Richardson, held the passage of White Oak Swamp against Jackson while the Battle of Glendale raged near by, June 30, 1862. A fierce duel went on all afternoon between the Union batteries here and Jackson’s guns on the north side of the swamp. — Map (db m3723) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — PA 144 — Seven Days BattlesSavage's Station
Here, facing west, stretched the Union line in the afternoon of June 29, 1862. Brook's brigade was south of the road with Gorman's and Burn's brigades to the north. In a furious conflict Burn's line was broken but was restored by Sumner in person. Darkness ended the conflict. The Unionists withdrew southward. — Map (db m15660) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — PA 140 — Seven Days BattlesAllen's Farm
On 26 June 1862, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan abandoned his plan to besiege Richmond and began his retreat to the James River. Gen. Robert E. Lee pursued, determined to destroy the Army of the Potomac. Just north of here at Allen's Farm, at 9:00 A.M. on 29 June, Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder's division attacked Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner's corps, which formed the Union rear. The fighting continued for two hours until Sumner retired east to the Federal supply depot at Savage's Station on the . . . — Map (db m15682) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — PA 142 — Seven Days Battles - Savage’s Station
Here Magruder’s line of Battle, facing east, formed in the late afternoon of June 29, 1862. Barksdale’s, Semmes’s and Kershaw’s Brigades, extending from south of this road to the railroad, made a desperate effort to prevent the Union withdrawal. After a fierce struggle the Confederates fell back. In this battle they made the first known use of railway artillery. — Map (db m3686) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — Seven PinesBloody Stalemate — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Confederate attacks on May 31, 1862, designed to push the Union army away from Richmond, struck an isolated wing of the Federal Fourth Corps in this vicinity. The heaviest action took place along the Williamsburg Road. Marching from the west, men of Gen. D.H. Hill’s Division broke Gen. Silas Casey’s line and pushed on toward the Seven Pines crossroads east of here. Close-quarters fighting raged in and around Casey’s Redoubt, which stood close to this spot. Hill’s attack unleashed “the . . . — Map (db m10595) HM
Virginia (Henrico County), Sandston — The Trent HouseMcClellan’s Headquarters — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Between June 12 and June 28, 1862, Union Gen. George B. McClellan maintained his headquarters here at Trent House. Known as “Reynoldsville,” the house dates from about 1825. During the Civil War, it was the home of Dr. Peterfield Trent who served in the Confederate army as a surgeon in a local defense regiment. In 1862, the main road ran on the other side of the house to the west. McClellan pitched his headquarters tents under some walnut trees about 100 yards east of the . . . — Map (db m14207) HM
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