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Loudoun County Markers
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — Aldie Mill
In the 1800s and early 1900s Aldie Mill reverberated with the rhythmic sounds of waterwheels, millstones, and farmers chatting with the miller about the weather and their crops. Charles Fenton Mercer located the grist mill here to capitalize on nearby sources of grain, the waters of Little River, and a network of roads. The Little River Turnpike (U.S. 50), connecting Aldie with the port of Alexandria, was nearly finished. And less than a mile to the west the highway would hook up with turnpikes . . . — Map (db m1486) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — America's Oldest Agriculture College
A mile north of here, on Oatlands Road, stands the stone and stucco building, erected in 1854 as Loudoun and Mechanical Institute. Its three founders were prominent County agrarian scientists. Unfortunately, America's first agricultural college, Loudoun A&M, failed to thrive and in 1860 folded. On June 17, 1863, John Singleton Mosby and his Rangers were resting at the school's site and observed the dust clouds from the ferocious Battle of Aldie taking place here. In 1916, the school building . . . — Map (db m18362) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — Battle of Aldie17 June 1863
(East Side of Marker) Facing the Confederate Position. On the afternoon of June 17, 1863, cavalry from the Army of the Potomac under General Alfred Pleasonton and the Army of Northern Virginia under General JEB Stuart battled each other in 94-degree heat for several hours in the fields around you. That morning Union Brigadier General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick and Confederate Colonel Thomas T. Munford had each been given orders to seize and hold the critical mountain pass at Aldie. . . . — Map (db m1547) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — Battle of AldieThe Fight Begins — Gettysburg Campaign
(Preface): After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania. Union Gen. George G. Meade, who replaced Gen. Joseph Hooker on June 28, led the Army of the Potomac in pursuit. The armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1, starting a battle that neither general planned to fight there. Three days later, . . . — Map (db m3742) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — Lee Moves North AgainScreening Lee's Infantry — Gettysburg Campaign
(Preface): After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania. Union Gen. George G. Meade, who replaced Gen. Joseph Hooker on June 28, led the Army of the Potomac in pursuit. The armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1, starting a battle that neither general planned to fight there. Three days later, . . . — Map (db m3750) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — Z 281 — Loudoun County / Prince William County
LOUDOUN COUNTY, area 519 square miles. Formed in 1757 from Fairfax and named for Lord Loudoun, titular governor of Virginia and head of the British forces in America, 1756-1758. Oak Hill, President James Monroe's home, is in this County. PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY, area 345 square miles. Formed in 1730 from Stafford and King George, and named for William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, second son of King George II. The First and Second battles of Manassas took place in this county. — Map (db m64583) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — B 28 — Mercer’s Home
Aldie was the home of Charles Fenton Mercer (born 1778, died 1858), liberal statesman. Mercer was a congressman (1817-1839) and a member of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829-30, in which he advocated manhood suffrage. His attempt in 1817 to establish a free school system in Virginia nearly succeeded. He was a leading advocate of the colonization of free blacks in Liberia. — Map (db m1464) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — F 15 — Mother of Stonewall Jackson
In this vicinity (and according to tradition two miles east at peach orchard) was born Julia Beckwith Neale, mother of Stonewall Jackson, February 29, 1798. She married Johnathan Jackson in 1818 and died, October 1831. — Map (db m1428) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — Mt. Zion Church
Mt. Zion Old School Baptist Church was founded in 1851. Just west of the church is a graveyard containing many 19th century grave markers. On July 6, 1864 nearby, Mosby's Rangers attacked and routed 150 Union cavalrymen. Over 100 Union soldiers were killed, wounded or captured. Mosby had eight men wounded, one mortally. The church is site of the annual Thomas family reunion founded 1934. — Map (db m55727) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — F 4 — President Monroe’s Home
The house to the North is Oak Hill. Designed by Thomas Jefferson for James Monroe, it was built about 1823. Monroe lived there for some years. — Map (db m1452) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — Sergeant Major John Champe
Here was the home of Sergeant Major John Champe, Continental Army, who risked the inglorious death of a spy for the independence of his country. — Map (db m737) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Aldie — Snickersville Turnpike
Originally an Iroquois hunting trail, it became by 1786 the first recorded operating turnpike in America, praised by Thomas Jefferson. In 1810 the Virginia Assembly chartered the Snickers Gap Turnpike Company, authorizing three toll gates between Aldi and Snickers Gap: horse 3 cents; 20 cattle 12 ½ cents; four-wheel carriage 12 ½ cents. A toll booth operated on the Blue Ridge Mountain until 1915. The Turnpike today is a Virginia Byway overlooking the same landscape George Washington . . . — Map (db m62422) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Ashburn — Ashburn Station
At least two different railroad stations stood where you are now standing. When the Alexandra, Loudoun & Hampshire Railroad (later the W&OD) arrived in 1860, the aptly named crossroads of Farmwell became one of the many rail stops that served agrarian Loudoun County. In 1896, after an ash tree caught fire and supposedly burned for a week, Farmwell changed its name to Ashburn. Loudoun County had more than 1,200 farms at the time. The railroad transported the cash crops of wheat, corn, and oats . . . — Map (db m20282) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Ashburn — T-30 — Belmont
Belmont was patented early in the eighteenth century by Thomas Lee, of Stratford. About 1800, Ludwell Lee, an officer in the Revolutionary Army, built the house and he lived here until his death in 1836. Here he entertained Lafayette in 1825. In 1931, Belmont became the home of Patrick J. Hurley, Secretary of War, 1929–1933. — Map (db m980) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Ashburn — Norman's Station
The shelter or "waiting shed" in the photograph below stood across the road from where you are now located. Crossing the track was Norman's Station Road (now called Smith's Switch Road). These three-sided shelters were typical of many small stops along the line. There was a station or shelter about every three miles along the W&OD. The nickname "Virginia Creeper" describes the leisurely pace of the railroad - and underscored the contrast with the vision of its founders who wanted to rival . . . — Map (db m20277) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Bluemont — Bluemont Historic District
Bluemont Historic District has been registered as a Virginia Historic Landmark pursuant to the authority vested in the Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission Act of 1966. — Map (db m4023) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Brambleton — Lyon Family Cemetery and Pvt. Richard MoranHistory of the Northern Virginia Regional Parks
"Mount up, the Yankees are coming!" -Pvt. Richard Moran April 1, 1863 prior to the "Battle of Miskel's Farm" Pvt. Richard (Dick) Moran is buried at this site. Moran was a member of the 43rd Va. Cavalry and leading member of "Mosby's Rangers," a unit of Confederate partisan Rangers operating in Northern Virginia from early 1863 to the end of the Civil War. He was an early recruit of the group and likely its oldest member when he joined Mosby's command. The tall cavalryman was a key scout . . . — Map (db m20011) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Dover — B 33 — A Revolutionary War Hero
Near here stood the home of Sergeant Major John Champe (1752–1798), Continental soldier. Champe faked desertion and enlisted in Benedict Arnold's British command for the purpose of capturing the traitor. Failing in his attempt, Champe rejoined the American army. His meritorious service was attested to by such patriots as General Henry (Light Horse Harry) Lee. — Map (db m1410) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Dover — B 22 — Cavalry Battles
In June 1863, Gen. Robert E. Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia through gaps in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains and into the Shenandoah Valley to invade the North. Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s cavalry corps screened the army from Federal observation. The Union cavalry commander, Brig. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton attempted to break through Stuart’s screen, and fought three sharp engagements along this road. They included the Battles of Aldie (17 June), Middleburg (19 June), and Upperville (21 June). . . . — Map (db m1454) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Dover — B 32 — Gettysburg Campaign
In June 1863, as Gen. Robert E. Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia through Blue Ridge gaps to the Shenandoah Valley, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s cavalry screened the army from Federal observation. The Union cavalry chief, Brig. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton, dispatched Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg to penetrate Stuart’s screen. On 17 June, Gregg ordered Col. Alfred A.N. Duffie to reconnoiter from Aldie to Middleburg. Duffie drove off Confederate pickets there alerting Stuart. Duffie withdrew south of . . . — Map (db m1416) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Dover — B 30 — Stuart and Bayard
After the Battle of Antietam on 17 Sept. 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia recrossed the Potomac River into Virginia. After President Abraham Lincoln’s constant urging, the Union Army of the Potomac, led by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, pursued them. Lee ordered part of his army south to Culpeper Court House. To screen Lee’s march, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s troopers fought a series of engagements against the probing Federal cavalry. On 31 Oct., Stuart attacked Brig. . . . — Map (db m1453) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Hamilton — Hamilton Station
