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Jefferson County Markers
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Bakerton — A.P. Hill’s March“Not a moment too soon” — Antietam Campaign 1862
About two o’clock in the afternoon of September 17, 1862, Confederate Gen. A.P. Hill’s 3,000-man division began crossing the Potomac River at Boteler’s Ford about two miles northwest of here, en route to the battle raging at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. Two days earlier, Stonewall Jackson had captured Harpers Ferry. When Jackson’s command was ordered to rejoin Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia in Maryland, Hill’s division remained behind to parole Federal prisoners and . . . — Map (db m1955) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Bolivar — Harpers Ferry Bolivar Veterans MemorialWe Honor All Who Served
This Memorial is dedicated to all from the Harpers Ferry-Bolivar District who served their country from World War I to the present. Their sacrifice and valor for the freedom of America will never be forgotten. For those who did not return, our undying gratitude. May God Bless America. Dedicated May 30, 1993 by Helen P. Wiltshire Members below died during their military service to their country 1. Quinn, Luke - USMC - Killed during John Brown's raid on the federal arsenal - Buried . . . — Map (db m70786) WM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Bolivar — Pre Civil War Spring House
According to local legend, the North came here to get water during the day and the South at night. Restored in 2002 — Map (db m19066) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — "Beallair"
Colonel Lewis Washington, who lived here, was one of the hostages captured by John Brown in 1859 in his raid on Harpers Ferry. When captured, Brown wore a sword, once owned by George Washington, taken from this home. (1 Mi. N.). — Map (db m12066) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — "Blakeley"
Home of General Washington's grandnephew, John Augustine Washington, who later became the owner of Mount Vernon. "Blakeley", built about 1820, was partially burned a few years later and then rebuilt in it present form. (1 1/2 Mi.W.) — Map (db m12640) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — "Claymont Court"
Bushrod Corbin Washington, grandnephew of General George Washington, built this home in 1820. It was destroyed by fire, 1838, and rebuilt. Later it was the home of Frank R. Stockton, novelist, who here wrote his last book. (2 Mi. SW) — Map (db m12636) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Cameron's Depot Engagement"What news now?" — 1864 Valley Campaign
(Preface): The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early at Winchester in September and Cedar Creek in October, burned mills and bars, and crushed the remnants of Early's force at Waynesboro on March 2, 1865. Sheridan's victories contributed to President Abraham Lincoln's reelection in November 1864 . . . — Map (db m58472) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — 1983 — Cedar Lawn
1½ mi. S is 1825 home of John T. A. Washington, a great nephew of the 1st president. Land part of “Harewood” plot of Sam’l Washington, a brother of George. Original site of 1780 home “Berry Hill.” — Map (db m1912) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Charles Town
Founded in 1786 by Charles Washington, brother of the President. Here John Brown was tried and convicted of treason. Home of W. L. Wilson, Postmaster General, 1896, who here started the first rural free delivery in America. — Map (db m1650) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Charles Town Post OfficeJefferson County Jail
On the site of this Post Office stood the Jefferson County Jail where John Brown and his fellow prisoners were confined after their raid on Harpers Ferry in October 1859. After court trial John Brown was taken from the Jail here to his death on the gallows December the Second in the year 1859. From the Post Office in Charles Town, West Virginia, was started the first Rural Free Delivery service in the United States, under Postmaster-General Wm. L. Wilson, October the First, 1896. — Map (db m2027) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Charles Washington's Town
You now stand in the center of a town that is almost as old as the United States, laid out on 80 acres of Washington lands in 1786 - four years before the First President took office. Charles Washington, youngest of the five brothers of the General, spent most of his life as a successful businessman in Fredericksburg, Virginia. In the fall of 1780, 42-year-old Charles moved here, bringing his family west of the Blue Ridge, and building a new log home he called Happy Retreat on lands he had . . . — Map (db m12600) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Colonel Charles Washington
Exitus Acta Probat. 1738–1799. In Memory of Colonel Charles Washington, brother of General George Washington and founder of Charles Town, Virginia (now West Virginia) in 1786. The four corner lots at Washington and George Streets were donated by him for the public Buildings for use of the County and Town. — Map (db m2029) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Confederate Soldiers of Jefferson County1861 - 1865
In honor and memory of the Confederate soldiers of Jefferson County, who served in the War Between the States. — Map (db m41727) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Edge Hill CemeteryJohn Brown Raid Victims
Edge Hill Cemetery contains the graves of Fontaine Beckham and John Avis, two participants in the saga of John Brown’s Raid in October 1859. Beckham was the mayor of Harpers Ferry then and one of four civilian casualties. Ironically, though John Brown freed no slaves by capturing the United States Arsenal there, as he intended, the slaves that Beckham owned were feed at his death in accordance with his will. The first civilian that Brown’s men shot and killed was a free black man named Hayward . . . — Map (db m41672) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Explore the Washington Heritage Trail / Afoot in Historic Charles Town
Side A Explore the Washington Heritage Trail George Washington knew the portion of the Shenandoah Valley that forms West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle well. The Washington Heritage Trail lets you drive the scenic backroads that join Charles Town to Bath, the popular 18th century resort town now called Berkeley Springs. The scenery and historic homes along the byway show you what the First President saw the many times he rode horseback on his way west to take the waters. Follow the . . . — Map (db m12596) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Focus of ActionJefferson County in the Civil War
Jefferson County’s association with significant events in Civil War history began in October 1859, when abolitionist John Brown raided the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Quickly captured, Brown and his followers were brought here to Charles Town and then tried, convicted, and executed. On December 2, 1859, Brown rode by here in a light freight wagon on the way to his execution. George W. Sadler, local undertaker and cabinet-maker who also made Brown’s coffin, owned the wagon. During the war, . . . — Map (db m41671) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Freedom's Call (New Marker)
Grave of Robert Rutherford, member of committee which in 1775 replied to orders of Lord Dunmore for Virginians to join British army or be held as rebels. This defiance was a gauntlet hurled at Dunmore's feet. (1 1/2 Mi. NE) — Map (db m12630) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Freedom's Call (Original Marker)
Grave of Robert Rutherford, member of committee which in 1775 replied to orders of Lord Dunmore for Virginians to join British army or be held as rebels. This defiance was a gauntlet hurled at Dunmore's feet. (1 1/2 Mi. N. E.) — Map (db m12624) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Happy Retreat
Now called Mordington, home of Colonel Charles Washington, founder of Charles Town, Virginia (now West Virginia). His brother General George Washington often visited him here. Colonel Washington died in September 1799. He and his wife Mildred are buried on the estate. — Map (db m12070) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Harewood
Erected in 1771. The home of Colonel Samuel Washington, County Lieutenant. His brother General George Washington visited here and General Lafayette and Luis Phillipe of France were entertained here. In this house James Madison and Dolly Payne Todd were married. Samuel Washington died in 1781 and is buried in the grave yard south of the house. — Map (db m1914) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Hollis Pump1840
Famous watering site for the Union Soldiers and Horses during War between the States. Restored 1967 by Charles Town Women's Club Restored 1987 b Charles Town Women's Club, City Council & Bicentennial Committee — Map (db m58627) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Iron Furnaces
Thomas Mayberry agreed in 1742 to erect iron furnaces on the property of William Vestal. Here ore was mined and iron produced for the first time west of the Blue Ridge. Washington visited the iron furnaces here in 1760. — Map (db m59576) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Jefferson County / State of Virginia
(East Facing Side): Jefferson County Formed in 1801 from Berkeley. Named for Thomas Jefferson. Home of Generals Gates, Drake, and Charles Lee. Here four companies of Washington’s men organized. Shepherdstown was strongly urged as a seat of the National Capital. (West Facing Side): State of Virginia Named for Queen Elizabeth the Virgin Queen of England. Site of the first permanent English settlement in America, 1607. One of the 13 original colonies. The Old Dominion is . . . — Map (db m1949) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Jefferson County CourthouseWhere John Brown Was Tried
In this courthouse, John Brown, the abolitionist, was tried and found guilty of treason, conspiracy and murder. He was hanged four blocks from here on December 2, 1859. • Visitors are Welcome. — Map (db m1742) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Jefferson County World War II Memorial
In honor and memory of the men and women of Jefferson County who served their country in World War II • 1701 served • 31 died • — Map (db m41729) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — John Brown Hanging SiteCreation of a Martyr — Prelude to War
This is where seven men were hanged in December 1859 and March 1860 for their part in John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry. The scaffold stood here in a large field. A month after the trial, on December 2, 1859, John Brown was the first to die. He rode here in a wagon, sitting on his casket, with his arms tied. His last message, which he gave to a jail guard, read: “I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land: will never be purged away; but with Blood. I had as I . . . — Map (db m41650) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — John Brown Scaffold
Within these grounds a short distance east of this marker is the site of the scaffold on which John Brown, leader of the Harpers Ferry raid, was executed December the Second, 1859. — Map (db m12603) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — John Thomas Markerof Star Lodge #1, Charles Town
Erected by Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of West Virginia, Free and Accepted Masons, Incorporated In tribute to John Thomas Marker of Star Lodge #1, Charles Town First Most Worshipful Grand Master 1881 The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the State of West Virginia Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons now Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of West Virginia, Free and Accepted Masons, Inc.). Dedicated this 27th day of June 2002 Annual Grand Communication David K. Lee Most . . . — Map (db m10645) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — John Yates
Jefferson County, Virginia placed this stone originally in a schoolhouse near Shepherdstown as a tribute to · · John Yates · · The founder of the Free School System in this county Moved to its present location 1937. [ Lower Marker: ] John Yates the orphan’s friend in the hour of need. Good, Just and Generous, he deserves Eternal Gratitude. 1851. — Map (db m41726) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Locust HillHome of Lucy Washington Packette — Built 1849
When George Washington surveyed his brother Samuel’s Berkeley County land in preparation for the building of Harwood, the property included a sizable portion which has since been separated from the Harwood Estate. Dr. Samuel Washington, Colonel Samuel’s grandson, gave to his daughter Lucy Elizabeth a beautiful section of the home property. In 1840 after her marriage to John Bainbridge Packette, Lucy built a beautiful square mansion and named the property “Locust Hill”. The house was . . . — Map (db m58879) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Martin R. Delany
Free African-American, born 1812 in Charles Town. Died 1885. Ability to read forced family to move to PA in 1822. Studied medicine and attended Harvard in 1850. Published Mystery, first black newspaper west of Allegh. 1843-47, & co-edited North Star with Frederick Douglass to promote and aid abolitionist cause. Comm. major, highest ranking African-American field officer in Union Army, in 1865. — Map (db m12639) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Martin Robinson Delany
Erected in tribute to Martin Robinson Delany Born free May 6, 1812 Lawrence and North Streets Charles Town, VA (W VA) Son of Samuel Delay (slave) and Patti Peace Delany (free) grandson of African prince Prince Hall Mason physician, scientist, inventor, African explorer, newspaper publisher & editor, author, trial justice; Major in Union Army first and highest ranked Black field officer during Civil War appointed by President Abraham Lincoln Honorable E.M. Stanton, Secretary of War, . . . — Map (db m12646) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — New Central Restaurant
Washington Hall, the building in which this restaurant is located, was destroyed by fire started by Union soldiers in the Civil War. It was restored by the people of Charles Town in 1874. The first floor was used as a market house from the time the original building was erected in 1806. The site for the building was donated by Charles Washington, a brother of the first President, who owned the land on which Charles Town was built. — Map (db m2028) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Old Stone House / Star Lodge No. 1
Old Stone House Star Lodge No. 1 and Queen of the Valley Lodge No. 1558, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, two African-American fraternal organizations, bought Old Stone House in 1885. Star Lodge sole owner since 1927. One of oldest extant buildings in town, built early 1790s on land Charles Washington sold to John Locke; family owned until 1878. Listed on National Register, 2000. Star Lodge No. 1 Star Lodge No. 1, Free and Accepted Masons was chartered in 1877 by the . . . — Map (db m24678) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Peter Burr House
Built in 1751 by Peter Burr, cousin of Aaron Burr, on a grant of 480 acres from Lord Fairfax. The house is one of the state's oldest frame structures. It is a fine example of a mid-18th century Virginia family homestead which traces its origins to English yeoman home construction of the Elizabethan period. Sold in 1798 by Peter's son, the house was repurchased by the family in 1878. — Map (db m12644) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Richwood Hall
The original brick house was built on land owned by Lawrence Augustine Washington, the son of Samuel Washington, George’s brother. The present mansion-house, in an excellent state of preservation, was built about 1825. During the battle of Cameron’s Depot, Aug. 21, 1864, Confederate General Jubal A. Early placed his cannon near the house and formed his battle lines north and south of this point. — Map (db m1885) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Ruins of St. George’s Chapel
This chapel was built by devout people of (then) Frederick Parish. Frederick County, Virginia joined Col. Robert Worthington in completing it in 1769. It was first called the English Church, then Berkeley Church, then Norborne Chapel, as the parish was Norborne, 1770–1815. The Rev. Daniel Sturgis was its first minister of record 1771–1785. The Washington, Nourse, Davenport and Throckmorton families worshiped here. — Map (db m2026) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Rutherford House“Go in!” — 1864 Valley Campaign
