|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Advance Forces of General Forrest|
|Advance forces of
cavalry met in
The 3rd, 7th, 8th, and 12th
met the 4th Missouri, 3rd,
9th Illinois and 2nd New
Jersey shortly before
forming first battle
Erected by Act of Legislature of
The State of Mississippi
J.P. Coleman, Governor
1957 — Map (db m89093) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Battle of Brices Cross Roads — June 10, 1864 — The Western Campaign, 1864|
|When General Sherman advanced on Atlanta, General Forrest sought to destroy the Union supply line between Nashville and Chattanooga. He had nearly reached the Tennessee River when he had to turn back to meet a Union force marching southeast from Memphis under General Sturgis. Forrest's remarkable ability to concentrate his men quickly and strike vigorously resulted in total victory by 4,787 Confederates over 7,900 Federal troops who retreated in confusion to Memphis. Yet Forrest was diverted . . . — Map (db m8365) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Battle of Brice's Cross Roads|
|In Memory of the Men of the Confederate and the Federal Armies who took part in the Battle of Brice's Cross Roads or Tishimingo Creek June 10, 1864 which resulted in a victory for the Confederate forces under Brigadier General N. B. Forrest — Map (db m72156) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Bethany A.R.P. Church|
|Organized in 1852 by the Alabama Presbytery, Bethany Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church had a charter membership of twenty-five including four slaves. The church was used as a hospital in 1864 following the Battle of Brice's Cross Roads. The present structure, built in 1956, is located across the road from the original church. — Map (db m60738) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Brice Home|
|The Brice Home
where monument is
The battle scarred,
two-story house, with
its blood-stained floors
and walls was used by
wounded of both armies
to escape shot and shell
as the battle raged.
Erected by Act of the Legislature of
the State of Mississippi.
J.P. Coleman, Governor
1957 — Map (db m89045) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — A-1 — Brice's Cross Roads — June 10, 1864|
|Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest "owned" northern Mississippi and southwestern Tennessee in mid-1864, but that was not where the war was being won or lost. Port Hudson, Louisiana, and Vicksburg, Mississippi, had fallen in July 1863, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River. Gen. William T. Sherman was advancing steadily on Atlanta. Grant was engaging Lee at Cold Harbor and Petersburg, Virginia, in the push toward Richmond. Still, Forrest's command worried Union planners. His cavalry . . . — Map (db m62170) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — B-2 — Brice's Cross Roads — First Main Battle Line (Union)|
|Brig. Gen. Benjamin Grierson's Federal cavalry (3,300 troops) left Stubbs plantation (nine miles northwest of Brice's Cross Roads) at daybreak on June 10, 1864. By 10:00 a.m. the cavalry had reached Brice's Cross Roads and advance units had encountered "a heavy force of the enemy" along the Baldwyn Road. The cavalry was dismounted and deployed on either side of the road, in the woods at the western edge of a cleared field, one-half mile east of the Cross Roads. Col. George Waring's brigade was . . . — Map (db m62172) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — B-1 — Brice's Cross Roads — First Main Battle Line Overview|
|By 10:00 a.m. on June 10, 1864, Col. George Waring's Federal cavalry had reached the Cross Roads. The troops deployed on either side of the Baldwyn Road, in the woods at the western edge of a cleared field, one-half mile east of the Cross Roads. Skirmishing between one of Waring's squadrons and advance Confederate squads had already taken place further east on the Baldwyn Road. Facing Waring's troops from the opposing hilltop across a small creek was Col. Hylan B. Lyon's brigade which was soon . . . — Map (db m62173) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Chief Tishomingo|
