|Alabama (Montgomery County), Cecil — Brewer Memorial Church|
|Brewer Church began in 1898 with 10 members in a one-room structure at its current location in Cecil, AL. Construction of the sanctuary occurred a few years later. Brewer Church was named for its first pastor, George Evans Brewer, a former State Senator and commander of the 46th AL Regiment in the Confederate Army. Rev. Brewer was also instrumental in establishing the Talladega School for the Deaf and Blind and Bryce Hospital in Tuscaloosa. After 1968, the church sat silent for many years due . . . — Map (db m68744) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Grady — Pisgah Primitive Baptist Church|
|Constituted on August 27, 1842 on this site with six charter members including Moses and Sarah Rushton, Susannah Rushton, William and Emily Miley, and James Gardner. First structure built of logs by master carpenter Jesse Yon on land given by Moses Rushton, who moved to Montgomery County from Orangeburg District S.C.
Present Colonial Revival building completed in 1931. Architect was Frank W. Lockwood and landscape architect was Graham M. Rushton. — Map (db m74732) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Hope Hull — Abner McGehee / Early Alabama Entrepreneur|
Born Feb. 17, 1779 in Prince Edward County, VA, nephew of John Scott, founder of Alabama Town which in 1819 joined New Philadelphia to become Montgomery. Reared in the Broad River area of northeast Georgia, he became an affluent planter, tanner and general trader. When Creeks lost much of their land in the 1814 Treaty of Ft. Jackson, "Alabama Fever," the lure of much very fertile land, caused many Broad River residents, among them Abner McGehee, to . . . — Map (db m70936) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Hope Hull — Tankersley Rosenwald School — Erected in 1923|
|This building was one of fourteen schools constructed in Montgomery County with funding assistance from the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Between 1912-32, Julius Rosenwald, a Jewish philanthropist and CEO of Sears, Roebuck and Company teamed up with Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee Institute to provide matching grants for the construction of school buildings for African Americans in mostly rural areas of the South. This collaborative effort produced more than 5,000 of these buildings in 15 southern . . . — Map (db m71427) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Lapine — Fair Prospect Cemetery Montgomery County|
|Atop this hill lies Fair Prospect Cemetery, established in the 1840s as part of Fair Prospect Church. Land was donated for the church and cemetery by Benjamin Mitchell (1765-1848) and his wife Jane Scrimpton Mitchell (1775-1850). The location of their graves is unknown. The earliest marked burials date to 1851 and the cemetery is still active today. Justus M. Barnes, founder of Strata Academy, was a leader in the congregation and his parents are buried here. In the 1870s, the church burned . . . — Map (db m54735) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Mathews — The Jonesville Community — (Honoring Mr. Prince Albert Jones Sr.)|
The Jonesville Community on Old Pike Road in Mathews, named for wealthy landowner George Mathews from Olgethorp County Ga.
was designated by the Montgomery County Commission on October
16th, 2007 to honor the life and legacy of Prince Albert Jones Sr.
(April 25, 1916 - January 13, 2008) and his family to the community.
Jones was born and reared in the area and devoted much of his
nearly 92 years of life to helping others in Mathews and the
surrounding communities of . . . — Map (db m68716) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — 1Lt Karl W. Richter — Killed in Action July 28, 1967, North Vietnam — Of The Warrior Breed|
"Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?...
Here am I. Send me."
"Here dead lie we because we did not choose to live and shame the land from which we sprung. Life to be sure is nothing much to lose, but young men think it is, and we were young."
[Unveiled 13 June 1992] — Map (db m64566) HM WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Air University / Maxwell Air Force Base|
The Air Corps Tactical School moved to Maxwell in 1931. Brilliant young officers like Chennault, Eaker, Fairchild, Hansell, Kuter, LeMay, Quesada, and Vandenberg formulated the aerial strategies and tactics employed in World War II. In 1940, Maxwell became the home of HQ Southeast Air Corps Training Center responsible for pilot, Navigator and bombardier training, producing over 100,000 aviation cadets. Air University was established in 1946 as the USAF . . . — Map (db m64437) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Air University Commanders|
Maj Gen Muir S. Fairchild
February 1946 – May 1948
Maj Gen Robert W. Harper
May 1948 – October 1948
Gen George C. Kenney
November 1948 – July 1951
Lt Gen Idwal H. Edwards
August 1951 – February 1953
Lt Gen Laurence S. Kuter
April 1953 – May 1955
Lt Gen Dean G. Strother
May 1955 – Jun 1958
Lt Gen Walter E. Todd
August 1958 – July 1961
Lt Gen Troup Miller, Jr.
August 1961 – . . . — Map (db m64368) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — AU "Thinks War"|
Post-Vietnam Era marked a turning point for AU. Lt Gen Furlong, AU commander, launched a three year campaign to overhaul the curriculum which became known as “Putting the ‘War’ back into War College.” Between 1975 and 1976 AU gained five new functions, greatly expanding its mission.
”Air University epitomizes all that we have fought for in our efforts to build a strong defense structure that will always meet the requirements of the hour.”
Honorable Lister Hill, Alabama Senator, 2 Sep 1947 — Map (db m64375) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Boeing B-52D "Stratofortress"|
Remaining in operation longer than any bomber in U.S. military history, the B-52 was the Strategic Air Command's principal long-range heavy bomber from the time it became operational in 1955. Affectionately known as the BUFF (Big Ugly Fat Fellow), it first flew on April 15, 1952. Nearly 750 B-52s (170 of them B-52Ds) had been built when production ended in October 1962. The B-52Ds were modified to carry the largest conventional bomb load of any in the series and due to the "Big Belly" and . . . — Map (db m64474) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — British and Commonwealth Pilots Trained in the U.S.A.|
In 1941, before Pearl Harbour, President Franklin D. Roosevelt agreed with Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, to provide flight training for British and Commonwealth pilots in the U.S.A. by the U.S. Army Air Corps.
Over 4,000 pilots were trained, some of them at this airfield, and many of them lost their lives in air operations against our common enemies.
This plaque is placed in remembrance by those who by the grace of God survived.
September 1996 — Map (db m64476) HM WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Cessna T-41A "Mescalero"|
The Cessna T-41 was derived from a standard Cessna Model 172 light aviation aircraft. Between 1965 and 1969 the USAF purchased 211 T-41A variants "off the shelf" for the preliminary flight screening of pilot candidates; another 52 T-41C variants were obtained in 1968-69 for use by the Air Force Academy. The T-41 also saw service in the U.S. Army, and large numbers were exported to friendly nations under the Military Assistance Program.
This T-41A aircraft (AF Ser. 67-14977) was built in . . . — Map (db m64482) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Changing Roles of AU|
Charged with developing doctrines and concepts for the employment of air power, AU produced the first basic doctrine manuals for the Air Force. AU also gained notoriety with projects such as Corona Harvest, which studied and developed lessons learned during the Vietnam Conflict – the first time a study was conducted while a conflict was in progress.
”We must not only be prepared for the peace to come, we must be prepared to preserve it.”
General Hap Arnold, 1 Aug 1945 — Map (db m64374) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Chennault Circle|
To accommodate expansion of programs, a five million dollar construction project began in 1954 to give AU a modern, integrated academic center with a collegiate atmosphere and facilities in keeping with its educational mission.
We’re entrusting to General Kuter the future of the Air Force for it is here at Air University that we either make or break the Air Force.”
General Hoyt S. Vandenberg, 28 Feb 1953 — Map (db m64372) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Establishment of Air University 1946|
The Army Air Forces school was assigned its first commander, Major General Muir S. Fairchild, in February 1946, and renamed Air University in March. The dedication ceremony occurred 3 Sep 1946. The first classes at the Air War College and the Air Command and Staff School began 4 Sep 1946.
”We conceive it to be the high and noble goal of Air University to educate and to aid in producing the planners and future leaders of that Air Force.”
General Muir S. Fairchild, 3 Sep 1946 — Map (db m64370) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Expansion of Air University|
During the early 1950’s, Air Force leaders decided to consolidate and relocate professional military and continuing education activities, as well as commissioning and specialized schools to Maxwell and Gunter Air Force Bases.
”(Air University’s) anticipated influence is measured only by the reach of Air Power. Its horizon is unlimited.”
General Carl Spaatz, 3 Sep 1946 — Map (db m64371) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Former POWs And Those MIA|
In honor of former
Prisoners of War
Missing in Action
2 October 1987 — Map (db m64438) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — General Larry D. Welch — 12th Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force — Served 1951 - 1990, Aviation Cadet 1953|
General (ret) Welch was born in 1934 in Guymon, Okla., and graduated from Liberal (Kan.) High School in 1952. He enlisted in the Kansas National Guard in October 1951, serving with the 161st Armored Field Artillery until enlisting in the U.S. Air Force. In November 1953, he entered the aviation cadet program and subsequently received his pilot wings and commission as a second lieutenant. He served initially as a flight instructor until his assignment in July 1958 to Headquarters, Air . . . — Map (db m64500) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Joint Programs|
Air University began new Air War College and Air Command and Staff College programs in 1987 which met newly mandated “Joint” education requirements. These programs emphasized joint war fighting.
”The basic reason for the essentiality of Air University lies in the fact that it trains, prepares, and inspires the future leaders of all our commands.”
Lieutenant General Ira C. Eaker, 17 Mar 1961 — Map (db m64378) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Lister Hill Center — Named in honor of Senator Lister Hill — 1894-1984|
This facility is dedicated to the memory of Senator Lister Hill who faithfully served his state and the nation for forty-five years as a member of the House of Representatives and the United States Senate. An Infantry Officer during World War I, Senator Hill's commitment to a strong national defense and an independent Air Force contributed significantly to the development and continued existence of Maxwell AFB and Air University. Considered to be the godfather of Maxwell, he was instrumental . . . — Map (db m79082) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Lt. William C. Maxwell / Air Force ROTC|
Lt. William C. Maxwell (Side A)
William Calvin Maxwell was born Nov. 9, 1892 in Natchez, Ala. An Army ROTC student at the University of Alabama, he left in 1917 to enlist in the Army. He received his commission in April 1918, after completing flight training at Kelly Field, Texas. In 1919, he was assigned to 3rd Aero Squadron, Philippines. On August 12, 1920, engine trouble forced Lt. Maxwell to attempt to land his DH-4 in a sugarcane field. Maneuvering to avoid a group of children . . . — Map (db m64367) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Maj. Gen. Claire L. Chennault / Three Men on a Flying Trapeze|
| (Side 1)
Maj. Gen. Claire L. Chennault
Born in Commerce, Tx, on 6 Sep 1893, Chennault was commissioned in 1917 and received his wings in 1919. A graduate of and instructor at the Air Corps Tactical School, he became a leading advocate of pursuit aviation, and later formed the nationally renowned aero demonstration team called the "Flying Trapezers." Chennault retired in 1937 and went to China where he established the legendary "Flying Tigers." He was recalled to active duty . . . — Map (db m72169) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Major General James Harrison Wilson, USV — Wilson's Raiders|
Major General James Harrison Wilson, USV
Exceptional American soldier, born Illinois, West Point Class of 1860, MG at 27. Civil War service: Port Royal 1861-62, Aide to McClellan '62; Vicksburg and Chattanooga Campaigns, Grant's staff '63-64, Chief of Cavalry Bureau '64; Wilderness and Valley Campaigns, Commander Cavalry Division, Sherman's Corps'64; Franklin, Nashville, AL & GA '64-65. Retired from Army 1870; pursued railroading career in U.S., Latin America, . . . — Map (db m64436) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — McDonnell Douglas F-4D "Phantom II"|
First flown in May 1958, the Phantom II originally was developed for U.S. Navy fleet defense and entered service in 1961. The USAF evaluated it for close air support, interdiction, and counter-air operations and, in 1962, approved a USAF version. The USAF's Phantom II, designated F-4C, made its first flight in November 1963. The F-4D was an improved F-4C and made its first flight on December 9, 1965. The F-4D offered an improved bombing and air-to-air capability. The USAF credited F-4D . . . — Map (db m64504) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — McDonnell RF-101C "Voodoo"|
Ordered in 1951 by the Strategic Air command as a long-range escort fighter, the F-101 lineage included several versions: Low-altitude fighter-bomber; photo-reconnaissance; two-seat interceptor; and transition trainer. To accelerate production, no prototypes were built and the first Voodoo, an F-101A, made its initial flight on September 29, 1954. When production ended in March 1961, nearly 800 Voodoos had been built. Development of the unarmed RF-101, the world's first supersonic . . . — Map (db m64503) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Montgomery Chapter of the American Ex-Prisoners of War — In Honor Of|
September 17, 1999
Non Solum Armis — Map (db m64439) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Monument to Powered Flight|
In tribute to the perseverance and achievements of the Wright Brothers and the leadership and foresight of the Citizens of Montgomery, Alabama. Together they established the nation's first school of civil aviation in March, 1910, launching America on her journey to the stars.
