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Orange County Markers
Virginia (Orange County), Barboursville — D 22 — Barboursville
A short distance south are the ruins of Barboursville, built, 1814-1822, by James Barbour partly after plans made by Jefferson. It was burned, December 25, 1884. James Barbour, buried here, was governor of Virginia, 1812-1815, United States Senator, Secretary of War, Minister to England. — Map (db m30179) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Barboursville — Barboursville Ruins
Historic Landmark Designed by Thomas Jefferson for Governor James Barbour. Built 1814, Destroyed by Fire Christmas Day, 1884. — Map (db m30178) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Flat Run — Germanna FordGrant Takes Command — Lee Vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign
In March 1864, President Abraham Lincoln placed Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in charge of the Union’s overall military effort. Grant’s strategy was simple: attack the Confederates simultaneously on all fronts, overwhelming them by sheer force of numbers. His plan called for Gen. William T. Sherman to drive towards Atlanta from Chattanooga while Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks moved from New Orleans towards Mobile. In Virginia, Gen. George G. Meade’s Army of the Potomac was to engage Lee’s attention south of . . . — Map (db m3587) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Flat Run — Germanna FordInto the Wilderness — Lee Vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign
When the 1864 Overland Campaign started, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia held the upper fords of the Rapidan River, blocking the Union army's route to Richmond. Rather than attack Lee head on, Grant chose to cross here at Germanna Ford, several miles beyond Lee’s right flank, and maneuver his adversary out of position. Grant seized Germanna Ford on May 4. At dawn, soldiers of the 3rd Indiana Cavalry splashed across the river, scattering a few Confederate pickets who stood . . . — Map (db m3588) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — F 23 — Church of the Blind Preacher
Near here was the church of James Waddel, the blind Presbyterian preacher. Waddel, who had been a minister in the Northern Neck and elsewhere, came here about 1785 and died here in 1805. William Wirt, stopping in 1803 to hear a sermon, was impressed by Waddel's eloquence. He made it the subject of a classic essay. — Map (db m4766) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — Gordon Inn
Built by Nathaniel Gordon, 1787. Visited by Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Philip and James Barbour, Clark, Rives, Randolph, Wirt, Waddell, and other celebrities of Revolutionary, post-Revolutionary, and Confederate War periods. Lafayette made and address from porch. Old stage junction and night stop ovation to Lee near by Jackson Headquarters. — Map (db m4794) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — Gordonsville's Legendary Chicken Vendors
"Fried Chicken Capital of the World" January 1, 1840 celebrated the arrival of the Louisa Railroad to Gordonsville. The introduction of rail service contributed to the growth and vitality of the town as a prime rail junction. The two railroads that formed the junction were the Virginia Central, formerly the Louisa Railroad and now renamed the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad and the Orange & Alexandria, now known as the Orange, Alexandria and Manassas. With the introduction of rail service, . . . — Map (db m8162) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — In Memory of the Soldiers, Both Confederate and Union
In Memory of, the soldiers, both Confederate and Union, who died here at the Exchange Hotel used during the Civil War as the General Receiving Hospital. Gordonsville, VA 1861 –– 1865 — Map (db m25545) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — D 20 — Montebello
Here was born Zachary Taylor, twelfth President of the United States, November 24, 1784. Taylor, commanding an American Army, won the notable Battle of Buena Vista in Mexico, 1847. — Map (db m30181) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — Z 277A — Orange County / Louisa County
(South Facing Side): Orange County Formed from Spotsylvania County in 1734, Orange County, a pastoral Piedmont county, was probably named in honor of William IV, the Dutch prince of Orange, who married Anne, the Princess Royal, daughter of George II of England, earlier that year. President James Madison lived here at Montpelier and President Zachary Taylor was born here. Some fifty square miles of the county comprise the Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District, an area rich in . . . — Map (db m4796) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — Z-277 — Orange County / Louisa CountyArea 359 Square Miles / Area 516 Square Miles
Orange County. Formed in 1734 from Spotsylvania, and named for the Prince of Orange, who in that year married Princess Anne, daughter of King George II. President James Madison lived in this county and President Zachary Taylor was born here. Louisa County. Formed in 1742 from Hanover, and named for the Queen of Denmark, daughter of King George II. Patrick Henry lived in this county for some years. In it was fought the cavalry Battle of Trevilians, 1864. — Map (db m17747) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Gordonsville — The Maplewood Memorial Association
Has erected this tablet as a tribute of respect to some seven hundred Confederate soldiers mainly from North Carolina and Georgia who laid down their lives for the cause they loved and lost their names are perished may their memory be imperishable! — Map (db m4791) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Battle of the Wilderness
On This Site Stood a Union 6th Corps Field Hospital On Spotswood's Farm were 4 Medical Wagons, 14 Six-Mule Wagons, 24 Tents, 3 Medical Officers and 34 Attendants, in addition to about 15 Ambulances and 80 Men from the Corp's Ambulance Company. One of three field hospitals that treated the 6th Corps' 3,660 wounded in 36 hours. — Map (db m64981) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Battle of the WildernessMay 5th, 1864
1st NC Cavalry and Ewell's lead infantry regiments fought Sedgwick's three divisions throughout Lake of the Woods Golf Course. Regiments from Nine States in Lake of the Woods May 5, 1864 Union Infantry Maine 5th, 6th, 7th New Jersey 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 10th, 15th New York 43rd, 49th, 77th, 121st Ohio 126th Pennsylvania 49th, 61st, 95th, 96th Wisconsin 5th Confederate Infantry Louisiana 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th Virginia 2nd, 4th, 5th, 13th, 25th Cavalry North Carolina 1st 10:00 A.M. - The . . . — Map (db m65281) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Captain John Spotswood
Spotswood park is dedicated to Captain John Spotswood born circa 1748, grandson of Royal Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood of Virginia. Captain John Spotswood, soldier of the American Revolution, served honorably as a member of the Continental Army 10th Virginia Regiment. He was wounded at the Battle of Brandywine in September of 1777 and taken prisoner at Germantown in October of 1777. He retired on February 12, 1781 and died post 1800. Married to Sarah (Sallie) Rowsie on September 19, . . . — Map (db m19159) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Gordon's Flank AttackBattle of the Wilderness