One of the oldest on the line, Hamilton's train station dates from 1870. It was not in the original plan. When the Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampshire Railway (later the Washington & Old Dominion) was established in the 1840s, its owners intended to head the tracks westward along present Route 9 (Charles Town Pike), across the Blue Ridge at Keyes Gap, and on to the Ohio Valley coal country. The railroad reached Leesburg by 1860. Construction and operations ceased during the Civil War. By the time . . . — Map (db m26961) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Hamilton — T-52 — Major General Ben H. Fuller
Maj. Gen. Ben H. Fuller was born in Michigan on 27 Feb. 1870. He was graduated from the U.S. Navy Academy in 1889 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps in 1891. Fuller married Katherine H. Offley on 26 Oct. 1862, and they intermittently lived here at Maplewood which was owned by her family. Fuller served as the 15th commandant of the Marine Corps from 1930 to 1934. He played a key role in establishing the Fleet Marine Force and influenced the development of the Marine . . . — Map (db m1194) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Hamilton — Tracks into HistoryThe Washington & Old Dominion Railroad
The railroad that became the Washington & Old Dominion was born in Alexandria in response to the competition in shipping posed by the port in Baltimore, which was served by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The B&O was diverting farm produce from the Shenandoah Valley away from Alexandria by way of its junction with the Winchester & Potomac Railroad. It also had access to the rich coalfields of the Ohio Valley. A group of Northern Virginia businessmen formed the Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampshire . . . — Map (db m27066) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Hillsboro — T 25 — Loudoun Heights Clash
Union Maj. Henry A. Cole’s 1st Maryland Cavalry was camped here on Loudoun Heights on 10 Jan. 1864 when Confederate Maj. John S. Mosby and Capt. Benjamin Franklin “Frank” Stringfellow attacked before dawn with about 100 mounted Partisan Rangers. In the darkness, Mosby mistook Stringfellow’s detachment for Federals and they exchanged fire. Cole’s troopers rallied, shooting at the Rangers, the only men on horseback. After heavy fighting the Rangers retreated toward Hillsboro. Mosby’s . . . — Map (db m1998) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Hillsboro — Old Potts Graveyard
David Potts, a quaker, established this cemetery from a portion of his farm. He migrated here from Philadelphia Co. Pa. and in 1746 leased 866 acres of land from Catesby Cocke which he later purchased. He was born about the year 1700 and died 1768. No marked stone can be found to identify his grave but he and several generations of his family are buried here. — Map (db m22963) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Hillsboro — This Is the Birthplace of Susan Koerner Wright
Hillsboro, Loudoun County, Virginia. This is the birthplace of Susan Koerner Wright, April 30, 1831–July 4, 1889, mother of Wilbur and Orville Wright, inventors of the airplane. A notable woman who largely guided and wisely inspired her sons to their immortal discovery. She was the mother also of Katharine Wright Haskell, August 19, 1874–March 3, 1929, whose sisterly devotion aided in giving mankind access to the unlimited aerial highway. — Map (db m979) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 15th Massachusetts Infantry
The 15th Massachusetts Infantry provided an initial scouting patrol on the night of October 20 and the troops for the raiding party the next morning. Five companies, roughly 300 men, were to attack a Confederate camp. Devens positioned his men several hundred yards west of here and sent a messenger to inform General Stone that there was no camp to raid. While waiting for new orders, a small portion of his force engaged Company K of the 17th Mississippi in the battle’s opening skirmish. The . . . — Map (db m2223) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 17th Mississippi Infantry
The 17th Mississippi Infantry was the last Confederate unit to arrive on the field. These 600-700 fresh troops showed up late in the afternoon and tipped the balance of what had been a hard but evenly fought contest up to that point. The Mississippians had double-timed much of the way from their positions near Leesburg and were, according to Pvt. Robert Moore, “very near run down when we got there.” To let them catch their breath and to protect them from still heavy Union fire, . . . — Map (db m2234) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from the victory at the Second Battle of Manassas General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 1-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harper's Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South . . . — Map (db m1110) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4–6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South . . . — Map (db m1220) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 18th Mississippi Infantry
The 18th Mississippi Infantry was sent from nearby Edward's Ferry and arrived near here around 3:00 p.m. Colonel Erasmus Burt ordered his men forward across the then open field unknowingly into a deadly crossfire between the two winds of the Union formation. This was the single major tactical error made by the Confederates during the battle. About half of the 18th Mississippi’s 85 casualties that day came during this brief encounter. Among the wounded was Colonel Burt who was shot through the . . . — Map (db m2233) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 1st California Regiment
The 1st California was one of four regiments that made up the “California Brigade” commanded by Colonel Edward D. Baker, U.S. Senator from Oregon and close friend of President Lincoln. In April, 1861, Baker helped to organize what was intended to be a single regiment to represent California in the Union Army. The response was so large, however that four regiments were created and numbered 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 5th California (there was no 4th). As most of the recruiting was done around . . . — Map (db m2230) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 20th Massachusetts Infantry
Companies D and I of the 20th Massachusetts (the “Harvard Regiment”) followed the 15th Massachusetts across the Potomac with orders to serve as a rear guard and cover the withdrawal of the 15th Massachusetts following what was hoped would be a successful raid. Those two companies, led by regimental commander Colonel William R. Lee, deployed along the bluff here and waited. They spent much of the day in the area immediately beyond this sign. While waiting, Colonel Lee sent out . . . — Map (db m2229) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 42nd New York Infantry
The 42nd New York (“Tammany Regiment”) was commanded by Col. Milton Cogswell, the only West Point-trained officer among the senior Union commanders at Ball’s Bluff. Five companies of the 42nd participated in the battle. With the death of Colonel Baker between 4:30-5:00, Colonel Cogswell assumed command of the Federal force. He attempted to organize a breakout and move downriver toward the other Union troops at Edward’s Ferry. The attempt fell apart almost before it started. . . . — Map (db m2231) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 8th Virginia Infantry
The 8th Virginia Infantry was a local unit made up of six companies from Loudoun, two from Fauquier, and one each from Fairfax and Prince William counties. Commanded by Colonel Eppa Hunton, the Regiment arrived on the field about 12:30 p.m. initially deploying west of the ridge near the Jackson house. With the withdrawal of the 15th Massachusetts from that area, the 8th Virginia moved cautiously forward and deployed on the battlefield. Shortly thereafter, the right wing of the unit clashed . . . — Map (db m2211) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — A Divided America, A Divided Loudoun County
On April 12, 1861, with the firing on Fort Sumter, America went to war with itself. Just as the country was divided, so were Virginia and Loudoun County. The western portion of Virginia became the separate state of West Virginia in 1863. Here in Loudoun County, the division was based largely on the original settlement patterns, with the northwestern part of the county in opposition to the secessionist majority. The Potomac River formed a dividing line and to most Southerners, Maryland was . . . — Map (db m2251) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Additional Area Civil War Sites
1. Sugarloaf Mountain - This was the site of a Union Signal Corps station that remained in operation throughout much of the war. 2. White's Ferry - Originally called Conrad's Ferry, this crossing was established in 1817 about four miles north of Leesburg. After the war, the ferry was bought by Confederate veteran Elijah White and became known as White's Ferry. It is the only operational ferry on the Potomac. 3. Harrison's Island - About two miles long and four hundred yards wide, . . . — Map (db m27839) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Aftermath of Ball’s Bluff
Ball’s Bluff is the only battlefield where on which a United States senator was killed in combat. Edward Dickinson Baker, senator from Oregon, was also a colonel and one of Brig. Gen. Charles Stone’s three brigade commanders. Baker was a long-time friend of President Lincoln and was known as a brilliant orator. His canvassing efforts during the 1860 election campaign helped win both California and Oregon for Lincoln. Baker’s death here and three Union defeats in 1861 resulted in the creation . . . — Map (db m2203) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ball’s Bluff Battlefield and National Cemetery
Has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America 1984 National Park Service United States Department of the Interior — Map (db m2236) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — T 51 — Ball’s Bluff Masked Battery
Nearby is the likely site of the Confederate “masked battery” (concealed artillery) that was an object of Federal concern early in the Civil War. On 21 Oct. 1861, elements of the 13th Mississippi infantry near there engaged 35 horsemen of the 3rd New York Cavalry sent to draw attention from the Union force upriver at Ball’s Bluff and to reconnoiter Confederate positions in the direction of Leesburg. After a brief firefight, the New Yorkers withdrew to Edward’s Ferry. The Confederate . . . — Map (db m1491) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ball’s Bluff Masked Battery...held to the bluff without room to retire.