18 September 1985 — Map (db m64567) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — North American B-25 Mitchell|
The North American B-25 Mitchell, named after America's greatest military martyr (Gen Billy Mitchell), made its maiden flight on 19 August 1940 and was ordered in large numbers straight off the drawing board by the Army Air Corps. Internal improvements, armament innovations, and engine changes resulted in several variants, including the B-25G which was armed with a 75mm cannon in the nose - the largest gun ever carried in an aircraft up to that time. The most lethal of all versions was the . . . — Map (db m64449) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — North American F-100D "Super Sabre"|
Developed as a follow-on to the F-86 Sabrejet used in the Korean Conflict, the F-100 was the world's first production airplane capable of flying faster than the speed of sound in level flight (760 mph). The prototype, the YF-100A, made its first flight on May 25, 1953, at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Of the 2,294 F-100s built before production ended in 1959, 1,274 were F-100Ds, more than all other series combined. The F-100D, which made its first flight on January 24, 1956, was the . . . — Map (db m64553) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — North American F-86A "Sabre"|
The F-86, the USAF's first swept-wing jet fighter, made its initial flight on October 1, 1947. The first production mode flew on May 20, 1948, and on September 15, 1948, an F-86A set a new world speed record of 670.9 mph. Originally designed as a high-altitude day fighter, it was subsequently redesigned into an all-weather interceptor (F-86D) and a fighter-bomber (F-86H).
As a day fighter, the airplane saw service in Korea in three successive series (F-86A, E, and F), where it engaged . . . — Map (db m64586) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Northrop T-38A "Talon"|
In the mid-1950s, the USAF required a trainer with higher performance than the T-33 to better prepare student pilots for the latest tactical aircraft that were then coming into service. The aircraft chosen was the T-38A which offered high performance with low maintenance and operating costs. Destined to become the USAF's first supersonic trainer, the T-38A prototype first flew on April 10, 1959, and production continued until 1972. A total of 1,189 T-38As were built. Some were later . . . — Map (db m64433) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Reorganization|
During the late 1950’s three courses at Air Command and Staff College: the Weapons course, the Squadron Officer course, and the Academic Instructor course, became separate schools under the AU umbrella.
”…It is regrettable that what is being done at the Air University is not known by the millions of our citizens; they would worry less and sleep better.”
Lieutenant General Harold L. George, 5 Feb 1954 — Map (db m64373) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Reorganization|
HQ USAF realigned AU under Air Training Command (ATC) in 1978. For five years AU remained a part of ATC. On 1 July 1983, AU regained its major command status. ROTC was reassigned to ATC. The College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education, was born to research and analyze current and future issues of concern to the USAF.
”Air University turns out tomorrow’s leaders.”
Army Times Headlines, 1 Mar 1947 — Map (db m64376) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Republic F-105D "Thunderchief"|
In 1951, Republic Aviation began a project to develop a supersonic tactical fighter-bomber to replace the F-84F. The result was the F-105 "Thunderchief," later affectionately nicknamed the "Thud." The prototype YF-105A first flew on October 22, 1955, but the first F-105D did not fly until June 9, 1959. F-105s were produced in the single-seat F-105B and F-105D series, and in the two-seat F-105F model. Later, some F-105Fs were modified to become F-105Gs. A total of 833 Thunderchiefs of all . . . — Map (db m64505) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Sikorsky MH-53M 'Pave Low IV' Helicopter|
The Sikorsky MH-53 is a variant of the USAF's HH-53 'Super Jolly Green Giant' air rescue helicopter, which was developed in turn from the US Navy's CH-53 'Sea Stallion' heavy lift helicopter. The MH-53 has been optimized for long-range infiltration, exfiltration and resupply of special operations forces in darkness or marginal weather flying conditions. The USAF began using early models of this helicopter for special operations missions in the late 1960s, and later versions continued to . . . — Map (db m64451) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Site of Indian Town Tawasa — 1540-1814|
|This stone marks the site
of the Indian town Tawasa
Also by Bienville 1715 — Map (db m72176) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — The Air Corps Tactical School|
Established here in 1931, was the birthplace and nurturing ground of American air doctrine. In the ferment of a decade of thought and debate, the Air Corps Tactical School gave rise to concepts for the strategic and operational deployment of U.S. air power against two formidable aggressor nations separated by half a world. Validation of this revolutionary approach to warfare came with victory over the Axis with fewer casualties than in advancing a few hundred miles in World War I.
Most . . . — Map (db m79085) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — The Air Power Legacy|
In 1931 Maxwell Field began its mission to educate Army Air Corps officers in strategy, tactics, and techniques of air power. Many early Air Force leaders attended Air Corps Tactical School here including Generals Vandenberg, Twining, White, and LeMay.
”If we should have to fight, we should be prepared to do so from the neck up instead of the neck down.”
General Jimmy Doolittle — Map (db m64369) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — The Next Fifty Years|
The tradition of excellence established by Air University pioneers will continue throughout the next fifty years… AU’s ability to educate people and develop critical thinkers is a mission that continues today. Now, more than ever, the United States needs dedicated leaders and visionaries to guide us successfully through an uncertain future. Air University has always produced such men and women and will continue to do so well into the twenty-first century.
The founding of Air . . . — Map (db m64427) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — The Thunderbirds — The Epitome of Teamwork|
All discipline for the moment seems not to be joyful, but sorrowful, yet, for those who are trained by it, afterwards, it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness.
Maj. Norman L. Lowry III
Capt. Willie T. Mays
Capt. Joseph "Pete" Peterson
Capt. Mark E. Melancon
We salute your commitment to duty, honor, and country. — Map (db m64484) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — William R. Lawley, Jr. — Colonel USAF (Ret) — 1920 - 1999|
Recipient of the
Medal of Honor
Intrepidity in Action
20 February 1944
Mission on 20 February 1944
Target: Leipzig, Germany
1st. Lt. William R. Lawley, Jr. & Crew
305th Bomb Group 8th Air Force
United States Army Air Corps
European Theater of Operations
[Dedicated 3 November 2000] — Map (db m64450) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Wright Brothers Flying School|
On this site in 1910
stood the hangar
Flying School of the
first men to fly:
The Wright Brothers — Map (db m86054) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Maxwell Air Force Base — Year of Training|
Deja vu, once again, 1993, AU was aligned with ATC but this time to form Air Education and Training Command. Enlisted professional military education was consolidated, Officers Training School moved to Maxwell, and ROTC and CCAF were again part of AU. Warfighting courses for flag officers and staff officers increased and mandatory commanders courses began.
”Smart systems, smaller forces, and an uncertain future require Brilliant Warriors.”
Lieutenant General Jay Kelley, 16 Aug 96 — Map (db m86055) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — "Battle Flag of the Confederacy"|
The Confederate Congress never issued any regulations specifying which type flag should be carried by regiments in the field. Early in the war, flags were made at home for presentation to individual companies. At first, national flags replaced these as regimental colors. Eventually, the design for regimental colors were left to the commanding generals and various flag manufacturers. Pictured here are a few examples of battle flags which were carried by Alabamians.
(caption) . . . — Map (db m86056) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — "Third National Confederate Flag"|
Upon an outpouring of complaints that the 2nd national flag was too similar to a flag of truce, a red bar was added by act of Confederate Congress on March 4, 1865. Very few of these flags ever flew, however, as the war ended shortly thereafter.
Credit: Don Troiani
"The Last Salute" — Map (db m69326) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 167th Infantry / Alabama’s Own — (4th Alabama)|
|An Alabama regiment was formed in 1836 to defend Fort Foster in Florida. Same unit, designated the 1st Alabama Volunteers ten years later, served in Mexican War. Mustered again May 4, 1861 as the 4th Alabama Infantry Regiment, it fought in every major battle in the Eastern Theater of the Civil War. The 4th distinguished itself in Battle of Manassas, the first major battle of the War, when it plugged gap in Confederate lines beside Brig. Gen. T. J. Jackson’s brigade and repulsed several Union . . . — Map (db m38897) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 37th Division The Buckeye Division — World War I / World War II & Korea|
| World War I
Camp Sheridan was the site of the August 1917 organization of the Buckeye Division, made up of Ohio National Guardsmen who previously had been serving on the Mexican Border.
After training, the 37th went to France in June 1918, fighting in the Lorraine, Ypres - Lys, and Meuse - Argonne Campaigns. It took 5,387 casualties and won a Medal of Honor before returning to the U.S. in March 1919 to be demobilized.
2nd Lieutenant Albert E. Baesel, 148th Infantry, was awarded the . . . — Map (db m38895) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 9th Infantry Division / “The Old Reliables”|
|The 9th Division was organized on 18 July 1918 at Camp Sheridan for service in World War I. When the War ended, 11 November 1918, deployment of the Division to France was canceled and it was demobilized on 15 February 1919. Reactivated on 1 August 1940, 9th Infantry Division soldiers fought valiantly in 8 crucial World War II campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, France, Belgium, and Germany. After a short inactivation, the 9th returned to the active force on 15 July 1947 as a training division at . . . — Map (db m76161) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — A County Older Than the State — Montgomery County — 1816|
| Created by Mississippi Territorial Legislature from lands ceded by Creek Indian Nation in Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814. Named for Major Lemuel Purnell Montgomery, killed at Horseshoe Bend, 1814, while leading charge on Indian fortifications. During Colonial times many Indians lived in this area which was claimed by Spanish Florida and French Louisiana, British Carolina, Georgia and West Florida, and Spanish West Florida. The City of Montgomery, incorporated 1819 by Alabama Territorial . . . — Map (db m36579) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — A Nation Divided / Cradle of the Confederacy|
|The Alabama State Capitol served as the symbol and meeting place for the government of the newly formed Confederate States of America for 4 months in early 1861. Growing controversy over slavery and states' rights, climaxed by Abraham Lincoln's election as U.S. president in Nov. 1860, prompted the secession of 7 Southern states, including Alabama, by early Feb. 1861. On Feb. 4, delegates from 6 of these states convened in the Senate Chamber of the Capitol to organize a separate government. In . . . — Map (db m36507) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — A Refuge — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail|
|The City of St Jude, always a refuge for African Americans, hosted the marchers on the last night of their journey. This religious complex—named for the patron saint of impossible situations—housed a school church and hospital and had a 36-acre campus to accommodate thousands of marchers. In addition to sleeping tents and food stations, a first aid center had been set up on the grounds to treat marchers’ sunburned skin, sore feet, and exhaustion.
Founded in the mid-1930s by . . . — Map (db m91481) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Abram Mordecai / Mordecai's Cotton Gin|
Born October 24, 1755 in Pennsylvania; settled 1783 in Georgia where he became a successful trader among the Cusseta Indians. First U.S. citizen to settle (1785) in what became Montgomery County. Living and marrying among the Creeks, he established a trading house for skins, furs, and medicinal barks two miles from Line Creek. Alabama historian A.J. Pickett visited him in Dudleyville in 1847. Fiercely independent to the end, he died and was . . . — Map (db m71357) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama Confederate Monument — 1861-1865 — Consecrated to the memory of the Confederate Soldiers and Seamen.|
| South/Infantry Side "Fame's temple boasts no higher name, no king is grander on his throne: No glory shines with brighter gleam, the name of "Patriot" stands alone." C.T.R. East/Artillery Side "When this historic shaft shall crumbling lie in ages hence, in woman's heart will be, a folded flag, a thrilling page unrolled, a deathless song of Southern chivalry." I.M.P.O. North/Navy Side "The seamen of Confederate fame startled the wondering world: for braver fight was never . . . — Map (db m86060) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama Governor's Mansion — Built 1907|
|For almost the first century of statehood, Alabama's governors lived in private homes or hotels while in office. In 1911 the state acquired the Moses Sable home on South Perry Street for the governor's residence. Lined with fine houses, Perry was regarded as "the Fifth Avenue" of the Capital City. In 1950, Gov. Jim Folsom favored buying a Neo-Classical Revival mansion six blocks south. This residence, designed by architect Weatherly Carter in 1907 for Adjutant General Robert Fulwood Ligon, was . . . — Map (db m25413) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama Highway Patrol|
|At this location the Alabama Highway Patrol was commissioned by Governor Bibb Graves Jan. 10, 1936 — Map (db m36638) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama River: The Grand Avenue|
|Twelve miles above Montgomery the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers unite to form the Alabama which meanders over four hundred miles on its way to Mobile Bay. This river has played major role in region's history, being a thoroughfare for Native Americans, European explorers, and Americans who settled along its fertile shores and used it as a means of getting cotton to Mobile and world markets. Ferries served the population until the building of Tyler Goodwyn and Reese's Ferry bridges in the first . . . — Map (db m26591) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama State Capitol|
| Has been desiginated a
Under the provisions of the
Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935
this site possesses exceptional value
in commemorating and illustrating
the history of the United States
U.S. Department of the Interior
National Park Service
1962 — Map (db m74156) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama State University / Tatum Street|
Alabama State University
The Early Years
Founded in 1867, the Lincoln School in Marion, Alabama became the first state-assisted normal school for African Americans in 1874. The school prospered in that location for 13 years, training teachers, preachers, and scholars. Following a racial incident in Marion in 1887 the main building was burned down and the school was moved to Montgomery where it would become the State Normal School for Colored Students. The state . . . — Map (db m71345) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama State University / Tullibody|
| Side A Founded 1866 as the Abraham Lincoln Normal School in Marion, Alabama by nine former slaves. Operated from 1868 until 1874 by the American Missionary Association. The school began to receive state funding in 1874, making it the first state-assisted normal school and university for blacks in Alabama. Moving from Marion to Montgomery in 1887, the school's classes initially were held in black churches. The institution had several name changes, finally becoming Alabama State . . . — Map (db m86061) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama War Veterans Monument|
Dedicated to the gallant
war veterans from the
State of Alabama
whose magnificent valor
was shown in all wars — Map (db m84305) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama's First Capitals / The Alabama State Capitol|
|Alabama's First Capitals
On March 3, 1817, Congress designated the town of St. Stephens on the Tombigbee River north of Mobile as capital of the newly formed Alabama Territory. There in 1818, the territorial legislature named Huntsville as the temporary seat of government and Cahawba (near present-day Selma) as the first permanent capital. The constitutional convention and legislature met in Huntsville and on December 14, 1819, Alabama was admitted into the Union. Meanwhile a suitable . . . — Map (db m86063) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Albert L. Patterson|
|To the memory of
Albert L. Patterson
Soldier, Educator, Attorney,
State Senator Attorney General-Elect
An honorable life dedicated to
his fellowman and to the cause of
good government. Shot down by an
assassin's bullet June 18, 1954
in Phenix City, Alabama. — Map (db m86064) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 10 — An Intersection of History: Court Square — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail|
|At the intersection of Commerce Street and Dexter Avenue, Court Square is arguably the most historic location in America. As the center of 19th century
Southern economic and political power, Montgomery's Court Square was host to a massive slave market and the location from which the telegram that ignited the Civil War at Fort Sumter was sent.
