|Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Bright Star / Koikos Restaurant — "Alabama's Oldest Restaurant" / "An American Classic"|
| Bright Star
In 1907, Greek immigrant Tom Bonduris invested his savings and opened a small cafe with only a horseshoe shaped bar at First Avenue and 21st Street in Bessemer, Alabama. Outgrowing three locations, the Bright Star moved to this site in 1915, and introduced patrons to a new dining atmosphere. The interior of the restaurant has remained true to its 1915 glory, with handpainted murals on the walls, a marble-tiled floor, and a couple of private curtained booths. Major . . . — Map (db m83797) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Canaan Baptist Church — Jefferson County's Oldest Baptist Church|
|Organized September 5, 1818 in home of Isaac Brown 3 miles west of Elyton. Met in homes and schoolhouse near Old Jonesboro until 1824. First building erected on site now the 14th Street entrance to Cedar Hill cemetery. Canaan Association (now Birmingham Baptist Association) was organized there in 1833. Hosea Holcombe, pioneer preacher and historian was pastor 1822-41. The congregation has worshipped at this present location since 1856. — Map (db m37218) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Doughboy Monument|
To the memory of our World War heroes who died that civilization might not perish from the earth.
Allbright Rufie PVT. Co. D. 167th Inf. KA
Bailey Andrew SGT. Co. D. 167th Inf. DD
Bailey Jas. T. PVT. Co. D. 9th Inf. DW
Barr Sam CORP. M.G. 167th Inf. DW
Benton Guy D. PVT. 76 Co. 6th Reg. U.S.Marines KA
Burnett Usry CORP. Co. D. 167th Inf. KA
Canoles Carl CORP. Co. D. 167th Inf. KA
Carson Wm. W. PVT. 1st Class . . . — Map (db m39928) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Hosea Holcombe — 1780-1841 — "Alabama's first church historian"|
In 1840 he published his study, History of Rise and Progress of the Baptists in Alabama.
Also an evangelist and missionary.
In 1818 moved to Alabama from Carolinas, organizing five churches in vicinity.
President of Alabama Baptist Convention 1833-38, he was delegated to write church history.
Lack of cooperation led him to travel over state to get material for book.
He died at Jonesboro home in 1841. buried in Sadler Cemetery 1 mile south. — Map (db m27025) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Sweet Home / Henry W. Sweet|
|This house was built in 1906 by architect William E. Benns for H. W. Sweet at a cost of $10,000. The house uniquely blended the Queen Anne and Neo-Classical architectural styles, featuring two identical pedimented entrance porticos supported by fluted Composite-order columns, full-length wrap around porches on the first and second stories, and an octagonal corner tower. H. W. Sweet (1866-1919) a native of South Carolina, was Bessemer's first undertaker and a furniture merchant. Henry W. Sweet . . . — Map (db m27024) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — Union Baptist Church And Cemetery|
|Union Baptist Church was organized in 1834 by 18 or 20 members from Canaan Church. The Libscomb area was then known as East End. Members of the Rockett and Ware families donated the original two acreas of this site and a log cabin, which served as the church until a wooden building was built in 1888. The present edifice was erected in 1922. Many of the charter members are buried in the adjacent cemetery.
Alabama Register of Historic Places, April 11, 1984 — Map (db m24352) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Lest We Forget" — Avondale World War II Memorial|
Dedicated to the sacred memory
of the Avondale Boys of
World War II who made the Supreme
Sacrifice for Liberty and Humanity.
Thomas Nelson •
Albert W. Moore •
James A. Williams •
John L. Warner •
Wayne Daily •
Chester Smith •
Ernest Cumb •
LeRoy J. Patterson •
Norman H. Butts •
Donald B. Funderburk •
Weyman Milton •
George Tucker •
Herman Kelly •
Earl W. Franklin •
Oscar L. Cagle, Jr. •
Leon Fulghum •
Fred W. Hosmer, Jr. •
Louis H. Boone, Jr. • . . . — Map (db m55950) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Peace Be Still" — Mark 4:39|
|On Palm Sunday, 1963 Rev. N. H. Smith, Rev. John T. Porter and Rev. A. D. King led a sympathy march from St. Paul United Methodist Church down 6th Avenue North in support of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. Ralph Abernathy who were in jail. 2,000 marchers assembled behind Smith, Porter and King like a "storm cloud". The march climaxed at Kelly Ingram Park where the marchers were met by billy clubs and police dogs. In the heat of the event these three ministers . . . — Map (db m73023) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims|
|This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, Denise McNair, is buried elsewhere.
The tragic loss of these lives led to the end of the era of massive resistance to social change in Birmingham and the release of the city from the fear which long paralyzed progress in human relations. — Map (db m61197) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District|
|The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor shops, department stores, cafeterias, billiard parlors, fruit stands, shoe shine shops, laundry service, jewelry and record shops, and taxicab stands. These businesses were distinctively geared toward and managed by blacks. When darkness fell, the . . . — Map (db m26985) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A New City — Building early Birmingham|
|The arrival of two railroad lines in Jones Valley opened nearby deposits of iron ore, limestone, and coal to commercial development and helped make Birmingham one of the great industrial cities of the post Civil War South.
In 1871, the year of Birmingham's founding, civil engineer William P. Barker with North and South Alabama Railroad laid out Birmingham's system of streets and avenues to align with the main rail lines that still run through the city. Development began to fill in . . . — Map (db m69018) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A.B. Loveman House|
|The house was built c. 1908 for Adolph B. Loveman, a Hungarian immigrant who in 1887 founded the dry goods business that evolved into one of Birmingham’s signature retail establishments, Loveman, Joseph & Loeb. Its English-style neighbor to the north on the Circle was built at the same time for Adolph’s eldest son Joseph.
A fine example of early 20th-century Neoclassicism, the simple block of the house is made monumental by the richly detailed and pedimented portico with its clustered . . . — Map (db m83800) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Alabama Veterans Memorial — Liberty Park|
| Pearl Harbor
May 31, 1941
I hope all is well with you. I am doing well but due to the present state of emergency the Pacific Fleet is held in a place known as Hawaiian Territory.
Would you do me a great favor? Whenever you are in town get me some info on our class ring. I missed out on getting one due to the lack of funds. Now that I am away from everything that reminds me of the good old days I would like very much to have that ring. I would be . . . — Map (db m27409) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores — "Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."|
|During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period roughly between 1940 and 1950 he was the only lone voice in the wilderness defending the civil rights of black people. Mr. Shores practiced civil rights law all over the state of Alabama during an era in which his life was in constant jeopardy. He . . . — Map (db m26720) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Before Birmingham: Jones Valley|
|Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871.
Native American presence
Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the presence of Native American people in Jones Valley stretching back 12,000 years.
• From 1500 to 1800 members of Alabama's Creek Nation fished and hunted in the area.
• The Creeks, or Muscogee, are believed by many to descend from the . . . — Map (db m83805) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Belview Heights Neighborhood|
|The Corey Land Company, a group of prominent local businessmen headed by Robert Jemison, Jr., developed Belview Heights as a neighborhood for the professional employees of U.S. Steel in the 1910's. Extending the grid system being used in Ensley over the topography of the 30 square block area, Jemison created a neighborhood of rolling streets and avenues, occasional steeply pitched lots, and captivating views. In 1915, the city of Birmingham set the architectural tone for Belview Heights when it . . . — Map (db m24351) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham - Southern College|
|Created in 1918 on this site
by merger of two colleges:
a Methodist college
founded in 1856 at Greensboro.
founded by Methodist as
N. Alabama Conference College
on this site in 1898. — Map (db m37711) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham District Minerals|
|The availability of seemingly limitless mineral resources was the key to the success of the Birmingham District, an area defined by geologic deposits that span five counties (Jefferson, Shelby, Tuscaloosa, Walker and Bibb). Some of the minerals essential to the iron industry and to the creation of Vulcan lie directly beneath you in the heart of Red Mountain.
Where Did They Come From?
These important minerals were deposited hundreds of millions of years ago and then pushed up into . . . — Map (db m69026) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Birmingham Water Works Company (1887) / Cahaba Pumping Station (1890)|
| Side A The Elyton Land Company, which had founded the city of Birmingham in 1871, established a subsidiary, the Birmingham Water Works Company in 1887. Dr. Henry M. Caldwell, President of the Elyton Land Company, contracted with Judge A. O. Lane, mayor of Birmingham, to furnish the new city with not less than five million gallons of water a day. Without water Birmingham could not have grown into the city that the founders had envisioned.
(Continued on other side) Side B . . . — Map (db m83806) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Boilers — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
| The Process
The boiler was the source of power for most of Sloss. The boilers burned blast furnace gas to provide the heat necessary for converting water into steam. The steam produced here powered the blowing engines and turbo-blowers, the skip hoist, and the electrical generator in the powerhouse. A network of pipes distributed water and steam throughout the plant
The company installed six boilers (illustrated below) in 1910-11. The four boilers on the south side of the walkway . . . — Map (db m43728) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Brock Drugs Building|
|The Brock building was established in 1915, located at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and 18th Street North, was built while the area was residential. The three-story building housed a hotel upstairs that catered to professional musicians and athletes. The drug store served as the "gathering place" for black patrons during the early 1920's through the early 1960's. The building was demolished in the 80's. The most notable businesses included:
1928 - 1977 Palm Leaf Hotel
. . . — Map (db m26723) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Building The Park — Visiting the Park — Restoring Vulcan Park|
|Side 1 - Building the Park
In the mid-1930’s, civic leaders worked to move Vulcan to a place of honor on Red Mountain. The park was built through the combined efforts of several groups: the Kiwanis Club of Birmingham, the Birmingham Parks and Recreation Board, the Alabama Highway Department, Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, and local workers. These groups worked together to raise money from the WPA and other sources, acquire the land, and plan and build the park.
The . . . — Map (db m83807) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Carrie A. Tuggle — 1858 - 1924|
|In Tribute to
Carrie A. Tuggle
1858 - 1924
Scholar, Teacher and Christian.
A life of unselfish service
to the troubled and the
homeless black boys and girls.
In 1903, she founded
a school and orphanage,
the Tuggle Institute. — Map (db m27391) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Casting Pigs — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
The technology of casting molten iron into bars called pigs changed dramatically over the years. Prior to 1931 casting at Sloss took place inside the cast shed. Men cut molds into the sand floor of the shed, allowing the molten iron to pour through the channels and into individual molds. The configuration of molds feeding off troughs gave rise to the term "pig" for the bar of iron—workers thought the molds resembled pigs suckling at the sow.
