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Richmond Markers
878 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 628
Virginia, Richmond — "Richmond"
William Byrd II of Westover, owner of the land around the falls of the James River, wrote in his diary on September 19, 1733: …we laid the foundations of two large Citys. One at Shacco’s, to be called Richmond and the other at the point of Appamattux River to be named Petersburgh. …Thus we did not build Castles only, but also Citys in the Air. Byrd, who had lived and been educated in England, chose the name “Richmond” for his new city because the view of the James . . . — Map (db m16145) HM
Virginia, Richmond — "The Great Chief Justice"
Born in Fauquier County, John Marshall was admitted to the bar there in 1780 following service in the Revolutionary army. In 1783 he married Mary Willis Ambler and lived the remainder of his life in Richmond where until 1797 he accepted President Adam’s request to help represent his nation in France. Marshall was deeply involved in state political and legal affairs. He served intermittently in the House of Delegates on the Council of State, the Richmond City Council, and after 1793 as brigadier . . . — Map (db m22610) HM
Virginia, Richmond — “I must save the women of Richmond!”
Site of the house in which Maj. Gen'l. J.E.B. Stuart, C.S.A. died May 12, 1864 “I must save the women of Richmond!” This tablet is placed by the Confederate Memorial Literary Society, A.D. 1911 — Map (db m16216) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 1200 Block East Cary Street
Because of Shockoe Slip’s convenience to both canal and rail transport, many different businesses contributed to its economic make-up. Some of the buildings in this block housed concerns that would be expected in the area, such as a cigar manufacturer and commission merchants. There were, however, others with more exotic specialties—a dealer in oils, a vinegar company, and a “fancy grocer and confectioner.” All moved in and out of these buildings during the last hundred and . . . — Map (db m40665) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 1201 East Cary Street
This building, now the home of the popular Tobacco Company Restaurant, was originally built in 1866, just one year after the Evacuation Fire. Erected during the most difficult period Richmond has ever experienced, the structure was considered especially amazing, during that time of extreme economic hardship, for its size. For decades it serviced the nearby James River and Kanawha Carnal as a warehouse for groceries and, in the 1870s, for tobacco. Even after the demise of the canal, this . . . — Map (db m40664) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 1300-1304 East Cary Street
This corner has long been dominated by restaurants and saloons which served the commercial area’s workers and clientele. Often commission merchants occupied the upstairs offices. This handsomely detailed building erected on a site which extends into the intersection, appears to form a cornerstone for the entire historic district. Built in 1869, its stacked classical ornament is typical of the post Civil War period; and its facade is the most ambitious in the area. Adhering to its . . . — Map (db m40672) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 13th Street Bridge
The keystone inscription bears the initials of the two owners of the Haxall-Crenshaw Mill, which once stood here. The old 13th Street Bridge and the arch on the bank of the canal opposite this spot were built by Richard B. Haxall and Lewis D. Crenshaw, proprietors of the Haxall-Crenshaw Mill. The arch was part of a lateral canal extending into an auxiliary building of the flour mill, which was one of America's largest. — Map (db m23820) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 2307 E. Broad Streetc. 1818
Part of Carrington Row, this row house was built in 1818 by the sons of Ann Adams Carrington. The architecture was inspired by the work of Benjamin Henry Latrobe and Robert Mills. The home was designed by builder-architect Otis Mason. It is the oldest existing row house in the City of Richmond. Dr. R.L. Bohannon, one of the founders of the Medical College of Virginia once lived here. It once housed the law offices of former Governor Douglas L. Wilder. — Map (db m67425) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 28th St Draw Bridge / Great Shiplock Canal"The Tidewater Connection"
28th St Draw Bridge The lift bridge before you was built by the Norfolk and Southern Railroad in 1929 to serve the paper mills along the Pamunkey River at West Point. A moveable bridge was always necessary to allow ships from the James River to pass through the Great Shiplock (on your left), enter the Tidewater Connection Canal (in front of you) and reach the tobacco industries along Dock Street (to your right). As early as the 1880’s there was a moveable . . . — Map (db m47385) HM