Less than a century later, Court Square and downtown Montgomery was the epicenter of the civil rights movement, first with the Montgomery Bus . . . — Map (db m91736) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Augusta and the Old Augusta Cemetery — Circa 1819|
|Augusta, home of Old Augusta Cemetery, was built on the site of a former Indian village, “Sawanogi,” on high ground close to the Tallapoosa River. In 1824 a disastrous flood swept over the plateau, invading shops and residences. A year later a deadly form of malarial fever took half the population to their graves, killing the town as well. The cemetery, burial place for the Ross, Charles, and Taylor families, continued to be used until the early 20th century. The iron fence . . . — Map (db m68260) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder — Civil Rights Pioneer|
Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder was born January 29, 1919, in Montgomery, Alabama. She graduated with honors in 1956 from Alabama State Teachers College (now Alabama State University).
In April 1955, Browder's refusal to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white passenger led to her arrest. During the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which began in December 1955, she was a volunteer driver for those who declined to ride the buses. On February 1, 1956, serving as lead . . . — Map (db m71349) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case / Montgomery: Learning From the Past|
Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case
On December 2, 1975, Bernard Whitehurst was shot to death by a police officer in Montgomery, Alabama. He died behind a house on Holcombe Street, running from police officers who mistakenly believed he was the suspect in a robbery of a neighborhood grocery store.
The facts were slow to emerge in this shooting of a black man by a white police officer. But investigations urged by the Whitehurst family, the city’s daily . . . — Map (db m69366) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Bethel Missionary Baptist Church|
|Organized in 1967 as the Second Colored Baptist Church, congregation later changed named to Bethel Missionary Baptist. First building burned in 1908. Rev. E.W. Pickett then conducted services in "Love and Charity Hall" until second structure built in 1912 in same neighborhood but different site. In 1943, church remodeled under leadership of Rev. H.H. Hubbard. During the ministry of Rev. Edward Martin, the members, having outgrown the old building, built present edifice. Congregation has taken . . . — Map (db m71089) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Beulah Baptist Church — Organized 1880|
|Beulah Baptist Church was organized in the home of Monday and Dora Duvall, on the corner of Hull and Winnie Streets. Rev. William (Billy) Jenkins served as the pastor when the first church building was erected on Norton Street. Beulah served as the first classroom for the Alabama Colored People's University, which later became State Normal College, then Alabama State University. During the Church's centennial celebration, the University's president, Dr. Levi Watkins, who was a member of Beulah, . . . — Map (db m71377) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Birth of Montgomery Bus Boycott — Boycott planned & publicized here at ASU's Councill Hall|
On Dec. 1, 1955, at Alabama State College (now Alabama State University) in a basement room in Councill Hall, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was planned and publicized after the arrest that day of Rosa Parks, who refused to give up her seat to a white person on a segregated city bus.
Following Parks' arrest, Alabama State College took action. Jo Ann Robinson, a faculty member, authored the text of a flyer calling for blacks to boycott segregated city buses and, joined by . . . — Map (db m91279) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Birthplace of Nat "King" Cole|
|Nat King Cole was a jazz pianist, composer, and singer celebrated as an American popular music artist in the 1940s and 1950s.
He was born March 17, 1919 in Montgomery, Alabama as one of five children to Edward James Coles, a minister at Beulah Baptist Church in Montgomery, and Perlina Adams Coles, who sang in the choir. He began formal lessons at the age of 12, eventually learning not only jazz and gospel but also classical music. By age 17, he wrote songs and played jazz piano in his . . . — Map (db m71228) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 6 — Black Churches Provide Significant Support for the March and Voting — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Holt Street under Interstates 65 and 85|
|As the social and cultural epicenters of Montgomery's black
communities in the 1950s and 1960s, black churches also played a
political role, providing sanctuary and strength against discrimination
On December 5, 1955 following the first day of the Montgomery Bus
Boycott, the Montgomery Improvement Association was formed at
Mt. Zion AME Zion Church. The MIA was established to oversee the
continuation of the boycott, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. a young minister
new to Montgomery, was . . . — Map (db m91464) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Black Members of the Alabama Legislature Who Served During The Reconstruction Period of 1868-1879|
|1868-1869: Senate: Benjamin F. Royal, Bullock; House: Benjamin Alexander, Greene; James H. Alston, Macon; Samuel Blandon, Lee; John Carraway, Mobile; George Cox, Montgomery; Thomas H. Diggs, Barbour; Joseph Drawn, Dallas; Ovide Gregory, Mobile; James K. Greene, Hale; Daniel H. Hall, Bullock; George Houston, Sumter; Benjamin Inge, Sumter; Columbus Jones, Madison; Shandy Wesley Jones, . . . — Map (db m46414) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Black Members of the Alabama Legislature Who Served During The Reconstruction Period of 1868-1879|
1868-1869: Senate: Benjamin F. Royal, Bullock; House: Benjamin Alexander, Greene; James H. Alston, Macon; Samuel Blandon, Lee; John Carraway, Mobile; George Cox, Montgomery; Thomas H. Diggs, Barbour; Joseph Drawn, Dallas; Ovide Gregory, Mobile; James K. Greene, Hale; Daniel H. Hall, Bullock; George Houston, Sumter; Benjamin Inge, Sumter; Columbus Jones, Madison; Shandy Wesley Jones, . . . — Map (db m91290) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Brigadier General Birkett Davenport Fry, CSA / Colonel B.D. Fry at Battle of Gettysburg|
Brigadier General Birkett Davenport Fry, CSA
Born Virginia; educated VMI and West Point; fought in Mexico; practiced law in California; married Alabamian whose family owned the Tallassee cotton mill; served as general in Walker’s ill-fated filibustering in Nicaragua; then returned to manage Tallassee mill. Colonel of the 13th Alabama Infantry in 1861; wounded in four different battles including Gettysburg where he commanded a brigade; promoted to Brigadier General May . . . — Map (db m86065) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Camellia Designated Alabama State Flower|
The Alabama Legislature approved a bill sponsored by Rep. T.E. Martin of Montgomery County in 1927 that designated the Goldenrod the official state flower. It became law on Sept. 6, 1927, the same day that the Yellowhammer became the official state bird.
In 1959, camellia growers in Butler County argued that the goldenrod was a weed and convinced State Representative Folsom LaMont Glass of Greenville (The Camellia City) to introduce a bill naming the Camellia as the official state . . . — Map (db m86066) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Camp Sheridan|
|From Division Headquarters, located at this point from August 1917 to May 1918, was directed the training of the Thirty Seventh Division, National Guard Troops of Ohio, for Service in the World War.
The Relief map below indicates the locations of the various units of the Division while in Camp Sheridan.
Index To Map
1• HDQRS. 37th. Div.
2• TN. HDQRS. & M.P.
3• 112th FLD. SIG. BN.
4• 112th. SAN. TN.
A• 145th. INF.
B• 146th. INF.
C• 134th. M.G. BN.
D• 135th. M.G. . . . — Map (db m38899) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Capitol Heights Elementary School|
|While Capitol Heights was a new town, city leaders, including founder and first mayor J. S. Pinckard, donated land for an elementary school. The community partnered with the Montgomery County Board of Education to build the Capitol Heights Elementary School. The "progressive" brick building, designed by architect C. Frank Galliher, opened in the fall of 1917 and featured a courtyard and open air corridors. The school attracted national attention as the first unit of consolidation of the . . . — Map (db m81810) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Centennial Hill|
|This neighborhood evolved around historic First Congregational Church established through the American Missionary Association (AMA) October 6, 1872, by Pastor George Whitfield Andrews. In 1867 the AMA and the Freedmen's Bureau, headed by General Wager Swayne, opened Swayne Primary School, Montgomery's first school for blacks, just two blocks south of here. Alabama State University, begun in 1867 as the "Lincoln School of Marion" by nine ex-slaves and taken over by the AMA in 1868, was relocated . . . — Map (db m86067) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Charlie and Lucille Times — Civic Leaders and Civil Rights Activists|
Lucille and Charlie (d. 2/7/78) Times were married on February 3, 1939. Shortly after, the Times' joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Mr. Times received several medals and a Commendation for his service in the Army Air Corp during World War II. The Times' became registered voters in 1942. In 1948, Mrs. Times' father purchased this house as a wedding gift for the couple.
When the NAACP was outlawed in Alabama in the 1950s, the . . . — Map (db m81804) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — City of Montgomery / Court Square|
|City of Montgomery Two small villages, New Philadelphia, founded by Massachusetts lawyer Andrew Dexter in 1817, and East Alabama, established by Georgians led by John Scott in 1818, united in 1819 to form Montgomery, named for Revolutionary hero Gen. Richard Montgomery. Connecting at Court Square, the two towns' principal streets were Philadelphia's Market Street (Dexter Avenue) and East Alabama's Main Street (Commerce Street). First courthouse stood to west of artesian well which City . . . — Map (db m86068) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — City of St. Jude/The Selma to Montgomery March|
City of St. Jude
Founded by Father Harold Purcell in the 1930s, the City of St. Jude included church, school, medical facilities, social center and rectory. Its mission was to provide spiritual, educational, social and health services for Montgomery's black citizens. Distinguished for its Romanesque architecture and landscaping, site was designed by architects William Calham and Joseph Maschi. Leading the way in nondiscriminatory health care, the institution helped . . . — Map (db m86070) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 20, 1961|
|On May 20, 1961, a group of black and white SNCC members led by John Lewis left Birmingham for Montgomery on a Greyhound bus. They were determined to continue the "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans that had met with violence in Birmingham. Their purpose was to test a court case, "Boynton vs. Virginia," declaring segregation in bus terminals unconstitutional. Upon arriving in Montgomery, their police escort disappeared, and an angry mob of over 200 Klan supporters attacked and . . . — Map (db m71256) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Civil War Barnes-School / Figh-Pickett House|
| (side 1)
Civil War-Barnes School
In April 1865, the Union Army command made this house its headquarters. Mrs. Pickett hid her silver on an inside ledge of the cupola. Later, former Confederate Generals Hood, Bragg, and Walker visited here. In 1906, Professor Elly Barnes bought the house for use as a private school for boys, which rapidly achieved fame for its quality. The Barnes School closed in 1942. In 1996, the house was rescued from demolition with the help of the Alabama . . . — Map (db m86072) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Civil War Medicine / Montgomery's Confederate Hospitals|
|Side A During the War Between the States medical knowledge was primitive. As a result, twice as many men died of disease than in battle from wounds. Early in the War, childhood diseases such as measles, mumps and chicken pox decimated entire camps. Later, the greatest killers were diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, malaria and pneumonia. Many of those who survived battlefield wounds and amputations later died from infection. Scarcity of medical supplies in the beleaguered South added to the . . . — Map (db m36495) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Clement Clay "Bo" Torbert, Jr. — Twenty-Fifth Chief Justice — 1977-1989|
|A native of Opelika, Alabama, he is the son of Clement C. Torbert and Lynda Meadows Torbert. He was educated in the Opelika public schools. He attended the United States Naval Academy and received his B.S. Degree from Auburn University in 1951. He studied Law at the University of Maryland and graduated from the University of Alabama School of Law in 1954. He served in the United States Air Force attaining the rank of captain.
Torbert practiced law in Opelika from 1954 until 1977. He was . . . — Map (db m86073) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Cleveland Court Apartments|
|On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks left work and boarded a downtown bus. Her destination was home, Cleveland Court Apartment No. 634. She didn't make it home that day as she was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white man. This single act of defiance, violating the segregation laws of that time, led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott and launched Rosa Parks into the national spotlight. She later became a distinct symbol as the "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement."
The apartment . . . — Map (db m86074) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Confederate Military Prison / Civil War Military Prisons|
Confederate Military Prison
Near this site, from mid April to December 1862, a Confederate military prison held, under destitute conditions, 700 Union soldiers, most captured at Shiloh. They were imprisoned in a foul, vermin-abounding cotton depot, 200 feet long and 40 feet wide, without blankets and only the hard earth or wood planks as a bed. The cotton shed was situated between Tallapoosa Street and the Alabama River. Of the 700 Union prisoners, nearly 198 died in . . . — Map (db m71369) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Confederate States of America (CSA) Post Office Department|
|In February, 1861, delegates from six of the seven seceding southern states met in Montgomery to establish the government of the CSA. Newly elected President Jefferson Davis named J.H. Reagan of Texas as Postmaster General. Reagan established the Post Office Department in this building on the corner of Washington Ave. and Perry St.