After 1931 casting . . . — Map (db m69083) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — CDR "Snuffy" Smith — Navy Light Attack Aircraft A-7 Corsair II|
|(First Plaque): Navy pilots typically had their names painted on the side and just below the cockpit of one of the squadron aircraft. Most also had "Call Signs," some of which became the nickname of the pilot. On the display aircraft this tradition is represented by the name "Snuffy." Admiral Leighton W. Smith (A.K.A. "SNUFFY") grew up in Mobile, Alabama. He attended the U.S. Naval Academy, graduating in 1962. Earning his Naval wings in 1964 he joined the light attack community, where he . . . — Map (db m83808) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 14, 1961|
|On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton vs. Virginia", declaring segregation in bus terminals unconstitutional. Here they were met and attacked by a mob of Klansmen. The riders were severely assaulted while the police watched, yet the youth stood their ground. — Map (db m83809) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Clark Building|
|This building was constructed in 1908 by Louis V. Clark (1862-1934), who also built the historic Lyric Theater located nearby on 18th Street. The Clark Theater on Caldwell Park is named in honor of Mr. Clark’s generosity to the Birmingham Little Theater.
The Clark Building housed multiple businesses until 1986, when it became vacant. In 1996, plans had been made to demolish the building when John Lauriello of Southpace Properties and Bob Moody of Moody & Associates recognized its potential . . . — Map (db m27515) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Concord Center — Time Capsule|
|To Be Opened March 1, 2022
Dedicated at the construction completion March 1, 2002
Owners - BLH Group, LLC
Brookmont Investors II, LLC
Spire Holdings, LLC
Developer - Brookmont Realty Group, LLC
General Contractor - B.L. Harbert International, LLC
Architect - Williams-Blackstock Architects, P.C.
Concord Center stands on the site of Birmingham's first County Courthouse, constructed in 1875. The growth of a bustling town demanded the construction of a . . . — Map (db m27010) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Designing Vulcan Park|
|Vulcan Park isn’t just Vulcan’s home; it’s also a public park. The original project, funded by the WPA (Works Progress Administration) aimed for “general beautification of the entire acreage” to create” an ideal spot for untold scenic beauty.” The plantings in the park today reflect the original WPA balance between the naturalistic and the formal. — Map (db m69015) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dewberry Drugs and Phenix Insurance Company Buildings|
|The two commercial buildings on this corner lot are some of the earliest surviving business houses in Birmingham. The Dewberry building appeared on the corner about 1881, and it housed the first and longest surviving drug store in the city, starting as Godden & Lide, and becoming Dewberry around 1900. After Dewberry left the building in about 1995, it remained vacant until its rehabilitation as a law office in 2003.
The Phenix Insurance Company building was built somewhat later, about . . . — Map (db m36740) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Disabled American Veterans|
Disabled American Veterans Formed December 25, 1920.
Birmingham Chapter No. 4 Chartered January 25, 1926.
This Memorial Dedicated To Our Military Forces And To All Who Have Given Their Blood And Lives That The Republic Might Live Forever.
How Sleep The Brave Who Sink To Rest By All Their Country's Wishes Blest!
This Tenth Day Of November Nineteen Hundred Eighty One.
United States Army
Authorized By The Continental Congress June 14, 1775
* . . . — Map (db m24347) WM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Donnelly House|
|This neoclassical structure was built in 1905 for James W. Donnelly, "the father of the Birmingham Library System."
Donnelly moved to Birmingham from his native Cincinnati, Ohio after retiring from Proctor and Gamble. A much respected manufacturer, industrialist, real-estate developer and civic leader, he is best remembered for his efforts to organize, fund and develop the Birmingham Public Library System -- one of the finest in the southeast.
The Donnelly house, included in the . . . — Map (db m26740) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me|
|Leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) learned they could apply economic pressure to White businesses with more effective results than moral persuasion alone. Therefore, the central strategy of the Birmingham Campaign targeted the City's retail base. "Project C" (the "C" stood for "confrontation") started with sit-ins at Birmingham lunch counters and continued with marches, pickets and boycotts of Birmingham retail stores. Movement leaders used these non-violent direct . . . — Map (db m73037) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me|
| 1963 A female protestor remains defiant as police drag her away from a demonstration in Birmingham's nearby retail district. Activists in Birmingham--led for seven years by Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth before the 1963 Birmingham Campaign--put their lives on the line to rebel against the City's unjust and unconstitutional segregation laws. One such law, City Code Section 369, said, "It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant in the city at which White and Colored people are served in the same . . . — Map (db m83814) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.|
| Born Jan. 15, 1929 Assassinated Apr. 4. 1968 "...yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major, say that I was a drum major for justice; say that I was a drum major for peace..." His dream liberated Birmingham from itself and began a new day of love, mutual respect and cooperation. This statue of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. erected by citizens of Birmingham as an indication of their esteem for him and in appreciation of his sacrificial service to mankind. Unveiled: Jan. 20, 1986 . . . — Map (db m73007) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.|
|Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to Birmingham in 1962. Shuttlesworth saw potential in the young minister, and their combined efforts were instrumental in Birmingham's desegregation. The campaign catapulted King into the spotlight as the foremost leader in America's Civil Rights Movement. — Map (db m73031) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Ruth J. Jackson — 1898 - 1982|
Dr. Ruth J. Jackson
This woman of strength and vision graduated from the Poro School of Cosmetology, the first black registered school in the State of Alabama. At the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement, she was unwavering in her devotion to the Birmingham Community. She inspired both children and adults to complete their education. Members of the Southern Beauty Congress and the Alabama Association of Modern Beauticians, Organizations to which she rendered . . . — Map (db m27090) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Duncan House|
|The Duncan House was build in 1906 as a home place for James and Lelia Duncan and their eight children in what is now Tarrant City, Alabama. Duncan worked throughout his life in the nearby shops and yards of the L&N Railroad (know CSXI) as water boy, conductor, and yard dispatcher.
Donated to Birmingham Historic Society in 1985 by Alabama By-Products Company, Inc. (now Drummond), Duncan house was moved to its current location at Sloss Quarters, the former site of Sloss company housing, for . . . — Map (db m86613) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Birmingham|
Founded in 1886 on 600 acres of land, East Birmingham was the agricultural area consisting primarily of dairy farms extending to the present Birmingham airport. The East Birmingham Land Company that developed the area was formed by local industrialists who proposed sites for manufacturing plants, employee housing, and a streetcar line linking them to Birmingham. East Birmingham was annexed to the city in 1910.
In the decades after 1886, industrial enterprises and . . . — Map (db m83827) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Lake Community|
|The Creek Indian Cession of 1814 opened this section of Alabama to settlement. At the time of statehood in 1819 many pioneer families had located here in what later became known as Jones Valley. By 1820 the area was called Ruhama Valley as a result of the religious fervor of Hosea Holcomb who preached mercy or "Ruhamah." As early as 1839 a post office named Rockville was established for the local community.
Major growth came in 1886 as a result of the promotion of the East Lake Land . . . — Map (db m26680) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Lake Park|
|East Lake was planned in 1886 by the East Lake Land Company to help sell home sites to the men who came in the 1870's to work in Birmingham's steel industry. First named Lake Como, after the lake in the Italian Alps, it soon came to be called East Lake. Using water from Roebuck Springs and Village Creek this 45 acre man - made lake, within a 100 acre park, enhanced the area by providing a year round pleasure resort.
In a short time East Lake Park became a major recreational center of the . . . — Map (db m83828) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Eddie James Kendrick — December 17, 1937 - October 5, 1992|
|Eddie James Kendrick, nicknamed "cornbread", was born the eldest of five children to Johnny and Lee Bell Kendrick in Union Springs, Alabama.
After attending Western-Olin High School in Ensley, Alabama, Eddie was persuaded by his childhood friend Paul Williams to move to Detroit, Michigan. It was there they formed a singing group called "The Primes". While in Detroit, the duo met Otis Williams of the music group "The Distants". The two groups merged forming the legendary "Temptations". . . . — Map (db m26724) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Emory Overton Jackson — 1908 - 1975|
Emory Overton Jackson was born on September 8, 1908 in Buena Vista, Georgia to Will Burt and Lovie Jones Jackson. E. O. Jackson and his seven siblings were raised in the middle-class Birmingham enclave of Enon Ridge, located on the west side of town near Birmingham-Southern College. He attended Industrial High School, which was later named A. H. Parker High. In 1928 he enrolled in Atlanta’s Morehouse College, where he served as President of the student government and editor of the . . . — Map (db m64736) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Five Points South|
|This neighborhood developed in the 1880s as one of Birmingham's first streetcar suburbs. It was the Town of Highlands from 1887 to 1893, when it became part of the City of Birmingham. The heart of the neighborhood was Five Points Circle, a major streetcar intersection lined with houses and small stores. In the 1920s, the Circle was transformed into one of the state's most distinctive shopping areas, known for its outstanding collection of Spanish Revival and Art Deco buildings. Nearby houses, . . . — Map (db m83829) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foot Soldier Tribute — Ronald S. McDowell, Artist I.B.J.C.|
|This sculpture is dedicated to the Foot Soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement.
With gallantry, courage and great bravery they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses, and bombings. They were the fodder in the advance against injustice. Warriors of a Just Cause: They represent humanity unshaken in their firm belief in their nation’s commitment to liberty and justice for all.
We salute these men and women who were the Soldiers of this Great Cause.
. . . — Map (db m27394) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Forest Park|
|A residential district extending from the crest of Red Mountain to the floor of Jones Valley with roads built along natural land contours. Birmingham real estate promoter and civic leader, Robert Jemison, Jr., began development as Mountain Terrace in 1906. New York landscape architect Samuel Parsons, Jr., conceived the park theme which the Jemison and Birmingham Realty companies extended in the 1910s and 1920s through developments originally known as Forest Park, Glenwood, Valley View, Altamont . . . — Map (db m26983) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Forrest Camp No. 1435|
|We salute the Confederate soldier with affection, reverence, and undying devotion to the cause for which he fought. — Map (db m12240) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.|
Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the downtown area.
After the turn of the century, Jim Crow laws authorizing the distinct separation of "the races" and subsequent restrictions placed on black firms forced the growing black business community into an area along Third, Fourth, and Fifth . . . — Map (db m83830) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fraternal Hotel Building|
|The Fraternal Hotel Building was built in 1925. Some of the businesses that were located in this building included:
1925 - 1980 Fraternal Hotel
1925 - 1970 Fraternal Café
1950 - 1966 Monroe Steak House
1985 - 1994 Grand Lodge Knights of Pythians
1928 - 1931 Mabry Brothers Department Store
1952 - 1985 Hill Photo Studio
1950 - 1985 Central Barber Shop
Famous persons such as: Dr. Martin L. King, Jr., Rev. Jesse Jackson, Jackie Robinson, Monroe Kennedy and many others were . . . — Map (db m27518) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Glen Iris Park|
|Founded in 1898 by Robert Jemison, this 30-acre historic district is a private residential park containing an almost intact collection of some of Birmingham's finest 20th century houses. It was the first professionally landscaped residential community in the city and the first where residents adhered to strictly self-imposed rules and covenants.