Two hundred yards to your right are the remains of a small earthwork that may have been part of a masked (concealed) battery which played an important role in the Battle of Ball’s Bluff on October 21, 1861. The battery commanded the road from Edwards Ferry on the Potomac River to the town of Leesburg. Union Gen. Charles P. Stone, seeking to reconnoiter Confederate defenses near Leesburg, sent forces commanded by Col. Edward D. Baker across the Potomac about a mile north at Ball’s Bluff. Baker, . . . — Map (db m1517) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ball’s Bluff National Cemetery
The twenty-five graves here in one of America’s smallest national cemeteries contain the partial remains of 54 Union soldiers killed at the Battle of Ball’s Bluff, October 21, 1861. All are unidentified except Pvt. James Allen of Northbridge, Massachusetts, who served with the 15th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. The majority of Confederate dead were removed to Leesburg. Most of the fallen Union soldiers found on or near the battlefield were temporarily buried in shallow mass graves between . . . — Map (db m2235) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ball’s Bluff Overlook
Ball's Bluff is a 600 yard long shale and sandstone cliff. It rises up a shallow bell curve from two ravines approximately 300 yards north and south of where you are standing. At this point, it is about 100 feet high, though just to the north (left) of this spot, it reaches its highest elevation of 110 feet above the river. Note that the Potomac flows due south here. Thus, as you look across the river into Maryland, you are not looking northward as you might expect, but to the east. Directly . . . — Map (db m2829) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-1 — Battle of Ball’s Bluff
One mile east occured the Battle of Ball’s Bluff, October 21, 1861. A Union force, which had crossed the river at this point, was driven back over it by the Confederates. — Map (db m985) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Battle of Ball’s Bluff, October 21, 1861
The Battle of Ball’s Bluff was the result of a mistake. The previous evening, Capt. Chase Philbrick, Co. H, 15th Massachusetts, led a small reconnaissance patrol across the river to determine the results of some earlier Confederate troop movements. Philbrick soon spotted what he thought was an enemy camp and reported this news. The “camp,” in fact was a row of trees mistaken for tents. On orders from Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone, Col. Charles Devens’ crossed a 300-man force to raid . . . — Map (db m2252) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Battle of Balls BluffOctober 21, 1861
6 AM - After crossing the river, the 15 MA (Colonel Devens) advanced to the area near the Jackson house, leaving the 20 MA (Colonel Lee) on the bluff to guard the exit path to the river. 8 AM - Captain Duff's (17 MS) Company ran into Devens (15 MA) and fighting began around the Jackson House. 9A M - 10 AM - General Stone ordered Col. (Senator) Baker to take command of all forces on Ball's Bluff and either advance more troops or withdraw, as he deemed appropriate. Baker arrived on . . . — Map (db m27590) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Battlefield Historic Restoration Project
In 2004, Ball's Bluff Battlefield Regional Park began a restoration project on the battlefield where you stand today. The objective of the effort is to return about 12 acres of the battlefield to its approximate appearance in 1861. First hand accounts from soldiers like Lt. Colonel Isaac Wister of the 1st California describe the battlefield as "an open field of oblong shaped...entirely surrounded by woods". The photograph below was taken in 1886 of the Veterans from the 15th . . . — Map (db m19329) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Carriage House
The carriage house was used for storage of house drawn carriages and other equipment. This building was constructed in the 1880s and was in use until the 1930s. After horse drawn carriages were no longer commonly used, the building was used as a storage area for farm equipment. — Map (db m7831) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Carriage House
The Carriage House, built in 1903 during the Eustis period, illustrates the era when the horse drawn carriage was the primary mode of transportation. Today, the Carriage House is the Oatlands Museum Gift Shop and Visitor center. The Chauffeur's House, also built during the Eustis period, reflects the change in transportation from horse to auto. The house saw service as an administrative building. — Map (db m60112) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — T-24 — Charles Fenton Mercer
Charles Fenton Mercer (1778–1858) is buried near here in Union Cemetery. After serving as an officer in the U.S. Army, he was recalled to service as an aid to Virginia Governor James Barbour of Virginia in the War of 1812 and rose to the rank of brigadier general while commanding militia forces in Norfolk. A prominent attorney in Loudoun and Fauquier counties, he served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1810–1817) and in the U.S. Congress (1817–1839), where he was among the . . . — Map (db m893) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Clarkes Gap
At 582 feet, Clarkes Gap, up the hill to your left, was the highest point on the Washington & Old Dominion Railroad. The stone bridge dates from the 1870s, when the tracks were completed to Clarkes Gap. The station stood on the site where you are now located. Newspaper ads from the 1880s promote stagecoach service from Clarkes Gap to Waterford. After passing beneath the bridge the tracks originally continued north-northwest to Paeonian Springs. The switchback portion of the trail that you see . . . — Map (db m2031) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Dairy Barn
This dairy barn hails from the legendary Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Built in 1900 in the town of Edinburg, it now sits at Market Station. The barn symbolizes the dairy farming that blossomed in the region, providing both county and town with milk and butter. This "bank barn" was originally nestled on the side of a hill or "bank." The farmer drove his wagon onto the upper level of the barn from the top of the bank and deposited hay for storage. The dairy herd stayed sheltered below in an . . . — Map (db m5128) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Diesel Trains on the W&OD
The Washington & Old Dominion Railroad switched from electric to diesel power during World War II. In 1941-42 the railroad bought its first three diesel-electric engines. Each General Electric engine had 380 horsepower and weighed 44 tons. Later engines weighing between 65 and 75 tons operated at about 660 horsepower. The railroad was phasing out passenger service in favor of more profitable freight hauling. Diesel power allowed the W&OD to participate in Northern Virginia’s growth boom in the . . . — Map (db m2111) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-31 — Dodona Manor
Home of Gen. George C. Marshall. This early-19th-century house and its surrounding four acres were purchased in 1941 by Gen. Marshall (1880–1959) and his wife, Katherine Tupper Marshall (1882–1978). A student of the classics, Marshall called the house, in its grove of oaks, “Dodoan Manor” after the ancient Greek oracle that spoke through oak leaves. This was their home during the years of Marshall’s great achievements as military chief of staff during World War . . . — Map (db m892) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F 35 — Douglass Community School
Before the construction of this high school, there were no schools beyond 7th grade for black students in Loudoun County. Late in the 1930s, the parent-teacher associations of various black schools formed the County-Wide League to raise money to build a high school. The league hired well-known civil rights attorney Charles H. Houston to help persuade county officials to allocate funds for the new school. In 1941 the league succeeded in obtaining a loan of $30,000 from the State Literary Fund. . . . — Map (db m5096) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Douglass High School
has been registered as a Virginia Historic Landmark by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Historic Resources Throughout much of Virginia in the early 1900s, black parents were pressing the then system of racial segregation for improved educational opportunity for their children. Following the calling and achievements of abolitionist Frederick Douglass in the years after the Civil War and the efforts of other black educators in Virginia seeking to improve schools for black . . . — Map (db m5100) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ealry Methodism in Leesburg
Early Methodism in Leesburg. On this site, deeded in 1766, stood the old Methodist meeting house completed about 1770. Here in 1778 was held the sixth conference of American Methodism and the first in Virginia. In this cemetery in 1786 was buried Richard Owings, first native Methodist preacher in America. The Old Stone Church was dismantled in 1901. — Map (db m1580) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — T-22 — Early’s Washington Campaign
Jubal A. Early passed over this road on his return to the Shenandoah Valley, July 16, 1864. After leaving Lee before Richmond, June 13, Early traveled 450 miles, defeating Hunter at Lynchburg and Wallace on the Monocacy River in Maryland, and threatening the city of Washington. On the approach of large Union forces, he withdrew this way. — Map (db m1003) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Edward D. Baker
Colonel Baker is buried at the Presidio in San Francisco, California. This memorial stone was placed here to mark what was believed to be the location of Baker’s death and to honor the memory of the only U.S. Senator to have died on the field of battle. Prior to the placement of the stone, a simple wooden fence rail, supported by a pile of rocks and a small sign, was the only monument to Baker. The stone was placed where that fence rail once stood. — Map (db m2237) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Edwards FerryAn Eighty-Mile-Long Column — Gettysburg Campaign
After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania. Union Gen. George G. Meade, who replaced Gen. Joseph Hooker on June 28, led the Army of the Potomac in pursuit. Confederate cavalry commander Gen. J.E.B. Stuart cut Federal communications and rail lines and captured supplies. The armies collided at . . . — Map (db m63737) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Electric Trains on the W&OD
Electrification arrived in 1912, after the Great Falls & Old Dominion Railroad and the Southern Railway’s Bluemont Branch were consolidated into the Washington & Old Dominion Railway. The new owners brought modern interurban trolley cars. Wire strung above the tracks carried electricity from the railroad’s own power plant in Rosslyn, Virginia. In 1917 service switched to the local utility company. By 1939, the year this man was photographed departing a trolley near Bluemont, Virginia, the . . . — Map (db m2107) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Elizabeth Mills Riverfront ParkPotomac Connections