The U.S. Postal service continued to deliver mail throughout the South until June 1, 1861 when the Confederate Post Office Department began their operations. . . . — Map (db m71242) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Court Square Fountain — 1885|
|Placed by the City over Artesian Basin and crowned by Hebe, Goddess of Youth and Cup-bearer to the Gods. Fountain was cast by J.L. Mott Iron Works of New York. Restored by Robinson Iron of Alexander City in 1984 during the administration of Mayor Emory Folmar. — Map (db m36501) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Day Street Baptist Church|
|Organized from Bethel Baptist Church, congregation founded 1882 with Rev. George Casby as first minister. Originally met in frame building; fund-raising began for this edifice in 1906. Designed by Wallace Rayfield, Tuskegee Institute architect and faculty member, building completed ca. 1910. A graduate of Pratt School of Architecture, Rayfield established the first black architectural firm in Birmingham and won national recognition. Day Street's community activities included the organization of . . . — Map (db m71081) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Decorative Lions Heads — 1907-1978 — Presented to Montgomery by First Alabama Bank of Montgomery, N.A.|
|These decorative terra cotta lions heads, typical of the ornamentation used in commercial style architecture in the early part of the 20th century, were utilized by the First National Bank of Montgomery on the cornice of their 12 story building from 1907 to 1978. Organized on April 18, 1871, the first location of the bank was on Dexter Avenue which was then called Market Street. In 1975, the name of the bank was changed to First Alabama Bank of Montgomery, N.A. Extensive renovations to the 12 . . . — Map (db m36646) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Dexter Avenue — Formerly Market Street|
|This street was named to honor Andrew Dexter one of the founders of Montgomery Along this street moved the inaugural parade of Jefferson Davis when he took the oath of office as President of the Confederate States of America February 18, 1861 Dixie was played as a band arrangement for the first time on this occasion. — Map (db m36589) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church — Organized 1877|
|The second black Baptist Church in Montgomery. First pastor was Rev. C. O. Boothe. Present structure built 1885. Designed by Pelham J. Anderson; built by William Watkins, a member of the congregation.
Many prominent black citizens of Montgomery have been members, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. served as pastor (1954-1960). Montgomery bus boycott organized here December 2, 1955. — Map (db m25128) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Dr. J. Marion Sims|
|This tablet marks the site of the office and infirmary of DR. J. MARION SIMS Here, in 1845, he performed the first closure of a vesico-vaginal fistula with wire suture, using a pewter spoon as speculum. This operation made him famous throughout the world. — Map (db m36576) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Elijah Cook / City of Montgomery v. Rosa Parks|
Born a slave in Wetumpka in 1833, Elijah Cook became a leader in Montgomery’s African American community. Credited with helping to establish the city’s first school for blacks in the basement of the Old Ship AME Zion Church in 1865, he also selected the site for Swayne College (later Booker T. Washington School) that opened in 1868. In 1887, he assisted in posting the $10,000 surety bond to relocate the Lincoln School of Marion (later Alabama State University) to . . . — Map (db m69222) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Encanchata|
|Here at the Indian village of Encanchata, future site of Montgomery, Col. John Tate, last British agent to the Muscogee Nation, recruited and drilled Creek warriors in 1780 to relieve Tories in Augusta, Ga. being besieged by American patriots. — Map (db m71373) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Ernest C. “Sonny” Hornsby — Twenty-Sixth Chief Justice — 1989-1995|
|Born in Montgomery, Alabama, he is the son of Ernest Arnold Hornsby and Kate Clayton Hornsby. A 1955 graduate of Tallassee High School, he received his B.A. Degree from Auburn University and his Juris Doctor Degree from the University of Alabama School of Law in 1960.
After Law School, he served as Assistant Superintendent of the State Department of Insurance during the term of the Patterson Administration. From 1962-1966, he served as State Senator Representing Tallapoosa and Elmore . . . — Map (db m69338) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Fallen Vietnam War Heroes of Montgomery County|
|In honor of the fallen heroes of Montgomery County
who gave their lives in the Vietnam War
Arrington, Samuel W., Jr. • Deas, Charles Milton • Johnson, Curtis • Rogers William T., IV
Baldwin, Larry Glenn • Deichelmann, Samuel M. • Keefe, Floyd Milton • Scott, Jimmie L.
Barsom, George Kasper, III • Dennis, James Walter, Jr. • Lavender, Robert Edward • Scott, Travis Henry, Jr.
Barton, David Allen • Doran, Thomas E. • Maher, Christopher Loring • Seawright, William J., Jr.
Beasley, . . . — Map (db m90864) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First Baptist Church|
Founded November 29, 1829, with four charter members. English-born Lee Compere, a missionary to the Creek Indians, was the first pastor. Services initially were held monthly in a building shared by other denominations. In 1833, the church constructed its own house of worship on North Court Street. The growing congregation built a two-story brick structure on the same site in 1854. In 1860, Basil Manly, former President of the University of Alabama, became pastor, delivering the . . . — Map (db m71251) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First Baptist Church (Brick-A-Day Church)|
|Organized in 1866, this pioneering congregation grew out of First Baptist Church, now on Perry Street, where early parishioners had worshipped as slaves. The first building, facing Columbus Street, was erected in 1867. Nathan Ashby served as first pastor (1866-70) to over 700 members and as first president of the Colored Baptist Convention of Alabama, now known as the Alabama Baptist State Convention, which was organized here in 1868. The Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, later part of the . . . — Map (db m36499) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First National Confederate Flag — ("Stars and Bars")|
The "Stars and Bars," designed by Nicola Marshall of Marion, Alabama, was adopted by the flag selection committee of the Provisional Confederate Congress at Montgomery and raised over the capitol building on March 4, 1861. Its similarity to the U.S. flag was favored by most Southerners who felt sentimental attachment to the "old flag." Additional stars were added as more southern states seceded and joined the Confederacy.
Credit: Mollus USAMHI
Photograph of flag over Fort Sumter, April 15, 1861 — Map (db m69314) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First United Methodist Church|
First United Methodist Church, organized September 15, 1829, is the oldest organized church in the city of Montgomery. Located on Court Street downtown for nearly 100 years, the congregation purchased for $20,000 this site in Cloverdale Park in July 1931.
The name Court Street Methodist Church changed to First Methodist Church on October 2, 1932. The chapel served as the site for the first worship service, held on November 30, 1933. George Awsumb, a Memphis, Tennessee architect, . . . — Map (db m69191) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First White House of the Confederacy|
|Designated Executive Residence by the
Provisional Confederate Congress
February 21, 1861. President Jefferson Davis
and his family lived here until the Confederate
Capitol moved to Richmond summer 1861.
Built by William Sayre 1832-35 at Bibb and
Lee Streets. Moved to present location
by the First White House Association and
dedicated June 3, 1921. — Map (db m7581) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Fitzgerald Home — (ca. 1910)|
F. Scott Fitzgerald, his wife Zelda and daughter Scottie lived in this house from October 1931 to April 1932.
During this period Fitzgerald worked on his novel Tender Is the Night and Zelda began her only novel, Save Me the Waltz.
“Now once again the belt is tight and we summon the proper expression of horror as we look back at our wasted youth. Sometimes, though, there is a ghostly rumble among the drums, an asthmatic whisper in the trombones.... . . . — Map (db m69187) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Flame of Freedom|
* War *
Erected in commemoration
March 15,1969 — Map (db m69308) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Folmar - Siegelman House|
|Constructed in the early 1900s, the Folmar - Siegelman house stylistically combines elements of both Victorian and early bungalow design. Its high gables, wide eaves, projected bay window and secluded entry reflect the desire of most Americans at that time for a home environment with a “cozy” and “picturesque” feel.
The house has been occupied by several distinguished Montgomery families. Bibb and Miriam Folmar, parents of Montgomery Mayor Emory Folmar, resided here . . . — Map (db m86115) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Forest Avenue's Medical Facilities / Oak Park Montgomery's First Public Park|
| Side A
Forest Avenue's Medical Facilities
With the growth of the Highland Park suburb in the 1890s, a medical community developed along Forest Avenue. In 1895, Dr. Isaac Watkins opened Highland Park Sanatorium in three frame houses in the 500 block. In early 1920s, Watkins sold to Dr. T. Brannon Hubbard who practiced in one and conducted a nursing school in another. Later, he built Hubbard Hospital adjacent to them. Dr. Hubbard closed his hospital in 1956, but continued to . . . — Map (db m71264) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 7 — Four Points: One of Several Black Business Hubs in Montgomery — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Corner of Mildred and Mobile Streets|
| Four Points: One of Several Black Business Hubs in Montgomery,
and the Impact of Desegregation on Black Business Districts
The intersection of Mildred and Moore Streets was once
home to Four Points, a thriving black business district.
The neighborhood streets were filled with locally
owned grocery stores, dentists, shops, gas stations,
and professional offices. Mothers and children walked
after school to shops and visited with neighbors and
community leaders. Family . . . — Map (db m91462) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Fred David Gray — Civil Rights Attorney and Legislator / Advocate for Victims and History|
| Side 1
Born in 1930 in Montgomery, Gray was among the foremost civil rights attorneys of the 20th century. Forced by segregation to leave Alabama to attend law school, he vowed to return and "destroy everything segregated I could find." Over a six-decade career, his cases desegregated transportation, education. housing, law enforcement, public accommodations, and government. In the U.S. Supreme Court, Browder v. Gayle won the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Gomillion v. . . . — Map (db m80842) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 4 — From Bus Boycott to Voting Rights: Community Activism 1955-65 — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — West Jefferson Davis near Loveless School|
|The foundation of the civil rights movement was based in the grassroots strength of West Montgomery. The historic black communities located along this route provided the leadership and support for over a decade.
Whether it was the clergymen, the local business owners, or the individual families, everyone played a role in the longevity and determination of the movement.
During the 13-month Montgomery Bus Boycott, community leaders encouraged Montgomery "everyday residents" to continue the . . . — Map (db m91466) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — General Charles Graham Boyd|
This historical marker is given in honor of General Charles Graham Boyd and the other brave Americans, living and dead, who as prisoners of war, at times enduring the most brutal treatment imaginable, loved their country and kept the faith when hope seemed forlorn.
Given by his friends — Map (db m81751) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — George Washington — 1776 - 1976|
|Presented to the citizens of the State of Alabama honoring our brother George Washington our first Masonic President and in commemoration of 200 years of freedom under our constitutional form of government. — Map (db m36644) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Georgia Gilmore — February 5, 1920 - March 3, 1990|
|Georgia Gilmore, cited as a “solid energetic boycott participant and supporter.” Lived in this house during the days of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Once arrested on a bus, Gilmore was ardent in her efforts to raise funds for the Movement and organized “Club From Nowhere” whose members baked pies and cakes for sale to both black and white customers. Opening her home to all, she tirelessly cooked meals for participants including Dr. Martin Luther King and Dr. Ralph . . . — Map (db m28197) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Governor Jones House|
|Thomas Goode Jones, governor of Alabama from 1890-1894, occupied this house during his long political career which took him from the Montgomery City Council to a federal judgeship. During his two terms as governor, his home was the Executive Mansion and later frequently used as a federal courtroom. Originally a four room cottage, the house was enlarged by Jones in the early '90s. His son, the noted jurist Walter B. Jones, continued to live in his family home and inaugurated Jones Law School in . . . — Map (db m36585) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Governor Shorter House — 503 S. Lawrence St.|
|Residence of Civil War Governor John Gill Shorter, 1861-63. A strong supporter of Confederacy, Shorter built up defenses of state during war. Growing "Peace Movement" led to his defeat for re-election 1863.
House acquired by Jacob Greil 1878. Held by Greil family until 1910. A former Confederate officer, Greil became prominent Montgomery businessman and civic leader.
House built 1854, in Italianate style by John P. Dickerson. Neo-classical portico, frieze, and interior details added early 1900's. — Map (db m74386) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Governor William Calvin Oates / Colonel W. C. Oates, CSA at Gettysburg|
| (Side 1)
Governor William Calvin Oates
Born in Pike County into a poor Alabama family in 1835, Oates practiced law in Abbeville when the War began. Elected Captain of the "Henry Pioneers," Co. G, 15th Alabama Infantry. He saw service in Jackson's Corps and was appointed Colonel of the 15th Regiment in 1863. Given command of the 48th Alabama infantry in July 1864, Oates' right arm was shattered by a minie ball at Petersburg in August 1864. He later served Alabama as a . . . — Map (db m86116) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Gunter Annex / Gunter Basic Flying Training School|
On 27 Aug. 1940, the AAF leased the Montgomery Municipal Airport for use as a military airfield. During WW II, the field was the home of the AAF Basic Flying Training School and was named in honor of Mayor William A. Gunter. It later housed Extension Course Institute, AU Field Printing Plant, School of Aviation Medicine, and Air Force Senior NCO Academy. Tenants included the Air Defense Sector, HQ 14th Air Force, and Standard Systems Group. The field . . . — Map (db m68111) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Harris House|
| Front Between May 20-24, 1961 Dr. Harris opened this home to a group of 33 students from Nashville, Tennessee, who were challenging interstate bus segregation. Known as the Freedom Riders, the group was attacked at the historic Montgomery Greyhound Bus Station upon arrival and harassed by rioters. In the days following the attack, martial law was declared and Harris' home served as a haven for the Freedom Riders. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Dr. Ralph D. Abernathy, James Farmer, John . . . — Map (db m86119) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Here Stood Mrs. Rosa Parks — Mother of the Civil Rights Movement|
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated
Mrs. Rosa Parks
Mother of the Civil Rights Movement
honorary member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.
where she boarded the Montgomery Public Bus
December 1, 1955
Dr. Barbara A. McKinzie Centennial International President
Dr. Juanita Sims Doty, Centennial South Eastern Regional Director
Marker dedicated March 2008 — Map (db m85986) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Heroes' Welcome — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail|
|The ranks of marchers swelled enormously by the last leg
of the trip on Wednesday, March 24, 1965. By the time
they arrived at the last campsite, only two miles from the
city limits at the Saint Jude complex, they were 10,000
strong. Dirty and disheveled, they slogged through a field
of mud to reach the tents, their shelter for the night.