National Register of Historic Places 8-30-1984. — Map (db m27520) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Green Acres Café — 1705 - 4th Avenue, North|
|Businesses that occupied this building between 1908 - 1970
1908 - 1913 Southern Bell Telephone Company Stockroom
1915 - 1926 OK French Dry Cleaning Company
1927 - 1938 George Kanelis Billiards
1940 - 1945 Alex’s Steak House
1946 - 1971 OK Cleaning Company
Historically, this building has been identified as the OK Cleaners building. During the early 1970’s until 1989 this building remained vacant. Green Acres Café was established in 1959 and was located at 1600 - 6th Avenue, . . . — Map (db m27521) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Ground Zero|
|You are standing at Ground Zero of the 1963 civil rights struggle in Birmingham. When African-American leaders and citizens resolved to fight the oppression of a strictly segregated society, they were met with vitriol and violence despite their own determinedly peaceful approach. — Map (db m73015) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — History of the 117th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing|
|January 1922 Federal Recognition 135th Observation Squadron
May 1923 Redesignated 114th Observation Squadron
January 1924 Redesignated 106th Observation Squadron
October 1943 Redesignated 100th Bombardment Squadron
November 1946 Federally Recognized 106th Bombardment Squadron
February 1951 Redesignated 106th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron
May 1960 Assigned to 117th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing — Map (db m27388) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Howard College — (Now Samford University)|
|Founded in 1841 at Marion in Perry County by Alabama Baptists, Howard College was named for British prison reformer John Howard.
The liberal arts college moved to this site in 1887 and relocated to its present campus in Homewood, Alabama in 1957. It was renamed Samford University in 1965. — Map (db m26693) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Independent Presbyterian Church — Founded 1915|
|The church was founded when the Rev. Henry M. Edmonds and many members of a Southern Presbyterian congregation withdrew from the local Presbytery. During the first seven years it met in Temple Emanu-El synagogue and held evening services in the Lyric Theater downtown. In 1922, Independent Presbyterian joined what is now the Presbyterian Church USA (PCUSA). The congregation has focused on the use of beauty in every form as well as community service, which led to the establishment of the . . . — Map (db m27093) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Industry — Iron and steeel manufacturing|
|Heavy industry, the reason for Birmingham’s founding, is still an economic force here today. Foundries and pipe plants dot the landscape, the railroad runs through the city’s center, and steam rises periodically in the distance from the quenching of super-heated metals.
North view from Red Mountain
1. ACIPCO (American Cast Iron Pipe Company)
2. Principal railroad lines
3. Hardie-Tynes Company
4. ABC Coke – Division of Drummond Company
5. McWane Pipe . . . — Map (db m69019) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Ironmaking — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
| The Industry That Built A City
The minerals needed to make iron-iron ore, coal, and limestone-are abundant in the Birmingham area, and for ninety years men turned these materials into pig iron at Sloss. Sloss pig iron was sold to foundries, where it was melted down and cast into iron pipe, machinery, and many other products.
The heart of the Sloss plant was a pair of blast furnaces that together produced as much as 950 tons of iron a day. In addition to the furnaces, the plant . . . — Map (db m43973) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jefferson County Courthouse Site|
|The county seat of Jefferson County was moved from Elyton to Birmingham in 1873. On this site stood the first Courthouse in the City of Birmingham. The Italianate style structure was designed by architect W. K. Ball. Completed in 1875, the two-story red brick building cost $30,500. In 1887 it was condemned as unsafe, and a new Courthouse was planned.
In 1889 a second Jefferson County Courthouse was constructed on this site. Charles Wheelock and Sons of Birmingham and . . . — Map (db m27095) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jefferson County Courthouses|
|Side A Territorial legislature designated home of Maj. Moses Kelly (in Jones Valley) as site of first court in this area of Alabama, 1818.
After creation of Jefferson County, 1819, court held at Carrollsville (Powderly) until county seat established at Elyton, 1820.
County seat moved to Birmingham, 1873. Two story brick Courthouse completed 1875 on NE corner 3rd Ave. and 21st St., North. Replaced 1887 by elaborate three story structure which served county until 1931. Separate . . . — Map (db m25743) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jim Crow on the Books|
|The first march to City Hall was organized in 1955 by Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth when he petitioned the city to hire Negro policemen. By 1963, thousands of Blacks marched on City Hall to protest Jim Crow laws that were a constant reminder of Blacks' second-class status in America. Such laws robbed them of fair voting, and public facility rights. Separate water fountains, restrooms, schools, public transportation and other facilities were marked with "Whites Only" and "Colored" or "Negroes" . . . — Map (db m73036) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Jordan Home — 2834 Highland Avenue|
|Dr. Mortimer Harvie Jordan and his wife, Florence E. Mudd, constructed their home between 1906 and 1908. After service in the Confederate army, Jordan studied medicine in Cincinnati and New York (under Alabama's famous gynecologist, Dr. J. Marion Sims). As a doctor in Jefferson County, he is especially remembered for his tireless work in the 1873 cholera epidemic. He served on the State Board of Health (1879-83), as president of the State Medical Association (1884), and as chair of materia . . . — Map (db m26743) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Julius Ellsberry|
|In dedication to Julius Ellsberry, the first Black Alabama man to die in World War II; born Birmingham, Ala, 1922.
Enlisted in the U.S. Navy, 1940; First Class Mate [sic] Attendant aboard battleship Oklahoma in the Battle of Pearl Harbor, did sacrifice his life to save his shipmates, December 7, 1941. — Map (db m63761) HM WM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Julius Ellsberry Memorial Park|
| In honor of Julius Ellsberry of Birmingham
World War II Hero
First Jefferson County Citizen
to die for his country at Pearl Harbor while serving aboard the U.S.S. Oklahoma December 7, 1941 — Map (db m70261) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — King's Spring|
| Avondale Park, dedicated in 1886, is one of Birmingham's earliest parks. The park site was chosen because of its natural spring, which was a popular attraction with the local people, as well as a favorite stopping point for weary travelers along the old Huntsville stagecoach road.
With its natural beauty, rolling topography, and natural spring, the park quickly became a gem for residents all over Birmingham and the region. The original spring, known as "King's Spring", emerged from a . . . — Map (db m55951) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Kneeling Ministers|
|Responsible for much planning and leadership, the clergy played a central role in the Birmingham Campaign--like the famous Palm Sunday incident in 1963 (see nearby plaque). Local clergy like Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth worked with out-of-town ministers, Martin Luther King, Jr., and even a group of rabbis from New York, who likened segregation to the Holocaust. — Map (db m73080) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Lane Park|
|In 1822 William Pullen, Revolutionary War veteran, acquired this land from the Federal Government for farming. In 1889 his heirs sold the land to the City of Birmingham for use as the New Southside Cemetery which operated from 1889 to 1909 with 4,767 burials. The name changed to Red Mountain Cemetery, then to Red Mountain Park and finally to Lane Park in honor of Birmingham Mayor A.O. Lane. The land was also used for the Allen Gray Fish Hatchery ( fed by Pullen Springs), a stone quarry , a . . . — Map (db m27096) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Mineral Railroad Trestle|
|The railroad trestle support wall across the road is a remnant of L&N's 156-mile Mineral Railroad, the backbone of the local iron industry. This segment ran along the north edge of Vulcan Park on its route around the Birmingham District, linking mines and mills. The railroad not only transported raw materials locally; it also connected to the nationwide rail network to ship pig iron and finished iron and steel. — Map (db m83831) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Morris Avenue Historic District / Elyton Land Company (Successor, Birmingham Realty Co.)|
|Created 1972 by the Jefferson County Historical Commission, the district is based on this avenue. Morris Avenue was named for one of the founders of Birmingham, Josiah Morris, who paid $100,000 for 4,157 acres of the original site of the city in 1870. At the suggestion of Mr. Morris the city was named for England's industrial district. This avenue was the principal wholesale trade district of the city and enjoyed it's greatest popularity from 1880 to 1900. Some of the city's most prominent . . . — Map (db m27156) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — New Hope Cemetery — Jefferson County|
| New Hope Baptist Church and Cemetery were established here on land with a log house donated by Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Jackson Glass on August 21, 1884, for religious and educational purposes. The five-member church began with trustee Manson Glass. On September 19, 1884, James P. Cambron presented a request for membership for the newly formed New Hope Church in the Cahaba Valley Baptist Association.|
New Hope Cemetery is owned and maintained by Grantswood Baptist Church.
In loving memory of our . . . — Map (db m83832) HM
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers|
|The central principle of the American Civil Rights Movement was non-violence, based on the strategies of Mahatma Gandhi, who led India's independence struggle against the British Empire. Being non-violent did not mean being passive. Using "direct action," protesters aggressively disobeyed unfair segregation laws. This put them on a collision course with the White establishment that refused to change. Protesters were trained to resist, yet not fight violence with violence. They believed that . . . — Map (db m83833) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers|
|Those who participated in the marches and other demonstrations in the Birmingham Campaign agreed to a pledge of nonviolence. A few of the "Ten Commandments" of the pledge were: "Meditate daily on the teaching and life of Jesus. Remember always that the nonviolent movement in Birmingham seeks justice and reconciliation - not victory. Refrain from the violence of the fist, tongue and heart." After protesters knelt to pray in the streets, they were arrested. Here they quietly line-up to get into . . . — Map (db m83834) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — North Birmingham|
|On October 1, 1886, the North Birmingham Land Company was formed to develop a planned industrial and residential town on 900 acres of land, formerly part of the Alfred Nathaniel Hawkins plantation north of Village Creek. The plan included sites for houses, parks, businesses and manufacturing plants, and a streetcar line to downtown Birmingham. The community was incorporated in 1902 with a population of 5,000, and annexed by legislative act, into the City of Birmingham, under protest, in 1910. . . . — Map (db m26700) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Oldest House In Shades Valley / Irondale Furnace Commissary — Cummings - Eastis - Beaumont House|
|The original log structure was built c. 1820 - 1830, with the board and batten addition dating to as late as the 1860s. The log cabin was at first one and one-half stories and is believed to be the oldest structure in Shades Valley. Members of the Eastis family lived here for over eighty years until it was purchased by the Edward Beaumonts in 1951.