Before Sunset on May 6, 1864 From this site, you would have seen Confederate Brig. Gen. John B. Gordon quietly assembled ten regiments between here and the woods, across the lake, at Madison Cir. In those woods, Union Brig. Gen. T. Seymour had ordered his brigade and that of Brig. Gen. A. Shaler "to make small fires and cook coffee" and they both rode off to Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick's 6th Corps headquarters near Spotswood Park. Suddenly, the long line of gray-clad soldiers appeared and . . . — Map (db m65280) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Orange Grove 1728 - 1864
This is the story of Orange GroveYou are standing on land that was owned by the same family for over 200 years, from colonial days to the beginning of Lake of the Woods. Alexander Spotswood, Lt. Gov. of the Colony of Virginia 1710 - 1722, obtained patent to the "Alexandria" tract in 1728. It contained 28,000 acres along the south shore of the Rapidan, including Lake of the Woods. Alexander requested his heirs to hold the land. His son, Col. John Spotswood inherited his father's property . . . — Map (db m19156) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Lake of the Woods — Orange Grove 1865 - 1967
Alexander Dandridge SpottswoodHe spelled his name with two t's, known "as a gentleman of the old school," he referred back to the spelling of the name his ancestors used in Scotland, Spottiswoode. 1836 - Born in the house at Orange Grove on November 19 1861 - Enlisted July 15th in Co. C. 30th Virginia Infantry 1864 - September 12th admitted to Chimborazo Hospital. When he returned from the service his father, his mother and two sisters were living on the home place. The property was . . . — Map (db m19071) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — “A Wild, Wicked Roar”The Battle of the Wilderness
The arrival of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s Second Corps here along the Orange Turnpike on the morning of May 5 challenged the Union march through the Wilderness. The Federals responded with a massive attack. At midday more than 12,000 Federal troops Federal troops moved forward on a jagged, mile-long front. The spearhead of the assault struck Ewell’s line here, on the western edge of Saunders Field. Three Union brigades rolled over the Confederates, plunging forward through thickets and . . . — Map (db m6008) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — “Stonewall” Jackson’s Arm — The Battle of Chancellorsville
Here, in the Jones family cemetery, lie the remains of “Stonewall” Jackson’s left arm. The Confederate general lost the limb during the Battle of Chancellorsville, where he was mistakenly shot by his own troops. Surgeons removed the mangled appendage at the Wilderness Tavern field hospital, one-half mile to your left-rear, early May 3, 1863. Jackson’s chaplain, the Rev. B. Tucker Lacy, visited the hospital later that morning. As he was leaving Jackson’s tent, Lacy saw the general’s . . . — Map (db m3895) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — 140th New York State Vols.
First Brigade First Division Fifth Corps Number engaged 529 Casualties 23 killed 118 wounded 114 missing May 5, 1864 — Map (db m6047) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — A Military Scene — The Battle of the Wilderness
As one of the few large open areas in the Wilderness, the broad fields north and east of Ellwood assumed instant importance during the battle here. While fighting raged a miles to the west, the fields around Ellwood filled with artillery and wagon trains. Provost guards kept watch over Confederate prisoners; surgeons established field hospitals for the wounded; and rough teamsters held their mule-drawn wagons in readiness to carry ammunition to the front. In the yard of the house and extending . . . — Map (db m12947) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — A.P. Hill Escapes CaptureThe Battle of the Wilderness
On the morning of May 6, General A.P. Hill stretched his battle lines across the Chewning farm, closing a dangerous gap in the Confederate line. Before Hill's troops arrived, a Union regiment broke into the clearing from the east, startling the general and his staff. Hill calmly directed his men, "Mount, walk your horses, and don't look back." They did, avoiding capture. As soon as his men were out of danger, Hill sent for a brigade and retook the clearing. Later that day General Lee conferred . . . — Map (db m19162) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — An Uneasy PartnershipThe Battle of the Wilderness
At the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House, Grant would not only struggle against Lee’s army, but also against the conservative, sometimes timid, methods of the Union Army of the Potomac. George G. Meade, commander of that army, was a cautious leader – much like the commanders who preceded him. Lee made a career of using Union caution to his advantage. Although Grant had no wish to interfere with Meade’s handling of the Army of the Potomac, he increasingly found it . . . — Map (db m6026) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Archeology at Ellwood — The Battle of the Wilderness
The National Park Service acquired Ellwood in 1977. Since then, archeologists have conducted three studies of the site: test excavations around the base of the house (1978) and in the cellar (1979), and a geophysical survey of the grounds (1984). The excavations have identified the site of several structures and unearthed a wide variety of artifacts ranging from the 18th to the 20th century. The results of the geophysical survey suggest that there is much more to be found. Many questions about . . . — Map (db m12948) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Arm of Stonewall Jackson
Arm of Stonewall Jackson May 3, 1863 ——— — Map (db m3846) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ 20 — Battle of the Wilderness
Ewell's Corps, the left wing of Lee's Army, moving down this road from Orange, came into conflict near here with Warren's Corps of Grant's Army, May 5, 1864. The fight moved to and fro until Ewell finally drove Warren back and entrenched here. Late the next afternoon, May 6, Ewell attacked the unionists. Meanwhile, two miles south on the Orange Plank Road, the right wing of Lee's Army was engaged with Grant's left wing. — Map (db m5450) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Battle of the Wilderness
Here May 5,6, 1864, 70,000 Confederates under Lee defeated 120,000 Federals under Grant. Confederate loss 11,500. Federal 18,000. This battle, fought with conspicuous bravery, in a Wilderness on fire, will take it’s place among the great battles of the Civil War. Erected by the 13, Virginia Regiment, Chapter U.D.C. 1927 — Map (db m6007) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Battle of the WildernessWilderness Exhibit Shelter — East Wall