For the exhausted marchers, the welcome and hospitality
they received from the local black community surrounding
St. Jude—known as the . . . — Map (db m91482) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — High Red Bluff — (Chunnanugga Chatty in Creek Indian Language)|
|Also called Hostile Bluff or Thirteen Mile Bluff, this spot located in a deep bend of the Alabama River was once the key to the Southeast and a strategic point in Colonial days. The first steamboat, the Harriet, arrived at this point in 1821, and the first railroad came in 1880, making Montgomery a transportation hub for people and commerce. When cotton was king, millions of bales were shipped from the wharf here by steam boat to Mobile and thence to the mills of England. The tunnel under the . . . — Map (db m86120) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 5 — Highway Construction Destroys Historic Black Neighborhoods — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — The Cloverleaf beneath Interstates 65 and 85|
|The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, signed into law by President
Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorized the construction of 41,000 miles
of the Interstate Highway System over a ten year period - the largest
public works project in American history to that time.
State and city officials sought locations for the new interstates
where transportation paths were reasonable, but also in areas
where land acquisition costs were low. Many of these "right of
way" areas were selected in minority . . . — Map (db m91465) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Historic Site of St. James Holt Crossing Baptist Church|
|On this site, the St. James Baptist Church #2, also known as St. James Holt Crossing Baptist Church, stood as the oldest Baptist church founded by African Americans in the City of Montgomery. Organized in 1875, the Church occupied two buildings on this property—one was relocated to make way for the railroad in 1908, and the second was relocated in 2004 as part of improvements to adjoining properties. The Church now resides east of Zelda Road on property formerly owned by the Alabama . . . — Map (db m71339) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — History of the Alabama State Bar|
|On December 13, 1878, a meeting was held in Montgomery for the purpose of forming a bar association, and on January 15, 1879, delegates from each county met for five days at a preliminary conference in the Hall of the House of Representatives. The Constitution and By-laws were adopted and officers elected to serve until the first annual meeting. W.L. Bragg of Montgomery was elected president. An act incorporating the State Bar Association was approved by the governor on February 12, 1879, and . . . — Map (db m86121) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Holt Street Baptist Church|
|Congregation founded by former members of Bethel Baptist Church in 1909. Under leadership of Rev. I.S. Fountain, group met for four years in Labor's Hall, corner of Cobb and Mobile Streets, before purchasing this site and constructing church in 1913. Congregation added wing 1946, and in 1953 demolished old structure and built present sanctuary. On evening of December 5, 1955, the first day of Bus Boycott, some 5,000 people gathered here. Dr. Martin Luther King, newly elected leader of . . . — Map (db m71086) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Dr. E. D. Nixon, Sr. — 20th Century Civil Rights Activist|
|Nationally recognized as a pioneer of the modern day Civil Rights Movement, Edgar D. Nixon, Sr., posted bail for segregation law violator Rosa Parks. In her defense, Nixon gathered the support of Montgomery blacks in implementing the successful 1955-56 Montgomery Bus Boycott. His commitment & active involvement as a grassroots organizer, civic leader & founder of the Montgomery NAACP chapter has paralleled local movements for the advancement of blacks, & on several occasions, initiated local . . . — Map (db m81801) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Ralph David Abernathy — (March 11, 1926-April 30, 1990)|
|This was the home of Dr. Ralph David Abernathy, a central leader of the historic events of the Civil Rights Movement.
Dr. Abernathy graduated from Alabama State University in 1950 and from Atlanta University in 1951. He and his family lived here while he was pastor of the First Baptist Church located on Ripley Street in Montgomery, Alabama.
In 1955, Abernathy along with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., helped lead the successful boycott of Montgomery’s segregated bus system. In 1957, . . . — Map (db m71232) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — House of the Mayors|
|Built in the 1850's for Jack Thorington, mayor of Montgomery from 1838-39, this House has also been the home of Mordecai Moses, mayor in the late 1870's, and Joseph Norwood who had been mayor of Fort Deposit before coming to Montgomery. Moses owned the home from 1868 until its purchase in 1893 by Norwood whose family converted it into apartments in 1940. The House has undergone several alterations and exhibits excellent architectural ornamentation which evidences the tastes of each period of . . . — Map (db m71226) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Howell Thomas Heflin — Twenty-Forth Chief Justice — 1971-1977|
|A native of Tuscumbia, he was the son of Reverend Marvin R. Heflin and Louise D. Strudwick Heflin. He was a graduate of Colbert County High School, Birmingham Southern College, and the University of Alabama School of Law. He was a past President of the Alabama State Bar. He was the first recipient of the Daniel J. Meador Award given by the University of Alabama School of Law.
In 1973, he received the distinguished Alumnus Award from the University of Alabama and Birmingham Southern College . . . — Map (db m69336) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Huntingdon College|
| Coeducational liberal arts college of the United Methodist Church
1854: Founded as Tuskegee Female College
1872: Acquired by the Methodist Church, renamed Alabama Conference Female College
1909: Moved to this site as Woman's College of Alabama
1935: Renamed Huntingdon College for patron of British Methodism
Motto: Enter to Grow in Wisdom; Go Forth to Apply Wisdom in Service — Map (db m86122) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — James Edwin Livingston — Twenty-Third Chief Justice — 1951-1971|
|A native of Notasulga in Macon County, Alabama, he was the son of Mrs. Stella Elizabeth (Burks) Livingston and Mr. James Cooper Livingston of Macon County.
Chief Justice Livingston attended the public school of Macon County and Alabama Polytechnic Institute (Auburn University). He obtained his law degree from the University of Alabama in 1918 and was commissioned a 2nd Lt. in the U.S. Army. He was one of five brothers who served during World War I. After serving in the U.S. Army, he . . . — Map (db m86123) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — James Marion Sims — 1813 - 1888 — Father of Modern Gynecology|
Montgomery 1848-1849 Operations he devised cured a then considered hopeless malady—gaining him fame as a benefactor of women.
Founded—Women's Hospital—City of New York—-1855. Decorated by Emperor of France—Kings of Belgium, Spain, Portugal and Italy. — Map (db m87208) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Jefferson Davis — June 3, 1808- December 6, 1889 — Soldier Scholar Statesman|
|A graduate of West Point Military Academy, he served the United States as Colonel of Mississippi Volunteers, Mexican War; member of House of Representatives, Senator, and as Secretary of War. Inaugurated President of the provisional government, Confederate States of America, February 18, 1861. — Map (db m36677) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — John Allan Wyeth — M.D., L.L.D.|
|Confederate Soldier Surgeon and Author Born Marshall County, Ala. 1845 Died New York City 1922 Founder of the New York Polyclinic Medical School and Hospital and of Graduate Medical and Surgical Teaching in America. — Map (db m36639) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Johnnie R. and Arlam Carr, Sr. Home|
|This home was originally owned in 1901 by Emily V. Semple. It changed hands several times until purchased by Flora K. Daniels and Arlam and Johnnie R. Carr, Sr. The Carrs moved into this residence in 1943. They resided here during the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott. Johnnie Carr was an active member of the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) under the leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., at that time. In 1964, Johnnie and Arlam Carr, Sr. became the lead plaintiffs on behalf of their . . . — Map (db m71265) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Jonathan Coggswell Farley / Montgomery's First Election|
| Side A Jonathan Coggswell Farley 1798-1864Farley acquired two lots on this site in 1817. Here he built both the town's first frame store and first frame two-story building, his house. In Farley's store, an election was held January 3, 1820 to create Montgomery's first governing body. Farley and three others were named in an act of the Alabama General Assembly to conduct and manage this first election. Farley was born in Ipswich, Massachusetts in 1798. About 1816, he sailed from . . . — Map (db m86124) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Joseph Lister Hill — 1894 - 1984|
| U. S. Congress 1923 - 1938 U. S. Senate 1938-1969 — Map (db m73043) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Josiah Morris — 1818-1891|
|Had his bank on this site 1852-1891. He helped finance Montgomery's business, railroads and industry. Here on Dec. 19, 1870, he bought 4150 acres of land and deeded them to the Elyton Land Co. which later was platted, and on his motion named the City of Birmingham. — Map (db m36648) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 9 — Judge Frank M. Johnson: Judicial Fairness in the Age of Segregation — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Molton and Montgomery Streets|
|Following two attempted marches from Selma in 1965
civil rights leaders turned to the federal courts for legal
protection prior to the Selma To Montgomery March.
Federal District Court Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr.,
appointed by President Eisenhower in 1955, oversaw the
case. Judge Johnson had previously ruled with the majority
opinion in the case that made it illegal to segregate city
busses after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give
up her seat to white passengers. Looking at . . . — Map (db m91321) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Juliette Hampton Morgan / Montgomery City-County Public Library|
| (side 1)
Juliette Hampton Morgan
Juliette Hampton Morgan was a white Montgomery, Alabama librarian whose privileged upbringing seemed unlikely to produce the determined civil rights activist that she became. Her letters to the Montgomery Advertiser supporting the 1956 Bus Boycott, integration of the University of Alabama, and national compliance with public school integration drew fire from traditionalists who demanded her resignation. People boycotted the Carnegie . . . — Map (db m71258) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Kahl Montgomery/Catoma Street Church of Christ|
| (side 1)
Jewish citizens organized in 1846; Kahl (Congregation) Montgomery chartered April 12, 1852. New Orleans philanthropist Judah Touro willed $2,000 as nucleus for temple building fund. Property acquired 1858. Philadelphia architect John Stewart designed Romanesque Revival edifice. Interior followed traditional plan with separate seating for men and women. Ark, which contained Torah Scroll, remains visible. Building dedicated 1862; named Beth-Or (House of . . . — Map (db m86125) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Knox Hall|
|Designed by Stephen Decatur Button, Knox Hall built in the 1840's by William Knox, a native of Ireland who settled in Montgomery in 1830's. Knox founded Central Bank of Montgomery which made first loans to Confederate government.
House incorporates details from LeFever's "Beauties of Modern Architecture," leading Greek Revival pattern book of ante-bellum period. — Map (db m71250) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Ladies Memorial Association|
| To the
Ladies Memorial Association
formed in this auditorium
April 1866 for the purpose
of ministering to the living
Confederate soldier and
to keep in remembrance
his high principles
and heroic deeds.
This tablet placed in
loving remembrance by the
Montgomery Junior Memorial
April 26, 1912
was originally installed in . . . — Map (db m71277) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lilly Baptist Church — "The Lilly" — 820 Hill Street|
|Lilly Baptist Church, established November, 1900 as a missionary church of Bethel Missionary Baptist. Originally located on St. Clair Street in a small frame building. Moved May 27, 1973, into new 1500-seat sanctuary at present location. Education Complex added April, 1985.
Known as "The Lilly," church was active in Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56). Noted for its music, the church has seven choirs which recorded albums in 1974 and 1984. 500 members of congregation participated in nationally . . . — Map (db m71088) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lincoln Cemetery / Rufus Payne, 1884-1939|
In 1907 the American Securities Company opened Lincoln Cemetery for African Americans and Greenwood Cemetery for whites, the first commercial cemeteries in the city. Landscape design indicates Olmstead influences with curving drives and two circular sections. Space allotted for 700 graves with first interment in 1908. Most graves are simple concrete slabs with evidences of African-American funerary art and late-Victorian motifs. Marble markers . . . — Map (db m71342) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lomax House, 1848|
|Built by James J. Gilmer. Purchased by Reuben C. Shorter, 1849, for his wife, Caroline A.V. Billingslea, who later married Tennent Lomax, captain and governor of Orizaba, Mexican War colonel, 3rd Ala. Infantry Regt., CSA, killed at Battle of Seven Pines, 1862.
Social center of Montgomery for 60 years. Purchased in 1932 and restored to its original condition in 1972 by the Preferred Life Insurance Company. — Map (db m86128) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Loveless School/Henry Allen Loveless|
Montgomery's first junior and senior high schools for African American students began in Loveless School. Built in 1923 and enlarged in 1930, this building first housed seven grades; the opening of Carver Elementary School and the reduction in enrollment made possible additional classes at Loveless. Under Principal T.H. Randall, the first seniors graduated in May, 1940. In 1948, George Washington Carver Senior High organized and had first classes here, . . . — Map (db m71082) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lucas Tavern / Lafayette|
Stood four hundred yards
north of this point
Spent the night here
April 2, 1825 — Map (db m71358) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lucien Dunbibben Gardner — Twenty-Second Chief Justice — 1940-1951|
|A native of Troy, Lucien Dunbibben Gardner graduated with a Bachelor of Science Degree, from the State Normal School at Troy in 1894. He earned his Bachelor of Arts Degree from The University of Alabama and graduated from the Law Department in 1897. That same year he was admitted to the bar and began law practice in his hometown.