(Continued on other side)
The log house, purchased from William Cummings in 1863 by Wallace S. McElwain, owner of the . . . — Map (db m26697) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Osmond Kelly Ingram — 1887 - 1917|
| . . . — Map (db m63762) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Oxmoor Iron Furnaces — 1863 - 1928|
|First blast furnace in Jefferson County erected near this site (1863) by Red Mountain Coal and Iron Co. Destroyed (1865) by Federal troops: rebuilt (1873) and second furnace added. Successful experimental run made in Furnace No. 2 (1876) using local coke and Red Mountain iron ore: this assured future growth of coal and iron industry in Birmingham area. Owned by a succession of companies, the furnaces were acquired by U.S. Steel Corp. (1907) and later dismantled (1928). — Map (db m27280) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Pauline Bray Fletcher — 1878 - 1970|
|In Tribute to
Pauline Bray Fletcher
1878 - 1970
The First Black Registered Nurse of Alabama
Through self-sacrifice, perseverance founded in 1926 Camp Pauline Bray Fletcher.
Renewing the faith and the good health of all black children. — Map (db m27393) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Police Presence|
| May 1963 Helmeted police stand ready in Kelly Ingram Park outside the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, one of many strategic hubs from which "Project C" organizers launched marches. Police try to keep marchers away from City Hall, usually stopping them at 17th Street. White police often considered this street to be the great dividing line between them and Black protesters advancing to government sites downtown. — Map (db m73032) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Powell School|
|Birmingham's first public school was named for Colonel James R. Powell, the city's first elected Mayor. This energetic promoter also served as the first President of the Elyton Land Company (now Birmingham Realty), which founded the city in 1871. Two years later, Colonel John T. Terry led the fund raising to establish a "free school for white children." The school was "free" only of ties to a religious institution for fees were charged according to grade level. Mayor Powell donated his salary, . . . — Map (db m83835) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Redmont Park Historic District|
|Extending across the crest of Red Mountain, is the state’s second oldest garden-landscaped residential area. Developed from 1911 to 1935 by Robert Jemison, Jr., Hill Ferguson, and Henry Key Milner using landscape architects C. W. Leavitt of New York City, George H. Miller of Boston, Birmingham landscape architect William H. Kessler and engineer John Glander, the area contains Alabama’s finest collection of residential architecture of that era and includes the state’s best examples of the . . . — Map (db m41129) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Reflecting Pool|
|Throughout May 1963, the pressure continued to build. The downtown business district was closed, a prominent black-owned motel was bombed, and 3,000 federal troops were dispatched to restore order before Birmingham was officially desegregated. This placid fountain mirrors the peace that the brave "Freedom Fighters" helped forge. — Map (db m73021) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth|
|No one did more to bring about positive change in Birmingham than the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth. In his struggle for equal rights, he survived a series of assaults, including the bombing of his home and a brutal armed beating by the Ku Klux Klan. In spite of it all, he was instrumental in victory after victory for civil rights in Birmingham and America. — Map (db m73025) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth Bethel Baptist Church|
|Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth's tenure as pastor of Bethel Baptist Church (1953-1961) was marked by demonstrations, bombings and passionate sermons critical of segregation laws. His activism earned him a house bombing, frequent beatings, arrests, and threats to his family. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. called Shuttlesworth “one of the nation's most courageous freedom fighters.” Shuttlesworth organized lunch counter sit-ins and encouraged Blacks to apply for civil service jobs. The church . . . — Map (db m83836) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rickwood Field|
|Built by local industrialist A. H. "Rick" Woodward, this park opened on August 18, 1910. It is the oldest surviving baseball park in America. Rickwood served as the home park for both the Birmingham Barons (until 1987) and the Birmingham Black Barons (until 1963). It was also a favorite site for barnstorming Major League teams. Many greats of the game thrilled crowds here, including Babe Ruth, Jackie Robinson, Ty Cobb, Burleigh Grimes, Ted Williams, Stan Musial, Walt Dropo,and Reggie Jackson. . . . — Map (db m22526) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rickwood Field — Opening Day: August 18, 1910|
|Built by Birmingham industrialist A. H. “Rick” Woodward, Rickwood Field served as home to the Birmingham Barons and Birmingham Black Barons for most of the 20th century. Recognized as “America’s Oldest Baseball Park,” Rickwood Field is now home to Birmingham’s high school teams as well as men’s amateur teams and numerous tournaments. Springtime in Birmingham features the Birmingham Barons’ vintage “Rickwood Classic” game each year between the Barons and a . . . — Map (db m83837) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Roebuck Spring|
|In 1850 George James Roebuck and his wife Ann Hawkins Roebuck built a log cabin at the mouth of Roebuck Spring. His Influence and leadership led to the area around it to be known as Roebuck. In 1900 Alabama Boys Industrial School was located adjacent to the spring, and the spring water was used for the school until city water became available. In 1910 George Miller, a leading landscape architect and industrial town planner, developed the first planned golf course and club house close to the . . . — Map (db m26688) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Roebuck Springs Historic District|
|Roebuck Springs was the first large residential suburb in Birmingham where planning and development were tied to the automobile, and the first community in the city associated with a golf course development. The 1910 land plan was designed to complement the steep, rolling topography, reminiscent of narrow country lanes in rural England. The use of local native stones unified the diverse architectural styles - Craftsman, Tudor Revival, and Colonial Revival - and contributed to the natural, . . . — Map (db m26684) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Ruhama Baptist Church|
|Constituted in 1819 by pioneer settlers in Territory of Alabama.
Oldest Church in Birmingham Baptist Association.
Elder Hosea Holcombe served as first pastor.
First meeting house was log cabin.
Present building is on fourth site. — Map (db m26695) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — S. H. Kress Five-And-Ten Cent Store|
|Built in 1937, Birmingham’s S. H. Kress Five-and-Ten Cent Store was the second completed of the three great mercantile buildings on this intersection. Its construction reflected Kress’s confidence in Birmingham’s economy and marked a break by its chief architect, Edward F. Sibbert, with prior architectural traditions by incorporating Bauhaus, Streamline Moderne and the emerging International Style influences into the creamy mottled terra-cotta and steel-framed structure.
Thriving through . . . — Map (db m38557) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — School of Medicine|
| Front of Marker:
Opened as Alabama Medical College in 1859 in Mobile by Josiah C. Nott and other physicians as part of the University of Alabama. Closed by the Civil War in 1861 it reopened in 1868. Reorganized in 1897, it became the Medical Department and in 1907 the School of Medicine of the University of Alabama. The Mobile School was closed and moved to Tuscaloosa in 1920 as a two year basic medical science program, which was offered through 1944.
Reverse Side: . . . — Map (db m83838) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Site of the First Alabama - Auburn Football Game|
|The first Alabama - Auburn football game was played on this site, formerly known as the Base Ball Park, on February 22, 1893. The Agricultural and Mechanical College's "Orange and Blue" met the University of Alabama's "Tuskaloosa" squad before a crowd of 5,000 cheering fans. A&M College, now Auburn University, triumphed by a score of 32-22, and still proudly displays the victory cup presented that day by a Birmingham belle.
That contest, reported as "the greatest football game ever played . . . — Map (db m23500) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sixteenth Street Baptist Church — Has Been Designated a National Historic Landmark.|
|This property possesses National Significance in commemorating the history of the United States. In 1963 it was the staging ground for the Birmingham Campaign Civil Rights Youth Marches and the place where a bomb killed four young girls, "Martyred Heroines of a Holy Crusade for Freedom and Human Dignity." — Map (db m63733) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Slag — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
In addition to making iron the furnace produced a molten waste called slag. Workers drained off the slag periodically through the cinder notch, a hole at the base of the furnace. After processing, the slag was sold for use in road building and in the manufacture of concrete and mineral wool.
Because the furnace was sealed up under pressure and ran continuously, there was no way to manually remove the waste products of the ironmaking process—the coke ash and . . . — Map (db m83839) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sloss Furnaces|
|The crossing of railroads in 1872 adjacent to this site gave rise to the industrial city of Birmingham. In 1881 Alabama railroad magnate and entrepreneur James Withers Sloss, capitalizing on the unusual coincidence of coal, iron ore and limestone in the area, founded the Sloss Furnace Company as an iron manufacturer and built blast furnaces beside the railroad crossing. Production of pig iron at Sloss Furnaces began in 1882 and continued for almost 90 years. Early 20th century additions to the . . . — Map (db m23498) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Smithfield|
This residential area was carved from the Joseph Riley Smith plantation, a 600 acre antebellum farm, one of the largest in 19th century Jefferson County. Smithfield lies to the west of Birmingham's city center on the flat land & hills north of Village Creek & has the city's earliest & most substantial concentration of black, middle-class residences, small commercial enclaves & churches. The neighborhood illustrates the lifestyles of a wide spectrum of black Birmingham . . . — Map (db m26990) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — South — Suburban neighborhoods south of Birmingham|
|At the turn of the last century, Birmingham residents seeking home ownership and escape from the smoke, congestion, and unhealthy living conditions of an industrial city, began moving south. New streetcar lines encouraged the move “over the mountain.” By the 1920s, the rise of the automobile’s popularity made possible more distant and exclusive residential communities.
South view from Red Mountain
1. Mountain Brook
Developer Robert Jemison Jr. and . . . — Map (db m83840) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — St. Vincent’s Hospital — Birmingham’s Oldest Hospital|
|Named for St. Vincent de Paul, founder of the Daughters of Charity in France in 1633, the hospital opened December 20, 1898 in the temporarily rented Henry F. DeBardelaben mansion at 206 15th Street South. Father Patrick A. O’Reilly founded the hospital together with Sisters Antonia, Benedicta, Patricia and Placida. Filling Birmingham’s desperate need for a hospital, the magnificent original building was dedicated on this site on November 29, 1900 at a cost of $223,000. The State’s first School . . . — Map (db m27523) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Stock Trestle/Tunnel — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
Construction of the stock trestle/tunnel complex was part of the extensive modernization that Sloss carried out between 1927 and 1931. Much of the work focused on mechanizing the charging operations and equipment—the stock trestle/tunnel complex and the inclined skip hoists. It was here that raw materials were stored, weighed, and loaded into the furnace.
The 800-foot-long stock trestle was made of concrete and supported a dual-track rail line. Freight cars . . . — Map (db m69077) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Temple Wilson Tutwiler, II / Tutwiler Hotel — March 22, 1923 - March 1, 1982|
|Temple Wilson Tutwiler, II
“Tutwiler Green”, this section of Birmingham Green was so named in a resolution passed by the Birmingham City Council to honor the life and work of Temple Tutwiler II, who contributed greatly to the welfare and progress of this City. Mr. Tutwiler was a driving force in greening of Twentieth Street and through his leadership and determination saw this significant landmark to fruition.
