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Isle of Wight County Markers
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Carrollton — K 311 — James River
The James River flows about 340 miles from the junction of the Jackson and Cowpasture rivers in Botetourt County to Hampton Roads at the Chesapeake Bay. In 1607 the first permanent English settlement in the New World was established on its banks at Jamestown. The colonists used the river as a path for exploration. With modern cities and shipyards as well as ancient plantations lining its banks, the James River remains one of Virginia's most important natural resources. — Map (db m33970) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Carrollton — K 247 — Josiah Parker(Macclesfield)
Col. Josiah Parker (1751-1810) served in the Revolutionary War in the 5th Virginia Regiment from Aug. 1776 until July 1778 when he resigned his commission. Parker distinguished himself at the Battle of Trenton (25-26 Dec. 1776), the Battle of Princeton (3 Jan. 1777), and the Battle of Brandywine (9-11 Sept. 1777), and was commended by Gen. George Washington. In 1781 Parker commanded the Virginia militia south of the James River. After the war, he served as a representative to Congress from 1789 . . . — Map (db m35974) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Carrollton — K 244 — Warraskoyack Indians
Near here, where the Pagan River empties into the James River stood the small village of Mokete of the Warraskoyack Indians. Another Warraskoyack village called Mathomank existed on Burwell's Bay. The principal settlement of Warraskoyack was located inland near Smithfield. The Warraskoyacks occupied the James River shoreline at the mouth of the Pagan River and into the interior past Smithfield. John Smith traded with the Warraskoyacks as early as the fall of 1607, obtaining corn for the . . . — Map (db m35972) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Carrolton — 1954 Nike-Ajax Missile Site N-75L
The Cold War and Nike-Ajax Base N-75 The “Cold” War (1949-1990) is so named because no actual armed conflict took place between the two alliances: The Warsaw Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It began when Joseph Stalin, dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), reneged on his commitments to withdraw the Soviet Army from the Eastern European countries it had occupied in the great victory over Nazi Germany. In quick succession, the . . . — Map (db m36019) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Carrolton — Missile Magazine and Launch Operations
Specifications Range: 25-30 miles Speed: Mach 3 (1,679 mph) Altitude: 70,000 feet Length: 34 feet 10 inches with booster Missile only: 21 feet Weight: 2,455 lbs. with booster Missile only: 1,000 lbs. Diameter: 12 inches Wingspan: 4 feet 6 inches Warhead: Three high-explosive fragmentation charges mounted in the nose, center and aft sections Guidance: Command by electronic computer and radar Fuels: Booster — solid propellant, Missile — red fuming nitric . . . — Map (db m36029) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Carrolton — Nike-Ajax Missile Radar Control Site N-75C
The Cold War and Nike-Ajax Base N-75 Here was located site N-75C (C for control) and the counterpart site N-75L (L for launch) was located at Carrollton Nike Park. The “Cold” War (1949-1990) is so named because no actual armed conflict took place between the two alliances: The Warsaw Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It began when Joseph Stalin, dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), reneged on his commitments to withdraw the . . . — Map (db m36038) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Carrolton — People and Places, circa 1957 at N-75L
U.S. Army units stationed at N-75L/C The Army Antiaircraft Command (ARAACOM), with both guns and missiles, was established 1 July 1950. It was re-designated Army Air Defense Command (ARADCOM) on 21 March 1957 after all units were converted to missiles. Under these two Headquarters the following Army Antiaircraft Artillery (AAA) units were stationed here in Carrollton: D Battery, 56th AAA Regiment March 1955-September 1958. D Battery, 4th Battalion, 51st Regiment September . . . — Map (db m36034) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Isle of Wight — K 260 — Boykin's Tavern
Boykin's Tavern is a rare surviving example of the hostelries once common in Virginia courthouse complexes, where they offered food and accommodations for people attending court. The original structure was built in the late 18th century for Maj. Francis Boykin, a Revolutionary War officer who represented Isle of Wight County in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1787 to 1792 and served the county as a sheriff and a justice of the peace. Boykin donated two acres of adjoining land to the county . . . — Map (db m35977) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Isle of Wight — Isle of Wight County
. . . — Map (db m36057) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Isle of Wight — Isle of Wight County Confederate Monument
1861-1865 Confederate Dead Isle of Wight’s loving tribute, to her heroes of 1861 to 1865. “They bravely fought They bravely fell They wore the gray They wore it well” “Bright were the lives they gave for us; The land they struggled to save for us Will not forget its warriors yet Who sleep in so many graves for us” “They bleed – We weep We live - They sleep.” Dedicated May 30, 1905 “Glorious is his . . . — Map (db m36048) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — K-242 — Basse’s Choice