<Preface:> The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley began in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Washington Raid in July. Union General Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early at Winchester in September and Cedar Creek in October, burned mills and barns, and crushed the remnants of Early’s force at Waynesboro on March 2, 1865. Sheridan’s victories contributed to President Abraham Lincoln’s reelection in . . . — Map (db m41661) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Site of the Execution of John Brown
Site of the execution on Dec. 2, 1859, of John Brown, leader of the raid at Harper’s Ferry. — Map (db m62250) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — The Stribling Housecirca 1840
Union General Philip Sheridan used this home as his headquarters during the Civil War. On the 17th of September, 1862 Sheridan met Gen. U.S. Grant here to plan the 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign. — Map (db m41725) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Two Treason Trials
Jefferson County's Most Famous Trial In the room immediately behind this wall, the abolitionist John Brown and five of his raiders were tried for treason against the state of Virginia, murder and inciting slaves to rebel. Brown had led 21 men to seize the federal arsenal and armory at Harpers Ferry on the night of October 16, 1859 to start an insurrection to topple slavery. Fifteen people died before the raiders were taken. Treason Trials in Charles Town - Again Sixty three years . . . — Map (db m21767) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Washington's Land
The "Bullskin" or Rock Hall Tract, the first land owned by George Washington in West Virginia, was surveyed by him Nov. 24, 1750. Bought from Captain Rutherford, it became a part of Washington's 2,233-acre tract in this area. — Map (db m12633) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Charles Town — Zion Episcopal ChurchyardNotable Occupants
The present church, the fourth on this site, was completed in 1851. Federal troops occupied it during the Civil War and severely damaged it. The churchyard contains the graves of many Washington family descents. They are buried near the eastern edge of the church. Several other notable Charles Town residents are buried here as well. George W. Turner attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, 1827-1831 (Robert E. Lee attended 1825-1829). Turner served in the U.S. Army until he resigned . . . — Map (db m41675) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Franklintown — West Virginia / Virginia
South Facing Side: West Virginia (Jefferson County). “The Mountain State”—western part of the Commonwealth of Virginia until June 20, 1863. Settled by the Germans and Scotch-Irish. It became a line of defense between the English and French during the French and Indian War. 1754–1763. North Facing Side: Virginia. Named for Queen Elizabeth the Virgin Queen of England. Site of the first permanent English settlement, 1607, in America. One of the 13 . . . — Map (db m1783) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Fate of Harpers Ferry was sealed.
A.P. Hill After an exhausting night of dragging 20 cannon along the river and up the ravines to this site on Chambers (Murphy) Farm, General A.P. Hill and his 3,500 men sprang their trap on the unsuspecting Union army. Before dawn on the last day of the battle, the Confederates aimed their cannon at the Union line, only 1,000 yards away. When the morning fog lifted Hill signaled his artillerymen to open fire. Startled but alert, the Federals vigorously returned the fire. But an hour later . . . — Map (db m5894) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Dangerous Position
On the dark, moonless night of September 14, 1862, 100 men from the 126th New York Regiment established a skirmish line here. These men were new to the war, having only been in uniform for a few short weeks. After surviving a terrifying afternoon of relentless Confederate artillery fire, these young men were thrust into a dangerous and vulnerable position on the front line. If the Confederates wanted to attack this location, this was a good time to do it. "On Sunday evening, the second day . . . — Map (db m5397) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Government Factory Town
Harpers Ferry owed its existence principally to the United States armory, which began producing small arms here in 1801. At its height, this factory produced more than 10,000 weapons a year and employed 400 workers. The armory affected the everyday lives of its workers, both inside and outside the workplace, until its destruction in 1861 during the opening days of the Civil War. To learn about the armory's efforts on behalf of its workforce, walk this short trail along the Shenandoah River . . . — Map (db m18793) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Government Factory Town No Longer
The destruction of the armory in 1861, followed by four years of Civil War, devastated Harpers Ferry's economy. Attempts at revitalization included a brewery erected here in 1895. When West Virginia enacted prohibition in 1914, the brewery converted to a bottling works for sodas and spring water. The 1942 flood destroyed this last remaining industry in Harpers Ferry. — Map (db m18798) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Land Divided
The struggle of today is not altogether for today - it is for a vast future also. Abraham Lincoln You are standing near what was once an international border. During the Civil War, the peak to your left lay within the Union state of Maryland. Loudon Heights to your right was claimed by the Confederate state of Virginia. Slavery divided the nation, and here at Harpers Ferry the two sides clashed over the meaning of freedom. [Aerial photo caption reads] Virginia's secession . . . — Map (db m70826) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Moving Symbol
In it really began the Civil War. Here was lighted the torch of liberty for all America… For you this is the most hallowed shrine in this country. Henry McDonald, Storer College president The foundations in front of you mark a temporary site of John Brown’s Fort, from 1895 to 1909. Originally located in Harpers Ferry, the fort was moved four times in 75 years. Entrepreneurs dismantled it and then rebuilt it on location at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago. After the exhibition, . . . — Map (db m8318) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Nation's Armory
You are standing directly across the street from the main entrance of one of the nation's first military industrial complexes. The U.S. Armory at Harpers Ferry, now covered by an embankment of dirt and rubble, produced the deadliest weapons of its day from the early 1800s until the start of the Civil War in 1861. Gutted during the Civil War, the armory was later razed and mostly covered with rubble to make way for elevated train tracks. A stone obelisk on the rise in front of you marks the . . . — Map (db m24919) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Perfect Heap of Ruins
Standing here on the night of April 18, 1861, you would have seen billowing smoke as fire raged in the armory workshops upstream. Virginia had just seceded from the United States and Virginia militiamen were advancing on the armory. Vastly outnumbered and unable to defend the armory, U.S. soldiers "set fire to the Carpenter shop & grinding mill, Stocking shop, & the 2 arsenals" leaving the buildings in a "perfect heap of ruins," wrote a local resident. Arriving after the Federals retreated and . . . — Map (db m20520) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Position Strong by Nature
In 1862 Union Colonel Dixon Miles thought that the ridge in front of you, Bolivar Heights, was the perfect place to defend Harpers Ferry. However, in September of '62, Colonel Miles and 14,000 Union soldiers found themselves surrounded by 24,000 Confederates led by "Stonewall" Jackson. From the Confederate position behind you on School House Ridge, one of Jackson's officers described Bolivar Heights as "a position strong by nature." Jackson agreed. He had no time for a siege and did not want to . . . — Map (db m5395) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Union Predicament
"Do all you can to annoy the rebels should they advance on you...You will not abandon Harpers Ferry without defending it to the last extremity." Maj. Gen. John G. Wool, USA Telegraph message to Col. Dixon S. Miles, USA September 7, 1862 The first large-scale Federal occupation of Harpers Ferry began in February 1862. Despite the destruction of the armory and arsenal the previous year, Harpers Ferry remained important in protecting Union communication and supply lines and in . . . — Map (db m5389) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — A Union Predicament
"Do all you can to annoy the rebels should they advance on you...You will not abandon Harpers Ferry without defending it to the last extremity." Maj. Gen. John G. Wool, USA Telegraph message to Col. Dixon S. Miles, USA September 7, 1862 The first large-scale Federal occupation of Harpers Ferry began in February 1862. Despite the destruction of the armory and arsenal the previous year, Harpers Ferry remained important in protecting Union communication and supply lines and in . . . — Map (db m19005) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Area History
On April 18, 1861 Confederate volunteers occupied these heights. The threat prompted Lt. Roger Jones, in command at Harpers Ferry, to set fire to the armory and arsenal buildings destroying thousands of muskets needed by the Confederacy. — Map (db m5866) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — 5 — Armory Grounds — Meriwether Lewis at Harpers Ferry
The United States Armory was the main reason Lewis came to Harpers Ferry. He needed dependable weapons and supplies to succeed on his mission. The quality of the armorers' handiwork would also mean the difference between life and death for Lewis and his men. In 1803, the armory consisted of ten buildings. Their foundations are upstream and underneath the existing railroad embankment. — Map (db m20481) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Armory Paymaster's Residence
Rank has its privileges. The paymaster, second in command at the armory, enjoyed an unobstructed view of the factory grounds and water gap from the substantial brick dwelling erected here about 1800. Soot and noise disrupted the scene with the arrival of the Winchester and Potomac Railroad through the paymaster's front yard in 1836. The paymaster moved to new, elegant quarters on the hill overlooking the river gap. The government then leased the old structure to armory workers. — Map (db m18664) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Armory Workers
Expanding armory operations in the opening decades of the 19th century resulted in overcrowded and unhealthy living conditions for workers. Families shared inadequate, unventilated housing, while single men slept in the workshops. To alleviate the housing shortage, armory superintendent James Stubblefield allowed workers to erect dwellings, at their own expense, on public lands along the Shenandoah River, "being the only disposable level ground at the armory." In the late 1820s and 1830s, the . . . — Map (db m18797) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Arsenal Square
Two brick arsenal buildings, which once housed about 100,000 weapons produced at the Harpers Ferry Armory, occupied these grounds. Capture of the firearms was the objective of John Brown’s 1859 raid. Eighteen months after Brown’s attack, the Civil War erupted. When Virginia militia advanced on the town on April 18, 1861, an outnumbered Federal garrison burned the arsenal and evacuated the town. The buildings and nearly 15,000 guns were destroyed. — Map (db m12969) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Assessing the Obstacle
Never had "Stonewall" Jackson faced a stronger enemy position. Arriving here on Schoolhouse Ridge on the first day of the battle, Jackson scanned Bolivar Heights (the lower ridge in front of you) and saw a dangerous enemy - 7,000 Union infantry and dozens of cannon stretched across the ridge, ready for battle. He realized a frontal assault would be deadly. After securing Schoolhouse Ridge with his artillery and 14,000 infantry, Jackson labored to open communications with his officers on . . . — Map (db m7843) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Battle of Harpers FerryUnion Stronghold
(Upper panel): Battle of Harpers Ferry Invasion rocked the United States during the second year of the American Civil War. In September 1862 Confederate General Robert E. Lee launched his army into Maryland - the North. Lee's first target became Harpers Ferry. He ordered "Stonewall" Jackson to make the attack. Here Jackson overcame great obstacles, defeating the Union during a three-day battle and forcing the largest surrender of U.S. troops during the Civil War. His victory at . . . — Map (db m5350) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Battle of Harpers Ferry / Jackson Arrives
(Upper Panel): Battle of Harpers Ferry Invasion rocked the United States during the second year of the American Civil War. In September 1862 Confederate General Robert E. Lee launched his army into Maryland - the North. Lee's first target became Harpers Ferry. He ordered "Stonewall" Jackson to make the attack. Here Jackson overcame the great obstacles, defeating the Union during a three-day battle and forcing the largest surrender of U.S. troops during the Civil War. His victory at . . . — Map (db m23320) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Bolivar Heights Trail
Union and Confederate soldiers transformed these fields into campgrounds full of dingy tents, smoky campfires and boiling kettles during the Civil War. Shouting officers drilled their troops until Bolivar's grass was trampled into precision parade grounds. Cannon shells shrieked during two battles here. Later, somber faces watched comrades' coffins lowered into Bolivar's disturbed soil. Follow this trail to discover the story of Bolivar Heights and some of the people who walked along . . . — Map (db m5319) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Bolivar Methodist Church
This church built in early 1840s was occupied by both Union and Confederate troops for military purposes during Civil War. — Map (db m2943) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Brackett House
Built in 1858, this house served as the home for the U.S. Armory superintendent's clerk. As an assistant to the superintendent, the clerk's responsibilities included drafting correspondence, filing reports, arranging schedules, and insuring the smooth operation of the superintendent's office. After Storer College was established for freedmen in 1867, the building was named in honor of Dr. Nathan Brackett - educator, minister, administrator, and financier - who helped found the college . . . — Map (db m70779) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Branding the B&O
Passengers in the late 1800s would have instantly recognized this building as the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O) Railroad station. Known for their distinctive style and red-and-brown color scheme, the B&O designed their stations to give customers a comfortable feeling of familiarity and dependability. The Harpers Ferry station has served travelers since 1894 and continues to serve them today. [Inset photo captions read] Architect Ephraim Francis Baldwin designed standardized station layouts . . . — Map (db m70782) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Butcher Shop and Boarding House
Factory officials believed a ready supply of meat for the community was "decidedly advantageous to the interests of the armory." As a result, the armory permitted local businessman Philip Coons to erect a large butcher shop and smoke-house, as well as a substantial stone boarding house, here on government land in the mid-1820s. When the U.S. purchased the buildings in 1863, the boarding house became workers' housing, while Coons continued to lease the butcher shop. — Map (db m18792) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — By the aid of these machines...