This prestigious hotel was erected on this . . . — Map (db m27525) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Alabama Theatre — Built 1927|
|Built by the Publix Theater division of Paramount Studios. This movie palace opened on December 26th, 1927. The theatre, in Spanish / Moorish design by Graven and Mayger of Chicago, seated 2500 in a five story, three-tiered auditorium. Paramount's president, Adolph Zukor, named it the "Showplace Of The South". The famous "Mighty Wurlitzer" pipe organ, with 21 sets of pipes, was played for many years by showman Stanleigh Malotte. The Alabama hosted many events including the Miss Alabama Pageant . . . — Map (db m27337) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Berry Project|
|This row of buildings from 2009 to 2017 Second Avenue dates from the early years of the 20th century and has undergone a variety of changes and modernizations over the years. Originally part of a larger building that burned in 1944 (now the site of Brombergs’s), 2009 survived and was rebuilt and known for many years as the Lee Building. Martha Washington Lunch originally occupied 2013, and 2017 was originally known as Gunn’s Drug Store. Burger Dry Goods was the first occupant of 2015, a fine . . . — Map (db m38563) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Birmingham Public Library / The Linn - Henley Research Library|
|Birmingham’s first library was organized in 1886 and in 1891 became a subscription library for the general public. In 1908 the Birmingham Public Library Association established a free public library, and the City created an independent Library Board in 1913. For decades the library was housed in various locations including the old City Hall where it was destroyed by fire in 1925. Libraries throughout the U. S. sent books and local citizens contributed for a new building. It opened April 11, . . . — Map (db m83856) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Blast Furnace — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
In the blast furnace the combination of iron ore, flux (limestone and/or dolomite), coke, and hot air produced molten iron and two waste products: molten slag and blast furnace gas. The molten products collected in the bottom of the furnace and were drained off periodically. The gas left the furnace through the top and was routed to the stoves and boilers where it was used as fuel.
This furnace, known simply as Furnace No. 1, is one of two that operated at Sloss. The original furnaces . . . — Map (db m69078) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Blowing Engine Room — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
|The blast furnace required a tremendous amount of air - about two tons for every ton of iron produced. These three rooms, known collectively as the blower building, house the equipment used to pump air to the furnaces. Workers called this blast of air the “ wind.” The eight giant steam-powered piston engine in the largest room date from 1890-1910 and were used until the early 1950s. At that time they were replaced by the two turbo-blowers in the adjoining rooms. Despite their size, . . . — Map (db m43628) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Cascade|
|One popular element of the park’s original design was a water feature known as the cascade. Cascading fountains were important features in formal European gardens. Their terraced pools and waterfalls animated the landscape with the sounds and movement of water. Unfortunately, the cascade was removed in the 1969-71 park renovation. No remnants or original technical drawings of the fountain remain.
WPA records tell us that the Singing Tower, built in 1928 at Historic Bok . . . — Map (db m83857) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Children's Crusade|
|On May 2, 1963, more than 1,000 students skipped school and marched on downtown, gathering at the 16th Street Baptist Church. Bull Connor responded by jailing more than 600 children that day. So the next day, another 1,000 students filled the park in which you stand now. With his cells full and his back against the wall, Connor responded savagely. — Map (db m73017) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Coe House — 1908|
|John Valentine Coe, president of Birmingham Lumber and Coal Company, commissioned this two-story Craftsman-Tudor Revival style house in 1908. Coe, who had previously been a lumber merchant in Selma, moved his family and business to Birmingham at the turn of the 20th century. As the business thrived, he built this house in the Rhodes Park area of the Highland Park neighborhood. At the time, Highland Park's gracious homes and trolley network made it one of Alabama's most exclusive residential . . . — Map (db m83858) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Foot Soldiers|
|When notoriously racist police commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor sicced dogs on the "Foot Soldiers" of the movement, civil rights leaders hoped it would shine a national spotlight on their plight, but the country at large remained woefully ignorant. However, Southern Christian Leadership Conference leaders had an ace up their sleeves... — Map (db m73398) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Gas System — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
| The Gas System
Gas produced in the furnace as a by-product of the ironmaking process was used in the plant as fuel. A large pipe called the downcomer carried gas from the top of the furnace to the gas cleaning equipment, which removed the dirt and dust. Once cleaned, the gas was piped throughout the plant. The stoves burned part of the gas to pre-heat the air blast. The boilers burned the remainder to produce the steam that powered much of the plant's machinery.
The . . . — Map (db m43669) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Heaviest Corner On Earth|
|At the turn of the 20th century, Birmingham was a small town of two and three story buildings with a few church steeples punctuating the skyline. During the industrial boom from 1902 to 1912 which made Birmingham the largest city in the state. Four large buildings were constructed at the intersection of the City's main streets. The Woodward building (now National Bank of Commerce), constructed in 1902 on the Southwest corner, was the City's first steel-frame skyscraper. A good example of the . . . — Map (db m27500) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Iron Man: Vulcan|
|The giant, cast iron statue you see towering above you is Vulcan, the Roman god of metalwork and the forge. The 56-foot tall statue was commissioned by Birmingham leaders to represent their new, growing city at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. After a smashing success at the fair, he was brought home to Birmingham. — Map (db m26297) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Little Theater Clark Memorial Theatre Virginia Samford Theatre|
|Built in 1937 by Gen. Louis Verdier Clark from a design by architect William T. Warren as a community playhouse for cultural activities. It was recognized as one of the best of its kind in the nation. Mrs. Vassar Allen - first president, Bernard Szold - first director, Hill Ferguson and John Henley were founders.
In 1955, the building was donated by Gen. Clark's family to the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and became known as the Clark Memorial Theatre. Professor James Hatcher . . . — Map (db m27513) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Lone Pine Mine|
|You are standing in front of the entrance to Lone Pine Mine Number 3. This mine is one of over one hundred ore mines on Red Mountain that were active between 1860 and 1960. |
In the early twentieth century, iron ore was extracted from this mine and loaded onto the Mineral Railroad.
The Lone Pine Mine’s tunnels have never been completely mapped. However, some Red Mountain workings (the parts of a mine that have been excavated) are as much as fifteen miles long. The . . . — Map (db m83859) HM
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Rainbow Viaduct — Dedicated to the Brave Men of the 167th Infantry who fought to Preserve Our Freedom|
|On May 10, 1919, soon after its completion, this 21st Street Viaduct was named the Rainbow Viaduct in tribute to Alabama's famous 167th Infantry of the Rainbow Division, renowned for Bravery and Honor. The 167th was the Nation's only regiment in World War 1 referred to by its home state -- "The Alabama," made up of men from throughout Alabama, including a large number from Birmingham, this regiment had to its credit the following brave deeds, among countless others:
* Advanced farthest . . . — Map (db m83860) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Stock Trestle — Sloss Furnaces National Historic Landmark|
The raw materials for making iron—iron ore, limestone and dolomite, and coke—came to Sloss by railroad and were stored in the stock bins below. An inclined, steam-driven "skip hoist" carried the stock to the top of the furnace and dumped it in automatically. Filling the furnace with stock was called "charging." The automatic charging devices were added to the plant in the late 1920s when the furnaces were rebuilt. Before that time the raw materials were taken to the top of the . . . — Map (db m83861) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — The Works Progress Administration|
|The WPA (Works Progress Administration) funded the design and construction of Vulcan Park in the late 1930s. This was done in conjunction with the Alabama Highway Department’s improvement of U.S. Highway 31, the major north/south route that runs along the east side of the park. — Map (db m69022) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Title Building|
|Designed by William C. Weston and erected in 1902, the Title Building was the second skyscraper built in Birmingham. It was the first building to supply its tenants with electric power with its own power-generating plant and the water supply was pumped from a well beneath the foundations.
In 1983 the investment partnership of John N. Lauriello, Neal L. Andrews, Jr. and David Cromwell Johnson rescued the Title Building from Bankruptcy proceedings. Certified in 1984 as a historic property in . . . — Map (db m27501) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Tuxedo Junction|
|"Tuxedo Junction" was the street car crossing on the Ensley-Fairfield line at this corner in the Tuxedo Park residential area. It also refers to the fraternal dance hall operated in the 1920's and 1930s on the second floor of the adjacent building, and to the 1939 hit song "Tuxedo Junction", written by Birmingham musician-composer Erskine Hawkins, who grew up nearby and became a well known big band leader in New York City.
"Co-ome on down, forget your care,
Co-ome on . . . — Map (db m25623) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — United Confederate Veterans|
|In Memory of the Confederate Soldiers.
In Memory of the Women of the Confederacy.
In God we trust. — Map (db m12241) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — United Confederate Veterans — Camp Hardee No. 39|
|(front): United Confederate Veterans Camp Hardee No. 39 Camp Hardee No. 39 was organized as a camp of the United Confederate Veterans on August 7, 1891. This cemetery plot was acquired by the camp to provide a final resting place for the men whose valiant service had earned the undying gratitude of the South.
Past Camp Commander J. C. Abernathy led the committee which oversaw the erection of the monument which was dedicated on April 21, 1906.
In addition to the men buried here, . . . — Map (db m12487) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — United States Pipe and Foundry Company|
|On March 3, 1899, the United States Pipe and Foundry Company was incorporated consolidating 14 iron and steel foundries in 9 states. One of these foundries, the Howard-Harrison Iron Company of Bessemer, was founded in 1889. In 1911, the Dimmick Pipe Company, located in North Birmingham, became part of the company. U.S. Pipe led the industry with its introduction of the deLavaud centrifugal casting technology in 1921. The process revolutionized the U.S. pipe-making industry and remained the . . . — Map (db m27526) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Walker Memorial Church|
|In 1818 before Alabama, Jefferson County, Elyton or Birmingham existed, The Elyton Methodist Church was established on Center Street. It was moved to 14 Second Avenue, and in 1909, to its present site. Renamed in 1910 for Corilla Porter Walker (1824-1908), a member, and dedicated May 14, 1944. — Map (db m24348) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Water Cannons|
|Bull Connor ordered the fearless "Child Crusaders" to be blasted with high-pressure fire hoses, and he once again loosed the dogs on the young demonstrators. When the media finally exposed the nation to the cruel scene, President John F. Kennedy attempted to intervene, but a defiant Connor continued to brutalize and imprison indiscriminately. — Map (db m73019) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Wilson Chapel And Cemetery — ("The Little Brown Church in the Wildwood")|
|Wilson Chapel was built in 1916 as a memorial to James and Frances Wilson by their daughters, Rosa Wilson Eubanks and Minerva Wilson Constantine. At the time of its construction the area was developing into a community of country homes known as Roebuck Springs. Styled after the architecture of English parish churches, the chapel marks and protects the site of one of the oldest cemeteries in Alabama.