The Armies The Army of the Potomac Throughout the winter of 1863-1864, the armies rested and refitted on opposites sides of the Rapidan River. The ranks of the Union army swelled with thousands of new draftees and recruits - soldiers whose commitment to the cause many questioned. "Never in a war...did the rank and file feel a more resolute earnestness for a just cause, and a more invincible determination to succeed...." Wilbur Fisk, 2nd Vermont Infantry, April 7, 1864 . . . — Map (db m7393) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Clash on the Orange TurnpikeWilderness Exhibit Shelter — East Wall
The Battle of the Wilderness On May 5, 1864, Lee moved swiftly eastward through Orange County and struck the Federals along two roads - the Orange Plank Road and the Orange Turnpike. Two bloody, largely separate battles exploded. They would evolve and eventually merge into a huge conflict that would engulf the Wilderness and consume thousands of lives. Saunders Field After joining the Army of the Potomac in March 1864, Grant reported that "the troops feel like whipping somebody." No . . . — Map (db m7392) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Collision of GiantsWilderness Exhibit Shelter — North Wall
Collision of Giants By 1864 the war had become not just a clash of armies, but of ideas. To be resolved on the fields of Virginia and Georgia that year was not only the fate of the Union, but also the fate of Southern society. The armies on both sides took to the task with unprecedented fury. The Stakes "...We should neglect no honorable means of dividing and weakening our enemies...It seems to me that the most effectual mode of accomplishing this object...is to give all the . . . — Map (db m6077) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Z 176 — Culpeper County / Orange County
(East Facing Side): Culpeper County Area 384 Square Miles Formed in 1748 from Orange and named for Lord Culpeper, Governor of Virginia, 1680-1683. The Battle of Cedar Mountain, 1862, was fought in this county (West Facing Side): Orange County Area 359 Square Miles Formed in 1734 from Spotsylvania, and named for the Prince of Orange, who in that year married Princess Anne, daughter of King George II. President James Madison lived in this county, and President Zachary Taylor was born here. — Map (db m4322) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — EllwoodThe Battle of the Wilderness
“The house stands on Wilderness Run, in a lonely place about half a mile south of the Culpeper plank road; it is a good-sized farmhouse, built of wood, square, with two porticos and painted a dove color. From the apex of the roof a hospital flag still flutters in the cold November wind.” - George M. Neese, Chew’s Virginia Battery November 11, 1863 Ellwood was a typical Virginia farm. The 1790s dwelling looked out over rolling farmland planted in corn, wheat, and clover. . . . — Map (db m6121) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Face OffMine Run Campaign
"Men, there is no use denying it, but three-quarters of you are to be left in that marsh with your toes turned up; but remember the Fourteenth never quailed yet, and I'll shoot the first man who does it now." Lt. Col. Samuel Moore to the men of the 10th Connecticut on the eve of the planned attack at Mine Run. For four days the armies - totaling more than 150,000 men - glared at each other across Mine Run. Skirmishers exchanged occasional shots; batteries periodically dueled. The men . . . — Map (db m4692) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Fighting on the Evening of May 5, 1864
Confederate General Leroy A. Stafford of Louisiana fell mortally wounded in this vicinity during the afternoon fighting. General Ewell, however, continued to reinforce this line, extending it farther to the north, your left. When the Federals attempted to outflank Ewell's men at 7:00 p.m., they discovered a Virginia brigade overlapping their battle front. Bitter combat at a range of 150 yards or less raged until darkness enveloped the Wilderness and ended the bloodshed. The Confederate line . . . — Map (db m7382) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — First Blood in Saunders FieldThe Battle of the Wilderness
"The regiment melted away like snow. Men disappeared as if the earth had swallowed them." -Captain Porter Parley 140th New York Infantry Shortly after noon on May 5, the battleline of the 140th New York burst from the woods to your right-rear - the first regiment to advance against the Confederates here in Saunders Field. Undaunted by a devastating Confederate fire, the 529 New Yorkers sprinted across the field and assailed the Confederates along the woodline before you. But supporting . . . — Map (db m6022) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — J 34 — Germanna
Here Governor Alexander Spotswood established a colony of Germans in 1714. At that time the Rapidan River was the frontier of Virginia. On August 29, 1716, Spotswood left from this place with the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe on his exploring expedition across the mountains. The German colony later moved to Fauquier County. Spotswood lived here for some years at Germanna where he was visited in 1732 by William Byrd who called his house "Spotswood's Enchanted Castle." — Map (db m3900) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — J–35 — Germanna Ford
One of the principal crossings of the Rapidan River from colonial times. Here a part of the Army of the Potomac crossed the river, April 30, 1863, preceding the Battle of Chancellorsville. Here a part of Meade’s army crossed on the way to Mine Run, November 26, 1863. Here the Fifth and Sixth Corps of Grant’s army crossed, May 4-6, 1864, to open the Wilderness Campaign. — Map (db m3586) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Gordon Flank Attack TrailThe Battle of the Wilderness
In this field and its surrounding woods fell nearly one-third of the men killed or wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness. The two-mile Gordon Flank Attack Trail tracks the Battle of the Wilderness in all its horrible forms: the open-field Union attacks here that initiated the battle; the stalemate in the tangled woods to the north; and the devastating Confederate flank attack that, after two days of fighting, almost brought the Federals to disaster. The Wilderness: "Hell Itself" The . . . — Map (db m7378) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Gordon's Attack Falters
Union reinforcements rushed to the sound of fighting as twilight turned to darkness in these gloomy woods. The Confederates lost direction and momentum in the smoky gloaming, and eventually the firing died away. Gordon's attack had achieved only a local, if spectacular, success. What might have happened if the assault had begun earlier in the day? Gordon believed that "it would have resulted in a decided disaster to the whole right wing of General Grant's army, if not in its entire . . . — Map (db m7389) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Gordon's Flank Attack
The right flank of the Union line rested here in the early evening of May 6. Two Union brigades occupied this area with the benefit of neither strong works nor substantial artillery support. Suddenly, the Rebel yell echoed through the forest. North Carolinians and Virginians joined Gordon's men boiling through the thick woods to your right and front. Union General Alexander Shaler recalled that "the enemy moved against us in front, on the flank, and in the rear, completely enveloping us in . . . — Map (db m7388) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Grant Comes to VirginiaThe Battle of Fredericksburg