Virginia, Richmond — A Bateau Pole
This pole is a reproduction of the poles used by Bateau polemen. The crew of a Bateau consisted of two polemen, who walked on boards running the length of the boat on either side and a steersman who used a sweep at the stern. To navigate upstream, one of the polemen, standing on the walkway in the bow, set his iron shod pole in the bottom of the canal or river, adjusted the pole to the pad at his shoulder and pushed the Bateau forward as he walked along the board. The other poleman, in turn, . . . — Map (db m23922) HM
Virginia, Richmond — A. P. Hill
Front of Monument: Born in Culpepper Co. November 9th 1825 Killed before Petersburg April 2nd 1865. Back of Monument : His remains were interred here June 24, 1891. — Map (db m19813) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 69 — Adams-Van Lew House
Richmond mayor Dr. John Adams built a mansion here in 1802. It became the residence of Elizabeth Van Lew (1818-1900) whose father obtained it in 1836. During the Civil War, Elizabeth Van Lew led a Union espionage operation. African Americans, such as Van Lew's associate Mary Jane Richards (whose story closely parallels that of legendary spy Mary Elizabeth Bowser), served in Richmond's Unionist underground. Van Lew served as postmaster of Richmond from 1869 to 1877. Maggie Lena Walker, . . . — Map (db m15926) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Adapting Power
The Raceway and Earlier Uses of the Site This raceway brought water from the James River and Kanawha Canal to power waterwheels, and later turbines, that drove machinery. During its earliest use, the raceway contained at least two overshot waterwheels that powered a corn mill, a cotton mill, and a flour mill. The stone base of the Pattern Building probably dates from the earliest structures. The tubes or penstocks you see here, carry water into the round metal casings that . . . — Map (db m24411) HM
Virginia, Richmond — African Americans and the WaterfrontRichmond Riverfront
African Americans and the waterfront The Richmond waterfront is steeped in African American history. From the early days when Richmond was a colonial trading post, free, indentures, and enslaved African Americans lived and worked in the area. Later, the Richmond dock became a place of arrival for many slaves brought from other parts of the South to be sold at auction houses a few blocks north of here. Both free and enslaved blacks worked in the ironworks and tobacco warehouses . . . — Map (db m23856) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Albemarle Paper
In 1916, the Dixie Paper Company opened a paper mill in the building of the closed Brown’s Island electric plant. By 1919, the mill was taken over by Albemarle Paper Company, which had been operating a paper mill just upriver at Hollywood since 1887. The Brown’s Island mill made kraft paper and operated until 1967. The mill buildings filled the island, with the last pulled down in 1978. In 1957, Albemarle Paper purchased the Tredegar Iron Works property. By then it had acquired most of . . . — Map (db m24107) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Alexander H. Stephens House Site
Alexander H. Stephens Vice President of the Confederate States of America Lived in the house that stood here in 1861 This tablet is placed by the Confederate Memorial Literary Society, A.D., 1912, — Map (db m16272) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 58 — Alfred D. “A.D.” Price
Born into slavery in Hanover County in 1860, Alfred D. “A.D.” Price moved to Richmond in the late 1870s. Soon after coming to Richmond, he set up a blacksmith shop, which expanded into a livery stable and the funeral home that stands here, now known as A. D. Price Funeral Establishment. In August 1894, Price became one of the first funeral directors in Virginia to receive a state embalming license. He served on the board of directors of a number of businesses and organizations, . . . — Map (db m5601) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-47 — Anna Maria LaneSoldier of the American Revolution
Near the Bell Tower in Capitol Square stood the barracks of the Public Guard. There, from 1801 to 1807, lived John Lane and his wife, Anna Maria Lane, the only documented woman veteran of the Revolutionary War to reside in Virginia. She disguised herself and enlisted with her husband in the Connecticut Continental Line. "In the garb, and with the courage of a soldier, (she) performed extraordinary military services," and was wounded at Germantown, Pa., in 1777. She followed Lane through his . . . — Map (db m4624) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Arnold’s Picket Driven In