Frances Wilson's father, Audley Hamilton, was granted this land in 1818 and the cemetery . . . — Map (db m26681) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Wilson's Raiders — Headquarters March 28-31, 1865|
|Gen. James H. Wilson, USA, having crossed the Tennessee River with a large force of well equipped cavalry, grouped them here at Elyton.
Their mission: to destroy Alabama's economic facilities for supporting the War.
From these headquarters he sent;
(a) cavalry unit to burn the military school, foundries and bridges at Tuscaloosa.
(b) soldiers to destroy mines and furnaces in Jefferson, Bibb and Shelby Counties.
(c) cavalry to dash south to destroy railroads and factories at Selma. — Map (db m24358) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Zion Memorial Gardens|
|Mt. Zion Baptist Church began burying here in the mid-1800s. On June 2, 1970, New Grace Hill Cemetery, Inc., a subsidiary of the Booker T. Washington Insurance Company in Birmingham, purchased this cemetery and officially named it Zion Memorial Gardens. Dr. A. G. Gaston (1892-1996) organized the Booker T. Washington Burial Society in 1923, responding to the lack of burial insurance available to African Americans. Gaston believed, “a proper funeral is of immense importance….it’s the very . . . — Map (db m35602) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Brookside — Brookside's Unique Heritage / Brookside Russian Orthodox Church|
Brookside's Unique Heritage
Originally settled by the Samuel and Mary “Polly” Fields family in the 1820s, Brookside enjoyed a quiet life as an agricultural community until industrialists discovered rich coal deposits here. Sloss-Sheffield Iron and Steel Company mined the area to produce its own coal for use in the blast furnaces located in Birmingham. Brookside's unique ethnic makeup, however, sets it apart from other similarly founded Alabama towns. While . . . — Map (db m43223) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Center Point — Center Point, Alabama — A Great New City Springs Forth|
|In 1700s, Native Americans occupied the Springs property. Robert Reed's family arrived in the area from North Carolina in 1816. They obtained a land grant; soon others moved to the area. In 1871, Dave Franklin built a log cabin in the area which was named Center Point. |
In the 1900s, Center Point boasted a one-room school, blacksmith, shop, grocery store, post office, a Baptist and Methodist church.
Andy Beard invented the coupling mechanism for railroad cars and sold it for . . . — Map (db m37230) HM
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — Mount Calvary Cemetery — Clay, Alabama — formerly Ayers, Alabama|
|The oldest marked grave is that of Nancy Paerson, daughter of William S. Turner who was born September 23, 1813 and died September 19, 1830. Jesse Taylor deeded land for this church and graveyard on February 15, 1856.
Listed in the Alabama Historic Cemetery Register. — Map (db m25134) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — Pioneer Massey Cemetery|
|Samuel Massey and his brother - in - law, Duke William Glenn, first came to this Territory in February 1814 with Lt. Col Reuben Nash's Regt. South Carolina Volunteer Militia to help defeat the Creek Indians in the War of 1812. Samuel Massey returned to settle this land months before Alabama became a state on December 14, 1819. Samuel's son, William Duke Massey, married Ruth Reed, daughter of William 'Silver Billy' Reed. Born October 28, 1817, she was the first white girl born in Jefferson County. — Map (db m25088) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — The Cahaba Heart River of Alabama|
|On Cahaba Mountain to the NW, springs form a fragile stream that grows as it carves through the steep, rocky terrain of Birmingham suburbs, flowing south on the Gulf Coastal Plain to the Alabama River, at the site of Alabama's first capital, Cahawba. The Cahaba has sustained human life at least 10,000 years and remains a major drinking water source. It is known nationally for biological diversity and beauty and, at 191 miles, is Alabama's longest free flowing river. It nurtures 69 rare, . . . — Map (db m25110) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — The Clay Community|
|The clay soil of the area, first cultivated by Creek Indians, gave this agricultural community it name in 1878 when a post office was established. Clay’s historical roots date to the early 1800s through two small communities, Ayres and Self’s Beat, documented by the founding of Mount Calvary Presbyterian Church around 1806 and Cedar Mountain Church (now Clay United Methodist Church) in 1819. In early years, the community was a stagecoach stop along the route from Elyton (now part of Birmingham) . . . — Map (db m83863) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — Wear Cemetery|
|Established about 1850, Wear Cemetery is located off Old Springville Road to the northeast at Countryside Circle. In the 1800's the Wear family was among the first settlers of the community later known as Clay. Twenty-three remaining graves were identified and documented in 2008. The earliest known burial is that of Samuel Wear (1766-1852), an American Revolutionary War soldier who fought the British in the Battle of King's Mountain at 14 years of age. Other military veterans buried here . . . — Map (db m25113) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Fultondale — None — Black Creek Park, Five Mile Creek Greenway Partnership and the Fultondale Coke Oven Park|
|Black Creek Park, part of the Five Mile Creek Greenway Partnership, encompasses the Fultondale Coke Oven Park development. The Fultondale Coke Oven Park preserves the environment and history of the old mining communities of north Birmingham, including the beehive coke ovens. The Five Mile Creek area experienced an explosion of coal mining and mining camps in the late 1800s due to the unique possession of all the resources needed for iron and steel production: iron ore, limestone and coal. The . . . — Map (db m50823) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Gardendale — Gardendale, Alabama|
| Side A When Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek Nation at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, the subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson and other treaties that followed ceded Indian land that made up most
of what is now Alabama. Abraham Stout was commissioned to build a public road in 1822-1823 from Gandy’s Cove in Cataco/Morgan County to Elyton. He closely followed the old Indian trails for the
Route, which came directly through what is now Gardendale. Pioneers had already arrived in . . . — Map (db m39111) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Gardendale — Virgil Allen Howard|
|Virgil Allen Howard, who was born in South Carolina in 1859, came to Alabama in 1884 seeking employment with the Alabama Waterworks. He and Ollie Grace Hogan were married on July 15, 1903 and made their first home in Gardendale on property they purchased on Old Mount Olive Road. The Howards later bought land on Main Street and became active members of Gardendale’s First Baptist Church. Virgil Allen Howard served as Justice of the Peace for 18 years and was a trustee for the Gardendale . . . — Map (db m39221) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Graysville — Downtown Graysville|
In the latter 1800s and early 1900s, the city of Graysville was called Gin Town. Because Graysville had the only cotton gin for miles around, the town and community grew. As the community grew, the need for businesses and houses of worship grew as well. One street over from this site, the Union Church was established in the early 1900s. All people of all denominations met and worshipped there as it was the only church for miles around. The City of Graysville was incorporated . . . — Map (db m43221) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — “We Love Homewood”|
| Side A Located in Jefferson County in Shades Valley, Homewood came into existence with the combination of Edgewood, Rosedale, and Oak Grove. Hollywood, a fourth community, joined Homewood later. The City of Homewood was incorporated in 1926, although the community’s roots date to the 19th century. The city is governed by an elected mayor and city council. Citizen volunteers serve on a variety of community boards and commissions. Located within the Homewood city limits are Lakeshore . . . — Map (db m37712) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Edgewood|
|Nathan Byars, II settled here in 1836, followed by William D. Satterwhite in 1853, and Phillip Thomas Griffin and his wife Mary Ann Byars Griffin in 1854. These early settlers cleared land, built homes and farmed in what was a vast wooded wilderness.
By 1909 real estate developers Stephen Smith and Troupe Brazelton incorporated the Edgewood Highlands Land Company and purchased 1700 acres on which to build their dream. The development would include Edgewood Country Club, also known as the . . . — Map (db m26946) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Edgewood Lake (Drained 1940's) Birmingham Motor & Country Club / Edgewood Country Club — (Demolished 1930's)|
|The developers of the Town of Edgewood, Stephen Smith and Troupe Brazelton, built the beautiful 117.4 acre lake and clubhouse in 1913-15. Amenities included a swimming pool, dance pavilion, fishing, boating and parking for hundreds of automobiles.
Similar to golf or tennis clubs, this was instead a driving club since the ownership of an automobile was the latest rage. A great race track, designed after the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, was begun and graded but never completed. It's north and . . . — Map (db m26963) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Hallman Hill|
|In the early 1900's, among the many craftsmen who migrated south to build the booming industrial cities was Swedish brick mason A. G. Hallman. Hallman moved from the Lake Michigan area and purchased an acre of farmland along the north side of Oxmoor Road between Park Avenue (now 18th Street) and Center Avenue (now 19th Street). Hallman's brothers began to buy land around his, and before long residents began referring to the area as Hallman's Hill. — Map (db m26986) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Hollywood / Hollywood Town Hall / Hollywood Country Club|
|Clyde Nelson, born in Columbiana, Alabama, was only 26 when he began development of the Town of Hollywood in 1926. With a sales force of 75 and the slogan "Out of the smoke zone, into the ozone" his beautiful community soon took shape. Homes were usually designed by local architect George P. Turner in Spanish Mission style as was the rage in Hollywood, California. Many were also of the English Tudor design.
Besides homes, Nelson built the magnificent Hollywood Country Club (burned 1984) on . . . — Map (db m27091) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Homewood|
|Beginning in the mid 19th century settlers first emigrated into a vast wooded wilderness now known as Homewood.
On February 11, 1927, the merger of Edgewood, Grove Park and Rosedale became the new City of Homewood. On October 14, 1929 Hollywood was annexed. November 14, 1955 Oak Grove and Drexel Hills came in. Later annexations included the Lakeshore area (1959-60), Edgemont, more of Oak Grove, West Valley Avenue and Wildwood (1950’s-1970’s).
The first mayor, known as “The . . . — Map (db m51156) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Rosedale|
|Benjamin F. Roden formed the Clifton Land Company in 1886 to develop this area. The development was reorganized in 1889 as the South Birmingham Land Company.
Theodore Smith, nurseryman and florist, moved here from Bedford, New York in the 1880's and developed the area as his home and business. Smith named the property Rosedale Park.
Smith sold residential lots to his workers and others he recruited to the area, the best known of which was Damon Lee from Eufaula, Alabama. Lee would . . . — Map (db m24344) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Samford University|
|Multiple purpose Christian university founded 1841 as Howard College by Alabama Baptists at Marion.
Moved to East Lake, Birmingham, 1887. Established on this campus 1957.
Acquired Cumberland School of Law, Lebanon, Tennessee 1961.
College rechartered 1965 as Samford University in honor of Frank Park Samford and his family. — Map (db m27296) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Shades Valley High School — Original Site (1949-2000)|
|Nationally acclaimed Jefferson County School which originally served students from Homewood, Mountain Brook, Vestavia, Oak Grove, Irondale, Cahaba Heights, Hoover, Rocky Ridge, etc.