Beneath your feet lie the foundations of the Smith and Forging Shop. The largest building in the armory, it reflected changing methods of manufacturing. In the armory's early days, gun making was slow and labor intensive. Armorers worked in small workshops handcrafting one gun at a time. Then in 1819, while working in Harpers Ferry, inventor John Hall developed machine-made weapons with interchangeable parts. He boasted that "one boy by the aid of these machines can perform more work than ten . . . — Map (db m23444) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — No. 1 — Capture of Harpers FerryNo. 1
September 15, 1862 No. 1On September 10, 1862 General R. E. Lee Commanding the Army of Northern Virginia then at Frederick Md. set three columns in motion to capture Harper’s Ferry. Maj. Gen L. McLaws with his own Division and that of Maj. Gen. R. H. Anderson, marched through Middletown and Brownsville Pass into Pleasant Valley. On the 12th, the Brigades of Kershaw and Barksdale ascended Maryland Heights by Solomon’s Gap, moved along the crest and, at nightfall were checked by the Union . . . — Map (db m2579) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — No. 2 — Capture of Harpers FerryNo. 2
September 15, 1862 No. 2 Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, with his own Division and those of Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill and R. S. Ewell, left Frederick on the morning of September 10 and passing through Middletown and Boonsboro crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, 21 miles north of this. On the afternoon of the 11th, Hill’s Division took the direct road to Martinsburg and bivouacked near it. Jackson’s and Ewell’s Divisions marched to North Mountain Depot on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad seven . . . — Map (db m2728) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — No. 3 — Capture of Harpers FerryNo. 3
September 15, 1862 No. 3 Col. Dixon S. Miles, Second U. S. Infantry, commanded the Union forces at Harpers Ferry. After Gen. White joined from Martinsburg, September 12 and Col. Ford from Maryland Heights on the 13th, Miles had about 14,200 men. On the morning of the 14th, the greater part of this force was in position on Bolivar Heights 15/8 miles west, its right resting on the Potomac, its left near the Shenandoah; Artillery distributed on the line. Artillery and a small force of . . . — Map (db m2914) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — No. 4 — Capture of Harpers FerryNo. 4
September 15, 1862 No. 4 In the afternoon of the 14th Jackson's Division advanced its left, seized commanding ground near the Potomac and established Artillery upon it. Hill's Division moved from Halltown obliquely to the right until it struck the Shenandoah, then pushed along the river; the advance, after some sharp skirmishing late in the night gained high ground upon which were placed five Batteries. Commanding the left rear of the Union line. Ewell's Division advanced through Halltown . . . — Map (db m2921) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — No. 5 — Capture of Harpers FerryNo. 5
September 15, 1862 No. 5 Capture of Harpers Ferry September 15, 1862 No. 5 At daylight, September 15, three Batteries of Jackson's Division delivered a severe fire against the right of the Bolivar Heights defense. Ewell's Batteries opened from School House Hill in front. Hill's five Batteries on ground commanding the left of the line and the 10 guns across the Shenandoah poured an accurate enfilade fire upon the left and rear of Miles' defenses. The Artillery on Loudoun Heights and . . . — Map (db m2922) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Casualties of Time
Over two dozen armory workers' dwellings, ranging from modest frame cottages to substantial stone and brick houses, once fronted Shenandoah and Hamilton streets. The wood houses disappeared around mid-century, victims of fire and demolition. The government sold the remaining dwellings in 1852 to armory employees and others in an effort to secure a stable, land-owning workforce. Buildings along the Shenandoah River proved extremely vulnerable to flooding. During the devastating 1870 flood, all . . . — Map (db m18799) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Casualties of War
"...We enter the barren wast of Bolivar Heights...a windswept deserted moorland...except its populous graveyard." James E. Taylor, war correspondent Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper August 10, 1864 Military discipline for desertion seldom resulted in execution during the Civil War. But in the last months of the war, two Union deserters suffered this fate on Bolivar Heights. William Loge, convicted of "being a deserter ... bushwhacker, murderer and assassin," was hanged . . . — Map (db m5355) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Church and School
The school and mission work are inseparably interwoven with each other. Storer teacher - Kate J. Anthony The Curtis Memorial Freewill Baptist Church served as a spiritual anchor in the lives of both the students and the teachers of Storer College. Life was sometimes difficult at Storer College, one of the first schools for African Americans in the segregated South. Students and teachers alike faced hostility from local white residents, but found solace in religion. In 1894 the . . . — Map (db m70814) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Closing the Doors
Resting with his troops in Frederick, Maryland, 20 miles northeast of here, Confederate General Robert E. Lee had hoped the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry would abandon its post when he invaded the North. They did not. Lee decided to attack. He divided his army into four columns, sending three to seize the three mountains overlooking Harpers Ferry. On the first day of the battle, the Confederates captured Loudoun Heights, south of the Shenandoah River. North of the Potomac, Union forces . . . — Map (db m5351) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Confederate Victory
"The Rebels were all around us and our only refuge was the open canopy of heaven." Sgt. Charles E. Smith 32nd Ohio Infantry September 14, 1862 Thousands of Federal soldiers huddled in ravines on Bolivar Heights to escape the Confederate shells of September 14, 1862. By evening, the Federals were demoralized. Pvt. Louis B. Hull of the 60th Ohio Infantry wrote in his diary at sunset: "All seem to think that we will have to surrender or be cut to pieces." By 8:00 a.m. on . . . — Map (db m5387) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Confederate Victory
"The Rebels were all around us and our only refuge was the open canopy of heaven." Sgt. Charles E. Smith 32nd Ohio Infantry September 14, 1862 Thousands of Federal soldiers huddled in ravines on Bolivar Heights to escape the Confederate shells of September 14, 1862. By evening, the Federals were demoralized. Pvt. Louis B. Hull of the 60th Ohio Infantry wrote in his diary at sunset: "All seem to think that we will have to surrender or be cut to pieces." By 8:00 a.m. on . . . — Map (db m19006) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Confederates Converge
Confederate General Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North hinged on eliminating the Harpers Ferry garrison. To do so Lee devised Special Orders 191. He divided his force of 40,000 into four parts. Three columns marched from near Frederick, Maryland, 22 miles northeast of here, to seize the three mountains surrounding Harpers Ferry. The fourth moved north and west toward Hagerstown. Following victory at Harpers Ferry, Lee intended to reunite his army and continue the invasion into . . . — Map (db m7839) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Cotton Mill
Once the largest building on Virginius Island, this 1848 four-story brick structure sported steam heat and gas lighting and boasted the latest machinery for making "yard-wide sheeting and shirting at less than Baltimore prices." The cotton mill operated under various owners until just prior to the Civil War. After the war, the new partnership of Child & McCreight converted the factory into a flour mill. Business at the flour mill lagged. Production was first disrupted by the 1870 flood. The . . . — Map (db m18812) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Daring Escapes
The boat ramp in front of you was the site of two daring escapes in the Battle of Harpers Ferry. Under the cover of darkness, 1,400 Union cavalrymen fled on horseback down the ramp. crossing a pontoon bridge into Maryland on September 14, 1862. The next day Confederates captured the remaining 12,500 Union soldiers. Among them were free black laborers, working for Union Colonel William Trimble's regiment. Here at this ramp Confederate soldiers began dragging the free black laborers away. . . . — Map (db m20532) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Destined for Antietam
Text of the marker is arranged to illustrate the movements of the Confederate Army during the Antietam Campaign of 1862: September 10, 1862 from Frederick, Maryland Confederate commander Lee sends part of his army to capture Harpers Ferry, while he waits in Maryland to advance on Pennsylvania. Jackson September 13 Maryland Heights, MD Confederates force Union soldiers off Maryland Heights. September 13 Jackson arrives here on Schoolhouse Ridge, surrounding the Union . . . — Map (db m7865) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Early Travel
Situated in a gap of the Blue Ridge Mountains and at the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac Rivers, Harpers Ferry, from its beginning, functioned as a natural avenue of transportation. The first mode of travel consisted of a primitive ferry established in 1733 by Peter Stephens. Stephens sold his business to Robert Harper in 1747, and Harper and others carried settlers and supplies across the waters until 1824 when a bridge constructed across the Potomac made ferryboat operations . . . — Map (db m12058) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Facing the Enemy
Union Commander Dixon Miles knew the Confederates were coming. His cavalry reported the Southern troops advancing from three different directions. Ordered to "hold Harpers Ferry until the last extremity." Miles divided his forces to retain Maryland Heights - the highest mountain - and to defend Bolivar Heights - the longest ridge. As Miles watched "Stonewall" Jackson's 14,000 men spread across Schoolhouse Ridge, word arrived that Miles's soldiers had lost the fight for Maryland Heights. Bolivar . . . — Map (db m5322) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Fake Attack - September 14th
"Stonewall" Jackson understood the principle of military deception. On the second evening of the battle, he used deception here. To lure the Union attention away from the south end of Bolivar Heights, Jackson faked an attack against the north end of the heights in front of you. Using darkness to disguise the deceit, the Stonewall Division marched forward from near this location, creating a commotion that successfully distracted the Federals from Jackson's real advance, one mile to the south. . . . — Map (db m7866) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Federal Armory
In an effort to increase the number of small arms for defense of the United States, George Washington established a Federal armory here in 1794. The rivers provided power for the machinery; surrounding mountains provided iron ore for gun barrels and hardwoods for charcoal and gun stocks. In 60 years, the armory manufactured more than 500,000 muskets, rifles, and rifle-muskets. At its peak in 1850, the armory employed over 400 workers. In 1861, Southern forces transported the captured armory . . . — Map (db m12964) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — First Major Action
On Sept. 13, 1862 Stonewall Jackson’s forces approaching from the west were shelled by 2 Union artillery guns under Col. Miles from this position. On Sept. 14, Gen. A.P. Hill outflanked these Union troops while Jackson swept past this location. Col. Miles surrendered over 11,000 men and valuable military stores on Sept. 15. He was killed by a stray shot. — Map (db m5856) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Five Rounds into the Darkness
The 115th New York Regiment, young and inexperienced, formed a skirmish line here. When gunfire erupted on their left during the night, the men of the 115th must have felt the rush of adrenaline through their veins. Dander was headed in their direction. There was not time to think. For all they knew, a full-scale attack had begun and they were protected only by the darkness. "Sharp musketry began on our extreme left, it came rapidly toward us and soon we to were blazing away. We fired five . . . — Map (db m7816) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Floods
Waterpower built this town, and the power of the water eventually destroyed it. The destruction of the Federal Armory during the Civil War began the town's decline. Many people who had left Harpers Ferry during the war did return, only to be driven away again - and this time permanently - by the devastating flood of 1870 and those that soon followed. Harpers Ferry never fully recovered. — Map (db m12982) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Fortifying Bolivar Heights
"...the heights became dotted with tents, and at night...the neighboring hills were aglow with hundreds of watchfires..." Joseph Barry, Harpers Ferry resident October 1862 After the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, General Lee withdrew his Confederate army back into Virginia. Instead of pursuing Lee, Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan reoccupied the Harpers Ferry area with nearly 60,000 soldiers. While McClellan paused to reorganize and re-equip his army, President . . . — Map (db m5367) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Found Underground