This riverfront park will transport you back in time. It will enable you to look beyond the modern developments that dominate the landscape here today. It will take you back centuries, when American Indians lived here, harvesting the bounty of the river and fertile floodplain. It will lead you to Goose Creek where the ruins of Elizabeth Mills rest. Mill owner Samuel Clapham built the mill in 1807 and named it after his daughter. Along the way you'll discover an 1850s canal that connected with . . . — Map (db m40211) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — George Catlett Marshall
(Left Side Plaque): George Catlett Marshall (1880-1959) Born Union Town, Pennsylvania, educated at Virginia Military Institute, class of 1901, serving in the United States Army thereafter, resident of Leesburg, Virginia, 1941 to 1959. During this time he served his country as U.S. Army Chief of Staff with rank of General of the Armies, Secretary of State, President of the American Red Cross, and Secretary of Defense. Recipient of the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize. He was a member of the . . . — Map (db m4962) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-7 — Goose Creek Chapel
A short distance West is the site of the “Chapel Above Goose Creek”, built by the vestry of Truro Parish in 1736. Augustine Washington, father of George Washington, was a member of the vestry at the time. This was the first church on the soil of Loudoun County, erected as a chapel of ease for the benefit of early settlers. — Map (db m1213) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ice House
In winter this building was filled with ice cut from the Potomac River. The tick stone walls and many layers of straw provided sufficient insulation to preserve a supply of ice for summer use. When the family needed ice, large chucks were retrieved from under the straw and taken to the house. The ice house was probably built sometime between 1876 and 1889. It remained in use until the mid-1930s and was restored by the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority in 1983. — Map (db m7836) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — In Memory of Richard Owings
First native born Methodist local preacher, born November 13, 1738, Baltimore County, Maryland. Died October 7, 1786, Leesburg, Virginia and was buried on this spot. He was converted under the ministry of Robert Strawbridge and Received on Trialin 1775. He served Baltimore Circuit, 1775 and was a local preacher in Maryland 1776–1786. As a local preacher he travelled extensively in the fall of 1783. He was the first Methodist preacher to cross the entire range of the Allegheny . . . — Map (db m1581) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Jenifer’s Cavalry
Lieutenant Colonel Walter H. Jenifer commanded the 300-man cavalry force in Colonel Nathan “Shanks” Evan’s Confederate brigade. Jenifer had some 70 troopers with him at Ball’s Bluff, including portions of the Chesterfield Light Dragoons, the Loudoun Cavalry, and the Wise Dragoons. After breaking the Union line near the Jackson house, a portion of the cavalry dismounted because of the rough and wooded terrain. An estimated one-third of these men joined several companies of . . . — Map (db m2213) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Lee Comes to LeesburgConference at Harrison Hall
On the afternoon of September 4, 1862, five days after the Confederate victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, throngs of well-wishers lined Leesburg's streets, including King Street behind you, to welcome the threadbare but jubilant Army of Northern Virginia as it marched through the town. Among its 55,000 men was a horse-drawn ambulance carrying the army's injured commander, Gen. Robert E. Lee. Here, before the grand entrance to Harrison Hall, home of a distant relative of the Lees, the . . . — Map (db m42333) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — LeesburgFrom Paradise to Peril — Antietam and Gettysburg Campaigns
“Leesburg! Paradise of the youthful warrior! Land of excellent edibles and beautiful maidens!” — so wrote a Confederate artilleryman in late 1861. A year later, a northern correspondent found Leesburg a weary town full of battle-scarred buildings and wary inhabitants. A prosperous Southern town of about 2000 at the outbreak of the Civil War, Leesburg was strategically located on the border between the Union and Confederacy. By war’s end, the town had endured bombardment, . . . — Map (db m1544) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Leesburg Freight Station
Leesburg’s first railroad depot opened here in 1860 to accommodate passengers, mail, express packages, and freight. All but the freight operations were moved west to King Street in 1887 when the new passenger station opened. An industrial area known as “the Wharf”—mills, warehouses, a farm implement factory, and a stockyard—grew up around this station. Passenger service along the Washington & Old Dominion barely made money. Freight appeared to be the railroad’s . . . — Map (db m2109) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Leesburg Passenger Station
When the Alexandria, Loudoun, & Hampshire Railroad (later W&OD) arrived on May 17, 1860, Leesburg realized a dream. A local newspaper praised the railroad, which “throws us within an hour or two’s ride of the cities of the seaboard, and opens up a new avenue of commerce and trade.” At first a single depot, located 0.2 mile east of here, served passengers and freight. In 1887 the railroad opened a separate passenger station here at King Street. It remained in use until passenger . . . — Map (db m2110) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Log House
Market Station's Log House, built in 1840 in Rectorstown, Maryland, is made entirely of native American chestnut. Upon its completion, the German builders covered the logs with clapboard and plaster. These protective refinements, usually reserved as additions for the later, more prosperous years, have helped preserve the condition of the logs over the past century and a half. The owners eventually added a stone wing and a frame wing as the farm around the house grew to include corn sheds, hay . . . — Map (db m5125) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Loudoun County Court SquareWartime in Leesburg
Before the war, the courthouse square was the location of slave auctions and militia recruiting activities. On October 21, 1861, after the Battle of Ball's Bluff, more than 500 Union prisoners, including Col. Milton Cogswell, 42nd New York Infantry, were brought here, taunted, and marched off to Richmond. The Confederates evacuated Leesburg on March 7, 1862. The next morning, Union Gen. John W. Geary and his men marched in from Waterford as the townspeople glared. Northern reporter Henry . . . — Map (db m63738) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-28 — Loudoun County Courthouse
The Loudoun County Courthouse, first occupied in 1895, is the third on this site, which was designated for that use on the 1759 plat of Leesburg. On 12 Aug. 1776, the Declaration of Independence was read from the doorway of the first courthouse. The second was built of brick in the Federal style about 1811. The Marquis de Lafayette, on his grand tour of the United States, was entertained here on 9 Aug. 1825. President John Quincy Adams and former president James Monroe, who then lived near . . . — Map (db m876) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — McKimmey's Mill
In 1898 a fire devastated a Leesburg grain mill, along with several surrounding buildings. The mill that replaced the burned structure is now known as McKimmey's Mill and sits proudly at market Station. This massive multi-level grain mill contains attractive gable roofs. Farmers brought their grain to the mill, grinding it either for local use or for shipment to distant markets. The large wooden towers held the grain in storage. Relocated from its original site just 300 feet south of Market . . . — Map (db m5121) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Mile HillCavalry Clash
On September 1, 1862, Col. Thomas Munford, commander of the Confederate 2nd Virginia Cavalry (163 men), was ordered to Leesburg to destroy a body of Union Cavalry—the locally raised Independent Loudoun Virginia Rangers—who were harassing southern sympathizers in the vicinity. On September 2, 1862, 35 men of the Loudoun Rangers and 125 troopers of Cole’s Maryland Cavalry occupied Leesburg, posting pickets on all roads into town. Arriving undetected, Munford ascertained that the . . . — Map (db m1219) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F 29 — Morven Park
Morven Park was the home of Westmoreland Davis, who as governor of Virginia (1918-1922) created the executive budget system that concentrated state budgeting authority in the governor's hands. Davis bought Morven Park in 1903 and transformed it into a progressive dairy farm. The first owner, Wilson Cary Selden, built a small fieldstone farmhouse in the 1780s. A mid-19th-century owner, Thomas Swann Jr. served as governor of Maryland and United States congressman. In the 1840s, the Baltimore . . . — Map (db m1214) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Norman-Harding Barn(The "Wharf")
"The Wharf" refers not only to the entire two-block area, but also to the Norman-Harding Barn, itself the original "Wharf." This building is on its original site. Since its construction around 1890, the two-story barn served as a storage warehouse in the heart of the old railroad industrial district. The warehouse held incoming and outgoing merchandise that moved via the Washington and Old Dominion Railroad. Salted herrings, a seasonal specialty from Tidewater, Virginia, came by the barrel for . . . — Map (db m5127) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — OatlandsCivil War Comes to Oatlands
The Civil War arrived in Loudoun County on October 21, 1861, with the Battle of Ball’s Bluff. As Confederate forces gathered to protect Leesburg, Elizabeth Grayson Carter, the widowed mistress of Oatlands, wrote in her journal on October 17, “Our troops falling back on Centerville - Mississippi Regt’s encamped at the Mill – Solders here all day.” Elizabeth’s son Benjamin served with the 8th Virginia Infantry Regiment, while her son George acted as a courier. On the day . . . — Map (db m1164) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F 33 — Oatlands
George Carter, a great-grandson of Robert “King” Carter, began this monumental mansion on his 3,408-acre estate in 1804 and embellished it over two decades. In 1827, he graced the façade with fluted Corinthian columns, endowing the Federal-style house with lightness and elegance. He also built terraced gardens, slave quarters, barns, and smokehouses, as well as a greenhouse and gristmill. In 1903, Mr. and Mrs. William Corcoran Eustis purchased Oatlands. They restored the mansion and . . . — Map (db m1165) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — T 23 — Old Stone Church Site
One block north on Cornwall Street is the site of the first Methodist-owned property in America. Lot 50 was deeded to the Methodist Society in Leesburg on May 11, 1766. In 1778, the Sixth American Conference of Methodists met there, the first such gathering in Virginia. At least two church buildings occupied the site before 1902, when the “Old Stone Church” was demolished. The churchyard is maintained as a national historic shrine of the United Methodist Church. — Map (db m1537) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Osterburg Mill