He served as Register in Chancery from 1898 until 1903. In 1906, he was elected State Senator of Alabama. Appointed Chancellor of The Southeastern Chancery . . . — Map (db m69333) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Major Charles W. Davis, Infantry United States Army / "Above and Beyond"|
|Major Charles W. Davis A native of Montgomery, graduate of Lanier, alumnus of the Universities of Alabama and Maryland. Major Davis was awarded the Medal of Honor as Executive Officer, 2d Battalion, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. "For distinguishing himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on Guadalcanal Island. On 12 January 1943, he volunteered to carry instructions to the leading companies of his . . . — Map (db m86129) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Marquis de Lafayette|
|On this site stood, until December 1899, the house in which Marquis de Lafayette was given a public reception and ball, April 4, 1825, while on his last tour through the United States.
This tablet is placed by the Society of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of Alabama in lasting memory of this illustrious patriot and soldier of the Revolution, the friend of Washington and the youthful champion of liberty.
April 4, 1825 - April 4, 1905 — Map (db m70727) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Marshall J. Moore House|
|In 1900, Marshall Moore and his wife, Agnes V. McClain commissioned Joseph G. Nesbitt, Sr., an African-American contractor/builder, to construct this Victorian period cottage. The Moores, among the first graduates and early faculty members of Lincoln Normal School in Marion (Perry County), moved to Montgomery in 1887 when the school was relocated here. It was re-named the State Normal School for Colored Students (now Alabama State University).
From 1936 until 1993, the house remained in the . . . — Map (db m86130) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Minister's Home / Dr. Martin Luther King — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church|
| Side A House built circa 1912. It has been the home of the ministers of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church since 1919. Its most famous occupant, Dr. Martin Luther King, lived here from Sept. 1954-Feb. 1960. During this time he led the Bus Boycott launching an outstanding career as a world leader for civil rights and humanitarian causes. When a bomb damaged the house on January 31, 1956, Dr. King returned from a Boycott meeting and calmed an angry crowd from the porch, averting possible . . . — Map (db m86132) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery|
|After Horseshoe Bend defeat, Creeks ceded millions of acres to United States. Cotton was in great demand. This area ideal for crop which is still planted on peninsular across river. In 1817, lands went on sale. Andrew Dexter, Massachusetts lawyer, founded village of New Philadelphia (Capitol Area). John Scott and Georgians established Alabama Town on bluff to west. Year later, this group acquired land adjacent to Dexter's, settled East Alabama Town. (Commerce Street). 1819, latter two joined to . . . — Map (db m61802) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery and Electricity / Hydroelectricity in the River Region|
Montgomery and Electricity
Gaslights in 1854, electric lights in 1883 and the electric trolley in 1886 made Montgomery a state leader in applying modern technology for lighting and motive power. Steam was used first for generation, but in 1902 local businessmen built a dam on the Tallapoosa River to provide electricity for the city. Several companies competed fiercely to supply the growing demand. Montgomery Light and Power and Montgomery Light and Traction struggled . . . — Map (db m71367) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery Area Chamber of Commerce — The Forefront of Montgomery's Future|
| Side A The first American Chamber of Commerce was organized in New York City in 1770. The Montgomery Chamber was organized in 1873. Thomas Joseph was its first President. The Alabama State Journal stated at its founding, "Montgomery ought to have a Chamber of Commerce. Located in the midst of one of the richest agricultural districts in the South, the political center of the commonwealth, and the commercial center of a large section which obtain here their supplies, the Chamber . . . — Map (db m36568) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery City Hall / Funeral for Hank Williams|
| (Front) Built 1936-37 Following a fire in 1932 that destroyed a 19th century City Hall, architect Frank Lockwood designed a replacement for the same site. With the Depression affecting all construction projects during the period, the city received federal assistance through the Works Progress Administration. Completed in 1937, the City Hall included offices for city officials and an auditorium to accommodate large crowds for public programs, debutante balls and social gatherings. . . . — Map (db m36571) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery County Korean War Veterans|
|In grateful memory of the men and women of Montgomery County who fought for God and country on the field of honor in the Korean War They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning we will remember them. — Map (db m36578) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery Freemasonry|
Freemasonry is a fraternal order which promotes a spirit of brotherhood, devotion to family, and service to God and country. Local Masonic Lodges and affiliated organizations, such as the Eastern Star, Scottish and York Rite bodies, the Shrine, Rainbow Girls, and Order of DeMolay, support many beneficial charities, medical facilities, and educational foundations.
1821: Nine Masonic Lodges formed Grand Lodge of Alabama F. & A.M and Montgomery Lodge No. 11 . . . — Map (db m71374) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery Theatre|
|Opened in Oct. 1860 as the South moved closer to secession, the theatre was significant in the social, cultural and political life of the city. In the early months, John Wilkes Booth performed here, Bryant Minstrels introduced "Dixie," which was transcribed for the Montgomery Brass Band. Southern leaders Robert Toombs, Alexander Stephens and William L. Yancey addressed packed houses. Later the city's location on route between New Orleans and Atlanta brought performers Edwin Forrest, Joseph . . . — Map (db m36572) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery’s Slave Markets / First Emancipation Observance - 1866|
| Side A The city’s slave market was at the Artesian Basin (Court Square). Slaves of all ages were auctioned, along with land and livestock, standing in line to be inspected. Public posters advertised sales and included gender, approximate age, first name (slaves did not have last names), skill, price, complexion and owner’s name. In the 1850s, able field hands brought $1,500; skilled artisans $3,000. In 1859, the city had seven auctioneers and four slave depots: one at Market Street . . . — Map (db m28187) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery's Panel Project|
| Montgomery's Cotton Slide
The history of Montgomery Panel Project is place on top of the remains of Montgomery's Cotton Slide. The Cotton Slide was used to transport heavy cotton bales from the streets above to the waiting steamboats below.
Before the arrival of the first Europeans, Montgomery was inhabited by Native Americans known as the Alibamu Creeks. They lived in small towns and villages throughout the River Region, and relied on the river for their . . . — Map (db m78145) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery's Slave Depots/Montgomery's Slave Traders|
Montgomery's Slave Depots
Montgomery slave traders operated depots where enslaved men, women, and children were confined. The slave depots functioned as active trading sites and as detention facilities where the enslaved were held captive until they were auctioned at Court Square. The city had four major slave depots. Three of the depots lined Market Street (now Dexter Avenue) between Lawrence and McDonough and were owned by Mason Harwell, S.N. Brown, and E. Barnard & . . . — Map (db m71227) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal AME Zion Church|
Located in the heart of one of Montgomery's historic African-American neighborhoods. Mount Zion A.M.E. Zion Church was constructed in 1899 and heavily remodeled in 1921. It served as a significant center for religious, political, and social life for blacks in Montgomery throughout most of the twentieth-century.
The seeds of protest were growing in Montgomery long before the arrest of Rosa Parks on December 1, 1955, and the bus boycott. Rev. Solomon Seay, pastor of Mt. Zion . . . — Map (db m86411) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Murphy House|
| Greek Revival Home built, 1851 by John H. Murphy, cotton broker and an incorporator and director of the Montgomery Water Works Company, chartered 1854. Union Army Provost Marshal's Headquarters 1865. Elks Club 1902-1967 Restored by Montgomery Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board, 1970 — Map (db m36569) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Naming the City of Montgomery / Brigadier General Richard Montgomery|
Naming the City of Montgomery
Montgomery named for Richard Montgomery, first
American general killed in the Revolutionary War.
In 1819, the Alabama Legislature combined New
Philadelphia and East Alabama to form Montgomery.
Walter B. Lucas, later of Lucas' Tavern on Line
Creek, suggested the name to Andrew Dexter,
prompted by fanfare occasioned by the return
of the General's body from Canada to New York
City for burial in June of 1818.
(Continued on other . . . — Map (db m69297) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Office of Dr. Luther Leonidas Hill — Office Site of Dr. J. Marion Sims|
| (Side A):Office of Dr. Luther Leonidas HillThis early 20th-century building was office of Dr. L.L. Hill who, in 1902, performed first open heart surgery in the Western Hemisphere when he sutured stab wound in young boy's heart. A Montgomerian, Hill graduated in medicine from Jefferson Medical College and the University of the City of New York by the time he was 21. He then studied in London with the world renowned Dr. Joseph Lister. Hill practiced from 1884 until 1932, pioneering new . . . — Map (db m86413) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Old Elam Baptist Church Cemetery — Montgomery County|
Old Elam Baptist Church Cemetery is Montgomery County's 22nd cemetery listed in the prestigious Alabama Historic Cemetery Register. Rev. James McLemore, Electious Thompson, Arnold Edwards, and E. Jeter founded Old Elam Baptist Church on June 19, 1819. Although founded by a white congregation, for its first 46 years the church and cemetery were integrated. In 1865, the deed for the church and 10 acres including the cemetery were passed to the church's African American members.
The oldest . . . — Map (db m82565) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Old Oakwood Cemetery|
|The city cemetery was begun by donations of land from Andrew Dexter in 1817 and from General John Scott in 1818. Dexter and Scott had founded separate villages which combined to form Montgomery in 1819. The early part of the graveyard was known as Scott's Free Burying Ground. The cemetery was open to all of Montgomery's people. Many of the soldiers and prominent statesmen who shaped our history as well as ordinary citizens, hanged felons, and unknowns rest in Old Oakwood. Nearly 140 acres in . . . — Map (db m36496) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Old Ship A.M.E. Zion Church|
|This congregation was organized by the Court Street Methodist Church in the early 1850s. The latter group offered their 1835 wood frame building to the black members if they would relocate it. In 1852 the church was moved to this site under the supervision of freedman Thomas Wilson, who was assisted by Sol Brack, Solomon Hannon, Emanuel Nobel and others. White ministers served the congregation until 1862 when Allen Hannon assumed the duties. The building was remodeled in 1888 and in 1918-1920 . . . — Map (db m72170) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Ordeman House Museum|
|Built on this site by architect Charles Ordeman in 1852-1853, this upscale townhouse exemplifies the newly fashionable Italianate style, with its bracketed overhanging roof cornice and asymmetric door placement. A showcase for modern design in its day, the house includes a fully furnished basement, a well deep enough for mild refrigeration, closets, and possibly the first indoor bathroom in Montgomery.
The house became home to cotton planters, doctors, and merchants, including the Mitchell, Jones, and Shaw families. — Map (db m71394) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Percy Lavon Julian — Scientist and Humanitarian — 1899-1975|
|Born on the west side of Holt Street, April 11, 1899, Percy Lavon Julian entered Depauw University in 1916; graduated in chemistry with Phi Beta Kappa honors. Earned master's from Harvard, Ph.D. at the University of Vienna. His studies led to a synthetic drug for glaucoma. Experiments with soybean oils resulted in Compound S, an affordable synthetic form of cortisone for arthritis treatment. Julian's work included developments in production of artificial hormones and a foam for fighting fires . . . — Map (db m86418) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Pickett Springs / “The Best Public Resort”|
| Pickett Springs
Railroad building and amusement park development flourished in the post-bellum South. In 1880s, Western Railroad of Alabama opened Pickett Springs on site of William Harris’s plantation, “Forest Farm;” Harris’s daughter, Sarah, married A. J. Pickett, Alabama’s first historian, and they had their home here until Pickett’s death in 1858.
Pickett Springs occupied portion of land as community of Chisholm developed nearby.
During World War I Camp Sheridan, . . . — Map (db m38900) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Professor John Metcalfe Starke / Starke University School|
| Side A Professor John Metcalfe Starke "Fessor Starke" 1860-1941A native of Virginia, John Metcalfe Starke received his early education in Petersburg and graduated from the University of Virginia in 1882, earning diplomas in Latin and mathematics. He taught in Virginia and North Carolina before coming to Montgomery in 1887 as headmaster for a boys' school organized by prominent local men. Its success caused him to start a school of his own at Hamner Hall. In 1897 he built a building . . . — Map (db m86421) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Remount Depot / Keyton Station|
During World War I, in the summer of 1917 the U.S. Army opened a remount depot here to buy horses and mules for Camp Sheridan's 27,000-man 37th Division from Ohio. Despite the introduction of motor transport to war, an infantry division still needed nearly 4,000 horses and 2,700 mules as draft, riding and pack animals to pull 40-wagon trains, guns and field ambulances in 1918. This post occupied 160 acres alongside the Central of Georgia R.R. on the . . . — Map (db m71340) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rice-Semple-Haardt House|
| Built early 1850's by Samuel Farrow Rice, state legislator and Chief Justice, Alabama Supreme Court. Sold in late 1860's to attorney Henry Churchill Semple, whose family occupied home until 1954 when sold to John Haardt, a realtor.