The ground around you hides the remains of the U.S. Armory at Harpers Ferry. Beneath the surface archeologists discovered walls, floors, pipes, and the base of a massive 90-foot chimney. As the team slowly and painstakingly excavated small pits throughout the site, the uncovered over 28,000 artifacts - some in almost pristine condition - providing a glimpse into the past. Artifacts found her include (clockwise): a bone-handled toothbrush, and apothecary's weight, a carved pipe bowl, a file . . . — Map (db m21124) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Foundations of Freedom
Harpers Ferry, including Anthony Hall (to your left), played host to large and small scenes in the epic human struggle for freedom and equality. In this building, the superintendent of the national armory contemplated how to strengthen the nation's military. On these fields, great armies battled over a divided land. Here, former slaves strove to obtain the education previously denied them by law. [Aerial photo caption reads] Storer College grew from a one-room schoolhouse in an . . . — Map (db m70797) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Foundations of Freedom
Harpers Ferry, including Anthony Hall (behind you to the right), played host to large and small scenes in the epic human struggle for freedom and equality. In this building, the superintendent of the national armory contemplated how to strengthen the nation's military. On these fields, great armies battled over a divided land. Here, former slaves strove to obtain the education previously denied them by law. [Aerial photo caption reads] Storer College grew from a one-room schoolhouse in . . . — Map (db m70821) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — From Skirmish Line to Burial Ground
Some of the Union infantrymen who defended this ground on the night of September 14th returned the next day. Even though the Confederate strategy had won the battle for Harpers Ferry, and these Union soldiers were part of the largest surrender of United States troops in American history, these particular soldiers had unfinished business here. "Went to the foot of the hill to bury Disbrow, was shot in the head the knight before. Sad time. We buried him with overcoat and blanket wrapped . . . — Map (db m5398) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Gun Position #6
This gun protected the south end of the fort and was positioned to fire on flank movements. An outside picket trench, which can be seen ahead of the main embankment, protected the artillery crew. — Map (db m5879) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Harper Cemetery
Passing through this region in 1747, Robert Harper — a Pennsylvania architect contracted to build a Quaker church in the Shenandoah Valley — was so impressed by the beauty of this place and the water-power potential of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers that he settled here and founded Harpers Ferry. When Harper died in 1782, there were only three houses in the town. Optimistic about the community's potential for growth, however, Harper had set aside this 4-acre cemetery. . . . — Map (db m10203) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Harper House
From this vantage point, a succession of early residents watched Harpers Ferry grow from a tiny village into a thriving industrial community. In 1775, town founder Robert Harper chose this hillside for his family home because it lay safely above the flood line, commanded a spectacular view, and offered unlimited native stone for building. Harper never resided here, however, because he died before the building's completion. The Harper House is the oldest surviving structure in Harpers Ferry. . . . — Map (db m18753) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — 7 — Harper House Tavern — Meriwether Lewis at Harpers Ferry
The Harpers House was near the end of a 20-year run as the only tavern in Harpers Ferry when Lewis arrived. Thomas Jefferson may have been among the first guests to stay here in 1783. If Lewis rented a room in 1803, he was among the last travelers to seek shelter here. — Map (db m18754) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Harpers FerryPrize of War
“It may be said with truth that no spot in the United States experienced more of the horrors of war.” – Joseph Barry, Harpers Ferry resident Trapped on the border between North and South, Harpers Ferry changed hands eight times during the Civil War. Because of its position on the Potomac River—an international boundary for four years from 1861 to 1865—the town’s industries were destroyed, its buildings were abandoned, its mountains were raped, and the . . . — Map (db m23188) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Harpers Ferry / John Brown’s Fort
(West Facing Side): Harpers Ferry Named for Robert Harper, who settled here in 1747 and operated ferry. Site purchased for Federal arsenal and armory in 1796. John Hall first used interchangeable gun parts here. Travel route thru Blue Ridge gap, and river, canal, and railroad connections added growth. John Brown's raid and Civil War brought national attention. Post-war site of Storer College for blacks, and National Park, created in 1944. (East Facing Side): John Brown's . . . — Map (db m2940) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Harpers Ferry National Historical Park
(First Panel): Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is the story of... Industrial Development and the production of weapons at the Harpers Ferry armory. John Brown's Raid and his attempt to end slavery. The Civil War with Union and Confederate armies fighting over this border area for four years. Black History from slavery to Storer College - chartered to educate men and women of all races, it became one of the first institutions of higher learning for Black Americans. Explore . . . — Map (db m19008) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Hayward Shepherd
On the night of October 16, 1859, Heyward Shepherd, and industrious and respected Colored freeman, was mortally wounded by John Brown's raiders in pursuance of his duties as an employee of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. He became the first victim of this attempted insurrection. This boulder is erected by the Daughters of the Confederacy and the Sons of Confederate Veterans as a memorial to Heyward Shepherd, exemplifying the character and faithfulness of thousands of Negroes who, . . . — Map (db m10482) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Head Gates and Inner Basin
These brick-lined archways, or "head gates," built around 1850, once controlled much of the island's waterpower. From here, a "wing dam" extended across the Shenandoah River, funneling water through the arches and into the inner basin. A gate at the opening of each arch controlled the flow. After passing through the head gates, the water was stored in the inner basin until dispersed via raceways and tunnels to the mills and factories. Over time, silt and sand accumulated and eventually filled the basin. — Map (db m18949) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Heads versus Hands
A national controversy regarding the education of African American students played out in the building before you. Throughout its history, Storer College faced great difficulty attracting funding. Most white benefactors favored trade school training for African American students. In order to attract better financial backing, Storer College opened this industrial arts building in 1905. The following year, W.E.B. DuBois spoke out on this campus against training only the hands and not the . . . — Map (db m70807) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — High Street in 1886
(Photo of High Street in 1886) Map (db m18787) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Historic Heights
Surrounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains at the confluence of the Potomac and the Shenandoah Rivers, Harpers Ferry thrived as an industrial community during the first half of the 19th century. By 1860, nearly 3,000 residents lived in the Harpers Ferry area and its Federal armory produced more than 10,000 weapons per year. Defending Harpers Ferry proved strategically important to both North and South when the civil war erupted in 1861. To occupy and defend this border area, a military . . . — Map (db m5316) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — History in the Mountains
"I will pledge myself that there is not a spot in the United States which combines more or greater requisites...." George Washington May 5, 1798 Harpers Ferry's history and geography have influenced each other for more than 250 years. Early settlers crossed these mountains and operated ferries across the rivers. George Washington, impressed with the area's natural resources, convinced Congress to establish a U.S. armory and arsenal here. The Potomac and Shenandoah . . . — Map (db m12065) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Holy Ground
Here on the scene of John Brown’s martyrdom we reconsecrate ourselves, our honor, our property to the final emancipation of the race which John Brown died to make free… Thank God for John Brown!... and all the hallowed dead who died for freedom! W.E.B. Du Bois, Niagara Movement general secretary and NAACP founding member On August 17, 1906, members of the Niagara Movement walked silently past where you are standing. One of the first modern civil rights organizations in America, the . . . — Map (db m8316) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Home Becomes Battlefield
The Civil War affected not only the soldiers who fought but the families whose homes and towns became battlefields. Edmund H. Chambers bought this farm in 1848 and lived here with his family until the Civil War. Although Chambers was a loyal Unionist, the Union confiscated his farm in 1862, forcing the family from their home. The U.S. Army arranged for an appraisal of the farm in the event of damage. At the war’s end Chambers found the property destroyed and filed a claim demanding restitution. . . . — Map (db m5885) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — 6 — Home of Joseph PerkinsArmory Superintendent — Meriwether Lewis at Harpers Ferry
Armory Superintendent Joseph Perkins lived in a converted warehouse on this spot from 1801-1806. The day Lewis arrived, March 16, 1803, he hand-delivered a letter from the Secretary of War directing Perkins to provide "arms & iron work... with the least possible delay." Lewis may have stayed here while he was in Harpers Ferry. — Map (db m18804) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — 1 — Home of Samuel AnninArmory Paymaster — Meriwether Lewis at Harpers Ferry
The U.S. Armory Paymaster's house stood here. Completed in 1802 as a home for the armory's senior administrator, this building was probably the best house in town when Meriwether Lewis arrived in 1803. Lewis may have stayed here and he certainly accounted for his supplies with Paymaster Samuel Annin. — Map (db m18662) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — House Ruins
An island entrepreneur or owner likely resided in this 2 1/2-story house which once stood on this foundation. Owners and workers both resided on the island. Other dwellings included four large 2-story structures, five 2-story brick tenements, and five 1 1/2-story wooden cottages. The 1850 census reveals about 200 people living on Virginius Island. Only ruins remain of their homes. — Map (db m18951) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Infantry Positions
Infantry troops occupied positions along these fortifications. The low height of the earth embankment at this location permitted the defending troops easy passage to and from the abatis without exposure. — Map (db m5878) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Island Access
Bridges spanning the canal, like the one to your left, provided access from the island to the mainland for residents and factory workers. During floods, they were paths to safety. To delay departure could spell disaster, as in 1870, when swiftly rising water swept away all avenues to higher ground. — Map (db m18987) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Island Mills
Sounds of turning mill wheels and workers filling bags with freshly ground flour once filled the air here. The foundation of Island Mills, one of the earliest (1824) industries on the island, lies before you. Each fall the railroad brought wheat here from the Potomac and Shenandoah valleys to be ground into flour, packed into barrels, and shipped east to Baltimore. Fire destroyed the original mill in 1839. Construction of a larger 3 1/2-story stone building followed the next year on the same . . . — Map (db m18983) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Jackson at Harpers FerryThe Stonewall Brigade
As you explore Jefferson County’s Civil War sites, you will learn about some of the notable exploits on the native soil of Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, one of the wars most famous figures. Jackson was born in Clarksburg, Virginia (now West Virginia). He graduated from West Point and distinguished himself in the Mexican-American War. He left the army to become the Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy and Instructor of Artillery at the Virginia Military Institute in . . . — Map (db m59416) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Jefferson County / State of Maryland