William Oster built this water-powered grist mill in the late 1800's to serve the residents of Osterburg, the village he founded in Three Springs Valley, between the Allegheny and Cove Mountains of Southwestern Pennsylvania. A large wooden water wheel powered the mill as it diligently ground wheat into flour, producing a residue that could be used as stock feed. As his fee, the miller kept a portion of the milled flour for his own purposes. In 1984, the old mill left Pennsylvania and headed . . . — Map (db m5130) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F 2 — Potomac Crossings
Here Lee turned east to the Potomac, crossing at White's Ford, September 6, 1862, in his invasion of Maryland. Jubal A. Early, returning from his Washington raid, crossed the river at White’s Ford, July 14, 1864. — Map (db m1609) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Red Rock Wilderness Overlook Regional Park
Red Rock Wilderness Overlook Regional Park is a 67-acre mostly wooded area situated along the Potomac River on the outskirts of Leesburg. Frances Speek donated a portion of the property to the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority in 1978. The park was also supported by the Land and Water Conservation Fund - helping states and communities provide for outdoor recreation and open space for all Americans. However the history of the ruins dates back much further. In 1869, a wealthy . . . — Map (db m7820) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-6 — Sharpsburg (Antietam) Campaign
Near here Stonewall Jackson bivouaced on the march into Maryland, September 4, 1862. — Map (db m986) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Stationmaster's House
This building of duplex design housed the Stationmaster in one section and other railroad employees in another. The railroad traditionally provided such housing close to switching yards and depots for its always-on-call employees. The Stationmaster's responsibilities included collecting freight duty and overseeing the area. Dating from 1915, the structure now sits at Market Station, only two blocks from its original location beside the tracks of the Washington & Old Dominion Railroad. — Map (db m5123) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Swann's CastleMorven Park in the Civil War
You are standing in the midst of the drilling and review grounds for Confederate soldiers between the summer of 1861 and March 1862. Former Baltimore mayor and future Maryland governor Thomas Swann, Jr. owned the 1,200-acre plantation but was absent. Confederate forces fortified nearby Leesburg, located close to the Potomac River and its many fords, to keep the Union army from crossing the river. Morven Park became an encampment and training site for Confederate forces until they abandoned . . . — Map (db m13676) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Temple Hall
Temple Hall was the home of William Temple Thomson Mason, son of Thomson Mason of Raspberry Plain and nephew of George Mason, author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights. The house was constructed about 1810 and was the centerpiece for the farm Mason established on property inherited from his father's vast estate. Mason and his wife, Ann Eliza Carroll of Maryland, raised ten children at Temple Hall. In addition to the Mason family, about twenty enslaved African-Americans resided on the . . . — Map (db m12954) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Temple Hall Farm Regional Park's Role in PreservingHeritage Livestock Breeds
What are Heritage livestock breeds and why are they important? Heritage livestock breeds are old breeds that were created before the onset of industrial agriculture. Industrialization of agriculture has greatly reduced the number of variety of livestock breeds that remain today. Since 1993, at least 190 different breeds of farm animals have gone extinct. Since 2003 alone, at least 60 breeds of cattle, goats, poultry, horses and pigs have become extinct. Today there are only a few main . . . — Map (db m12956) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Battle at Ball’s Bluff
On the night of October 20, 1861, a small Federal scouting party crossed the Potomac River from Maryland to determine whether recent troop movements indicated a Confederate withdrawal from Leesburg. Advancing inland from Ball’s Bluff, the Federals moved past this point, crested a low ridge near the Jackson house, and saw in the dim moonlight what appeared to be a Confederate Camp. Upon learning of this, the Federal commander, Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone, saw a target of opportunity and quickly . . . — Map (db m2205) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Creation of Temple Hall Farm Regional Park
In 1940, after a succession of owners, the property was purchased by Mr. and Mrs. James H. Symington. The Symingtons set about restoring the house and making improvements to the farm. The Symingtons succeed in restoring the mansion house, making extensive renovations and modernizing the home by adding indoor plumbing and electricity. They planted a variety of crops, eventually specializing in popcorn and becomeing for a time one of the largest suppliers in the eastern United States. When the . . . — Map (db m12955) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Depot
The Freight Depot was built at the turn of the century, replacing a depot gutted by the disastrous fire of 1898. The wooden building is a fine example of railroad station architecture, with its wide overhangs to protect dock workers and freight from the elements. The rail line was chartered in 1847 as the Alexandria and Harper's Ferry Railroad. It was reorganized in 1853 as the Alexandria, Loudoun and Hampshire, but by the outbreak of the Civil War in 1860 had been constructed only from . . . — Map (db m11324) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Great Falls Line
The Bluemont Branch of the Washington & Old Dominion was not the railroad’s only line. The Great Falls & Old Dominion Railroad arose in 1906 from the vision of two prominent men. Sen. Stephen B. Elkins of West Virginia had prospered through coal, lumber, and railroads in his home state. John R. McLean was involved in several businesses and owned The Washington Post. Elkins and McLean bought land on the Virginia side of the Potomac River at Great Falls. They turned it into a resort, . . . — Map (db m2106) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Leesburg Lime Company
The arrival of the railroad in the 1860s spawned new businesses. One such enterprise was the Leesburg Lime Company, which operated at the site where you are now located. In 1868 a local newspaper announced: New Lime Kiln— Messrs. Orr & Manning have in full blast, their new improved Lime Kiln, erected near the A.L.&H. Railroad Depot, Leesburg. It works beautifully, and is turning out a large quantity of Lime. Our farmers and builders can now be supplied with this article, at . . . — Map (db m2108) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The North: Union Leaders at Ball's Bluff
Brigadier General Charles Pomeroy Stone As the overall commander of Union forces at Ball’s Bluff, Stone was a rising star in the Union army at the time of the battle. He become the scapegoat for the defeat. Stone was born September 30, 1824, in Greenfield, Massachusetts. An 1845 West Point graduate, he won two brevets for gallantry in Mexico. Early in 1861, he organized the defenses of Washington and oversaw security arrangements for President-elect Lincoln’s inauguration. Arrested on . . . — Map (db m2238) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The South: Confederate Leaders at Ball’s Bluff
Colonel Nathan George “Shanks” Evans Nathan Evans was born in South Carolina in 1824. An 1848 West Point graduate, he was jokingly nicknamed “Shanks” by his classmates because he was knock-kneed. During the next decade he fought Indians with the 2nd U.S. Cavalry, eventually rising to the rank of captain. He resigned shortly after the secession of his native state. At First Manassas, Evans commanded the Confederate left and held the Federals in check long enough for . . . — Map (db m2241) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Tolbert Building
Dedicated December 10, 1990 In honor of former Vice Mayor John W. Tolbert, Jr. The Tolbert building was originally two dwellings located at 6 and 8 Loudoun Street; built prior to 1796 on a part of lot no. 14, which was sold by Nicolas Minor to John Gladdin in 1758. Purchased by the town in 1967, it served as the town's police headquarters in the late 1970's and was converted to retail/office use in the early 1980's. In a public/private partnership with the town of Leesburg, Peter and Diana . . . — Map (db m8868) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Thomas Clinton Lovett Hatcher
20 December, 1839 – 21 October, 1861 Standing over 6'4" and wearing a full red beard, Clinton Hatcher was a memorable figure. Despite his Quaker upbringing, he joined Company F of the 8th Virginia at the beginning of the war and became the regimental color bearer. This combined with his height and notable beard to make him quite a target and he was, in fact, killed during the battle. This memorial stone was placed here to honor his courage. Hatcher is not buried here but rests in the . . . — Map (db m2243) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Two-Chambered Granary
The two-chambered granary was used for storing threshed grain until it was either sold or consumed. The presence of two chambers indicates that the owner could grow two different crops and store them simultaneously. Grain was often transported across the Potomac River at Edwards Ferry, the southernmost river crossing in Loudoun County. The C & O Canal on the Maryland side of the river was also commonly used to transport Virginia grown crops throughout Maryland into Washington, D.C. — Map (db m7832) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Union Artillery
The Federals crossed three pieces of artillery to Ball’s Bluff. Two mountain howitzers from the 2nd New York State Militia, detached under Lt. Frank French of Battery I, 1st U.S. Artillery, occupied this area for much of the afternoon. A 12-pdr James rifled cannon from Battery B, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery, commanded by Lt. Walter Bramhall of the 6th New York Independent Battery, was near today's cemetery. Being in the open, many of the artillerists were shot down and replaced by . . . — Map (db m2224) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Well House
The well house was constructed of poured concrete and was used for storing water on the farm. One room housed a pump, which drew water from a shallow well outside. The second room housed a cistern that was used for storing water after it had been drawn from the well. This building was constructed in 1885, which is etched into the mortar on the side of the building. The use of poured concrete walls was highly unusual in the 1880's, making this structure very unique for its time. — Map (db m7834) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lincoln — Goose Creek Friends
Here on a log in the unbroken forest, Hannah Janney, wife of Jacob Janney, worshipped twice weekly in 1736. In 1738 friends meetings were held in a private house once a month. Then came a log meeting house. Then the old stone house in 1765, and the brick house in 1817. — Map (db m3930) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lincoln — Goose Creek Friends 1765 Meeting House