Opened Fall 1949, closed 1996, demolished 2000. Designed by E.B. Van Keuren and Charles F. Davis, Jr. Built by Daniel Construction. First principal, who served from 1949 to 1970, was Frank A. Peake. — Map (db m47786) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Union Hill Cemetery|
|Union Hill Cemetery is the burial ground of many pioneers and early settlers of the Shades Valley area. It was established in the 1870s, but includes gravestones dating back to the early 1850s due to the relocation of two earlier, smaller cemeteries to Union Hill - the Daniel Watkins Cemetery in 1946 and the Enoch Anderson Watkins Cemetery in 2004. Union Hill Cemetery is also the final resting place of many veterans who served in the Civil War, Spanish - American War, WWI, WWII, and the Korean . . . — Map (db m83873) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Homewood — Union Hill Cemetery, Union Hill Methodist Episcopal Church, Union Hill School|
|This cemetery is the final resting place of many of Shades Valley's pioneer residents. A few of the earliest headstones date from the mid-1850s. Descendants of these settlers helped mold the cities of Mountain Brook and Homewood. Located on property to the east of the cemetery was the Union Hill Methodist Episcopal Church building which was completed in 1874 on property donated by Pleasant H. Watkins. This church was founded in 1867 near the Irondale Furnace and moved to Union Hill in 1873. . . . — Map (db m26294) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Bluff Park Elementary School / Hoover Community Education|
|Summit/Hale Sps., a one-room school, opened on the mountain in 1898. It moved to this site and was named Bluff Park Elementary School with 50 students and funded with community support in 1923. From two-rooms, it expanded to 32 classrooms in 1988. Used now by many groups, it houses the office and archives of the Hoover Historical Society. — Map (db m28486) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Briarwood Presbyterian Church PCA|
|The Presbyterian Church U.S. began an effort in May 1960 to organize a new Presbyterian Church in the Cahaba Heights area. Rev. Frank M. Barker, Jr. was asked to begin the process and began contacting prospective members in a door to door campaign. Interest was so encouraging that space in a Cahaba Heights shopping center was leased. On June 15, 1960 services began and Briarwood Presbyterian Church was officially chartered September 25,1960. Rev. Barker was officially installed as the first . . . — Map (db m52185) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Brock’s Gap / Historic Gateway To Birmingham — The South and North Railroad Cut.|
|In 1858, the State of Alabama, wanting to develop coal and iron industries in Jefferson County, Had John T. Milner survey Shades Mountain for the most practical route for the South and North Railroad to cross. He selected Brock's Gap, named for original land purchaser, Pinkney L. Brock. Work began immediately. The cut, now passing under South Shades Crest Road, was blasted by nitroglycerin through a bed of limestone 75 feet deep and was heralded as the deepest railroad cut in the world. Delayed . . . — Map (db m26773) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Founding Of Hoover|
|The City of Hoover has grown rapidly since its incorporation in 1967 from a small four block area west of this site. A metal shed behind Employers Ins. Co. became the first fire station and “city hall.” A bank, grocery, hardware, drug store and a shopping center were some of the first commercial ventures. — Map (db m28448) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Hale - Joseph Home — Built in 1910|
|William M. and Evan Hale built this home on the 400 acres purchased by Gardner Hale in 1862. The Hales descended from two signers of the Mayflower compact, 1620. Purchased in 1993 by Carlo and Dianne Joseph, it was placed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in 1994. — Map (db m28487) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Hoover — A Great Place to Live|
|The City of Hoover was founded in 1967 by William H. Hoover and consisted of four city blocks and only 410 citizens. Hoover grew rapidly in the following 43 years to more than 75,000 residents within 50 square miles, making it the sixth largest city in Alabama. As described by Mayor Tony Petelos, who was elected in 2004, “Hoover’s Happening!” The city received recognition from MONEY magazine as one of the best places to live in America, was listed in Lee and Saralee Rosenberg’s . . . — Map (db m52179) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Lover’s Leap — 1827 - 1973|
|The poetic lines inscribed on the boulder below is a replica of those carved in 1827 by Thomas W. Farrar.
Thomas W. Farrar was the Founder and first Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge in Alabama 1821-22-24.
This historical site donated to the public by Jones W. Schwab in 1935.
The work was done and fence provided by Thomas W. Martin and George B. Ward. — Map (db m28490) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Monte D'Oro — A Historic Hoover Neighborhood|
|A neighborhood of 158 homes, Monte D'Oro was established July 23, 1964, which was prior to the incorporation of the City of Hoover. The neighborhood was build by developer William M. "Bill" Humphries. These homes were designed by architect and noted sculptor Cordray Parker. His works are located at area churches, hospitals, gardens and universities. Each home was individually planned and placed on tree lined streets. Inspired by his studies In Italy, the architect named the community "Monte . . . — Map (db m83253) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Overseer’s House — Built in 1889|
|This house was provided for the overseer of the 560-acre A. B. Howell Peach Orchard. William Morgan and William and Evan Hale were overseers. The house was purchased by John and Marie Taylor in 1989 and was placed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in 2000. — Map (db m28494) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Patton Chapel Church 1866|
|Just after the War Between the States Robert Berry Patton gave seven acres of land, logs from his sawmill to build a church, school and cemetery. He served as the first pastor. Fire destroyed the church in 1908 and 1938. The school served the area until 1924. Many early settlers are buried here and the site is still in use. As a city landmark and after several name changes, it is now Hoover First United Methodist Church. — Map (db m83915) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Rocky Ridge Elementary School — First School in Hoover Area|
|A subscription school organized in the 1850’s in Rocky Ridge Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Land deeded by church in 1881 to build a log school. In 1912, Professor E. D. Watkins taught all classes to the 30 students. In 1918, his 15 year old daughter, Mary, hired as a sub, taught for the next 48 years. More facilities were added in 1966. The current modern school opened with 35 rooms and a kindergarten in 1997. — Map (db m73065) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Ross Bridge|
|In 1858 James Taylor Ross, a Scotchman, migrated to the South, acquired land and homesteaded in what is now Shades Valley. He provided land for the construction of a railway, including a bridge spanning Ross Creek. After the Ross family moved westward, his property was purchased in 1907 by TCI, a predecessor of U.S. Steel. In 2002, U.S. Steel, Daniel Corp. and the Retirement Systems of Ala. combined to develop the community of Ross Bridge. — Map (db m27302) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Shades Crest Road Historical District|
|Indian, Wagon Trail, now Shades Crest Road, led to popular chalybeate springs. Summit, now Bluff Park, was a resort known for its view, cool air and healing mineral water. In 1899 school / church was built. In 1909 Bluff Park Hotel, built on land settled by Hale Family, lost to fire in 1925. In 1996 Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage. — Map (db m27311) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — Shades Crest Road Historical District|
|Indian, Wagon Trail, now Shades Crest Road, led to popular chalybeate springs. Summit, now Bluff Park, was a resort known for its view, cool air and healing mineral water. In 1899 school / church was built. In 1909 Bluff
Park Hotel, built on land settled by Hale Family, lost to fire in 1925. In 1996 Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage. — Map (db m28517) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Hoover — The Park Avenue Historical District|
|51 Structures, 70% residential, built early 20th century to post World War II period.
The 1885 sale of Gardner Hale’s land began the housing development. The 33 acre 1924 Independent Presbyterian Church Children’s Fresh Air Farm, 1923 Bluff Park Elementary School were the most significant buildings.
of Landmarks / Heritage 1998 — Map (db m28518) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — Congressional Medal Of Honor Recipients — SSG Henry E. Erwin - 1 LT William R. Lawley, Jr. - PFC Alford L. McLaughlin|
|Staff Sergeant Henry E. Erwin
Citation: Staff Sergeant Henry Erwin, U.S. Army Air Corps, 52d Bombardment Squadron, 29th Bombardment Group, 314th Bombardment Wing, 20th Air Force. He was the radio operator of a B-29 airplane leading a group formation to attack Koriyama, Japan on 12 April 1945. He was charged with the additional duty of dropping phosphoresce smoke bombs to aid in assembling the group when the launching point was reached. Upon entering the assembly area, aircraft fire and enemy . . . — Map (db m83916) WM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — John Henry — Ledgendary 'Steel Drivin' Man'|
|The story of "steel driving' man" John Henry is one of America's most enduring legends. The strong ex-slave became a folk hero during construction of the Columbus & Western Railroad between Goodwater and Birmingham. He drilled holes for explosives used to blast tunnels. According to legend, he was involved in a race against a steam-powered drill that its manufacturer claimed could do the job faster than a man. Witnesses said after the all-day contest that he and his heavy hammer cleared . . . — Map (db m22207) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — Jonathan Bass House Museum — Circa 1863|
|Jonathan Bass was born January 30, 1837, in Jefferson County. His father arrived in Jefferson County in 1816, and Jonathan was a life-long resident. Although the Bass House was under construction as early as 1863, Jonathan left the farm to join the Confederate Army in 1861. He finished the front two rooms when he returned from the war. Ruteria Watson married Jonathan on December 6, 1865. They built their home and left their descendants an uncommon example of architecture with unusual decorative . . . — Map (db m24697) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — Leeds Benchmarks In History — (Settled circa 1818-1820); (Incorporated 1887)|
The War of 1812, geography, geology, and three cultures shaped the history of Leeds. Lying at the crossroads of ancient Indian paths in the center of Alabama, Leeds drew Europeans, Cherokee, and African-American settlers to a land of fertile growing seasons and rich sources of coal and mineral ore. The early settlers built churches and schools and left the influences of Cedar Grove, Oak Ridge, Ohanafeefee, and Mt. Pleasant abundantly evident in current Leeds. The principal . . . — Map (db m49351) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — Mt. Hebron Cemetery — Jefferson County|
|In April 1836, William White donated land for a church and cemetery. In December 1904, William T. Simmons and his wife R. A. sold adjoining land to the church adding to the cemetery. The oldest marked grave is for Hepsey Herring who died October 8, 1848. Medal of Honor recipient Alfred Lee McLaughlin is buried here along with veterans from the Civil War to the Vietnam War. In 1951, a cemetery association was formed, separate from the church. In 2003, the Univ. of AL's Office of Archaeological . . . — Map (db m83917) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — Mt. Hebron School|
In 1915, the men of the Mt. Hebron Community cleared the land donated by Bess Simmons for a school. Trees donated by Mitch Poole were placed on Rufus Brasher’s wagon and taken to Will Scott’s sawmill. The school opened in the fall of 1916 and closed in 1942. The Jefferson County Board of Education provided heating fuel, maintenance, and teachers' salaries. The school building also served as a voting site, a church, and hosted community meetings, such as the home extension . . . — Map (db m83918) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — Rowan House|
|Thomas Rowan, son of Irish immigrants who settled in St. Clair County, Alabama, purchased his first 130 acres at auction and built a house here by c. 1854 that probably forms the core of the two northeast rooms. Heir John Thomas Rowan and his wife, Ada Scott Rowan, enlarged the house to its present turn-of-the-century farmhouse form about 1904. The Rowans were prominent farmers and landowners in the Cahaba Valley for three generations, at one time owning much of the land on this section of the . . . — Map (db m24716) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — Shiloh Cemetery — Established Circa 1820|
|Shiloh Cemetery is the first recorded Cumberland Presbyterian Cemetery in middle Alabama. Burial at Shiloh began in 1820, a year before the Shiloh Cumberland Presbyterian Church organized in 1821 at Oakridge, now Leeds. The cemetery stood back from the public road which was the stagecoach route from Montevallo to Ashville. The church remained at the site for years, on land owned by the State of Alabama and set aside for educational purposes. About 1878, the state sold the land, and the church, . . . — Map (db m49350) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Leeds — The Depot|
|The Depot was built by Richmond & Danville Extension Co. in 1883-84 following the completion of the Georgia & Pacific RR line between Birmingham and Atlanta, three years before the Town of Leeds was incorporated.