Sold to State 1970. Entered National Register of Historic Places 1972. Offices of the Alabama Historical Commission since 1974. Lurleen Burns Wallace Museum since 1975. — Map (db m74157) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Louise McCauley Parks / The Bus Stop|
| Side A A Lady of Courage Born in Tuskegee, AL on February 4, 1913, to James McCauley, a carpenter, and Leona Edwards, a teacher. Moved with mother and brother to Pine Level, AL after parents' separation. Enrolled in Mrs. White's School for Girls at age 11 and received her high school diploma from Alabama State Teachers College Laboratory High School. Married Montgomery barber Raymond Parks in 1932; both became active in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored . . . — Map (db m36503) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Louise Parks — She sat down - So we can stand up — February 4, 1913 - October 24, 2005|
Mother of the modern day civil rights movement — Map (db m91278) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott|
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Louis McCauley Parks was arrested on this site for refusing the order of city bus driver J. F. Blake to vacate her seat under the segregation laws of the Jim Crow era. She was taken to police headquarters at City Hall for booking, then to the municipal jail on Ripley Street. Civil rights leader E. D. Nixon, accompanied by attorney Clifford Durr, soon arrived to post her bail. Parks's arrest galvanized black leaders to organize a boycott of the bus . . . — Map (db m91286) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Branch Library / Bertha Pleasant Williams|
| Side 1
Rosa Parks Branch Library
Second public library for blacks in City of Montgomery, this building opened in 1960 as Montgomery Branch Library on Cleveland Avenue. Designed by architect James Miller Davis, it served the black population at a time the main facility on High Street prohibited their patronage. Planned to contain 15,000 volumes, this structure has meeting rooms and areas for adults, teen-agers and children. Judge Frank Johnson ordered desegregation of . . . — Map (db m71388) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Montgomery Bus Boycott / Hank Williams Alabama Troubadour|
| Side A
At the bus stop on this site on December 1, 1955, Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to boarding whites. This brought about her arrest, conviction, and fine. The Boycott began December 5, the day of Parks’ trial, as a protest by African - Americans for unequal treatment they received on the bus line. Refusing to ride the buses, they maintained the Boycott until the U. S. Supreme Court ordered integration of public transportation one year later. Dr. Martin Luther . . . — Map (db m86422) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Royal Air Force Burial Ground|
|Buried here are 78 officers and men of the Royal Air Force who lost their lives whilst training in Montgomery, Alabama during the Second World War.
Nearly 1,000 men who died during that war or the First World War when serving with the forces of Britain or the other Commonwealth countries lie buried in cemeteries throughout the United States of America.
Their graves and this Cross of Sacrifice which commemorates them are maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. — Map (db m88770) HM WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Second National Confederate Flag — ("Stainless Banner")|
The intensity of the war caused the desire for a new national flag that was in no way similar to the U.S. flag. The "Stainless Banner" was adopted by the Confederate Congress on May 1, 1863. The cross of St. Andrew, depicted on the flag, has been consecrated on the battlefield when variations of its design had been carried as a "battle flag" by many Southern units. The white field stood for the purity of the cause of independence.
Credit: From the collection of the . . . — Map (db m86423) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Selma-to-Montgomery March|
| Side A The Selma-to-Montgomery March ended here on March 25, 1965, when 25,000 civil rights marchers arrived at the Alabama State Capitol to demand the right to vote for African Americans. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders addressed the marchers and the nation, culminating a series of demonstrations that began in Selma on March 7 - "Bloody Sunday" - when some 600 peaceful protesters were savagely beaten by lawmen as they tried to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. . . . — Map (db m62747) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Sherman W. White, Jr. — (1919 - 1943) — First Lieutenant, 99th Fighter Squadron|
Sherman, Sr. and Nettie White lived at this address on W. Jeff Davis Ave. Both teachers, they taught their children Sherman Jr., Willa, James, and Samson to love their country and value education. Willa, James, and Samson would graduate from college. Sherman, Jr. left school at the U. of Chicago to enlist as an Army Air Forces aviation cadet at Tuskegee, Alabama. At Tuskegee were trained the first African-American military aviators in the history of the U.S. Armed Forces. In the third . . . — Map (db m71084) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Sidney Lanier High School|
|Established in 1910 on South McDonough Street, this school was named for the well-known southern poet, Sidney Lanier, who resided in Montgomery 1866-67.
This late Gothic Revival building was constructed 1928-29 to consolidate the original Lanier and Montgomery County (Cloverdale) High Schools. The name of the new school was decided by the outcome of the football game between the two schools in the fall of 1929. Frederick Ausfeld was the architect, Algernon Blair the contractor and . . . — Map (db m86424) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Site of the Warren Reese House|
|This was the site of the home of Warren Stone Reese (1842-1898) --planter, cotton merchant, soldier, and mayor of Montgomery.
Reese, promoted to the rank of colonel in the Confederacy for gallantry at Chickamauga, became commander of the Twelfth Alabama Cavalry. He was reputed to have been the youngest colonel in the Army of Tennessee and to have been recommended for Brigadier-General during the closing days of the war.
He served Montgomery as mayor 1885-87 and 1887-89 and during . . . — Map (db m81807) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Smith - Joseph - Stratton House|
|Only surviving residence of former Mayor E.B. Joseph. The Italianate cottage was built c. 1855 by Pickett Chauncey Smith, a merchant in antebellum Montgomery, and father-in-law of E.B. Joseph, who occupied the house from 1880 to 1885. Joseph served on the City Council for six years and was Mayor from 1899 to 1903. He helped develop Highland Park, Montgomery's first suburb, and was president of Montgomery's first streetcar system, the first electric system in the United States. From 1913 to 1921 . . . — Map (db m86426) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — South Jackson Street / Victor Hugo Tulane|
South Jackson Street
Long a home to African-American professionals, politicians, and businessmen, South Jackson Street is in the heart of Centennial Hill, a neighborhood which developed in the 1870s. One block north at No. 309 is the house where Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. lived during the Bus Boycott; No. 341 was the home of John W. Jones, Lowndes County senator in the Reconstruction legislature. Building on NE corner is former Ben Moore Hotel, site of many Civil . . . — Map (db m71354) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — St. John's Episcopal Church — Organized 1834|
| Present building erected 1855 under rectorship of Nicholas Hamner Cobbs, first Bishop of Alabama. Primary convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America was held here, July 3-6, 1861. Charles Minnegerode Beckwith, fourth Bishop of Alabama, consecrated here, December 17, 1902. — Map (db m36570) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church|
|St. Peter's Church has occupied this site since a small wooden church, begun in 1833, was built on land donated by Mr. Edward Hanrick. Rt. Rev. Michael Portier, D.D., first Catholic Bishop of Mobile, dedicated the first church on April 25, 1834. A brick structure, comprising most of the present edifice, replaced the original church and was dedicated on September 10, 1852. An extension of twenty-five feet in front -- the current Spanish-style facade and towers -- was added in 1882. — Map (db m36581) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Struggle For Colonial Empire|
|Here on May 24, 1703, Alabama Indians ambushed the first French explorers from Mobile, killing three and wounding two critically. The Indians were armed and were used as pawns by British agents from Carolina in the European struggle for dominion over North America. — Map (db m67999) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 3 — Support: Local and Organizational — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Near Early and Oak Streets|
|The civil rights movement in Montgomery was born from the support
of both organized groups and individual residents. The day-in-day-out support came from local citizens, who were guided by groups on both the local and the national level.
The Montgomery lmprovement Association (MIA) was formed in
Montgomery at Mt. Zion AME Zion Church on December 5, 1955 by black ministers and community leaders. Under the leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Edgar Nixon, the MIA was instrumental . . . — Map (db m91467) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Swayne College / Booker T. Washington School|
| Side A Named for Union General and Freemen’s Bureau Agent Wager Swayne, Swayne College was dedicated 21 April 1869. The Bureau appropriated $10,000 for the building and the local black community purchased 3.5 acres for the site. Future officeholder Elijah Cook submitted the winning location of Union and Grove Streets. The building stood three stories high and was constructed by Henry Duncan with ventilation by Isaac Frazier. George Stanley Pope became the first principal of the school . . . — Map (db m28171) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Teague House — Greek Revival Architecture — Built in 1848 by Berry Owens|
|On April 11, 1865, federal troops, known as "Wilson's Raiders," approached the city. Lacking means of defense, city officials agreed to surrender the city.
From the front portico of this house was read the order of Gen. James H. Wilson, USA, placing the first Capital of the Confederacy under martial law on April 12, 1865.
This house, typical of many homes of the period, was home successively of the Owens, Ware, Walker, Graham, and Teague families.
Since 1955 it has served as . . . — Map (db m71249) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Teague Road|
|This 2.8-mile road connecting U.S. highways 331 and 31 first appeared on Montgomery County road maps in 1928. Land for the road was deeded to Montgomery County in September 1926 by local landowners from the Teague, Bellingrath and Matthews families. The road took the Teague name from brothers William Martin and Robert S., prominent pioneers in county agriculture and commerce. Teague Road's name was changed in January 2004 when Hyundai automotive built its 1,720-acre plant on the road. — Map (db m70932) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Telegram Which Began War Between The States / Winter Building|
Telegram Which Began War Between The States
Montgomery, April 11, 1861
General Beauregard, Charleston:
Do not desire needlessly to bombard Fort Sumter. If Major Anderson will state the time at which, as indicated by him, he will evacuate, and agree that in the meantime he will not use his guns against us unless ours should be employed against Fort Sumter, you are thus authorized to avoid the effusion of blood. If this or its equivalent be refused, reduce . . . — Map (db m22524) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Capital City Guards — 1885 - 1905|
|In July 1885, the state Adjutant General authorized the organization of a black infantry company known as the Capital City Guards. Joseph L. Ligon was elected captain. Over the next 20 years, the Capital City Guards were a source of tremendous civic pride in the African-American community. They participated in formal inspections, drills, and encampments, as well as in Emancipation Day parades and annual commencement exercises at Tuskegee Institute. Drill meetings were held at Dorsette Hall at . . . — Map (db m71260) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Domestic Slave Trade/Slave Transportation to Montgomery|
The Domestic Slave Trade
Beginning in the seventeenth century, millions of African people were kidnapped, sold into slavery, and shipped to the Americas as part of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. In 1808, the United States Congress banned the importation of slaves from Africa. At the same time, the high price of cotton and the development of the cotton gin caused the demand for slave labor to skyrocket in the lower South. The Domestic Slave Trade grew to meet this demand. . . . — Map (db m86427) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Dowe Houses|
The three Dowe houses are a reminder of the residential neighborhood that existed here in the 19th century.
The main family residence, dating from 1863, was originally designed as an Italianate-style "raised cottage." But in 1908, the high porch, approached by twin curving stairs, was replaced by the present two-story columned portico. The house was built for John Dowe, an Irish-born grocer and confectioner, his wife Joanna, and their several children. Descendants . . . — Map (db m86428) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The E. L. Posey Parking Lot|
|This site, known as “Posey’s Parking Lot,” served the black community as one of two major transportation centers during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Mrs. Rosa Parks’s December 1, 1955 arrest following her refusal to surrender her seat at the order of the white bus driver sparked protests against segregation on the Montgomery City Bus Lines. After city authorities outlawed the use of black taxis as an alternative form of transportation for boycotters, the parking lot, operated by . . . — Map (db m71261) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The First White House of the Confederacy|
| On this site stood the First White House of the Confederacy William Sayre built his townhouse here between 1832 and 1835. On February 21, 1861, the provisional Confederate Congress leased it for the Executive Residence. President Jefferson Davis and his family lived here before the CSA capital moved to Richmond. The White House Association saved the house, moved it next to the Capitol, restored it, dedicated it as a museum, and gave it to the people of Alabama on June 3, 1921. Sponsored . . . — Map (db m62748) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 8 — The Five Points Area: A Unique Blend of Communities in 1965 — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail|
|Located at the hilltop overlooking Downtown
Montgomery, Five Points is an intersection of history
and humanity. Here the historic black communities of
West Montgomery meet the Cottage Hill neighborhood
featuring Montgomery's most preserved Victorian
architecture and history.
Following the Civil War, this neighborhood evolved
from large mansion homes to more simplified,
framed homes inhabited by railway workers, grocers
carpenters and laborers. The character of the Five
Points . . . — Map (db m91734) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Frank M. Johnson, Jr. Federal Building and US Courthouse|
Named in honor of Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr. (1918-1999), who served here as U.S. District Judge from 1955-1979, as U.S. Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit July 12, 1979 - October 1, 1981, and as U.S. Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit October 1, 1981 - July 23, 1999. Nationally renowned as a fearless, uncompromising jurist who rendered numerous landmark decisions upholding equality under the law, . . . — Map (db m71266) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Hon. Rufus A. Lewis — 1906 - 1999|
|Lewis began an earnest voting rights drive in the early 1940s. Credited with registering 4 generations of Montgomery voters. He established Citizenship Schools that tutored prospective black voters to fill out the literacy text, a barrier before the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Lewis opened, in 1952 the "Citizens' Club,” a night club for African Americans who were registered voters and who helped others to become voters. Lewis was a graduate of Fisk University and served as . . . — Map (db m86429) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Jackson-Community House/The Montgomery City Federation of Women’s Clubs|
The Jackson-Community House
In 1853, Jefferson Franklin Jackson, a native Alabamian and U.S. Attorney for the Alabama Middle District, built this two-story clapboard home originally with a dogtrot pattern. A Whig Party member, by 1862, Jackson was a wealthy land and slave owner who lived here with his wife and four children. By 1900, Jackson’s descendants had added a rear wing to the house and enclosed the back porch.
In 1943, the Montgomery City Federation of . . . — Map (db m71236) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Lightning Route / Central Bank Building|
|The Lightning RouteIn 1886, Montgomery became the first city in the Western Hemisphere to convert an entire street railway system to electricity. The Capital City Street Railway Co. initiated electric trolley service on one mile of the street car line the year before. Civil engineer J. A. Gaboury supervised installation of the system developed by Charles Van de Poele. The car line, fondly known as the "Lightning Route" operated until 1936. Investors in the mass transit system also were . . . — Map (db m86468) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Montgomery Slave Trade/Warehouses Used in the Slave Trade|
The Montgomery Slave Trade
Montgomery had grown into one of the most prominent slave trading communities in Alabama by 1860. At the start of the Civil War, the city had a larger slave population than Mobile, New Orleans, or Natchez, Mississippi. Montgomery attracted a growing number of major slave traders whose presence dominated the city’s geography and economy. The Montgomery probate office granted at least 164 licenses to slave traders operating in the city from 1848 . . . — Map (db m70715) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Montgomery Theater|
|On a wall in this building, "The Montgomery Theater" Dan Emmett first inscribed the score of Dixie for his minstrel orchestra. H.F. Arnold arranged it for band music and used it at the inauguration of Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy. February 18, 1861 — Map (db m36574) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Moore-Tyson-McPhillips Home — Helen Keller Frequently Visited Here|
On April 22, 1908, the Cloverdale Company issued the original deed on this lot to Cloverdale Homes, a development company. On April 19, 1909, Cloverdale Homes deeded the property to its original occupant Louis H. Moore, a local banker, and his wife, Sarah J. Moore. The original house had a white clapboard exterior.