This short trail leads to "Grant's Knoll." For three days Gen. Ulysses S. Grant made his headquarters here, issuing orders that would determine the fate of armies and men. President Abraham Lincoln had recently appointed Grant general-in-chief over Union armies throughout the country. Rather than remain in Washington, Grant chose to travel with Gen. George G. Meade's Army of the Potomac, which was battling Lee's Confederates here in Virginia. Grant hoped to infuse the Union army with his own . . . — Map (db m7403) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Grant’s HeadquartersThe Battle of the Wilderness
On May 5, 1864, this knoll was bordered by a second growth of scraggly pines and scrub oak. From here Grant and Meade could see little of the battle. Instead, they relied on subordinates to keep them apprised of the situation at the front. In the evenings the generals retired to their camp at the foot of the knoll, between here and the Germanna Plank Road (Modern Route 3). Otherwise, they rarely left this spot. Over the next three days, as the two armies grappled in the deep woods, Grant and . . . — Map (db m6024) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — John Gordon Proposes a Flank Attack
On the morning of May 6, Confederate General John B. Gordon occupied the far Confederate left, in this vicinity, with his brigade of Georgians. Gordon reconnoitered to his left and front and discovered the Union right flank to be vulnerable to an attack. This might be the opportunity to break the stalemate north of the Turnpike! Gordon's superiors, Ewell and General Jubal A. Early, hesitated to authorize an advance until they knew without a doubt that such a bold maneuver would not unduly . . . — Map (db m7384) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Key TerrainThe Battle of the Wilderness
The fighting in the Wilderness centered on two thoroughfares: the Orange Turnpike and the Orange Plank Road. Between them yawned a gaping void of dense trees and brush, broken only by a few fields and the track of the Parker's Store Road, still visible 50 yards to your left. The most important clearing was the Chewning farm. If the Union army could seize this clearing, it would be in position to divide the Confederate forces and defeat them individually. Gen. Samuel W. Crawford's division of . . . — Map (db m19164) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Mine Run Campaign
Amidst numbing cold and stinging rain, in late 1863 Union General George G. Meade and his Army of the Potomac attempted a year-end stroke against Robert E. Lee. This effort climaxed along Mine Run, two miles in front of you. Since Gettysburg, much had happened but little had been accomplished by either side. In late November, General Meade tried to change all that. Meade's plan: cross the Rapidan below Lee's right flank, turn westward, and fight Lee in the open spaces of Orange County. . . . — Map (db m4693) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ 10 — Mine Run Campaign
Meade, advancing south from the Rapidan River to attack Lee, found him in an entrenched position here on November 28, 1863. Heavy skirmishing went on until December 1. Then Meade, thinking Lee's lines too strong to assault, retired across the Rapidan in time to avoid a counterattack by the Confederates. — Map (db m4695) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Morning of May 6
On the morning of May 6, the main focus of the battle shifted more than two miles south, to the Orange Plank Road. Here, north of the Orange Turnpike, both armies planned early morning attacks as diversions to prevent the enemy from detaching more troops to the Plank Road sector. The Confederates struck first. At 4:30 a.m., the Wilderness erupted with a deafening chorus of artillery and small arms. The Southerners closed with their blueclad opponents, only to feel the shock of Union volleys . . . — Map (db m7383) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Z 167 — Orange County / Spotsylvania County
(East Facing Side): Orange County Area Formed from Spotsylvania County in 1734, Orange County, a pastoral Piedmont county, was probably named in honor of William IV, the Dutch prince of Orange, who married Anne, the Princess Royal, daughter of George II of England, earlier that year. President James Madison lived here at Montpelier and President Zachary Taylor was born here. Some fifty square miles of the county comprise the Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District, and area rich in . . . — Map (db m4321) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — JJ 15 — Robinson's Tavern
Near here stood ancient Robinson's Tavern. Here Meade wished to concentrate his army in the Mine Run Campaign, November 1863, but one corps, coming up late, disarranged his plans. Here Ewell, moving east from Orange in the Wilderness Campaign, camped on May 4, 1864. — Map (db m4694) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Saunders FieldBattle of the Wilderness
"The Last crop of the old field had been corn and among its stubble that day were sown the seeds of glory." Morris Schaff, USA Staff Tucked away in the Wilderness's trackless forest were several small clearings, where families with names like Higgerson, Chewning, and Tapp eked out a meager living tilling the region's thin soil. Saunders Field, which surrounds you, was an abandoned corn patch in 1864. With the arrival of the armies on May 5, it would become a brutal smoking killing . . . — Map (db m19069) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Struggle on the Orange Plank RoadWilderness Exhibit Shelter — East Wall
Crisis at the Crossroads Crises followed one after another on May 5. No sooner had Grant and Meade learned about Ewell's approach on the Orange Turnpike than they discovered General A.P. Hill's corps moving up the Orange Plank road. If Hill reached the Brock Road, he would cut the Army of the Potomac in two. Union commanders rushed General Winfield S. Hancock's Second Corps to the imperiled crossroads, securing it for the North. At 4 p.m., Hancock assailed Hill's line. Fighting behind low . . . — Map (db m7394) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The "Enchanted Castle" at Germanna, circa 1720-1750
Home of Colonial Governor Alexander Spotswood and formerly the site of Fort Germanna, 1714 Archaeological excavation by Mary Washington College, Center for Historic Preservation — Map (db m64139) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Walking Trail
“The ground in my front for about 500 yards was thickly wooded and brushy, and beyond that was a cleared field owned by a man named Payne.” — Gen. Edward Johnson, CSA “On account of the density of the undergrowth in the woods and the absence of roads, it was with some difficulty that I succeeded in reaching the position designated.” — Gen. Joseph B. Carr, USA Welcome to the Civil War Trust’s Payne’s Farm Battlefield. Here starts a 1.5 . . . — Map (db m43158) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmUnexpected Encounter