In Nov. 1621, Capt. Nathaniel Basse received a grant of 300 acres of land, now known as Basse’s Choice, located nearby. It was one of the first English settlements in Isle of Wight County, though humans had lived there more than 5000 years. On Mar. 1622, during the Powhatan-English War of 1622–1632, attacks coordinated by Chief Opechancanough struck various English settlements including Basse’s Choice. Basse was in England when this event occurred. He resettled the region by 1624, when . . . — Map (db m2678) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — K-246 — Benn’s Church
This Methodist Church was known in 1804 as Benn’s Chapel. Bishop Asbury preached here in 1804. — Map (db m2674) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — K-241 — Bennett’s Plantation
By Nov. 1621, Edward Bennett had obtained a patent from the Virginia Company to establish Bennett’s Plantation, also known as Warrascoyack and Bennett’s Welcome. By Feb. 1622, the Sea Flower arrived with the first residents and they began settling the south bank of the James River at the lower reaches of Burwell’s Bay. On 22 Mar. 1622, the Powhatan-English War of 1622–1632 began with attacks coordinated by Chief Opechancanough against many English settlements including Bennett’s . . . — Map (db m2677) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — Fort BoykinTrue Southerners Do and Dare — The 1862 Peninsula Campaign
True Southerners Do and Dare. The 1862 Peninsula Campaign. Directly in front of you is the entrance to Fort Boykin. Originally built in 1623 to protect the colonists against “Spaniards by sea and Indians by land” and called “The Castle,” the fort was rebuilt during the Revolutionary War and renamed Fort Boykin in honor of Major Francis Boykin. This seven-pointed star-shaped fortification was also activated to defend Virginia against the British during the War . . . — Map (db m2699) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — 35 — Fort Boykin Historic Park
The Warraskoyack Indians had a town south of Fort Boykin in the vicinity of Tormentor Creek and another on Jones Creek near the mouth of the Pagan River. John Smith stayed with them on his 1608 mission to Powhatan’s residence on the York River and on a similar mission the following year. The latter meeting was fraught with tension. By 1609, drought had withered the crops, and the Natives were weary of English demands for food. A peace treaty and the marriage of Powhatan’s daughter . . . — Map (db m2757) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — K 327 — Fort Huger
One mile northeast, at Hardy’s Bluff on Lawne’s Neck, existed Fort Huger, a Civil War earthen fortification. Virginia State Engineer Col. Andrew Talcott authorized this and other forts to block any Union naval advance up the James River to Richmond. Beginning in July 1861, enslaved and freed blacks assisted in the construction of Fort Huger. It formed the right riverine flank of Confederate Gen. John B. Magruder’s Peninsula defenses in 1862. Union gunboats engaged Fort Huger on 8 May 1862 and . . . — Map (db m18619) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — 34 — Fort HugerCaptain John Smith’s Adventures on the James — www.johnsmithtrail.org
Shells have been found in amazing quantities along this area of the river. The Indians who lived beside the saltwater stretches of river did not have tuckahoe and other freshwater plants to sustain them in poor crop years, when shellfish likely became a substantial part of their diet. Shellfish contain protein, iron and calories, and kept early settlers alive during droughts. Today, the earthwork remains of the Confederate Fort Huger stand guard over Burwell Bay, described by Smith as . . . — Map (db m18641) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — Fort HugerDefending the James River — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
(prelude) In April 1862, Union forces under Gen. George B. McClellan began a major campaign to capture Richmond, marching west from Fort Monroe up the Peninsula between the York and James Rivers toward the Confederate capital. A Confederate army half their size opposed them. Slowly but inevitably, the Federal juggernaut overcame three Southern defensive lines and soon camped in Richmond’s eastern suburbs. New commander Robert E. Lee, however, led a Confederate offensive that drove the . . . — Map (db m35929) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — Isle of Wight County War Memorial
Dedicated to all veterans of Isle of Wight County for their honorable service to our nation. June 14, 2001 By these engravings we remember all those who made the supreme sacrifice in the wars of our nation, and less we not forget, all those who remain missing in action or prisoner of war, forever shall we hold dear their courage and spirit. — Map (db m36051) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — Law & Politics in 18th Century Isle of Wight
Constructed in 1750 and 1751, this building was the center of law and politics in Isle of Wight County until 1800, when the seat of county government was moved to its current location, seven miles south of Smithfield. — Map (db m36049) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — K 316 — Old Isle of Wight Courthouse
Smithfield served as the county seat from 1752 to 1801. The Old Isle of Wight Courthouse was built in 1752. Constructed by William Rand, it is one of Virginia's few surviving colonial structures and is notable for having a semicircular apse with a conical roof, reflective of the Colonial Capitol in Williamsburg. Converted into a residence in 1812, the courthouse was acquired by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities in 1938 and restored to its original appearance. A nearby . . . — Map (db m35961) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — K 238 — Old Town