(East Facing Side): Jefferson County Formed in 1801 from Berkeley. Named for Thomas Jefferson. Home of Generals Gates, Drake, and Charles Lee. Here four companies of Washington's men organized. Shepherdstown was strongly urged as the seat of the National Capital. (West Facing Side): State of Maryland Named for Queen Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I, who gave a royal charter to Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, in 1632. First settlement at St. Mary's City in . . . — Map (db m2947) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Jefferson Rock
"On your right comes up the Shenandoah, having ranged along the foot of the mountain a hundred miles to seek a vent. On your left approaches the Patowmac [Potomac], in quest of a passage also. In the moment of their junction they rush together against the mountain, rend it asunder, and pass off to the sea....This scene is worth a voyage across the Atlantic." This is how Thomas Jefferson described the view from here during a visit to Harpers Ferry in 1783. Around 1860, the U.S. armory . . . — Map (db m10662) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — 8 — Jefferson Rock — Meriwether Lewis at Harpers Ferry
Twenty years before Lewis came to town, his mentor, Thomas Jefferson, wrote about the view from this rock. Jefferson's comments on the landscape were published in Notes on the State of Virginia. That book provided a model for Lewis as he recorded his observations of the west. As Lewis gathered supplies here, did he follow in the footsteps of his mentor and take in this view? — Map (db m18791) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — John Brown
Here John Brown aimed at human slavery a blow that woke a guilty nation. With him fought seven slaves and sons of slaves. Over his crucified corpse marched 200,000 black soldiers and 4,000,000 freedmen singing “John Brown’s body lies a-mouldering in the grave but his soul goes marching on!” In gratitude this tablet is erected the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People May 21, 1932 — Map (db m12952) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — John Brown Fort
Here is a building with a curious past. Since its construction in 1848, it has been vandalized, dismantled, and moved four times - all because of its fame as John Brown's stronghold. The Fort's "Movements" 1848 Built as fire-engine house for U.S. Armory. 1859 Serves as stronghold for John Brown and his raiders. 1861-1865 Escapes destruction during the Civil War (only armory building to do so), but it is vandalized by souvenir-hunting Union and Confederate soldiers and later travelers. . . . — Map (db m4420) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — John Brown Monument
Commemorated here is the original location of the "John Brown Fort"--the Federal Armory's fire engine house where abolitionist John Brown and his raiders were captured by the U.S. Marines on October 18, 1859. If you look to the south, you will see the Fort about 150 feet from here. The Fort was first moved in 1891 and its original foundation covered by the railroad in 1892. — Map (db m10900) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — John Brown's Last Stand
You are in the line of fire. The stone marker in front of you identifies the original site of the armory fire engine house - now known as John Brown's Fort. Barricaded inside the fort, abolitionist John Brown and his men held off local militia and U.S. Marines for three days in October 1859. Brown's men fired from inside the fort at militiamen and townspeople who shot back from positions around you. Finally, U.S. Marines stormed past where you stand, battered down the door, and captured Brown . . . — Map (db m23413) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Jonathan Child House
Jonathan and Emily Child owned the house that once stood on this foundation. Along with partner John McCreight, Child bought Virginius Island from Abraham Herr after the Civil War and moved here with his family in 1867. Three years later, on September 30, a violent flood trapped his family in this house. Mrs. Child gave this chilling description of the ordeal in a letter to her mother: "Last Friday toward evening the water commenced rising rapidly. Before two hours every way of escape was . . . — Map (db m18982) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Keyes Gap
Formerly Vestal’s Gap. Historic gateway through the Blue Ridge into Shenandoah Valley. It was oftern used by Washington and by armies of the Blue and Gray, 1861–65. Here passed part of Braddock’s army, 1755, en route to Fort Duquesne. — Map (db m981) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Large Arsenal
Serious problems plagued the weapons stored in this two-story structure built in 1799. Floods and high humidity posed constant threats. Sparks from wood-burning locomotives presented a fire hazard. Inadequate storage space caused overcrowding and improper maintenance. United States troops burned the structure in 1861 during the Civil War to prevent its seizure by Virginia forces, but later reroofed it and used it as a bakery to produce soft bread for Union troops operating in the Shenandoah Valley. — Map (db m18691) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — 3 — Large Arsenal Foundation — Meriwether Lewis at Harpers Ferry
Completed in 1800, the 2 1/2-story, brick arsenal building stored weapons made for the security and survival of a young United States of America. Lewis procured 15 rifles from this stockpile. They were the first and most essential weapons his soldiers needed to survive on their wilderness journey. — Map (db m18752) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Lewis and Clark
Meriwether Lewis arrived March 16, 1803. Oversaw building of collapsible iron framed, skin-clad boat and acquired supplies, tomahawks, and rifles. Left for Pennsylvania on April 18; returned July 7 to gather materials and left next day for Pittsburgh. Followed Ohio to Falls; met William Clark for trip to explore and study land, waterways, animal life, natural features and resources of West. — Map (db m2149) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Lockwood House
With its commanding view of Harpers Ferry and the Potomac River gap, this house has witnessed significant chapters in Harpers Ferry's history. It was built in 1847 as quarters for the U.S. Armory paymaster and later served as headquarters for Union Generals Henry H. Lockwood and Philip H. Sheridan during the Civil War. After the war, Storer Normal School (later college) - one of America's first schools for freed slaves - began here, and for almost a century Black students and Freewill Baptist . . . — Map (db m10180) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Market House
Armory workers purchased fresh vegetables, meat, and fish every Wednesday and Saturday here at the Market House. Constructed by the government near mid-century, the building that once stood here architecturally resembled the refurbished armory buildings along the Potomac. The Sons of Temperance, a 19th-century organization campaigning for the prohibition of liquor, financed construction of the second floor for their meeting hall. — Map (db m18800) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Mere Machines of Labor
Work in the Smith and Forging Shop that stood here was dirty, smoky, noisy, and dangerous. Worse still, in the early 1800s armorers changed from skilled craftsmen - creating unique handcrafted weapons - into wage laborers tending machines for less pay. Calling themselves "mere machines of labor" armory workers took their complaints directly to U.S. President John Tyler in 1842. Tyler dismissed them saying the workers "must go home and hammer out their own salvation." Conditions did not improve . . . — Map (db m23491) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Morrell House
This house was built in 1858 as quarters for the U.S. Armory paymaster's clerk and his family. This clerk helped the paymaster manage the armory's complex budget and payroll, and assisted also with the collection of government quarters' rent and the oversight of armory contracts. Soon after the establishment of Storer Normal School (later college) in Harpers Ferry in 1867, Reverend Alexander Morrell of Maine came south into the Shenandoah Valley as a missionary for the Freewill Baptists . . . — Map (db m70750) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Mountains, Men, and Maneuvers
Confederate Major General “Stonewall” Jackson could not see this view. His lower vantage on Schoolhouse Ridge, 1000 yards upriver, blocked his sight of this strategic position. Yet Jackson remembered this farm from his time as Confederate commander at Harpers Ferry during the first days of the war. He knew if he seized this ground he would threaten the rear of the Union army atop Bolivar Heights. Despite overwhelming odds, Jackson’s men secured the Chambers (Murphy) Farm and the . . . — Map (db m5892) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — My Favorite Boat
The metal boat frame to your right is a replica of a collapsible boat built here for Lewis and Clark. Menwether Lewis came to the armory in 1803 to prepare for an epic cross-continent journey and oversee the construction and testing of the boat. Lewis successfully tested it in the nearby Potomac River. Unfortunately the boat failed them in the wild. Lewis wrote "She leaked in such manner that she would not answer ... [I] relinquished all further hope of my favorite boat.." He ordered his men to . . . — Map (db m20526) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Nathan Cook BrackettJuly 28, 1836 - July 20, 1910
Founder of Storer College — Map (db m70760) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Pilgrimage
In July 1896, members of the National League of Colored Women traveled here from Washington, D.C. and posed for their picture in front of John Brown’s Fort. The women came to pay homage to Brown and his raiders, establishing a pilgrimage tradition for other civil rights organizations. Mary Church Terrell, the League’s first president, helped lead its fight against lynchings and racial segregation. She described the organization’s mission as: “lifting as we climb, onward and upward . . . — Map (db m8317) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Power of the Potomac
The Potomac River races east past you with enough mountain-carving power to punch through the entire Blue Ridge to your right. Such energy easily powered the entire national armory from the early 1800s until 1861. Diverted by a dam upstream, river water flowed through the armory canal, dropping 22 feet over 1.5 miles. This falling water coursed through headraces (entry points) and followed underground tunnels, turning water wheels and turbines as it flowed through pipes in the armory factories. . . . — Map (db m20536) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Prize of War
Harpers Ferry was much sought by North and South, 1861-1865. Its garrison of 12,000 Union troops was captured by an army of Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson, Sept. 15, 1862, on way to join Lee at Antietam. The Catholic Church was used as Federal hospital. — Map (db m2935) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Protecting the Supply Lines
"...make all the valleys south of the Baltimore and Ohio [rail]road a desert as high up as possible...so that crows flying over it [Virginia] for the balance of the season will have to carry their provisions with them." Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, USA July 17, 1864 Securing Harpers Ferry as a supply base was essential during Union Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign in the Fall of 1864. In front of you are the weathered remains of Battery #1 overlooking the . . . — Map (db m5370) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Pvt Luke QuinnIn Memory Of
Only Marine killed in John Brown's Raid - October 18, 1859 Pvt Luke Quinn came from Ireland in 1835, and enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1855 in Brooklyn, NY. He was sent to sea duty, then transferred to Marine Barracks in Washington, D.C. He came to Harpers Ferry with Lieut. Colonel Robert E. Lee, then was killed in the storming of the Engine House. His funeral was in St. Peters Catholic Church by Father Michael Costello, and he was buried in St. Peters Catholic Cemetery. — Map (db m70780) HM WM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Racing West
On this spot in 1838 the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) pulled into the lead in the race for transportation industry dominance with the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal (C&O). Denied across to the Maryland side of the river, the B&O struck a deal with the armory to build an elevated train trestle on the river wall beneath your feet. Continuing west along what was then the Virginia side of the river, the B&O Railroad quickly passed the C&O Canal and won the race west, becoming the first successful railroad in the United States. — Map (db m23415) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Railroads
Trains clanking along iron rails have echoed through Virginius Island since the Winchester & Potomac Railroad arrived here in 1836. It extended from the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad junction at Harpers Ferry 32 miles southward to Winchester. The W&P line enabled local industrialists to import raw materials and export finished products to the port of Baltimore and into the heart of the Shenandoah Valley. During the Civil War, both Union and Confederate forces damaged the railroad. By late fall, . . . — Map (db m18981) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Rats in a Cage