|Long before Civil War soldiers fought at this site in 1864, this land was part of the Chickasaw Nation. Tishomingo, whose name derived from the Chickasaw title tishu minko meaning "speaker for the chief" or "assistant chief" in the Chickasaw language, lived near here and was a prominent leader of the Chickasaws in this district. Tishomingo was born as early as the 1730s, probably at Chickasaw Old Town in what is now northwest Tupelo. Tishomingo was a warrior and a staunch defender of . . . — Map (db m61924) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Confederate's First Battle Line Formed Here|
|at 1:00 o'clock. General Forrest's men were all on the field ready for action. From a quarter of a mile north and extending more than a mile south across the Guntown Road the Confederates formed a pincers movement against the enemy. Confederate units engaged in this line. From the northern end of the line: Warren's and Williams' Battalions, 4th Alabama, Moreland's 7th, 3rd, 8th and 12th Kentucky, 7th Tennessee, 13th and 8th Mississippi, and Companies A and H of the 12th Kentucky. — Map (db m62106) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Confederate's Second Battle Line|
|Pushing the Union forces back, General Forrest slowly closed his pincers movement, forcing General Sturgis nearer the Crossroads. This line was anchored on the Blackland Road 400 yards northwest. The southern end across the Guntown Road. Confederate Units Forming this Line Warren's and Williams' Battalions; 4th Alabama; Moreland's 7th Kentucky; 12th Kentucky; Morton's and Rice's Batteries; 7th Tennessee; 18th Mississippi; 16th Tennessee; 15th Tennessee; 19th Tennessee; 8th Mississippi; . . . — Map (db m62110) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Federal Cavalry and Artillery Formed First Battle Line Here|
|From 500 hundred yards north and extending more than a mile south, across the Guntown Road, this Line, behind rail fences and dense scrub-oak thickets fought stubbornly as the Confederates pushed on to the Crossroads. Hand to hand fighting along this line. Federal Cavalry and Artillery Engaged in this Line From the northern end of the line: Company H of 7th Indiana; 4th Missouri; 4th Missouri Battery On North Side of Road: 14th Indiana Battery On South Side of Road: 7th Indiana; 2nd New . . . — Map (db m62108) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Federal's Second Battle Line|
Second Battle Line
General Sturis was able to use
his infantry here for the first
time in the battle. General Forrest
had beaten the Union Cavalry
before the infantry reached the
battlefield. Infantry and cavalry
formed this line.
Engaged in This Line
95th Ohio, 113th Illinois, 120th
Missouri, 109th Illinois, 35th
Illinois, 81st Illinois, 114th Illinois
93rd Indiana and 9th Minnesota.
Engaged in This Line . . . — Map (db m89096) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — First Shots of the Battle of Brice's Crossroads|
|First Shots of
the Battle of
were fired here
June 10, 1864
Scouts from General
Nathan Bedford Forrest's
7th Tennessee (Confederate)
met scouts from General
Samuel D. Sturgis' 4th
Erected by Act of Legislature of
The State of Mississippi
J.P. Coleman, Governor
1957 — Map (db m89091) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — General Barteau's Flank Movement|
|Along the ridge north-east, General Barteau's 2nd Tennessee flanked the Union forces, creating havoc among white and negro soldiers of General Sturgis' command. — Map (db m61957) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — General Sturgis' Supreme Effort|
Placing the 93rd Illinois,
8th Illinois and 114th
Illinois Infantry here and
immediately behind, he
placed his artillery
consisting of Battery B
of 2nd Illinois; 7th Wisconsin
Battery; 14th Indiana Battery;
Battery E of 1st Illinois and
Joyce's Battery. Orders were
given to fire over heads of
infantry into advancing
Confederates. — Map (db m5738) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Interpretive Sites — Battle of Brice's Crossroads • June 10, 1864 Battle of Tupelo • July 13-15, 1864|
Welcome to the Mississippi's Final Stands Interpretive Center. After visiting our museum gallery, we hope that you will tour the Brice's Crossroads and Tupelo battlefields for yourself, with the help of our audio tour and roadside signage.
The terrain of the Brice's Crossroads battlefield is remarkably well preserved, allowing you to imagine easily what the Federal and Confederate troops saw and experienced on June 10, 1864. Preservation of the landscape at Brice's Crossroads is the . . . — Map (db m91147) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Morton's Battery|
John W. Morton, Jr.