Half a mile north, stood the Warrascoyack Indian village. Captain John Smith obtained corn there for the starving colonists in 1608. The Warrascoyacks took part in the massacre of 1622 and their village was destroyed in 1623. In 1680, Old Town was established. — Map (db m18655) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — Saint Luke's Church
Saint Luke's Church Mother Church of Warrasquyoake now Isle of Wight County The earliest original Gothic architecture structure in the United States of America 1632 An unique bridge between our civilization and the rich culture of medievil Europe — Map (db m3957) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — K-243 — Smithfield
The town was established in 1752. The Masonic Hall was built in 1753. Benedict Arnold occupied the town, January 15, 1781. At Cherry Grove Landing near by, skirmishing took place on April 13-15, 1864, and the Confederates made a daring capture of a Union vessel on December 5, 1864. — Map (db m2676) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — K-245 — St. Luke’s Church
St. Luke’s Church, also known as “The Brick Church,” and the Newport Parish Church, is likely America’s purest expression of Gothic architecture. Its buttressed walls, lancet side windows, and traceried east windows link the building to the architecture of the Middle Ages. Although oral tradition dates the structure to 1632, architectural evidence suggests that the church with its tower was constructed during the last quarter of the 17th century. After the dis-establishment of the . . . — Map (db m2675) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — Z-242 — Surry County / Isle of Wight County
Surry County Surry County, named for the county of Surrey in England, was formed from James City County about 1652. The Quiyoughcohannocks, whose villages were primarily situated in present-day Surry County, were among the first Virginia Indians the English encountered in 1607. By 1609 the English had begun settlements in the county at Hog Island and Smith’s Fort, a defensive fortification erected on the south side of the James River along Gray’s Creek. One of the nation’s outstanding . . . — Map (db m2680) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — 35 — Welcome to Fort Boykin Historic ParkCaptain John Smith’s Adventures on the James — www.johnsmithtrail.org
Fort Boykin was named after Francis Marshall Boykin who was a Virginia state senator, general in the state militia and owner of the property on which the fort was built. The topography at Fort Boykin provided the best possible location for monitoring river traffic to Richmond. Laid out by Col. Andrew Talcott of the Confederate Engineers, Fort Boykin fronts the James River on the highest point of land in the area. In addition, shallow areas in the river here bring the navigable channel close to . . . — Map (db m18638) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Smithfield — K 240-b — Wrenn’s Mill
Wrenn’s Mill stood south of here on Pagan Creek. A mill powered by water for grinding grain existed there before 1685, when Thomas Green bequeathed it to his wife. The mill was referred to as Little Mill and Green’s Mill before Charles Wrenn obtained it in the 1820s. On 14 April 1864, members of the 23rd Massachusetts Volunteers drove Confederates from their position there, capturing a signal officer and two privates of the 7th Confederate Cavalry. The Union troops then fell back to Fort Boykin. The mill was dismantled by the early 1990s. — Map (db m2679) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Wills Corner — Z-113 — Isle of Wight County / Nansemond County
Isle of Wight County. Area 314 Square Miles. One of the original Shires formed in 1634. Its name was at first Warrascoyack, changed in 1637 to Isle of Wight. Of the oldest churches in the United States is in this County. Nansemond County. Area 423 Square Miles. Formed in 1637 from New Norfolk County, it was first called Upper Norfolk County, but in 1642 it was named Nansemond for an Indian Tribe. Dismal Swamp is partly in this county. — Map (db m75660) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Windsor — UT 19 — Seven Confederate Brothers
On 22 Apr. 1861, at the beginning of the Civil War, six sons of Benjamin Mills Roberts and Mary Ann Wright Roberts enlisted in Co. D (Isle of Wight Rifle Grays), 16th Va. Inf. Regt. They were Mills W., John W., Sylvester J., Benjamin C., Francis C., and Nathaniel C. Roberts, who received a medical discharge. 1st Lt. Stephen W. Roberts, the seventh son, already had enlisted in the 11th N.C. Inf. All of the brothers were wounded while in service, and three surrendered at Appomattox Court House. . . . — Map (db m35935) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Zuni — Z 191 — Southampton County / Isle of Wight County
(Obverse) Southampton County Area 604 Square Miles Formed in 1748 from Isle of Wight and Nansemond. Named for a locality that was originally named for the Earl of Southampton, active in the first settlement. General William Mahone was born in this county. (Reverse) Isle of Wight County Area 314 Square Miles One of the original shires formed in 1634. Its name was at first Warrascoyack, changed in 1637 to Isle of Wight. One of the oldest churches in the . . . — Map (db m18109) HM
Virginia (Isle of Wight County), Zuni — U 121 — Zuni
Zuni, a rail stop along the Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad, was established by 1736. Confederate forces were stationed here in 1861 to protect the railroad bridge and the road leading to Suffolk. In May 1862, they destroyed the bridge to prevent Union forces from crossing the Blackwater River. From Sept. 1862 to Mar. 1863 skirmishes between Confederate and Union troops took place here and throughout the area. About 5,000 Confederate soldiers were here in Oct. 1862. After the war, the bridge was . . . — Map (db m18160) HM
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