“There was a sudden commotion in the train ahead and several of the ambulances turned and came back in confusion. General [George H.] Steuart promptly ordered them back to their places, faced the brigade into line to the left and deployed skirmishers.” — Lt. McHenry Howard, CSA “The Union soldiers came in sight of a road, along which the rebel baggage wagons and ambulances were being driven at a rapid rate, when they met with a firm resistance from the . . . — Map (db m43160) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmStalemate at the Crossroads
“Gen. [Edward] Johnson … cheered us on to the fight with ‘Hurrah for North Carolina, go it North Carolina—give it to them boys!’ … The Federals were as thick as black birds in our front.” — Capt. Thomas Boone, 1st North Carolina Infantry, CSA “Our battery was doing fine execution, planting their shell into the very midst of the rebel masses, and dealing death and dismay to their troops.” — Thomas E. Cook, reporting for the New York . . . — Map (db m43162) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmBaptism of Fire
“[It was] … as warm a contest as this regiment was ever engaged in. … It seemed as if the enemy was throwing minie-balls upon us by the bucket-full, when the battle got fairly under way.” — Member of the 3rd North Carolina Infantry, CSA “It was truly a baptism of fire, while it was a deluge of lead and iron that swept over us. The musketry was not in the least of a jerky or intermittent sort, but one continuous roll.” — History of the Tenth . . . — Map (db m43163) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Worm Fence
“We gained a slight rise in the land behind an old worm fence. The enemy had fallen back under cover of a piece of woods well in our front. Soon they came out in splendid battle array, with waving banners, and charged our position. It was a desperate effort to dislodge us.” — Sgt. John R. King, 6th Maryland Infantry, USA “The skirmishers in the center of my line being upon the crest of a hill and directly in line of fire from both lines, I ordered them to . . . — Map (db m43165) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Stonewall Brigade
“We soon struck the Yankee skirmishers and drove them back through the woods to an open field, where we ran into French’s entire corps and into about the hottest place that could be imagined.” — Capt. William B. Colston, 2nd Virginia Infantry, CSA “Thousands of shots were fired at that lone hero [Pvt. Alexander T. Barclay, Stonewall Brigade]. ‘Shoot the man with the flag’ was heard all around. Hearing a sergeant near me give that command, I said: ‘Don’t . . . — Map (db m43167) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmThe Confederate Wheel
“Several efforts were made to charge the hostile line, but as these attempts were made by single brigades, without proper deliberation and without co-operation on the part of the other forces to the right and left, they naturally resulted in nothing but the loss of a considerable number of lives.” — Lt. Henry E. Handerson, 9th Louisiana Infantry, CSA “On they came in formidable gray columns, waving their red battle-flags in traitorous defiance, and . . . — Map (db m43168) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Battle of Payne’s FarmA Fruitless Campaign
“In the fight of Johnson’s Division on last Friday I was under as warm a musketry fire as I have experienced for a good while—certainly worse than I have been in since Sharpsburg.” — Lt. Col. Alexander S. “Sandie” Pendleton, CSA “One of the sharpest & best fought affairs of the war. The musketry was the most terrific any of us had ever heard, and the chances of getting off without a decent wound was about as poor as it possibly could have . . . — Map (db m43170) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — OC 22 — The Campaign of 1781Lafayette's Maneuvers
In the campaign of 1781, the Marquis de Lafayette marched through the Wilderness to rendezvous with Brig. Gen. "Mad Anthony" Wayne. On 3 June 1781, Lafayette's army camped to the south of the Wilderness Bridge across Wilderness Run from Ellwood. The next day, Lafayette reconnoitered Ely's Ford while the army crossed Germanna Ford to reach Culpeper Church. Afterward Lafayette marching south, recrossed the Rapidan River. During his Grand American Tour, Lafayette retraced his campaign and visited . . . — Map (db m25877) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Confederate Defense
Confederate troops commanded by General Richard S. Ewell arrived on this ridge line on the morning of May 5. Ordered by General Lee not to initiate a battle, Ewell placed 10,000 men along this high ground on either side of the Orange Turnpike (present day Route 20) and prepared earthworks. None of the Union attacks on this side of the road succeeded, although the 140th New York briefly grappled hand-to-hand here with their opponents from North Carolina and Virginia. The Federals did break . . . — Map (db m7379) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Confederate LineThe Battle of the Wilderness
Dick Ewell was raring for a fight. When a subordinate approached him early on May 5, 1864, and asked Ewell about his orders, the balding, pop-eyed general piped up cheerily: "... Just the orders I like - to go right down the [turnpike] and strike the enemy wherever I find him." Ewell made contact with the Union army here at Saunders Field. Deploying in line of battle across the turnpike, the Confederates began to entrench using knives, bayonets, shovels made from canteen halves, or whatever . . . — Map (db m72886) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Culpeper Mine Road
The road trace in front of you is the Culpeper Mine Road, typical of the woods trails that composed the primitive transportation network in the Wilderness. Even a path like this possessed military significance, and Confederate troops from the famous Stonewall Brigade guarded the road near this point. The Union army resumed its attacks against this portion of the Rebel line about 3:00 p.m. May 5. "It was impossible to see the enemy," remembered a New Jersey chaplain, "and though we peered . . . — Map (db m7380) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Federals Fall Back
In front of you are the remains of trenches manned by the Union army on May 5-6, 1864. When Gordon attacked these works from the north, your left, the Federals abandoned them and fell back to a new position one mile to your front and right. The Confederates then moved forward and seized the unoccupied entrenchments, rebuilding them to face in the opposite direction - the way you now face. Later they build a new line of works that ran perpendicular to this line, parallel to the Culpeper Mine . . . — Map (db m7391) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Fighting Ends in StalemateWilderness Exhibit Shelter — South Wall
Stalemate Two days of bitter fighting had left the bleak Wilderness landscape charred and smoking from fire. Corpses littered the contested ground, now scarred by miles of earth-and-log entrenchments. Unwilling to attack Lee's strong position, Grant ordered a night march to Spotsylvania Court House. A Wilderness of Fire Brush fires added to the horror of the Wilderness fighting. Ignited by muzzle blasts and fuled by dead leaves and twigs, fires swept through the dry woods, obscuring . . . — Map (db m7397) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Higgerson FarmThe Battle of the Wilderness