The Union army refused to give up. Frustrated by the Federals' stronghold on Bolivar Heights, "Stonewall" Jackson ordered cannons to the mountain tops and nearby plateaus. Pounded by a day and a morning of Confederate bombardment, Union soldiers felt the strain, "A general feeling of depression observable in all the men...All seem to think that we will have to surrender or be cut to pieces," wrote Union Private Louis B. Hull. We are as helpless as rats in a cage. Captain Edward Ripley, 9th Vermont — Map (db m5391) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — River Wall
The Harpers Ferry & Shenandoah Manufacturing Company built this stone wall about 1848 as part of the hydraulic system for its two cotton mils and other shops downstream. This extensive retaining wall formed part of the berm separating the inner basin from the river. Water flowed from the inner basin into the tunnels which led to the factories. — Map (db m18944) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Shenandoah Canal
In 1806, workmen with hand tools widened and deepened this channel for cargo boats to bypass, or "skirt," the rapids in the Shenandoah River. Linked with many other skirting canals" en route to Washington, D.C., this passage became part of the Potowmack Canal system founded by George Washington. He envisioned these bypasses as the way to improve navigation on the Potomac River for trade with the western frontier. Within thirty years, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (a continuous canal), the . . . — Map (db m18988) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Shenandoah Pulp Factory
In 1877-1888, on the former site of the Shenandoah Canal's lower locks, Thomas Savery erected this large mill to provide wood pulp for the paper industry. Ten turbines, arranged in pairs in the mill's five massive sluiceways, powered wood grinders, rolling machines, and other pulp-making machinery. By the 1920's, Savery's mill had the capacity to produce 15 tons of ground wood pulp daily. After several unprofitable years, the mill closed in 1935. Within a year the building was destroyed by . . . — Map (db m18985) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Shenandoah River
The power of the Shenandoah River once made Virginius Island valuable real estate. Armory Superintendent James Stubblefield purchased the island in 1824 for $15,000. Two months later he almost doubled his investment by selling the island as four tracts while promoting its industrial potential. By the mid-1850s, businessman Abraham Herr had paid almost $47,000 for this 13-acre island. The river signified both friend and enemy to the industrialists and residents here. As long as it stayed within . . . — Map (db m18816) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Shenandoah Street about 1880
(Photo of the buildings along Shenandoah Street about 1880) Map (db m18788) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Sheridan Dug In
In August 1864 Harpers Ferry was again a Union stronghold. Union General Philip Sheridan and his men built this redoubt—the earthwork in front of you—as fortification against the Confederates. Sheridan’s objective was to stop the Confederates from skirting undetected along the Shenandoah River (below you) into Harpers Ferry. They had done so on three previous campaigns—Maryland (1862), Gettysburg (1863), and Washington (1864). The ravine to your right separated the redoubt . . . — Map (db m5896) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Sheridan Fortifications
In August 1864, Gen. U.S. Grant ordered Gen. Phillip Sheridan to construct earth fortifications on Bolivar Heights. These forts faced northwest to protect against Confederate movements down the Shenandoah Valley to Harpers Ferry. This Sheridan trench is 300 yds. long with the south end protected by a hook embankment. Artillery positions were erected within the fortifications. This was the location of gun #5. — Map (db m5863) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Short-lived Sanctuary
Thousands of enslaved people fled to the Union lines at Harpers Ferry during the Civil War. Some of them found shelter in the "contraband camp" located near here in the shadow of John Brown's Fort. Their freedom and safety were always in jeopardy. Any withdrawal of the Union forces left them vulnerable to slave-catchers, notorious for capturing people of color and selling them into slavery. After the confederate capture of Harpers Ferry in 1862, Union Colonel William Trimble recalled watching . . . — Map (db m20491) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Six Acres That Changed the World
Along this path lie the remains of revolutions. Six acres of the U.S. Armory at Harpers Ferry have been reduced to rubble. Buildings that buzzed with activity and innovation now lie covered with dirt. Train tracks that pushed to the edge of a new frontier lie abandoned. A stone marker stands where John Brown and his men struck their blow against slavery heralding new birth for the nation and new freedom for all its people. (Timeline): 1795 "A place of immense strength" George . . . — Map (db m20475) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Springhouses and Root Cellars
These small caves carved into the shale cliffside at one time served as springhouses and root cellars for the residents of this block. The cooler subsurface temperatures of a root cellar helped preserve herbs, vegetables, and fruits in the days before modern refrigeration. — Map (db m18755) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — St. John's Episcopal Church
These weathered ruins are all that remain of St. John's Episcopal Church - one of Harpers Ferry's five earliest churches. Built in 1852 with money provided by church fairs, St. John's served as a hospital and barracks during the Civil War and suffered considerable damage. It was rebuilt afterward, but was abandoned in 1895 when a new Episcopal church was built in the upper town. — Map (db m18790) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — St. John's Lutheran ChurchAlarm Bell at Dawn
The Reverend Doctor Josiah P. Smeltzer laid the cornerstone of St. John's Lutheran Church on April 30, 1850. The building was completed two years later and dedicated on August 1, 1852. Little more than seven years had passed when, at dawn on October 17, 1859, local physician John D. Starry ordered the church bell to be rung to alert Harpers Ferry that John Brown's Raid was under way. Many terrified residents fled the town proper and gathered at the church. Smeltzer, the church's pastor, . . . — Map (db m70794) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church
Construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad produced an influx of Irish laborers into the Harpers Ferry area during the early 1830's. St. Peter's Catholic Church, completed in 1833, symbolizes America's melting pot tradition and the customs, habits, and religion of the early Irish immigrants. During the Civil War, to protect the church from Union and Confederate shells, Father Costello flew the British Union Jack flag as a symbol of the church's . . . — Map (db m18789) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Stephen Tyng MatherJuly 4, 1867 - Jan. 22, 1930
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service. Defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m70831) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Stonewall Jackson's Headquarters
This residence was used as headquarters by Confederate General T.J. "Stonewall" Jackson while stationed in the area during the Civil War — Map (db m2942) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Storer College
That was the happiest time of my life. Storer alumna Ruby Reeler Female students arriving here at the Cook Hall dormitory were greeted with a welcoming letter that advised them, “Here you will come as a refuge from the strangeness or perplexities of campus life. Here you will fight your battles of adjustment to new surroundings. Here you will gain new understanding of community living and of friendships.” Storer College provided a refuge from the pressures of . . . — Map (db m70830) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Storer College Veterans Memorial Gate
To the students of Storer College who fought in the Civil War 1861 - 1865 Spanish American War 1898 The World War 1917 - 1919 May their illustrious example inspire us to a loyal senses of duty to our country. — Map (db m70812) WM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Struggle to the Heights
Consider dragging 2,000-pound cannon up this ravine—at night. General A.P. Hill’s Confederates faced that task during the second night of battle. The assignment was essential to “Stonewall” Jackson’s plan to flank the Union army on the crest of Bolivar Heights. Hill’s men dragged artillery up this and other nearby ravines before rolling the cannon into position in the open field behind you. The names of these soldiers are not recorded in military reports about the event, but their labors soon changed the course of the battle. — Map (db m5889) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Sweets for Harpers Ferry
The enticing smell of bread, cakes, candies, and pies undoubtedly attracted many customers to Frederick Roeder's Confectionery, making it a prosperous business from 1845 to 1861. In addition to his store, it is reported that he carried small pies to the train station to sell to hungry passengers before the days of dining cars. By 1856, Roeder was so successful that he enlarged this structure by one and a half stories, creating much needed space for his business and family of 7 children. . . . — Map (db m25151) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Abatis
During the construction of this fort, many of the trees which were located directly in front of these embankments were felled forming an “abatis”. This timber obstruction slowed the advance of the attacking forces so that snipers, infantry, and the artillery behind the fort could easily range in on the enemy. — Map (db m5872) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Appalachian Trail and Benton MacKaye
The American Institute of Certified Planners has designated The Appalachian Trail as a National Planning Landmark and Benton MacKaye as a National Planning Pioneer Conceived by Benton MacKaye in 1921 as a walking trail from New England to Georgia, the Appalachian Trail was a pioneering invention in regional interconnection. MacKaye's work in regional planning theory and practice also laid the foundations for the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Rural Resettlement . . . — Map (db m70787) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Confederate Perspective
"General J.R. Jones was directed to make a demonstration against the enemy's right." Jackson's official report Confederate Colonel Edmund Pendleton wrote about the night of September 14, 1862, from his perspective across the road on School House Ridge. Pendleton and his men were facing this direction, holding the Union forces in check on Bolivar Heights behind you. "We lay upon our arms till nearly daylight, the quietude of the night being unbroken, save by a sharp musketry fire of . . . — Map (db m7796) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The First Line of Defense: The Union Skirmish Line
After sunset on September 14, 1862, the Confederate cannons across the road on School House Ridge vanished in the darkness. The features of the landscape began to blur as the shell-shocked Union soldiers on Bolivar Heights wondered if they could survive another day of artillery bombardment. The Union troops could not rest until tomorrow, however, because General "Stonewall" Jackson's Confederate Army might charge over School House Ridge at any moment. To guard against such an attack, the Union . . . — Map (db m5394) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The First Year of the War
"The people for the most part were tongue-tied with terror...overwhelmed with ruin..." Porte Crayon, war correspondent April 18, 1861 The armory and arsenal's destruction signaled the beginning of the war and the end of prosperity in Harpers Ferry. On April 18, 1861, the day after Virginia seceded from the Union, Virginia militia awaited reinforcements on this ridge while preparing to seize Harpers Ferry. At 10:00 p.m. the out-numbered Federal garrison blew up the arsenal and . . . — Map (db m5393) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Harpers Ferry Bandstand
The Harpers Ferry Town Bandstand or Gazebo was originally one of the structures on Island Park. This amusement park was created and operated by the B&O Railroad from 1879 to 1909 on Byrne Island in the Potomac River just below the Hilltop House. Island Park was a well known tourist attraction at that time, with a steam driven merry-go-round and ferris wheel, dance pavilions, midway, wading beaches, boat rentals, and picnic areas. Gilbert Perry, a town resident, was quoted in 1880: "Island Park . . . — Map (db m2936) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Iron Horse Wins
Work on the railroad and canal progressed slowly at first, but by 1834 both companies had completed construction to a point opposite Harpers Ferry. The canal had won the race to this point and it continued up the Maryland side of the Potomac. The B&O Railroad, plagued by land disputes with the canal, crossed the Potomac at Harpers Ferry in 1837 and rapidly pushed on. By 1842 it reached Cumberland, Maryland, and a decade later the railroad was open to Wheeling on the Ohio River. Business boomed . . . — Map (db m12062) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Moler Family