Gen. N.B. Forrest's
Chief of Artillery and
youngest artillery captain
Morton's Battery fought here
during the Battle of Brice's
Crossroads June 10, 1864, with
four three inch rifled cannon
Brought at a gallop for some eight miles Morton's and Rice's Batteries were sent forward to a hill and opened with spirit and execution. Gen. . . . — Map (db m89046) HM WM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Spoils of War|
|As Confederate cannon rained fire on exhausted Union troops waiting to cross Tishomingo Creek, a somewhat orderly retreat turned into a panicked rout. Soldiers swam across the creek, bypassing the clogged and bottlenecked bridge and ran into the woods. Officers lost control of their units. Just one month after the Battle of Brice's Crossroads, Union and Confederate troops faced off again at the Battle of Tupelo. Union general A. J. Smith and his troops defeated the Confederates on July 14, but . . . — Map (db m61930) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Tishomingo Creek Bridge|
|The Federal retreat at the Battle of Brice's Crossroads was funneled onto a small bridge across Tishomingo Creek. The structure was too narrow for Sturgis' Expeditionary Force, and the span quickly became a bottleneck as horses, wagons, cannon, and men all raced to cross the creek at the same time. The rains of the previous several days had raised the water level of the deeply banked creek, making it very difficult to cross without using the bridge. Panicked soldiers and horses in full retreat . . . — Map (db m61927) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Tishomingo Creek Bridge|
|Retreating wagons blocked bridge. General Forrest captured 200 Wagons, 14 pieces of artillery and hundreds of men. Artillery fire from the Crossroads killed hundreds of Federals here. — Map (db m61953) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Twentymile Bottom|
|Twentymile Bottom, now cultivated, was typical of the many low areas along streams through which the Natchez Trace passed.
In 1812 Reverend John Johnson stopped at Old Factors Stand, near this bottom, and wrote this account of bottomland travel:
“I have this day swam my horse 5 times, bridged one creek, forded several others, besides the swamp we had to wade through. At night we had a shower of rain – took up my usual lodging on the ground in company with several Indians”. — Map (db m84764) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Baldwyn — Union Wagon Train|
|A critical factor in the Union defeat at Brice's Crossroads was the decision by an unknown officer to bring most if not all of the Union supply train across the Tishomingo Creek Bridge and into the field across the road from where you now stand. When the time came for retreat, the slow-moving wagons clogged the narrow bridge, creating a panic among exhausted Union troops who were desperate to get away from the enemy fire. The supply train consisted of 250 wagons, each pulled by a team of four . . . — Map (db m62176) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Guntown — Battle of Brice's Cross Roads, MS — June 10, 1864 — Civil War Preservation Trust|
8,000 Federal infantry and cavalry, led by Gen. Samuel Sturgis, left Memphis on a dual mission to destroy Confederate supply lines and to engage Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest. It was here on June 10, 1864, that the Union army was forced to retreat to Memphis after Forrest and his 3,500-man force shattered their lines. forcing them to retreat, and changing the community forever. — Map (db m91178) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Guntown — Dogwood Valley|
|Flowering dogwood is a common small tree throughout the eastern United States from Maine and Michigan south to Texas and Florida.
Here the Natchez Trace passes through a small valley with an unusual stand of large dogwood trees.