Before you are the fields of the Higgerson Farm, one of only a few major clearings on the Wilderness Battlefield. On the afternoon of May 5, Union troops swept across this open space, bound for bewildering combat in the thickets to the north and west. When the Federals trampled her fence and garden, Permelia Higgerson emerged from her house, berated the Yankees, and predicted their quick repulse. “We didn’t pay much attention to what she said,” admitted a Pennsylvanian, “but . . . — Map (db m6038) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Mine Run CampaignMeade vs. Lee
“The promptness with which this unexpected attack was met and repulsed reflects great credit upon General Johnson and the officers and men of his division.” — Gen. Robert E. Lee, CSA “The delay in the movements of the Third Corps, and, particularly the failure to affect a junction at Robertson’s Tavern, was one of the primary causes of the failure of the recent movement.” — Gen. George Gordon Meade, USA Eager to strike Confederate Gen. . . . — Map (db m42085) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The Mine Run CampaignThe Battle of Payne’s Farm
“The brave officers and men of this division, attacked by a greatly superior force from an admirable position, turned upon him and drove him from the field, which he left strewn with arms, artillery and infantry ammunition, his dead and dying.” — Gen. Edward Johnson, CSA “The sanguinary loss of the enemy, and their repulse, leaving their dead and wounded in hospital upon the field, exhibit the prowess of the corps beyond any terms which it is in my power . . . — Map (db m42089) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — The WildernessDark, Close Wood — The Battlefield Becomes a Park
Marker Front: The Wilderness of today looks little like the tangled landscape soldiers found here in 1864. For decades before the war, loggers had cut and recut these forests to fuel nearby iron furnaces, leaving behind an impenetrable mix of dead fall, brush and re-emerging growth. Only a few small farmers had dared to seek sustenance here. Their small clearings offered only relief from what one soldier called “the dark, close wood.” Military theorists who devised . . . — Map (db m59518) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Locust Grove — Union HeadquartersThe Battle of the Wilderness
Ellwood stood in the midst of the Wilderness, a dark, forbidding forest characterized by stunted trees and densely tangled undergrowth. When the Confederates challenged General Ulysses S. Grant’s advance through the Wilderness on May 5, 1864, the Union commander made his headquarters just a few hundred yards north of here, along the Orange Turnpike (modern Route 20). For the next three days Ellwood, a quiet farm in a desolate region, suddenly found itself the center of national attention. . . . — Map (db m6123) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Civil War Encampment
Guided by the discoveries of local relic collectors, archaeologists have found an extensive Confederate Army encampment within these woods. Excavations have uncovered the remains of huts built by the soldiers during the winter of 1863 and 1864. The layout of the camps and the material evidence found during the excavations provides a picture of the soldier's daily lives as they struggled through the harsh winter conditions. The camps almost untouched since being abandoned in May 1864, contain a . . . — Map (db m24157) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Confederate Camp & Freedman's Farm Trail
After Dolley Madison sold Montpelier in 1844, the estate witnessed many important historic events, few more significant than those of the 1860s. Throughout the winter of 1863 and 1864, as many as 4,500 Confederate troops camped here, part of a defensive line on this side of the Rapidan River (located approximately a half mile to the north). These troops left their camps on May 4, 1864, marching directly into the Battle of the Wilderness, opening the 1864 Lee-Grant campaign. With the . . . — Map (db m31715) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — JJ-29 — Dolley Madison(1768-1849)
Born to Quaker parents in North Carolina, Dolley Payne lived with her family in Hanover County, Virginia until 1783. Following the death of her first husband, John Todd, she married Congressman James Madison in 1794. As First Lady of the United States from 1809-1817, her social graces, political acumen, and enthusiasm for public life became the standard by which first ladies were measured for more than a century afterward. Before the British burned the White House in August 1814, Mrs. Madison . . . — Map (db m63669) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — JJ 26 — Gilmore Farm
George Gilmore was born into slavery at Montpelier about 1810. Like millions of African Americans throughout the South, Gilmore made the transition to freedom after the Civil War. Many emancipated slaves worked on the same plantation where they once labored. Gilmore, his wife Polly and five children lived in this cabin built by family members in 1873 and farmed the surrounding fields. In 1901 George Gilmore obtained the deed for 16 acres from Dr. James A. Madison. After Gilmore's death in 1905 . . . — Map (db m23986) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Gilmore Farm
George Gilmore, born a slave on the Montpelier plantation about 1810, was freed with the Federal occupation of Orange County in 1865. With his wife Poly and three children, he established a small farmstead near the plantation where he had been enslaved. Over time, they purchased 16 acres of land from Dr. James A. Madison, grand-nephew of the President. Three generations of the Gilmore family lived here prior to its sale in 1920. Today, the cabin and farm illustrate the history of the . . . — Map (db m24225) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Homes for Enslaved Familiesc. 1820s
Slaves who worked in the Madison's household lived in this nearby area known as the "south yard." The yards of these homes, where most of the household activities took place, were in direct sight of the mansion. As a result, the Madisons would have controlled not only the appearance but also the activities within this space. This artist's depiction shows the south yard during a work day, when all but the oldest and the youngest slaves were busy with assigned tasks. Foundation of Chimney for . . . — Map (db m23968) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Madison Farm Complex1760s - 1840s
In the fields in front of you, archaeologists have found the extremely well-preserved remains of James Madison's plantation farm complex, which served as the hub of the working farm and the home for several generations of field slaves. This complex, part of an area known as the "Home Quarter," included slave quarters, tobacco barns, an overseer's house, and work yards. After Dolley Madison sold Montpelier in 1844, the structures here were abandoned. This photograph includes an artists rendering . . . — Map (db m24050) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Montpelier Flag Stop