Following other owners, the house was conveyed on May 14, 1923, to Warren Tyson, whose wife, Mildred Keller Tyson, was the sister of world-renowned Helen Keller, a frequent . . . — Map (db m69186) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March — Led by Martin Luther King, Jr.|
Ended at the foot of the Capitol steps
on March 25, 1965
Here Dr. King addressed 25,000 people
"I believe this march will go down
as one of the greatest struggles
for freedom and dignity
in the nation's history."
Martin Luther King, Jr. — Map (db m80847) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Thompson Mansion — Circa 1850s|
|An elegant blend of Greek Revival and Italianate architectual styles, the Thompson Mansion reflects the aesthetic and economic highs of the 1850s. The symmetrical layout of the house with entrances on all four sides features interior cross hallways for ventilation. Classical detailing can be seen in the front Corinthian columns and capitals, ventilator covers, cornice brackets, and ornate ironwork. Originally located in Tuskegee, the structure was the home of the Thompson family for almost a . . . — Map (db m71400) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 11 — Thousands Protest at the Seat of Government — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Dexter Avenue|
|On Thursday, March 25, 1965, the Selma to Montgomery
marchers left St. Jude and continued through the streets
of Montgomery, the crowd swelling in numbers as they
approached Court Square. By the time they reached
Dexter Avenue, a crowd of more than 25,000 arrived at
the steps of the Alabama State Capitol.
Standing in the shadow of the seat of government, Dr
Martin Luther King, Jr. faced the tired yet jubilant marchers
and delivered his now iconic speech, "How Long, Not Long." . . . — Map (db m91322) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Thunderbird Park|
Dedicated by the people of Montgomery to the skilled pilots -- past, present and Future -- who risk and give their lives to demonstrate the capabilities of air power to the American people. The Thunderbirds: the Air Force's Ambassadors in Blue
February 1, 1982
Emory Folmar, Mayor — Map (db m64429) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — To the Memory of General Marquis De La Fayette|
|In grateful recognition of his valiant service and in commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of his visit to our city — Map (db m36508) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Tribute to Montgomery's "Foot Soldiers"|
The ten bronze roundels displayed on this wall are a tribute to the
"foot soldiers" who toiled for 382 days during the Montgomery Bus
Boycott of 1955 and 1956. The roundels depict individuals who
were involved in, and events that occurred during, this important
"Struggle for Justice."
The artwork by Winfred A. Hawkins is funded by the generous
support of Hyundai Motor Manufacturing of Alabama. — Map (db m91276) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church|
|Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in 1918 at this location by ministers of what later became the American Lutheran Church under whose auspices the congregation organized a day school
on the property across the street. That school served the children in the area and was an integral part of the church's ministry. In 1959 the congregation became part of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. In 2003 Trinity merged with Grace Lutheran Church to become United Evangelical Lutheran . . . — Map (db m86469) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Union Station & Riverfront Park|
|Transportation center of Montgomery located in this area for many years. First steamboat, the "Harriet," landed nearby 1821. City wharf constructed at landing place 1823. First railroad, Montgomery & West Point R.R., developed ca. 1840. By 1900 most major railroads in Central Alabama had connections here. Union Station and Tunnel connection to river landing built 1897. Because of decline in river traffic, Tunnel closed 1930. With development of Riverfront Park 1970's, Tunnel reopened. Ramp reopened 1981. — Map (db m86470) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — United States Flag Raised Over Alabama Capitol — Apr. 12, 1865|
|MG J.H.Wilson’s Cavalry Corps raised U.S. flag over Alabama’s and the Confederacy’s first Capitol on 4/12/65, three days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox. Wilson had defeated LTG N.B. Forrest’s depleted and vastly outnumbered troops at the Confederate Arsenal city of Selma. Before fleeing Montgomery, BG D.W. Adams, CSA ordered 85,000 bales of cotton and 40,000
bushels of corn set afire to deny them to the Federals. But for the wind’s change and the heroic Montgomery firefighters, the city . . . — Map (db m86471) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — William Lowndes Yancey|
|In the house just north
Statesman, Orator, Secessionist,
Died July 28, 1863 — Map (db m71364) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — World War I Memorial|
This memorial was dedicated on April
6, 1918. After a parade through downtown
Montgomery by 30,000 predominately
Ohio troops stationed at nearby Camp
Sheridan. The original flagpole was
purchased with the contributions of the
school children of Alabama. The addition
of the flags of the fifty states of the
union gives added significance to this
memorial to the heroes from Alabama who
along with patriots from other states
have paid the supreme sacrifice in
defense of . . . — Map (db m74270) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Antioch Baptist Church — Mount Meigs, Alabama|
|Organized on June 5, 1818, the Antioch Baptist Church at Mt. Meigs was the first church of any denomination established in Montgomery County. Rev. James McLemore was its founder and first pastor. Antioch, like most churches in the county, had both white and black members before the Civil War and Reconstruction era. Antioch was officially incorporated in May of 1911 under a 9-man board of trustees. In 1919, the Antioch congregation built a new church building on land adjoining the Peoples . . . — Map (db m72011) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Chantilly Plantation|
|Chantilly Plantation was purchased in 1832 at
public outcry by Dr. Thomas Burge Taylor of
Columbia, SC as a wedding gift for his bride,
Harriott Pinkney Raoul. John Ashurst, its
original owner, had moved further west. Harriott,
a French woman, chose the name Chantilly after
Chantilly, France. She was responsible for
enlarging the home and landscaping the grounds
in the 1830s. Chantilly supplied many goods to
other area plantations. Dr. and Mrs. Taylor
had no children, so Chantilly . . . — Map (db m91529) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Georgia Washington School|
|Miss Georgia Washington founded the Peoples Village School for black students on this site in 1893. Georgia Washington was born a slave November 23, 1851 in Virginia. As a student at Hampton Institute, Virginia, she met Dr. Booker T. Washington who later recruited her to teach here in Mt. Meigs. The first year the enrollment grew from four to 100 students. She retired in 1936, after 43 years of service, and the school was deeded to Montgomery County. A new school building was dedicated in . . . — Map (db m72010) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Grace Episcopal Church|
|In the late 1850s the cluster of Episcopal families around Mt. Meigs undertook to build a church and engaged Pennsylvania architect Joseph W. Pierson to prepare the plans. The plans were submitted in April 1861, but due to the hardships caused by the Civil War and its aftermath, it was over 30 years before the church was actually built. Finally becoming a reality in 1893, Grace Church was constructed according to Pierson's original plans in the “Gothic Revival” style popular for . . . — Map (db m72012) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Lucas Hill Cemetery — Circa 1816|
|The Founders of The Waters relocated and restored this historic cemetery in May 2005. The original cemetery site, located along the Old Federal Road beyond the boundary of the Creek Indian lands at Line Creek, had fallen into ruin due to years of neglect. The Lucas Hill Cemetery is the final resting place for some of the earliest settlers who established plantations and farmsteads along the Mount Meigs Terrace now present day eastern Montgomery County, Alabama.
Listed in the Alabama . . . — Map (db m72015) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Marks House — Circa 1825|
|Built by William Matthews Marks, who immigrated from Oglethrope County, GA, on acreage purchased from the U.S. land office in Cahaba, AL for $1.25 per acre.
Foundation is pegged-together heart pine; framing is 3" by 9" timbers; mantles, dados, and all the brick are hand made. Kitchen, baths, a rose garden and pavilion for dancing were added by the Churchill Marks family in the 1920s. The house was purchased by Dr. Haywood B. (Woody) Bartlett in 1957.
In 1967, the movie of Truman's . . . — Map (db m86472) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Pike Road School|
|Montgomery County's first school to consolidate rural, one-room school houses into grades one through twelve opened November 11, 1918. The school was built by the Montgomery County Board of Education on 30 acres of land at a cost of $40,000 with monies loaned and donated by families from surrounding settlements. Hailed by the U.S. Commissioner of Education when it was featured in the Alabama Exhibit at the 1926 Sesquicentennial International Exposition in Philadelphia, the school subsequently . . . — Map (db m72017) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Ray Cemetery — Est. 1849|
|John W. Ray, his wife, Martha; their infant son; and her fifteen-year-old brother, James R. Conyers, moved to Mt. Meigs from Greene County, Georgia. He and his older brother, Isaac Ray, owned extensive landholdings along Vaughn and Taylor Roads. These early settlers were devout Missionary Baptists. John W. Ray assisted in organizing Antioch Baptist Church, the first church of any denomination organized in Montgomery County, in 1818 at Mt. Meigs. John W. Ray, James R. Conyers, and members of the . . . — Map (db m86473) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Taylor Field|
|Montgomery's first military flying installation was established 200 yards south of this spot in November of 1917. The facility was named for Captain Ralph L. Taylor, who was killed in an airplane crash at Mineola Field, New York in August of 1917. The primary flying school here included 16 hangars, repair shops, warehouses, quarters, a hospital, and nearly 200 JN-4 and DH-4 aircraft on its 800 acres. One hundred and thirty-nine fledgling pilots completed the eight-week course and some served in . . . — Map (db m86474) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — The Oaks Plantation|
|House built ca. 1830s by Alexander Carter on small land holding. Increasing fortunes led to a 1780-acre diversified and innovative plantation. Oak trees planted on either side of front drive led to its name. During WWII, an auxiliary landing strip, called Mt. Meigs Field, was built on the land by Army Corps of Engineers, and was used for training by American, French, and British aviation cadets from Gunter Field, as well as by “Tuskegee Airmen” from Moton Field. Prominent families . . . — Map (db m72014) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pike Road — Town of Pike Road Veterans Memorial|
|Dedicated to all who have
served in the Armed Forces of
the United States of America
Never to be forgotten for
giving the ultimate sacrifice
for our freedom
Duty Honor Country — Map (db m86475) WM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pintlala — 5 — Federal Road, 1805|
|Between Milledgeville, Ga.
and St. Stephens, Ala.
was two miles west. — Map (db m39770) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pintlala — Pintlala Grange Hall / Grange Hall School|
| (Side 1)
Pintlala Grange Hall
The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry was organized in 1867 to provide economic, social and cultural improvements for farmers and their families. Pintlala's Grange Hall was erected circa 1875 on land adjacent to this marker. By the 1890s the popularity of the Grange began to wane. On July 21-23, 1891 the last meeting of the Alabama Granges took place in Pintlala. The Federal Land Bank was organized as the National Farm Loan Association . . . — Map (db m71433) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pintlala — Pintlala School|
|Opened in 1923 to consolidate a number of one-, two-, and three-teacher institutions in southwestern Montgomery County including Hope Hull, LeGrand, Mt. Carmel, Grange Hall, Snowdoun, Bethlehem, Fleta, Sankey, and Tabernacle. W.F. Feagin served as County School Superintendent during the planning phase, succeeded by Dr. A.F. Harmon by the time the school opened.
Board of Education members in 1923 were Jesse B. Hearin (Chairman), P.M. McIntyre, Simon Gassenheimer, Dr. William Tankersley, and . . . — Map (db m71432) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pintlala — The Bethel Cemetery|
|Bethel Cemetery was constituted Feb 13, 1819 and located on Federal Rd. Bethel Church was 1 of 4 churches in the Alabama Baptist Association which was formed on Dec. 13, 1819. On July 22, 1837, the church became the object of a major split in Baptist life. In Oct., Missionary Brethren were excluded from the church and the split became final. A marker memorializing the division between the Primitive and Missionary Baptists was placed in the cemetery by the Montgomery Baptist W.M.U. on Nov. 4, . . . — Map (db m71430) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Pintlala — The Federal Road / Manac's Tavern|
| Side 1
The Federal Road
The 1803 Louisiana Purchase acquired 828,000 sq. mi. for the U.S., doubling its size. The Federal Road was built to provide a shorter route from Washington to New Orleans and the new territory. The Treaty of 1805 with the Creeks authorized traversing their lands. Entering Alabama at Ft. Mitchell near Columbus, GA, it came through Mt. Meigs, to Pintlala, Ft. Deposit, Burnt Corn, Ft. Stoddert, then Mobile. The 1814 Treaty of Ft. Jackson made much fertile . . . — Map (db m71535) HM|
|Alabama (Montgomery County), Waugh — Lucas Tavern — Circa 1818|
|Stood 2800 feet north of this point, just west of Line Creek on the Federal Road. Moved to Montgomery in 1978 to serve as the Visitor and Information Center for the Old North Hull Historic District, it is the oldest remaining building in Montgomery County. Original proprietor, James Abercrombie, ran it from about 1818. Walter B. Lucas announced his take over of the tavern in the January 6, 1821 issue of the Montgomery Republican. A four-room frame building with a long central hall, the . . . — Map (db m60906) HM|