The Moler Family of Jefferson County, West Virginia. In this cemetery are buried George Adam Moler (1714–1783) and his wife Eve. George Adam Moler came to American on Aug. 29, 1730 with his father Ludwig Mohler, settling first in Lancaster, Penn. He moved to this area around 1758. He received a land grant from Lord Fairfax in 1762. Due to a misspelling on this land grant George changed the spelling of his last name from Mohler to Moler. This cemetery is on the original land grant. . . . — Map (db m1962) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Mule Falters
As the railroad streaked westward from Harpers Ferry, the C&O Canal fell hopelessly behind in the race for Ohio. Burdened by a lack of building supplies and a scarcity of skilled labor, the canal encountered serious financial problems and did not reach Cumberland, Maryland until 1850 --- eight years after the railroad reached that point. Plans to continue further westward were abandoned. Made obsolete by the faster and less expensive railroad, the C&O Canal never attained any great measure of . . . — Map (db m12064) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Murphy Farm
Established 1869 Alexander Murphy 1840-1931 Mollie M. Murphy 1869-1945 Mary Murphy 1834-1908 William J. Murphy 1872-1931 Historical events on the Farm: Battle of Harpers Ferry September 13-15, 1862 General Philip Sheridan's Fortification August 1864 to April 1865 Site of John Brown Fort 1895-1910 Pilgrimage of the Colored Women's League of Washington, D.C. July 1896 The Second Niagara Movement John Brown Day Pilgrimage to John Brown's Fort August 17, 1906 In memory of Alexander and Mary . . . — Map (db m13275) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Niagara Movement
Here, on August 15-19, 1906, on the Storer College campus, the Niagara Movement held their first open and public meeting on American soil. Organized by W.E.B. Du Bois and others a year earlier in Erie Beach, Ontario, Canada, the Niagara Movement became the cornerstone of modern civil rights movement and was the forerunner of the NAACP. (Sponsor of this marker): Star Lodge No 1 F&AM and Jefferson Co. Black History Pres. SOC. — Map (db m2937) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Niagara Movement at Storer College
The battle we wage is not for ourselves alone but for all true Americans. W.E.B. DuBois In 1906, the Niagara Movement held its second annual meeting on the Storer College campus. The Niagara Movement was the first national organization of Negroes which aggressively and unconditionally demanded the same civil rights for their people which other Americans enjoyed. Elliot M. Rudwick, historian, 1957 Symbolically important as the first meeting of the group on . . . — Map (db m70829) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — 2 — The Point — Meriwether Lewis at Harpers Ferry
Today's view of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers passing through the water gap in the Blue Ridge Mountains has changed little from Meriwether Lewis' view in 1803. Lewis hoped to find a similar, accessible trade route on rivers passing through the Rocky Mountains. — Map (db m18801) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Race to the Ohio
Rail transportation in the United States began in Baltimore, Maryland on July 4, 1828, when Charles Carroll, the only living signer of the Declaration of Independence, laid the cornerstone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad On the same day President John Quincy Adams turned the first spade of earth along the Potomac River for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. The race was underway as the progressive railroad and the traditional canal struggled to become the first to connect the Ohio Valley with . . . — Map (db m12060) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — The Trap Closes
"General Hill, charge and give them the bayonet." Major Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson September 15, 1862 Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill's division received orders from Stonewall Jackson to flank the Federal left on Bolivar Heights on Sunday afternoon, September 14, 1862. Although his Confederate army surrounded the 14,000 - man garrison. Jackson realized an artillery bombardment alone would not force a Union surrender. About 4:00 p.m., Hill's division of 3,000 . . . — Map (db m12057) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Trail to Upper Harpers Ferry
Townspeople hand-carved these steps into the cliff early in the 1820's to gain easier access to homes and churches in the upper town. The rock cliff is composed of Harper's shale and you will find it scattered throughout the Harpers Ferry region in house walls and foundations, bridge supports, boundary walls, and ruins. These stone steps will take you up the hill on a tour of the upper town. The first leg of the journey is steep, but relatively short - and you will find views of the . . . — Map (db m13299) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Union Skirmish Line
Union troops on the crest and slope of Bolivar Heights to the East were attacked by Confederates lead by Gen. Jackson from School House Ridge to the West on 14 Sept. 1862. Private Paylor, Co. D., 111th NY, recalled this as "an awful fight." This action helped defeat 12,000 Union troops at Harpers Ferry. Their surrender on 15 Sept. was the largest of Federal forces until Bataan, the Philippines, WW II, 1942. (Marker Sponsor): Harpers Ferry CWRT, American CWRT (UK) — Map (db m2944) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Virginius Island TrailA Town Lost in History
In the shadow of the United States Armory at Harpers Ferry, private industry thrived. Across this canal is Virginius Island, site of a town that once bustled with pre-Civil War businesses and the activities of 200 people. Built along the banks of the Shenandoah, the town's thriving factories were powered by the same river that later destroyed them. Virginius Island today has returned to nature, but a stroll along this trail offers a glimpse into its colorful past. As you explore, search for . . . — Map (db m18808) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Water Tunnels
Tunnels increased power. Here water from the inner basin, located off to your right, flowed through a series of underground passages. With openings smaller at the downstream end - like a nozzle on a garden hose - these tunnels increased the water's flow. This increased pressure created more waterpower for the factories. As you continue along the trail, look for evidence of the river wall and the head gates - other features of this elaborate waterpower system, first built around 1848. — Map (db m18942) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — We Began Firing At Will: The 111th New York Regiment
"We went below and formed in line of battle and laid down on our arms. Sleep was out of the question but of course, human nature will succumb and drowsiness was general among the boys. It must have been nine O'Clock or more by this time. All of a sudden there came a blinding flash in front of our line. We were all alert in a moment and we got in line of battle as quickly as possible. We began firing at will for all we knew hardly a thing about military drill and didn't see anything to fire . . . — Map (db m5396) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — White Hall Tavern
Located directly across from the U.S. Armory, the White Hall Tavern was an 1850's community gathering place, where white males debated politics; discussed local events; and protested armory management, wages and layoffs. The tavern's close proximity easily tempted armory workers to raise a glass, or two... or three, before and during work. As a result, Armory officials took a stand that public houses, such as White Hall Tavern, ruined morals, work ethics, and even threatened armory production. . . . — Map (db m18667) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harper's Ferry — Harper's Ferry HistoryHayward Shepard - Another Perspective
Heyward Shepard On October 17, 1859, abolitionist John Brown attacked Harper’s Ferry to launch a war against slavery, Heyward Shepard, a free African American railroad baggage master, was shot and killed by Brown’s men shortly after midnight. Seventy-two years later, on October 10, 1931, a crowd estimated to include 300 Whites and 100 Blacks gathered to unveil and dedicate the Heyward Shepard monument. During the ceremony, voices raised to praise and denounce the monument. Conceived . . . — Map (db m10903) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Kearneysville — "Prato Rio"
Home of General Charles Lee, built on land bought in 1774. Lee, colonel in British army, resigned his commission and joined the colonists after Battle of Lexington. On this estate, the U.S. Government maintains a fish hatchery. — Map (db m12069) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Kearneysville — "Travelers' Rest"
Home of Gen. Horatio Gates, built on land bought, 1763. Gates, once a British officer, joined the Revolutionary Army, and was the leader of the Continentals in decisive victory over Gen. Burgoyne at Saratoga. (1/2 Mi. S. W.) — Map (db m12068) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Kearneysville — The Bower
Three miles west, on Opequon Creek, lived General Adam Stephen, 1754–1772. Original tract, with hunting lodge, was bought in 1750. The present mansion was built by Adam Stephen Dandridge, his grandson, in 1805. — Map (db m1746) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Millville — Battle of Harpers Ferry
Invasion rocked the United States during the second year of the American Civil War. In September 1862 Confederate General Robert E. Lee launched his army into Maryland - the North. Lee's first target became Harpers Ferry. He ordered "Stonewall" Jackson to make the attack. Here Jackson overcame the great obstacles, defeating the Union during a three-day battle and forcing the largest surrender of U.S. troops during the Civil War. His victory at Harpers Ferry enabled Lee to make his stand at . . . — Map (db m7924) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Millville — Battle of Harpers Ferry / Jackson Arrives
(Upper Panel): Battle of Harpers Ferry Invasion rocked the United States during the second year of the American Civil War. In September 1862 Confederate General Robert E. Lee launched his army into Maryland - the North. Lee's first target became Harpers Ferry. He ordered "Stonewall" Jackson to make the attack. Here Jackson overcame the great obstacles, defeating the Union during a three-day battle and forcing the largest surrender of U.S. troops during the Civil War. His victory at . . . — Map (db m7927) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Millville — Flag Talk
Accurate communication was crucial to winning the Battle of Harpers Ferry. Rivers, mountains, and miles of distance separated Confederate General "Stonewall" Jackson from his mountaintop commanders. With telegraph messaging impossible and courier service difficult, signal flags became the principle form of communication. Confederate signal men occupied positions on the heights, waving flags in patters to transmit coded messages. This laborious system took time and Jackson complained that "the . . . — Map (db m7925) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Millville — Keyes' Switch EngagementThe Last of the Loudoun Rangers
This is the site of the last Civil War engagement in Jefferson County and one of the last fights involving Col. John S. Mosby’s Rangers. It also marked the end of the Independent Loudoun Rangers, a small cavalry unit recruited in 1862 from Loudoun County’s Unionist residents to serve as “border police” and scouts for Federal forces. The opposing rangers had clashed once before at Point of Rocks during Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Washington Raid in July 1864. On April 5, 1865, just . . . — Map (db m59417) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Millville — Setting the Trap
Confederate Major General "Stonewall" Jackson faced three enemies - the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry, its formidable position on Bolivar Heights, and time. On the second day of the battle, although pummeled by a Confederate bombardment, the Federals still stood firm. Jackson knew he had to force the issue. He devised a three-point plan. First, to "turn" the Union flank, he ordered Major General A.P. Hill to march 3,500 men and 20 cannon, under the cover of night, to a position behind the . . . — Map (db m7929) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Millville — Setting the Trap / Jackson Arrives
(Upper Panel): Setting the Trap Confederate Major General "Stonewall" Jackson faced three enemies - the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry, its formidable position on Bolivar Heights, and time. On the second day of the battle, although pummeled by a Confederate bombardment, the Federals still stood firm. Jackson knew he had to force the issue. He devised a three-point plan. First, to "turn" the Union flank, he ordered Major General A.P. Hill to march 3,500 men and 20 cannon, under the . . . — Map (db m7926) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Ranson — The Right Reverend Ernest Eugene Baltimore
1912–1999. A distinguished clergyman, humanitarian, and civic leader in the community. Bishop Baltimore served as Senior Bishop & General President of the King’s Apostle Holiness Church of God, Inc. He was Pastor of The Baltimore Temple Church for 51 years, 1948 to 1999. Bishop Baltimore received an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from the Trinity Hall College and Seminary. He served the City of Ranson as Councilman, Finance Committee member, Sanitation Committee member, and Chairman . . . — Map (db m2030) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shenandoah Junction — Duffields Depot RaidMosby Strikes the B&O — 1864 Valley Campaign