This stone meeting house served as the place of worship for Goose Creek Friends from 1765 to 1819. It has served as the residence for the caretaker of the meeting's property since that time. — Map (db m3950) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lincoln — Goose Creek Friends 1817 Meeting House
Goose Creek Friends meeting house was built from 1817 to 1819. Originally a two story building, it was reconstructed from 1948 to 1949 after a severe wind storm in 1943. — Map (db m3949) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lincoln — Goose Creek Friends Oakdale School
Oakdale School house was built in 1815. It served as a Quaker school until 1885, a few years after the opening of the Public Schools. — Map (db m3948) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lincoln — Goose Creek Historic District
Goose Creek Historic District has been registered as a Virginia Historic Landmark pursuant to the authority vested in the Viginia Historic Landmarks Commission Act of 1966. — Map (db m3933) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lovettsville — TA 1 — First German Reformed Church Site and Cemetery
This is the church site and cemetery of the oldest continuous German Reformed congregation in Virginia. Founded before 1748 by Elder William Wenner, the congregation met in members’ houses until the first log meetinghouse was constructed sometime before the American Revolution. About 1819 a brick church was built here; it was demolished in 1901 and its bricks were used to construct the congregation’s new church, the St. James United Church of Christ, in Lovettsville. — Map (db m1791) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lovettsville — Z 206 — Loudoun County / Maryland
Loudon County. Area 519 Square Miles. Formed in 1757 from Fairfax, and named for Lord Loudoun, titular governor of Virginia and head of the British forces in America, 1756-1758. Oak Hill, President James Monroe's home, is in this county. Maryland. Maryland was one of the original thirteen states. At first a part of Virginia, it became a separate colony under a charter granted Lord Baltimore and was settled in 1634. — Map (db m934) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lovettsville — G 3 — St. James United Church of Christ
Formerly St. James Evangelical and Reformed Church, this is the oldest active congregation of the German Reformed tradition in Virginia. Lovettsville, a German settlement, was founded by settlers of the Reformed faith in 1733. Early records indicate that Elder William Wenner, the first leader of the Lovettsville congregation, arrived in the area as early as 1720. — Map (db m1792) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lovettsville — The Independent Loudoun RangersServing the Union
The Independent Loudoun Rangers consisted of two small cavalry companies recruited by Waterford miller Samuel Means from Lovettsville's and Waterford's Unionists. Mustered into Federal service starting June 20, 1862, the Rangers were the only organized body of Union troops raised in Confederate Virginia. The Rangers totaled fewer than 200 men who operated in small groups as "border police" along the Potomac River, intercepting war material smuggled southward and protecting pro-Union residents. . . . — Map (db m26180) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lucketts — F-27 — Catoctin Rural Historic District
The surrounding area of about 25,000 acres has been a cohesive agricultural community since the mid-1700s, when it was settled largely by former Tidewater Virginia planters attracted by its streams and fertile soils. Bordered by Catoctin Mountain (west) and the Potomac River (north and east), the district includes well-preserved farmsteads, historical road networks, and crossroad communities. These resources date from the late 1700s to the early 1900s and enhance the picturesque rural landscape. — Map (db m988) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Lucketts — F-5 — Wayne’s Crossing
Three miles southeast, at Noland’s Ferry, “Mad Anthony” Wayne, on his way to join Lafayette, crossed the Potomac River, May 31, 1781. He passed through Leesburg June 3, and joined Lafayette near the Rapidan River, June 18. — Map (db m987) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Middleburg — B 31 — Battle of Middleburg
Here, on 19 June 1863, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s cavalry fought Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg’s Union cavalry division. Screening the march of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia through the Shenandoah Valley to invade Pennsylvania, Stuart formed a line along this ridge facing Gregg, who charged down this road from Middleburg. Stuart counterattacked then fell back to another defensive position a half-mile west. In this action, Maj. Heros von Borcke, a Prussian officer and aide to Stuart, . . . — Map (db m1471) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Middleburg — Battle of MiddleburgSearching for Lee — Gettysburg Campaign
(Preface): After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley,then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania. Union Gen. George G. Meade, who replaced Gen. Joseph Hooker on June 28, led the Army of the Potomac in pursuit. The armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1, starting a battle that neither general planned to fight there. Three days later, . . . — Map (db m55569) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Middleburg — Hibbs Bridge
Constructed c. 1829 Restored 2007 Snickersville Turnpike Association remembers Kathy Mitchell — Map (db m5133) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Middleburg — MiddleburgScreening Lee’s Army — Prelude to Gettysburg, Mosby's Confederacy
During the Gettysburg Campaign in June 1863, Middleburg was the scene of major cavalry operations. On June 17, 1863, Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s small force, charged with screening Gen. Robert E. Lee’s infantry moving north and west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, was surprised by Federal cavalry moving toward Middleburg from the south. Stuart’s troops barely escaped as Col. Alfred Duffie’s 1st Rhode Island Cavalry (275 men) poured into the town. Under orders to hold Middleburg, Duffie barricaded . . . — Map (db m1548) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Paeonian Springs — Paeonian Springs Station
In its heyday, Paeonian Springs attracted folks such as those men gathered for a raccoon hunt sponsored by The Washington Post in October 1912. The station shown at right stood where the three-sided shelter stands today. Two things happened to make places like Paeonian Springs popular. The first was the need to escape heat and epidemics such as the ones that hit Washington in the 1860s and 70s. The second was the expansion of the railroads, making travel easy and inexpensive. The . . . — Map (db m2903) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Philomont — Battle of UnisonIn the Wake of Antietam
(Preface): After the Battle of Antietam in September 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia escaped to Virginia. President Abraham Lincoln repeatedly urged Union Gen. George B. McClellan to pursue and attack. Following a plan that Lincoln devised to trap Lee's army in the Shenandoah Valley, McClellan finally got his Army of the Potomac moving. On November 1, Union cavalry Gen. Alfred Pleasonton began leading the advance from Philomont toward Upperville. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart's . . . — Map (db m42515) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Philomont — Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation
Holstein Bull of the Century On August 30, 1965 Elevation was born near here on Round Oak Farm, owned by Ronald A. Hope & Sons Through the use of frozen semen and artificial insemination, Elevation gained international acclaim. In 1999 the Holstein International Publication named him its "Bull of the Century". Elevation sire a rare combination of superior production, conformation and longevity. He is credited with more than 100,000 recorded offspring and has over 8.8 million descendants. . . . — Map (db m5294) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Purcellville — Ambush at Purcellville“…we found in the road many broken down and burned wagons…”
Crossing this school site, the Loudoun and Berlin Turnpike once intersected the Leesburg & Snicker’s Gap Turnpike at a junction just ahead known as Heaton’s Crossroads. On Saturday, July 16, 1864, Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Confederate army passed through this crossroads as it retired west of the Shenandoah Valley after its daring attack on the northwestern defenses of Washington. Although Union forces shelled Early and doggedly pursued him after departing Leesburg that morning, his destination . . . — Map (db m1072) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Purcellville — Beyond Purcellville
The trail ends here but the story does not. The founders of the Alexandria, Loudoun, & Hampshire (later the W&OD) sought to rival the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad for the coal of West Virginia and the trade of the Ohio Valley. By 1900 the railroad finally reached Snickersville, seven miles west of here, but never continued across the Blue Ridge. Snickersville's name was promptly changed to Bluemont to capitalize on a niche the founders never envisioned: the resort trade. The hill towns of western . . . — Map (db m24307) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Purcellville — Electric Trains on the W&OD
Electrification arrived in 1912, after the Great Falls & Old Dominion Railroad and the Southern Railway’s Bluemont Branch were consolidated into the Washington & Old Dominion Railway. The new owners brought modern interurban trolley cars. Wire strung above the tracks carried electricity from the railroad’s own power plant in Rosslyn, Virginia. In 1917 service switched to the local utility company. By 1939, the year this man was photographed departing a trolley near Bluemont, Virginia, the . . . — Map (db m19330) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Purcellville — Ketoctin Church Short Hill
Constituted on October 8, 1751 Present Church Built 1854 Placed By Ketoctin Chapter Daughter Of The American Revolution — Map (db m14620) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Purcellville — T 53 — Loudoun Branch, Manassas Gap Railroad
The Virginia General Assembly approved plans for the Loudoun Branch (parts of which survive here) of the Manassas Gap Railroad on 8 March 1853, and construction soon began. The route extended 27 miles from just southwest of Chantilly on the main railroad's independent line to Purcellville, linking Alexandria with the farms of central Loudoun County. In 1856, stockholders voted to extend the railroad to Harpers Ferry to gain access to the lower Shenandoah Valley, but the financially overextended . . . — Map (db m7278) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Purcellville — T 47 — Loudoun County Emancipation Association Grounds
The association was organized by African Americans in nearby Hamilton in 1890 to commemorate the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln on 22 Sept. 1862 and “to cultivate good fellowship, to work for the betterment of the race, educationally, morally and materially.” Emancipation Day, or “Day of Freedom,” was celebrated throughout the nation on different days. In 1910, the association incorporated and purchased ten acres of land in . . . — Map (db m1793) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Purcellville — T-5 — Mother of the Wright Brothers