Train service first came to Montpelier in 1880 when the rail line from Orange to Charlottesville was completed. After 1910, a Southern Railway station agent managed the freight, passenger, and telegraph operations, and beginning in 1912, served as postmaster, sending and receiving mail by rail. While built for the duPonts, the Depot, together with the Montpelier Supply Company, was a vital economic center for the neighborhood. As a flag stop, trains only stopped here if there were passengers . . . — Map (db m31752) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Montpelier Train StationIn the Time of Segregation
"We tend to shy away from our past...we should face up to it, live with it, otherwise it will live with you, and haunt you, and distort you, for all your days." John Hope Franklin, historian, Speaking at the Montpelier slave descendants reunion, 2007 William duPont built the Depot to upgrade passenger and freight service for Montpelier, which he purchased in 1901. The Depot was constructed in 1910 from Southern Railway plans with two waiting rooms - one for "colored" passengers and one . . . — Map (db m31723) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Mount Pleasant c. 1750sFirst Madison Family Home Site
James Madison's grandfather, Ambrose Madison, had his slaves construct Mount Pleasant sometime after 1723. Ambrose moved his family here in 1732 from Virginia's Tidewater and unexpectedly died within a few months. Court records show that three slaves were tried and convicted for poisoning him. His widow, Francis, remained to raise their children, and successfully managed the plantation and directed the work of its 30 to 40 slaves. The painting shows how the home and its outbuildings may have . . . — Map (db m24115) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Post-Emancipation
With emancipation, African-Americans found themselves in a complex situation. By law, slavery was abolished, promising freedom and citizenship, but few owned land or had resources to support themselves, and prejudice against them was widespread. Yet, many newly emancipated slaves stayed in the area and took advantage of economic and social ties developed prior to emancipation to obtain a livelihood. This sign is located at the edge of the 16-acre Gilmore Farm. The Gilmore property ran from . . . — Map (db m24159) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — Slave Cemeteryc. 1820s
The burial ground where you are standing is the final resting lace for many members of Montpelier's enslaved community. Slaves' belief in a spiritual world - originating in African religions - was reinforced by Christianity. This drawing shows slaves, in their "Sunday best," gathering for a burial. Clothing was one of the few ways available for slaves to express their individuality. Stone Grave Marker Some graves here were marked by the placement of field stone, but many had no markers. As . . . — Map (db m24120) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 19 — The African American CemeteryDiscovering Madison
"I walk in the graveyard, I walk through the graveyard To lay this body down. I lay in the grave and stretch out my arms; I lay this body down." -African American spiritual from the era of slavery, as recorded in James Weldon Johnson, the Book of American Negro Poetry The African American Cemetery is the final resting place for some of Montpelier's enslaved community. At funerals, people could share religious values that had their origins in various African traditions. Most often, these . . . — Map (db m24118) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 14 — The BackyardDiscovering Madison
"...the sumptuous board spread under the forest oaks .... everything that a luxurious country could produce, wines, and the well filled punch bowl, to say nothing of the invigorating mountain air ..." - Mary Cutts, Memoir, c. 1840. The Backyard barbecues so different from elegant Washington soirees, suited Dolley Madison's special flair for entertaining once she retired to Montpelier. Friends and family enjoyed the outdoor feasts that she spread under the forest oaks. The rich fragrance . . . — Map (db m23969) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 12 — The Blacksmith ShopDiscovering Madison
"And I desire my black Smith Moses, may belong to such of my children as he shall chose if they are willing to take him at a reasonable price." - Will of James Madison, Sr., 1787 The Blacksmith shop, constructed by Madison's father in the 1760s, helped expand Motpelier's sources of income beyond the sale of tobacco. A slave named Moses supervised the shop and its African American workers. Over roaring furnaces, the men heated iron bars until they glowed red. Then, the softened metal was . . . — Map (db m23966) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 15 — The GardenDiscovering Madison
"It was a paradise of roses and other flowers, to say nothing of the strawberries, and vegetables; every rare plant and fruit was sent to him by his admiring friends, who knew his taste, and they were carefully studied and reared by the gardener and his black aids." -Mary Cutts, Memoir, c. 1840 The Garden, by its nature, changes with the seasons and over time. Today, Montpelier's colorful flowers reflect the twentieth-century tastes of the duPonts, although traces of the Madison garden . . . — Map (db m23985) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 21 — The Madison Family CemeteryDiscovering Madison
"The advice nearest to my heart and deepest in my convictions is that the Union of the States be cherished an perpetuated." -James Madison, Advice to My Country, 1834 The Madison Family Cemetery is the understated resting place for two of America's most remarkable people: James and Dolley Madison, when the last Founding Father did in 1836, Dolley, together with friends, family, and slaves, paid loving respect. Public tribute came two months later, when John Quincy Adams delivered a . . . — Map (db m24117) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 17 — The QuartersDiscovering Madison
"The Negro habitations are separate from the dwelling house both here and all over Virginia, and they form a kind of village." - Journal of Sir Augustus John Foster, 1807 The Quarters, a cluster of wooden buildings segregated from the main house, provided shelter for some of Montpelier's enslaved community. Accommodating both individuals and families, they were located near the workplace to assure efficient production. Within the harsh realities of slavery, the quarters became a kind of . . . — Map (db m24047) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Montpelier Station — 8 — The RoadDiscovering Madison
"Having lost ourselves in the mountain road which leads thro' a wild woody tract of ground, and wandering for some time in Mr. Madison's domain, which seemed interminable, we at last reached his hospitable mansion." - Margret Bayard Smith, 1828 The road connected Montpelier with the world, produce and supplies, along with a steady stream of people on foot, on horseback, and in carriages, bumped and rattled their way to and from Montpelier. It took the Madisons one hour to journey five . . . — Map (db m23903) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — JJ 4 — Bloomsbury
A mile north is Bloomsbury, estate of the pioneer, James Taylor, ancestor of Presidents James Madison and Zachary Taylor. He was a member of Spotswood's expedition over the mountains in 1716. — Map (db m4699) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — JJ 6 — Campaign of Second Manassas