(Preface): The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early at Winchester in September and Cedar Creek in October, burned mills and bars, and crushed the remnants of Early's force at Waynesboro on March 2, 1865. Sheridan's victories contributed to President Abraham Lincoln's reelection in November 1864 . . . — Map (db m58494) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shenandoah Junction — General William Darke
Within these grounds is the home of General William Darke (1736-1801), who served as officer in American Revolution and in St. Clair's 1791 expedition against Miami Indians in Ohio. He served as delegate to the Virginia Convention called 1788 to ratify the Federal Constitution, was elected to the Va. Assembly of 1791, and was an original trustee for the town of Charles Town. — Map (db m5347) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shenandoah Junction — General William Darke(1736-1801)
In this community resided William Darke, soldier-statesman, who began his career of selfless service to our nation in the French and Indian Wars. In 1777, he was captured at Germantown, Pa., remaining imprisoned aboard ship in New York harbor for over three years. Upon his release, he raised a regiment to fight the British at Yorktown, Va., for repeated valiant service, Congress rewarded him with promotion to Brigadier General and land. A delegate to the 1788 Virginia ratification convention, . . . — Map (db m5349) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shenandoah Junction — The Greenback RaidMosby's Men Strike It Rich — 1864 Valley Campaign
(Preface): The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early at Winchester in September and Cedar Creek in October, burned mills and bars, and crushed the remnants of Early's force at Waynesboro on March 2, 1865. Sheridan's victories contributed to President Abraham Lincoln's reelection in November 1864 . . . — Map (db m59558) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — B.F. 5 — 118th Pennsylvania Infantry
118th Pennsylvania Infantry (Corn Exchange Regiment) Colonel Charles M. Prevost, Commanding (September 20, 1862) The 118th Pennsylvania Infantry (737 officers and men) crossed the river by the Ford south of this and was ordered into position on the bluff running north from this point. The Regiment ascended the bluff and had not completely formed line—375 to 425 yards north of this and about 125 yards west of the river road—when it was attacked in front and on both flanks by A. . . . — Map (db m1961) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South Mountain . . . — Map (db m1957) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — B.F. 4 — Barnes' Brigade
Barnes’ Brigade Col. James Barnes, 18th Massachusetts Infantry, Commanding Organization 2d Maine, 18th and 22d Massachusetts, 1st Michigan, 13th and 25th New York, 118th Pennsylvania Infantry, 2d Company Massachusetts Sharpshooters (September 20, 1862) Barnes’ Brigade of Morell’s Division, Fifth Corps, crossed the Potomac at the Ford 420 yards south of this at 9 A. M., September 20, under orders to march on the River Road to Shepherdstown. When it became known that A. P. Hill’s . . . — Map (db m1960) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Belle Vue1773
Built by Col. Joseph Van Swearingen American Revolutionary Soldier Visited by Lafayette, George Washington, Henry Clay and Wm. J. Bryan Home of Henry Shepherd V. Descendant of Shepherdtown's founder — Map (db m70863) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — B.F. 1 — Boteler’s Ford Tablet B. F. 1
This crossing of the Potomac was known as Boteler’s, Blackford’s or the Shepherdstown Ford. By it five Divisions of the Army of Northern Virginia, coming from Harpers Ferry, crossed into Maryland, September 16 and 17, 1862, and marched to the field of A.ntietam. Jackson’s and Ewell’s Divisions crossed the Ford on the morning of the 16th; McLaws’ and R. H. Anderson’s Divisions before sunrise on the 17th, and A. P. Hill’s Division about noon of the same day. During the night of the 18th, and . . . — Map (db m1950) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — B.F. 2 — Boteler’s Ford Tablet B. F. 2
September 19, 1862 The Army of Northern Virginia, Gen. R. E. Lee Commanding, crossed Blackford’s Ford during the night of September 18, 1862, and on the morning of the 19th took up its line of march in the direction of Williamsport. Lawton’s and Armistead’s Brigades were left to guard the Ford and 44 guns were placed on the bluffs, north and south of this point, to check the Union pursuit. Heavy Artillery firing and Infantry sharpshooting continued during the day, by which some of the . . . — Map (db m1959) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — B.F. 3 — Boteler’s Ford Tablet B. F. 3
(September 20, 1862) Early in the morning of September 20, movements were made by General McClellan to ascertain the position of the Army of Northern Virginia. Maj. Charles S. Lovell’s Brigade (1st and 6th, 2d and 10th, the 11th and 17th U. S. Infantry) Sykes’ Division, 5th Corps, crossed the Ford and pushed out on the Charlestown Road. Barnes' Brigade, Morell’s Division, was ordered to cross and move on Shepherdstown. Lovell had gone about a mile and a half on the Charlestown Road when . . . — Map (db m1951) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Civil War Hospital SiteMoulder Hall
Civil War Hospital Site Moulder Hall was used as a hospital during the Maryland Campaign 1862. Private Property courtesy of S.H.A.F. — Map (db m1947) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Civil War Hospital SiteR.D. Shepherds Town Hall
Civil War Hospital Site R.D. Shepherds Town Hall was used as a hospital during the Maryland Campaign 1862 courtesy of S.H.A.F. — Map (db m1948) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — 2 — Col. Drake
Col. Drake 1st Va. Cavalry Killed — Map (db m41709) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Confederate Soldiers in Elmwood Cemetery / Colonel Henry Kyd Douglas
Side A Confederate Soldiers in Elmwood Cemetery Over 114 Confederate soldiers who were killed at the Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam) September 17, 1862, or later died of wounds in Shepherdstown, were buried here. They were from the states of VA, NC, SC, GA, AL, MS, LA and FL. Many remain unknown. That year and each one thereafter, local townspeople strew flowers on their graves. It is believed that this was the initiation of Confederate Decoration Day (October, 1862). Later, . . . — Map (db m12067) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Elmwood Cemetery“ . . . and yet the cry was for more room.”
On Wednesday, September 17, 1862, twelve-year-old Mary Bedinger, asleep at her home Poplar Grove outside Shepherdstown, was awakened by the roar of cannons. Confederate and Union forces in position near Sharpsburg, Maryland, just across the Potomac River, were desperately trying to dislodge one another. The bloodiest day in American history had begun. Soon a seemingly endless stream of wounded men flowed into dozens of buildings in and around Shepherdstown that were pressed into service as . . . — Map (db m41694) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Fountain Rock"Crows..,will have to carry their provender with them" — 1864 Valley Campaign
(Preface): The Federal offensive in the Shenandoah Valley begun in May 1864 faltered in the summer with Confederate victories and Gen. Jubal A. Early's Washington Raid in July. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan took command in August, defeated Early at Winchester in September and Cedar Creek in October, burned mills and barns, and crushed the remnants of Early's force at Waynesboro on March 2, 1865. Sheridan's victories contributed to President Abraham Lincoln's reelection in November 1864 . . . — Map (db m58671) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Free SchoolShepherd District — 1848 - 1881
Shepherd District Free School 1848-1881Given to the West Virginia board of education for Shepherd College by Upton S. Martin in memory of his father, U.S. Martin (1859-1957), 32nd degree mason, Mayor of Shepherdstown six years, member West Virginia house of delegates six years, and a participant in civic affairs here for fifty years. — Map (db m23845) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — George Washington Heritage TrailHistoric Shepherdstown
In 1775, Shepherdstown (formerly known as Mecklenburg) was asked to furnish one company (about 100 men) to assist patriots fighting the British around Boston. In July, the company marched in high spirits down German Street with the entire town cheering them off to war. We can imagine the excitement in Mecklenburg when the weary express rider, his horse drooping and wet with exhaustion, was ferried over the Potomac to the market place in the village and in every settlement all the . . . — Map (db m4851) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — In Honor of James Rumsey
Inventor of the Steamboat who in October, A.D. 1783, on the Potomac River near the mouth of Sir John's Run made the first successful application of steam to the practical purpose of navigation and who on December 3rd, 1787, made a further successful demonstration on the Potomac River at Shepherdstown, Virginia about three hundred yards above this site. Erected by the State of West Virginia under the auspices of the Rumseyan Society, A.D. 1915 — Map (db m1936) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Pack Horse Ford
Early settlers crossed the Potomac here. “Stonewall” Jackson and A.P. Hill used this ford on the way to Battle of Antietam. Here Lee’s army crossed after the battle, with the Corn Exchange Regiment, other Federals in pursuit. — Map (db m62778) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — River Crossing
Shepherdstown was established near a natural ford used by American Indians and early settlers to cross the Potomac River. A ferry service, begun in 1775, reliably connected Shepherdstown with communities throughout Maryland and Pennsylvania for almost one hundred years. Today, nothing remains of the ferry service and stone pilings - island sanctuaries to plant and wildlife - are reminders of many subsequent bridge-building efforts. The present Rumsey Bridge was completed in 2006. From this . . . — Map (db m60701) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Shepherd State Teachers College
Established in 1872 as a branch of the State normal school system. It was an outgrowth of the old Shepherd College. This is the site of early settlement made by Thomas Shepherd who built a fort here during Indian days. — Map (db m1938) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Shepherdstown“The Whole Town was a Hospital” — Antietam Campaign 1862
In September 1862, after the Maryland Battles of South Mountain and Antietam, Shepherdstown became a scene of indescribable suffering. “The whole town was a hospital,” wrote resident Mary Bedinger Mitchell. “There was scarcely a building in town that could not with truth seek protection under that plea.” The wounded Confederates streaming into Shepherdstown after the South Mountain actions of September 14 became a flood totaling 2,000–3,000 by the 18th, the day . . . — Map (db m1939) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Shepherdstown
James Rumsey, inventor of the steamboat, lived here, 1785 to 1788, and in 1787 demonstrated his boat on the Potomac at this point. Here was born Colonel James Strode Swearingen, who commanded the men who founded the City of Chicago in 1803. — Map (db m60704) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — Spirit of 1775 Beeline March to Cambridge
On 11 June 1775, the Second Continental Congress authorized the raising of ten companies of riflemen in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia to aid General George Washington at the British siege of Boston. The Berkeley County Committee of Safety selected Captain Hugh Stephenson to command and recruit one of the two Virginia companies. Within a week in the Shepherdstown area, Stephenson had raised 98 men. These riflemen were the first continental or regular troops of the . . . — Map (db m58006) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — The James Rumsey Bridge
Named in honor of the inventor, James Rumsey, who made successful demonstrations of his steamboat on the Potomac River here on December 3 and 11, 1787. Opened and dedicated on July 15, 1939. — Map (db m2019) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Shepherdstown — The Spirit of 1775
Less than half mile eastward is the famous spring around which, from their rendezvous on lands of Morgan and Bedinger, July 17th, 1775 Captain Hugh Stephenson’s Company of Virginia Riflemen, 98 volunteers started on their bee-line march to Boston Town, 600 miles away, reporting to General Washington on August 11th. They all pledged to meet at this spring fifty years hence, if alive. Officers Captain           Hugh Stephenson Lieutenants First           William Henshaw Second           . . . — Map (db m41708) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Summit Point — White House Farm
In 1740, Dr. John McCormick, a Scots (Scotch)-Irish immigrant bought 395 acres from Jost Hite and established White House Farm. Stone barn built by McCormick is the oldest standing in West Virginia. House served as a tavern and inn in early 1800s. In 1863, Major Harry Gilmor, 7th Va. Cavalry, CSA, shot and killed Captain George Somers, US Army in skirmish here. In 1979, listed in National Register. — Map (db m14355) HM
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