Six miles north, at Hillsboro, was born in 1831 Susan Koerner, mother of Wilbur and Orville Wright, inventors of the airplane. — Map (db m1776) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Purcellville — Purcellville Station
The tracks are long gone, but Purcellville's train station still occupies the ground it has stood on since 1904. It replaced a depot built at about the same time that the railroad arrived in 1874 and accommodated passengers, mail, and freight. The railroad brought a business boom. Farmers received feed, fertilizer, and farm machinery by rail. In turn they shipped grain, livestock, and dairy products eastward. Mills, manufacturers, and retail stores sprang up nearby. Like other railroad towns . . . — Map (db m24360) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Purcellville — Tracks into HistoryThe Washington & Old Dominion Railroad
The railroad that became the Washington & Old Dominion was born in Alexandria in response to the competition in shipping posed by the port in Baltimore, which was served by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The B&O was diverting farm produce from the Shenandoah Valley away from Alexandria by way of its junction with the Winchester & Potomac Railroad. It also had access to the rich coalfields of the Ohio Valley. A group of Northern Virginia businessmen formed the Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampshire . . . — Map (db m19331) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), South Riding — B 11 — Campaign of Second Manassas
Stonewall Jackson, sent by Lee to move around Pope's retreating army at Centreville and cut if off from Alexandria, reached this place, August 31, 1862. Here Jackson turned east towards Fairfax. — Map (db m2262) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), St. Louis — History of St. Louis
The village of St. Louis is one of the first African American townships in Loudoun County. Land was purchased by freed slaves following the Civil War. Among the families that purchased lots were the McQuays. One of their family members moved to St. Louis, Mo., and lived for many years. Upon his return, he was nicknamed “Little St. Louis.” The name was soon applied to the family settlement. The earliest public building was the St. Louis school, built before 1877 and is . . . — Map (db m5200) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — "The Ankerage"
1847-1964 site of the Ankers Family Home & Cemetery nineteen blue & gray soldiers killed in local actions during the Civil War were also buried here — Map (db m14155) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Ambush at Ankers's Shop"It was a complete surprise"
Samuel and Henrietta Ankers lived at this site during the Civil War. On the morning of February 22, 1864, just outside their front door, about 160 of Confederate Lt. Col. John Singleton Mosby's horsemen ambushed 150 of Union Capt. J. Sewall Reed's cavalrymen. During the previous two days, Reed and his men - primarily the 16th New York Cavalry and Californians in the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry - had ridden from Vienna west through Middleburg and Rector's Crossroads hunting unsuccessfully for . . . — Map (db m42329) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — George Washington(1732-1799)
(Upper Plaque): George Washington (1732-1799) Farmer, Legislator, Surveyor, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, and the first President of the United States. George Washington frequently used this road during his expeditions to the western frontier. (Lower Left Plaque):1754 Having spent the night near Cameron's Ordinary, near present day Alexandria, George Washington and other members of the Virginia Militia used Vestal's Gap Road to . . . — Map (db m20032) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — George Washington
George Washington was the most famous person to use this road. It was his favorite route on many important personal, business, and military trips from Mount Vernon to Virginia's western frontier and points beyond. Although his trips of 1753 and 1754 - in connection with the French-English conflict - are set forth, his trip up the road in April 1755 up the road in April 1755 to join the Braddock Campaign against Fort Duquesne (present site of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) should be noted. He was . . . — Map (db m20047) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — T 38 — Gettysburg Campaign
J.E.B. Stuart, operating on Lee’s right, passed here on his way to the fords of the Potomac north of Dranesville June 27, 1863. Crossing the river, he became seperated from Lee's army and did not rejoin it until July 2 at Gettysburg. — Map (db m1608) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Guilford Signal StationTracking the Confederates — Gettysburg Campaign
During the Civil War, signal stations served as early warning posts, observation points, and communication centers. On June 19, 1863, 10,000-15,000 Union troops commanded by Gen. John Fullerton Reynolds, I Corps, Army of the Potomac, marched along the Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampsire Railroad from Herndon here to Guilford Station. Reynolds made his headquarters at the Lanesville house, erected a signal station on the northwestern portion of the property – at 442 feet, one of the highest . . . — Map (db m1543) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Lanesville Architecture
The earliest parts of the Lanesville House, built in 1779, included a single room house, two stories high with a loft, what is now the east parlor with the rooms directly above on the second and third floors; the single story kitchen was a separate building. The east parlor chimney and kitchen chimney are constructed of large stones in patters of red and tan. The stones get smaller as the chimney gets taller. The top of the chimneys are constructed of bricks built on-site. The stone pattern of . . . — Map (db m20055) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Lanesville Families
The Lanesville House has been home to just two families during the 212 years that it was occupied. Lane family descendants lived here for 162 years, from 1779-1941. Dr. Claude Moore purchased the house and land in December, 1941, and made his home here until his death in July, 1991. Loudoun County has maintained the house since July, 1991. William Lane bought the property from the King sisters in 1779 and built the earliest portions of the Lanesville House. Ann Carr Lane is believed to be the . . . — Map (db m20126) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Lanesville Historic Area
The story of Lanesville began centuries before this house was built. Vestal's Gap Road, which runs across the park and in front of the house, began as an Indian trail used frequently for hunting and trading. The earliest documented use by colonists was in 1692. Settlement of the area begain in 1722. Claude Moore Park is located on portions of two land grands made by Lord Fairfax in 1729. The western section, where the Visitor Center is located, was granted to Robert Carter, Jr. Land east of . . . — Map (db m20120) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Lanesville House and Vestal's Gap Road
Lanesville House and Vestal's Gap Road are contributing sites to the Lanesville Historic District and have been designated Virginia Historic Landmarks by the Virginia Commission on Historic Resources and placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the U.S. National Park Service Vestal's Gap Road, originally an American Indian trail, served as the primary colonial roadway from Alexandria to Winchester from 1722 until 1825. The Lane family built the earliest portions of this house in . . . — Map (db m20122) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Lanesville Outbuildings
Homes in the 19th century typically had several outbuildings. Barns stabled horses and other animals, tenant houses lodged farm hands, wells supplied water, and, of course, the "necessary," or outhouse, was a must. One of the most significant outbuildings on this property is the Bridges Schoolhouse, built in the 1870s. Family history and documents mention other typical outbuildings at Lanesville. These include a blacksmith shop, a dairy for food preserves, and a smokehouse; none of these . . . — Map (db m20124) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Z-143 — Loudoun County / Fairfax County
(east face) Loudoun County Area 519 Square Miles Formed in 1757 from Fairfax, and named for Lord Louduon, titular Governor of Virginia, and head of the British Forces in America, 1756-1758. Oak Hill, President James Monroe’s home, is in this county. (west face) Fairfax County Area 417 Square Miles Formed in 1742 from Prince William and Loudoun, and named for Lord Fairfax, proprietor of the Northern Neck. Mount Vernon, . . . — Map (db m64585) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Mosby’s RangersBattle of Miskel Farm — March 31, 1863
Captain John Singleton Mosby and 69 of his Confederate ranger troop were surprised at dawn while sleeping here in the Miskel farmhouse and hay barn by 150 Union cavalry. Though greatly outnumbered, Captain Mosby led his rangers on foot with revolvers and sabers to complete victory over the entire Union force. Not only did Mosby and his troop escape the trap, but they accounted for 23 Union casualties and 82 prisoners, losing only 6 men themselves. For this remarkable feat Mosby was promoted to . . . — Map (db m1794) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Rails to Dulles Airport
In 1958 the federal government began construction of a new international airport near Chantilly, Virginia. The Washington & Old Dominion Railroad, whose freight business had been on the decline, enjoyed a resurgence of activity. Cement, stone, and other materials arrived from local quarries by rail to this spot and were trucked to the airport site a few miles south of here. Dulles International Airport opened 1962. The W&OD limped along for another six years, while a boom in road construction . . . — Map (db m20281) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Sterling Station
By 1967, when the photograph below was taken, Sterling had grown from a railroad stop known as Guilford to a large residential development. Beginning in 1860, the station served local farmers. Trains carried grain, produce, and dairy products to eastern markets, returning with merchandise and mail. Passengers rode to school, to shop and visit. Many commuted to jobs in Washington, D.C. In the 1890s, after financier J.P. Morgan bought the line, he supposedly gave Sterling its name because of his . . . — Map (db m20146) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — The Braddock Campaign
In early 1755, England ordered General Edward Braddock along with the 44th and 48th Regiments to Virginia with plans to join the colonial forces in an effort to expel the French from Fort Duquesne. Due to considerations other than military, General Braddock and his escort traveled through Maryland. Most of his command, Sir Peter Halkett's 44th Regiment, the royal artillery, and major wagon trains which included Madame Browne's celebrated unit used the Vestal's Gap Road and crossed the . . . — Map (db m20048) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — The Vestal's Gap Road