Two miles north, near Pisgah Church, Jackson, Ewell and A.P. Hill camped, August 15-20, 1862 — Map (db m4698) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — F 32 — Campaign of Second Manassas
Near here Stonewall Jackson camped, August 13-15, 1862, just after the Cedar Mountain engagement. — Map (db m4765) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — Elder John Leland
Courageous leader of the Baptist Doctrine Ardent advocate of the principles of democracy Vindicator of separation of church and state. Near this spot in 1788, elder John Leland and James Madison, the father of the American Constitution, held a significant interview which resulted in the adoption of the Constitution by Virginia. Then Madison, a member of Congress from Orange, presented the First Amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing religious liberty, free speech, and a free press. This . . . — Map (db m4697) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — General Zachary Taylor
A valiant soldier General Zachary Taylor 1784-1850 Twelfth President of the United States Born in Orange County Virginia Erected by Orange County Post No. 156 The American Legion 1934 — Map (db m4704) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — F 17 — Kemper's Grave
A mile south is the grave of James Lawson Kemper, who led his brigade of Virginia troops in Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863, and fell desperately wounded, he became a Major-General in 1864. Kemper was governor of Virginia, 1874-1878. — Map (db m4757) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — JJ 2 — Lee's Headquarters
Half a mile west, at the Rogers farm called Middle Hill, Gen. Robert E. Lee kept his headquarters from Dec. 1863 to May 1864. His Army of Northern Virginia, in winter camp, guarded the south side of the Rapidan River from the vicinity of Liberty Mills in Somerset east to Morton's Ford. While Lee strove to reinforce and resupply his depleted ranks, across the river in Culpeper County Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade trained and strengthened the Army of the Potomac for the . . . — Map (db m4700) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — F 26 — Montpelier and Madison's Tomb
Five miles southwest is Montpelier, the home of James Madison, "Father of the American Constitution" and fourth president of the United States, 1809-1817. Near the house is the tomb of Madison, who died at Montpelier on June 28, 1836. — Map (db m4703) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — JJ 1 — Oakley
Dr. Robert Thomas, a prominent Orange County physician, constructed Oakley in the Greek Revival style in 1843. His daughter Sarah (Sally) Thomas Browning and her husband, G. Judson Browning, later owned it. George W. Bagby (1828-1883), Southern Literary Messenger editor and well-known humorist, cast Judson Browning as the fictional narrator of "Jud Brownin's Account of (Anton) Rubenstein's Playing" and "Fray Devilo," stories describing a piano concert and an opera in rural dialect. This . . . — Map (db m22226) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — Z 12 — Orange County / Madison County
(North Facing Side): Orange County Formed from Spotsylvania County in 1734, Orange County, a pastoral Piedmont county, was probably named in honor of William IV, the Dutch prince of Orange, who married Anne, the Princess Royal, daughter of George II of England, earlier that year. President James Madison lived here at Montpelier and President Zachary Taylor was born here. Some fifty square miles of the county comprise the Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District, an area rich in . . . — Map (db m4758) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — F 30 — Orange Train Station
Beginning in 1749, Orange County's successive courthouses have been located just west of here. In 1854, the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, constructed to link Alexandria with central Virginia, reached Orange and a train station was built near here. The 1804 courthouse was replaced in 1859 by the present Italianate structure a block further west. The buildings around the train station comprised one of the town's early commercial districts. A 1908 fire destroyed the original train station and the . . . — Map (db m4702) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — Town of OrangeConfederate Hardships
Lee vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign After Gettysburg and some minor operations during the summer and fall of 1863, Gen. Robert E. Lee and his Confederate army settled into winter quarters on the hills around the town of Orange Court House. Lee relied on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad for supplies and reinforcements, but the line was unable to sustain the army with adequate provisions. In January 1864, Lee counseled the secretary of war: "The supply of subsistence for the army is a . . . — Map (db m4701) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Orange — JJ 3 — Wreck at the Fat Nancy
Here, on 12 July 1888, occurred one of Virginia's largest train disasters, the wreck of the Virginia Midland Railroad's Train 52, the Piedmont Airline. As it crossed the 44-foot-high, 487-foot-long trestle, called the Fat Nancy for a local African American woman who served as a trestle watcher and reported problems, the trestle collapsed. Nine passengers were killed, including two Confederate veterans, and more than two dozen were injured. Also killed was civil engineer Cornelius G. Cox, who . . . — Map (db m41517) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Rhoadesville — JJ 24 — Campaign of 1781
Lafayette, marching southward from Raccoon Ford, camped here, June 8-9, 1781. — Map (db m5454) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Rosena — GA-42 — Southwest Mountains Rural Historic District
Extending from the Orange County line on the north to the outskirts of Charlottesville with the Southwest Mountains forming its spine, this historic district encompasses more than 31,000 acres and contains some of the Piedmont’s most pristine and scenic countryside. Thomas Jefferson often traveled along the eastern side of the Southwest Mountains to Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. and referred to the mountains as the “Eden of the United States.” The district includes a broad . . . — Map (db m40775) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Somerset — James Madison and Dolley Madison
Near this spot are buried James Madison "Father of the Constitution" Fourth President of the United States 1809-1817 and Dolley Madison his wife — Map (db m24226) HM
Virginia (Orange County), Verdiersville — JJ 12 — Stuart's "Very Narrow Escape"
At dawn on 18 Aug. 1862, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart was awakened by the clatter of approaching cavalry. Expecting Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee to join him in scouting Maj. Gen. John Pope's Union army, Stuart was surprised by Federal troopers instead. Mounting his horse Skylark, Stuart vaulted a fence and barely escaped, but lost his hat. The next day, he wrote his wife that "I am greeted on all sides with congratulations and 'where's your hat!' I intend to make the Yankees pay for that hat." On 22 Aug., . . . — Map (db m4696) HM
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