Richmond Terminal Co. operated Georgia - Pacific lines until 1888 when Richmond & Danville RR took over, succeeded by Southern Railway in 1894. Efforts to save the historic building were started in 1980 after Southern merged with Norfolk to become Norfolk-Southern RR. The . . . — Map (db m22209) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Mountain Brook — America's First Office Park|
|In 1955, Ervin Jackson and Newman H. Waters developed the first office park in the United States.
Since 1871 office buildings had been located in downtown Birmingham so the concept of thousands of workers coming to a suburban work-place was a daring experiment. The new plan worked and changed forever the working habits of office employees all over America.
With the concept of low-rise buildings, free parking, easy access and beautiful surroundings, with landscaping, fountains and . . . — Map (db m83252) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Mountain Brook — Canterbury United Methodist Church|
|Canterbury is the oldest existing establishment in Mountain Brook. It was organized in 1867 as Irondale Methodist when enough settlers to support the church moved into the area around the Irondale Furnace. The first time the North Alabama Conference met in the Birmingham District was in 1874 in the workshop of the furnace. At that time delegates decided to erect their first church on property donated by Pleasant Hickman Watkins on present-day Hollywood Blvd. west of Mountain Brook Village. The . . . — Map (db m83919) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Mountain Brook — First Tuberculosis Sanatorium|
|1,000 feet East a small group of tents erected May, 1910 by the
Anti Tuberculosis Association of Jefferson County
constituted the first effort to aid victims of tuberculosis in North Alabama. — Map (db m26964) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Mountain Brook — Mountain Brook|
|In 1821 the first settlers came to this area, later called Waddell. Large numbers of people first migrated here in 1863 with the construction of the Irondale Furnace. Destroyed in the Civil War, the furnace was rebuilt and operated from 1867 to 1873. The first school was established in 1857 and the first church in 1867. The area later became known for its many dairies. In 1926 Robert Jemison, Jr. began development of modern day Mountain Brook, which became one of the most beautiful residential . . . — Map (db m26769) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Mountain Brook — Robert Jemison, Jr. (1878-1974) / The Old Mill (1927)|
| Robert Jemison, Jr. (1878-1974)
The Father of Mountain Brook
A man of great vision, dreams and enthusiasm, Robert Jemison, Jr. was by far the greatest real estate developer of Birmingham’s 20th century. The Post-Herald newspaper dubbed him “Mr. Birmingham.”
Jemison said abut Mountain Brook Estates “…landscape architects and engineers have adroitly blended the convenience of city life into this picturesque environment without disturbing nature’s . . . — Map (db m83922) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Mountain Brook — None — The Early Mountain Brook Village Area|
|Once an Indian hunting ground, this land was opened for settlement after the War of 1812. The first settlers, who fought in that war under Andrew Jackson, came here in the early 1820’s after the U.S. acquired the land in the Creek Cession of 1814. Among the pioneer families were the Beardens, Frankes, Hickmans, Holcombes, Pullen, Rowans, and Watkins. An early merchant was Stephen Sanguinetti.
In the mid-1920’s real estate visionaries Robert Jemison, Jr. and Will Franke selected this area as . . . — Map (db m83923) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Mountain Brook — Wallace S. McElwain / Irondale Furnace Ruins|
|Wallace S. McElwain (1832-1888)McElwain trained in a gun factory in New York and in a foundry in Ohio before moving to Holly Springs, MS, where he operated Jones, McElwain and Company Iron Foundry. He was well known in the Southeast for his beautiful cast iron designs, which still adorn many buildings in the French Quarter in New Orleans. After the Civil War began, he received the first order for the production of rifles and cannons from the Confederacy. He moved his operations to Jefferson . . . — Map (db m26266) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Mulga — Historic Lakeview Cemetery|
|This cemetery is owned by St. John Baptist Church in Edgewater and operated by Scott-McPherson Funeral Home, Inc. US Steel Corporation previously owned the area and it is historically associated with the Edgewater Mining Camp community established for the workers of Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company (TCI, later US Steel). The cemetery , now 3.5 acres, was deeded to St. John Baptist Church by US Steel on March 3, 2003. It is a non-profit cemetery. — Map (db m37221) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Pinson — Jefferson Warriors|
|In honor of the men from Mt. Pinson who formed the "Jefferson Warriors" in mid-July, 1861. Marching to Huntsville, they were mustered into the Confederate army on August 12th as Company C of the Nineteenth Alabama Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Joseph Wheeler. Engaged in momentous battles at Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Atlanta, Nashville, and Bentonville, N.C., the 19th suffered such losses that only 76 members of the Regiment were present at the surrender in April, 1865. — Map (db m26988) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Pinson — Pinson, Alabama|
|Pinson, one of Alabama’s oldest communities, was settled by General Andrew Jackson’s soldiers in the early 1800s, after victory at Horseshoe Bend during the War of 1812. The community was originally known as Hagood’s Crossroads for settler Zachariah Hagood and his family. It was renamed Mount Pinson, presumably after Pinson, Tennessee, and later called Pinson. Pinson’s first post office was established in 1837. Andrew Jackson Beard, a black American who became a renowned inventor and the first . . . — Map (db m88406) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Tarrant — Tarrant City Hall — Originally the Main Office for National Cast Iron Pipe Company|
A pipe foundry was established in 1912 by the following founders, A. H. Ford, F. M. Jackson, E. E. Linthicum, Charles Green and Charles Day. Originally the main office was located approximately 100 yards west of this building. The company prospered from the beginning and in a short time employed several hundred people. The company’s growth mandated the need for a new and larger facility. In 1928, construction began on this building which was to house the general manager, . . . — Map (db m83928) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Trussville — Cahaba Project — "Slagheap Village" — A government project under President Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|A total of 243 houses and 44 duplex units were constructed from 1936 - 1938 at an overall cost of $2,661,981.26. Cahaba residents rented from the government until 1947, when the houses and duplexes were sold to individuals at prices ranging from $4,400 to $9,000 each. — Map (db m26227) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Trussville — Confederate Storehouse Burned By Federal Troops — April 20, 1865|
|On this site stood the stone warehouse of Captain Thomas Truss and Marcus Worthington. Stored here were meats, grains and clothing collected by the Confederate government as a war tax. Disabled C.S.A. veteran Felix M. Wood was receiver of the tax at Trussville. The building was burned by a detachment of Wilson's Raiders under the command of John T. Croxton, Brigadier General U.S. Volunteers. — Map (db m25819) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Trussville — First Baptist Church of Trussville|
Organized as Cahawba Baptist Church, 1821 Elder Sion Blythe, pastor Anderson Robertson, Sherwood Holley, deacons John Stovall, Jordan Williams, trustees.
Member of Canaan (now Birmingham) Baptist Association since its beginning in 1833.
This marker dedicated at the church’s 141st Anniversary, July 14, 1962. — Map (db m78805) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Trussville — Trussville|
|The Town of Trussville was named for the Truss Family who emigrated from North Carolina in the early 1820's.
Trussville was incorporated in 1947.
The present City Hall was constructed in 1959 on land patented in 1821 by Warren Truss. — Map (db m26225) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Trussville — Trussville Furnace — 1889-1919|
|Operated on this site under the ownership of seven companies to produce foundry pig iron. Supplied pig iron during World War 1. Closed for the last time in the Spring of 1919. Dismantled in 1933, and the land sold in 1935 for a Federal Housing Project. — Map (db m26229) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Trussville — Trussville, Alabama|
|Trussville was settled between 1816 and 1819 by a few settlers from the Carolinas prior to Alabama becoming the 22nd state in December 1819. The First Baptist Church, Cahaba, was organized in 1821. Trussville’s first postmaster in 1833 was Arthur Truss. The railroad line between Chattanooga and Mississippi through Trussville was completed in 1871. Birmingham Furnace and Manufacturing Company, which operated in Trussville on and off from 1889 until the close of World War 1, became Trussville’s . . . — Map (db m34338) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Vestavia Hills — A History Of Vestavia Hills|
|In 1924, George Ward, a former mayor of Birmingham, 1905-1909, 1913-1914, visited the City of Rome, Italy. He was so intrigued by the unique beauty of the Temple of the Vestal Virgins on a Roman hilltop that he vowed to build a replica of it on a chosen site near Birmingham. The site he selected was on a beautiful crest of Shades Mountain approximately two miles east of here. The temple was completed in 1925.
In Roman mythology, Vesta was the goddess of fire and of the family hearth, she . . . — Map (db m25352) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Vestavia Hills — Sibyl Temple|
| Side A Sibyl Temple was moved to this site from its original location in 1975. George Ward built it on the brow of his 20-acre mountaintop “Vestavia” estate in 1929. It marked the entrance to the lower 10 acres where he planned a wildflower and bird sanctuary. Mr. Ward modeled his “Temple of the Sibyl” gazebo after the hilltop temple in Tivoli, Italy. It was constructed of red-hued sandstone quarried in the area. He intended Sibyl Temple to be the monument to his . . . — Map (db m37708) HM|
|Alabama (Jefferson County), Vestavia Hills — Vestavia Hills Baptist Church / George Ward 1867-1940|
| Vestavia Hills Baptist Church Vestavia Hills Baptist Church, constituted May 6, 1957, first met at Vestavia Hills City Hall. The church purchased the George Ward estate in 1958. On the property was Ward’s home, “Vestavia,” a replica of a Roman temple built in the 1920s; a restaurant addition of the 1940s; and the Temple of Sybil. As the original structure deteriorated and church membership grew, the congregation razed Ward’s home, gave Sybil to the city, and built the present . . . — Map (db m83931) HM|