An easy 15-minute walk takes you along a sunken portion of the Old Trace and through a small wooded area named Dogwood Valley. — Map (db m84765) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Guntown — Tippah, Tishomingo, Pontotoc, Itawamba Intersection|
Near this site is the intersection of a local road between the county seats of Ripley (Tippah) and Fulton (Itawamba) and the wire road that connected the county seats of Jacinto (Tishomingo) and Pontotoc (Pontotoc). The community of Bethany, including the home and store belonging to William Brice; the Presbyterian Church; and schools began developing as early as 1845 and was well established by 1864. — Map (db m91176) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Guntown — Treaty of Pontotoc|
In 1832, this area ceded from the Chickasaw Nation to the United States by the Treaty of Pontotoc and became part of the State of Mississippi. According to the treaty, the land was surveyed and offered for sale by the Federal Government. The Mississippi state legislature on February 9, 1836, established the counties of Itawamba, Tishomingo, Tippah, and Pontotoc along with other counties in the newly acquired land. These four counties shared a common corner at 34°30'31"N, 88°34'07"W — Map (db m91177) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Guntown — Tyler's Flanking Maneuver|
"Hit 'em on the e-e-end!"
As Nathan Bedford Forrest closed on the Union defenders at the critical intersection at Brice's Crossroads, he dispatched two companies of the Twelfth Kentucky under Captain Henry A. Tyler, along with his personal escort, with instructions to extend the Confederate left, locate the Federals, and "Hit 'em on the e-e-end," in the direction of the Pontotoc Road (see map). This action enabled Forrest to protect his line and threaten the Union right flank, in . . . — Map (db m91216) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Saltillo — Old Trace — National Park Service — Natchez Trace Parkway|
|Much of the Old Trace had been abandoned by the start of the civil war. However, the war did leave its mark on the Trace as it did upon the rest of the South, as soldiers marched, camped and fought along portions of this historic old road.
A 5 minute walk on the Old Trace here takes you to the gravesites of 13 unknown Confederate soldiers, a mute reminder of bygone days and of the great struggle out of which developed a stronger nation. — Map (db m61803) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Saltillo — Thirteen Unknown Confederates|
|Were they some of Shiloh’s wounded who retreated here in 1862 to die beside the Natchez Trace? Did they serve under the daring General Nathan Forest who passed this way in 1864? Or were they guarding the Tupelo headquarters of J.B. Hood’s Army of Tennessee near the end of the Civil War? We may never know.
Tradition holds that the unknown graves in front of you belong to Confederate soldiers who marched and camped along this stretch of the Old Trace. Perhaps they died of wounds, or the . . . — Map (db m84774) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Shannon — Black Belt|
|Ages ago this area was under an arm of the ocean. Shells and other marine organisms were deposited to form the limestone seen here.
Exposure of the limestone to all types of weathering gradually changed it into a heavy fertile soil of various colors. The dominant black soil, which before cultivation was prarie grassland, has given the area the name “Black Belt,” or “Black Prarie”.
The Black Belt extends south beyond Columbus, Mississippi, then trends . . . — Map (db m84816) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Battle of Tupelo|
Of The Men Of The
who took part in the
Battle of Tupelo
July 14-15, 1864.
Which resulted in
a victory for the
Federal Forces under
Andrew J. Smith — Map (db m5739) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Battle of Tupelo — The Western Campaign, 1864|
|In the summer of 1864, General Forrest's hard hitting troops in Northern Mississippi threatened the supplies of General Sherman's campaign against Atlanta. Therefore, General A. J. Smith marched 14,000 Union troops against Forrest. He reached Tupelo despite harassing attacks and took positions here. A Confederate force of about 10,000 under General Stephen D. Lee, with Forrest commanding the right wing, attacked fiercely and repeatedly from the west throughout July 14, but could not penetrate . . . — Map (db m6784) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — MS-54 — Birthplace of Elvis Presley|
|Elvis Aaron Presley was born Jan. 8, 1935, in this house built by his father. Presley's career as a singer and entertainer redefined American popular music. He died on Aug. 16, 1977, at Memphis, Tennessee. — Map (db m4477) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Chickasaw Village Site|
A Chickasaw Village
Here once stood an Indian village of several houses and a fort.
During the summer they lived in rectangular well-ventilated houses.
In the winter they lived in round houses with plastered walls.
In times of danger, everybody—warriors, women, children—sought shelter in strongly fortified stockades.