This sector of the road, through Claude Moore Park, closely resembles the road as it appeared in this area's early history. This great road ran from the port city of Alexandria, Virginia through Vestal's Gap of the Blue Ridge Mountains. It began as an animal trail, then was adopted by the Native Americans in this region as their path, and later was used by settlers as they moved from tidewater Virginia to that colony's western frontier. Due to its association with people and events important . . . — Map (db m20033) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Vestal's Gap Road
Extending from Alexandria to Vestal's Ferry near Charles Town, West Virginia, this colonial highway was a principal route from the Northern Neck of Virginia through the Blue Ridge in the Ohio Country, in the early 1700's. The road became the major artery in the movement of settlers and armies to the frontiers. Vestal's Gap Road fell into disuse after Leesburg Pike opened to the north about 1825. — Map (db m20026) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Vestal's Gap Road
Extending from Alexandria to Vestal's Ferry near Charles Town, West Virginia, this colonial highway was a principal route from the Northern Neck of Virginia through the Blue Ridge to the Ohio Country. In the early 1770's, the road became the major artery in the movement of settlers and armies to the frontiers. Vetal's Gap Road fell into disuse after Leesburg Pike opened to the north about 1825. — Map (db m20031) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — F 37 — Vestal's Gap Road
Vestal's Gap Road is among the oldest remaining segments of colonial highway in America. Initially an Indian trail, it became an important route for commerce from Alexandria to Leesburg and Winchester, westward migration, and troop movements. Lt. Col. George Washington and Gen. Edward Braddock's forces traveled the road in 1755 to defeat at Fort Duquesne in the first phase of the Seven Years' War between the British and the French. The Declaration of Independence and Constitution were secretly . . . — Map (db m36730) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Vestal's Gap Road I
Before man traveled this way, the wild animals that inhabited this area made a trail through the grassland and woods which they followed to reach new grazing areas. Bison and deer created and followed the path seeking fresh grass for food, followed by the wolves and wild cats who preyed on them. Smaller animals were also plentiful. The bison have disappeared and the bobcats and bears have retreated to the more sparsely populated Blue Ridge Mountains in the western part of Loudoun County. . . . — Map (db m25576) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Vestal's Gap Road II
The local Indians followed the paths made by the animals they sought as game and made them into regularly used trails. Archaeologists have found and investigated many sites where Indians lived along the Potomac River and the larger creeks such as nearby Broad Run. Some of the sites show evidence of having been inhabited as much as 11,000 years ago. Sometimes the Indians stayed only temporarily and other times they built more permanent villages and even forts on the islands where Loudoun County's earliest explorers visited them in 1699. — Map (db m25584) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Vestal's Gap Road III
In 1722 Governor Spotswood's treaty with the Indians was ratified, which kept them west of the Blue Ridge Mountains and north of the Potomac River. Early settlers found the Indian trails in Loudoun County and made them into roads. Loudoun County still has miles of unpaved roads, but today's gravel roads cannot give a real picture of the alternatively dry and dusty or muddy early roads which were used for commercial trade and which a large part of General Braddock's army struggled over on its . . . — Map (db m25585) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Vestal's Gap Road in the 1800s
In 1814 due to the British advance on Washington, it was deemed wise to remove the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other valuable state documents to a safe place. They were transported across Chain Bridge into Virginia. The custodian became greatly alarmed at the advance of the enemy, and he secured wagons necessary to move the documents to Leesburg. The only feasible route was the venerable Vestal's Gap Road. In August 1825 President Adams and Marquis de Lafayette . . . — Map (db m20118) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Sterling — Vestal's Gap Road IV
The Vestal's Gap Road was a major east-west trade and travel route. George Washington used it from 1753 to 1799 as he traveled on surveying business, for personal reasons and for military purposes in the French and Indian Wars. There were several ordinaries or inns along the road where he is known to have stayed and where many other people transporting goods for trade also stayed. You may see one such ordinary at Lanesville, the hosue at Claude Moore Park where you can also see part of the . . . — Map (db m25586) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Taylorstown — G 4 — Taylorstown
Taylorstown, one of Loudoun County’s earliest settlements, stands near the Catoctin Creek, a Virginia Scenic River, at the junction of Loyalty and Taylorstown Roads. Among the oldest structures in the village are Hunting Hill (ca. 1737), Foxton Cottage (mid-18th century), and Taylor’s Mill (ca. 1800). Two frame Victorian houses and a mid-1930s general store also remain. Located nearby are other log and fieldstone buildings erected by residents of German descent and by Quakers loyal to the Union . . . — Map (db m1790) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Unison — Battle of Unison"Truly frightful"
(Preface): After the Battle of Antietam in September 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia escaped to Virginia. President Abraham Lincoln repeatedly urged Union Gen. George B. McClellan to pursue and attack. Following a plan that Lincoln devised to trap Lee's army in the Shenandoah Valley, McClellan finally got his Army of the Potomac moving. On November 1, Union cavalry Gen. Alfred Pleasonton began leading the advance from Philomont toward Upperville. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart's . . . — Map (db m42516) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Upperville — Attack at Goose Creek Bridge“Take That Bridge At All Hazards” — Prelude to Gettysburg
Leapfrogging westward in a delaying action against advancing Union cavalry June 21, 1863, the rear guard of Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, commanded by Gen. Wade Hampton, took up a strong position on the steep ridge just behind you. From there two Confederate horse batteries opened volleys at blue-coated soldiers assembling on the high ground to the east across Goose Creek in front of you. Two batteries of Federal cannon unlimbered on the bluffs and returned direct fire at a ferocious pace. . . . — Map (db m1549) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Waterford — How it Works
This mill housed a set of machinery that processed raw material into finished products. It produced flour from grain, thus it was a gristmill. The milling complex also powered a saw and at one time a cider mill. Amos Janney's small original mill was powered directly from the flow of Catoctin Creek. To achieve greater and more consistent power, Mahlon Janney dammed the stream and diverted the water from behind the dam through a mile-long channel or headrace, delivering it through a sluice and . . . — Map (db m4243) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Waterford — F 36 — Independent Loudoun Virginia Rangers
Created under authorization of the U.S. Secretary of War, the Independent Loudoun Rangers were the only organized Union cavalry unit in Confederate Virginia. Their first captain, local miller Samuel C. Means, mustered two companies from local Quakers, the German settlement in Lovettsville and other Unionists beginning June 1862. Although the Rangers suffered that summer in a clash with Confederate Col. Elijah V. White's Cavalry (35th VA Battalion) at Waterford Baptist Church, they continued to . . . — Map (db m42619) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Waterford — Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Loudoun County
The first office building owned by the Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Loudoun County Organized March 12, 1849 Occupied by the company from 1872 to 1901 — Map (db m4244) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Waterford — The Tin Shop
15481 Second Street • Built 1875–1885 • Historic Use — Housed harness-making, tin roofing and tinware businesses; post office (1885–1897) • Current Use — Waterford Fair; office space The Tin Shop is built over a creek which flooded periodically, once washing the postmistress and mail downstream. The Tin Shop was acquired by the Waterford Foundation in 1984. An easement is held by the Virginia Department of Historic Resources. — Map (db m2349) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Waterford — The Waterford Mill
Amos Janney's enterprising son Mahlon inherited the first mill in 1747 and soon improved it. By 1762 he had built a new, larger mill of of stone and wood on this site. The brick structure here today replaced Mahlon's mill in the 1820s. The surrounding Loudoun Valley produced the grain that was ground to flour for export to Baltimore and Washington and beyond. By the mid 1800s, access to these markets was greatly improved by the C&O Canal and the B&O Railroad, which passed along the Potomac . . . — Map (db m4241) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Waterford — WaterfordUnionist Stronghold
Historically Quaker and abolitionist Waterford decisively split with Loudoun County's pro-Confederate majority and rejected secession (220 votes to 31) in Virginia's May 1861 referendum. Many residents fled to Maryland as Southern troops occupied the town and its Quaker meeting house to curb "treason." Confederate Capt. Elijah V. White arrived here in January 1862 to recruit his 35th Battalion Virginia Cavalry from the area's secessionists. (His second in command, Waterford farm boy Lt. Frank . . . — Map (db m42622) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Waterford — Waterford - An Old Mill Town
Amos Janney, a Pennsylvania Quaker, settled on the south fork of Catoctin Creek around 1733. Other Quakers soon followed drawn by the fertile land. Most were grain farmers, making a mill an early priority. By the early 1740s, Janney had built a simple grist and sawmill on the creek opposite this site. A settlement grew up and was named Waterford in the 1780s. By then Scotch-Irish Presbyterians and German Lutherans had joined the Quakers, as had a few African-Americans, some enslaved but most . . . — Map (db m5597) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Waterford — Waterford Baptist ChurchErected 1853
At dawn on August 27, 1862, Captain E.V. White's 60-man company, nucleus of the 35th Battalion Virginia Cavalry, attacked 28 men of Captain S.C. Means' Company of Independent Loudoun Virginia Rangers (Union) encamped here in this church. After three hours of hard fighting the besieged Union forces surrendered and were paroled. In this engagement both the Union and Confederate forces were men from Loudoun County; and in this incident actual brothers were engaged on opposing sides. Losses: . . . — Map (db m42623) HM
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