Original foundations of four of these structures are overlaid with . . . — Map (db m84809) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — D.A.R. Monument of Natchez Trace Through Mississippi|
|This monument marks a stage in the course of the Natchez Trace through Mississippi. Over this first high-road came a tide of the best population of the older Southern states seeking homes in the Southwest. After the Treaty of Pontotoc, Oct. 20, 1832, between the American government and the Chickasaw Indians, came the settlers of the fair Chickasaw lands. Bienville fought the Battle of Ackia with the Chickasaw Indians near this spot May 26, 1736. Of the rage that repulsed him let it be recorded . . . — Map (db m84800) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Elvis Presley and the Blues|
Elvis Presley revolutionized popular music by blending the blues he first heard as a youth in Tupelo with country, pop, and gospel.
Many of the first songs Elvis recorded for the Sun label in Memphis were covers of earlier blues recordings by African Americans, and he continued to incorporate blues into his records and live performances for the remainder of his career.
Elvis first encountered the blues here in Tupelo, and it remained central to . . . — Map (db m29823) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Elvis Presley and Tupelo|
On October 3, 1945, a ten-year old Elvis played to his first crowd on these grounds and took 5th place in a talent show.
Eleven years later he returned as the King of Rock and Roll!
Elvis in Tupelo
Elvis Aron Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi on January 8, 1935 to Vernon and Gladys Presley. Born in a two room house built by his father, grandfather, and uncle, Elvis was one of identical twin brothers born to the Presleys. His brother, Jesse Garon, was stillborn. Elvis . . . — Map (db m91174) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Elvis Presley's Childhood Church|
|Attend a Pentecostal church service where Elvis first fell in love with gospel music.
Elvis Presley Birthplace presents a unique experience in the First Assembly of God Church where Elvis and his family regularly attended service. This structure was originally one block away on Adams Street. To make way for a larger building, the old church was moved across the street and turned into a residence.
In 2008 the building was moved to this site and restored to its original condition. . . . — Map (db m29821) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Old Town Creek|
|In the early 1800's ordinary Americans could not be bothered with learning the names of Chickasaw villages on the Natchez Trace. One they called Old Town, and passed the name on to the stream running through this valley. It is one of the sources of the Tombigbee River, first called “River of the Chickasaw” and later the “Tombeckbe” by the French.
Near here, in 1795, the Chickasaw defeated the Creeks in a battle, described by Andrew Jackson as, “when the . . . — Map (db m84799) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Shake Rag — (Shakerag)|
Shake Rag, located east of the old M & O (later GM & O) railway tracks and extending northward from Main Street, was one of several historic African American communities in Tupelo. By the 1920s blues and jazz flowed freely from performers at Shake Rag restaurants, cafes, and house parties, and later from jukeboxes, while the sounds of gospel music filled the churches. The neighborhood was leveled and its residents relocated during an urban renewal project initiated in the . . . — Map (db m29629) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Shake Rag Community|
|From 1943~47, Elvis' father, Vernon, worked for L.P. McCarty & Son's local wholesale grocery company making deliveries to various parts of the City. Shake Rag, a historically black community, was one of his delivery areas.
It was here that Elvis was influenced by the sanctified gospel and blues music he heard which contributed greatly to the style he made famous. — Map (db m29630) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — The Younger Cabin|
At the onset of the Civil War, there were a few homes located in Tupelo near the intersection of the recently completed Mobile and Ohio Railroad and the Pontotoc-to-Fulton Road, now Main Street. One of those homes was the residence of the John W. Younger family located on this site in a grove of oak and hickory trees. It was common practice for high ranking officers to requisition comfortable quarters in private homes during the war. The Younger Cabin was requisitioned many times, as it was . . . — Map (db m91175) HM|
|Mississippi (Lee County), Tupelo — Tupelo Confederate Soldiers Monument|
Erected in honor of
and to the memory of
sons and daughters.
The love, gratitude,
and memory of the
people of the South
Shall gild their
fame in one eternal
Those who die
for a right
not die in vain — Map (db m89098) WM|