Arnold’s Picket driven in Jany 4th 1781 By Col. J. Nicholas (south face) This pylon, re-created in granite and containing a replica of the original 1834 inscription, was re-dedicated April 17, 1991, by the Sons of the Revolution in the State of Virginia (west face) The central pylon was erected about 1834 to mark the site in this vicinity where Benedict Arnold’s attack during the Revolution was repulsed. Re-erected 1948 by the Sons of the Revolution in the State . . . — Map (db m16099) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Arthur Ashe Monument — Monument Avenue Historic District
[Inscription on east face of monument:]Arthur R. Ashe, Jr. 1943 - 1993 World Champion, Author, Humanitarian, Founder of Virginia Heroes, Incorporated, Native of Richmond, Virginia. This Monument was placed at Monument Avenue and Roseneath Road on July 10, 1996, to inspire children and people of all nationalities. [Inscription on west face of monument:]Since we are surrounded by so great a crowd of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which so . . . — Map (db m22823) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Auction HousesRichmond Slave Trail
There were several dozen such houses in Shockoe Bottom, typically selling human “goods” along with corn, coffee, and other commodities. Some sales were part of a larger business; other auctioneers dealt exclusively in slaves. Most slave commerce was concentrated in the roughly 30-block area bounded by Broad, 15th, and 19th Streets and the river. Davenport & Co., located at 15th and Cary streets, was an auction house near the center of the district; portions of the building survived . . . — Map (db m41822) HM
Virginia, Richmond — E 1 — Bacon’s Quarter
Nathaniel Bacon (1647–1676), leader of Bacon’s Rebellion, acquired land in 1674 at Curles Neck in Henrico County and property near the falls on the north side of the James River that became known as Bacon’s Quarter in what is now present-day Richmond. Bacon’s Quarter, located nearby, was run by an overseer and likely contained a trading post. Bacon’s Quarter Branch was a small stream that ran through the tract and one time flowed from approximately the Boulevard meandering eastward into . . . — Map (db m1895) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-48 — Barton Heights Cemeteries
The Burying Ground Society of the Free People of Color of Richmond established its cemetery (later renamed Cedarwood) here in 1815. African Americans eventually founded five more cemeteries here: Union Burial Ground (later called Union Mechanics), Sons and Daughters of Ham, Ebenezer, Methodist and Sycamore. The burial societies, fraternal orders, and religious organizations that sustained these cemeteries formed the cultural and economic bedrock of Richmond’s nineteenth century African American . . . — Map (db m1028) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Basin Race
The Great Basin of the James River & Kanawha Canal covered three square blocks directly in front of this plaque: between Cary and Canal, and 8th and 12th Streets. By 1834, millers had realized the Basin’s water could be used to turn waterwheels, and the Gallego Mills and the Franklin Paper Manufacturing paper mill opened. Basin hydropower was used until the early 20th century. The Basin was large and elevated, and the water level could be maintained by flow from the Canal. The Canal . . . — Map (db m26573) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-71 — Battle of Bloody Run
Nearby is the site where Chief Totopotomoy of the Pamunkey died in 1656. The English colonists had become concerned over the recent settlement nearby of the Rickohockans along the falls of the James River. They called upon Totopotomoy to assist in removing the Rickohockans. An English force led by Col. Edward Hill along with Totopotomoy and his men fought the Rickohockans in 1656. Totopotomoy and many of his men were killed, and the event became known as the Battle of Bloody Run. The Council of . . . — Map (db m16046) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Bell Tavern
To mark the site of Bell Tavern used as a Recruiting Station during the War of 1812 Erected by the Dorothy Payne Madison Chapter N.S.U.S. Daughters 1812, VA — Map (db m27774) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle IsleCaptain John Smith’s Adventures on the James — www.johnsmithtrail.org
James River Park System The Virginia Company of London instructed the first English colonists to choose a river for their settlement and to “let Captain Newport discover how far that river may be found navigable.” Following this charge, Newport and a group that included John Smith sailed upriver as far as modern Richmond in late May, 1607. Richmond straddles the fall line between Virginia’s Coastal Plain and the Piedmont region, the limit of navigation for sailing . . . — Map (db m23719) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle
During the winter of 1863-1864, the island visible from this spot held up to 8,000 Union army prisoners. After the outbreak of the Civil War, prisoners poured into Richmond. Camps built only as transport stations soon became permanent. Over the course of the war, several thousand Belle Isle prisoners died, many during the harsh winter of 1863, when the entire city was overcrowded and undersupplied. — Map (db m24097) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle and Old Dominion Iron and Nail Works
Once called Washington’s or Broad Rock Island, Belle Isle was bought by Captain John Smith from Chief Powatan in 1608. Early travelers found the island natural and idyllic and current visitors only see hints of the island’s industrial past. In 1815, a wooden dam built on the southern side diverted water to power a nail factory, which eventually became Old Dominion Iron and Steel. Belle Isle later became the home of stone quarries and a Virginia Electric Power plant. Old Dominion Iron and . . . — Map (db m24375) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle Hydro Plant
In front of you are the remains of a hydroelectric power plant. It powered the trolley system on the south of the river and the steel company at the east end of the island. To your left and up are the remains of the Transformer Building. Here the flow of electricity from the different generators was evened-out and the voltage increased. Higher voltage allowed the use of thinner transportation wires. To your right is the canal (“mill race”) that brought . . . — Map (db m64046) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle Prison
Directly in front of you, in mid-river, is Belle Isle. Despite the large number of Union prisoners brought to Richmond during the Civil War, the city had only two full-time prisons. Libby Prison for Union officers, a mile and a half downriver, was the more famous of the pair, but Belle Isle, designed for Union enlisted men, was the most miserable. Confederate authorities realized that the island would make an ideal site for holding captured enlisted men from the Union army. The first . . . — Map (db m26595) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle Prison Camp Monument
During the Civil War over 1,000 Union soldiers perished in the 6 acre prison site before you. Of those who survived, in bothe Northern and Southern camps, many were exchanged in such wretched condition that they were often unfit to return to duty. In gratitude for the perseverance of these Union soldiers who sacrificed much to preserve the Union we dedicate this monument Col. James D. Brady Camp #63 Petersburg, Virginia Irish Brigade Camp #4 Fredericksburg, Virginia Sons . . . — Map (db m64035) HM WM
Virginia, Richmond — Belle Isle Rolling Milling and Slitting ManufactoryApprox. 1815-1900
Through the arched doorway mules pulled carts of scrap iron from England. Water powered the machinery. European immigrants and black slaves provided the labor. The nails, wire and horseshoes were famous throughput the South. Sign donated by St. Catherine's School Map (db m64045) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Bill “Bojangles” Robinson
December 14, 1878 – November 25, 1949. Dancer • Actor • Humanitarian Native Son of Richmond ——— Internationally famous actor and dancer rendered many kindnesses to the citizens of Richmond. — Map (db m1915) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Birthplace of Cardiac Transplantation
This site commemorates the pioneering basic, clinical and translational research that laid the foundation for successful cardiac transplantation. On this campus, Dr. Richard Lower performed the first heart transplant in Virginia on May 25, 1968. Modern-day research in transplantation medicine continues to flourish at the VCU Medical Center, as does organ transplantation at the Hume-Lee Transplant Center and cardiac transplantation at the Pauley Heart Center. VCU Virginia Commonwealth University — Map (db m19180) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 75 — Black Hawk (1767-1838)
Black Sparrow Hawk (Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak) led the Sauk Nation in defense of land taken from them in the 1830s. Displaced from three Midwestern locations, the Sauk resisted another federal relocation. Led by Black Hawk, the Sauk fought throughout the summer of 1832 in what has become known as the Black Hawk War. Outnumbered, the Sauk and Black Hawk surrendered and he was held in federal custody. President Andrew Jackson ordered him paraded through major cities in European clothing as . . . — Map (db m24336) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Bowers Brothers Coffee and Tea Building104 Shockoe Slip
Richmond’s flour, milled here in Shockoe Slip, was known all over the world for its high quality. On their return from delivering flour and the popular Virginia tobacco, ships were laden with coffee, tea, and exotic spices, which were then sold by commission merchants here in the Slip. The Bowers Brothers Building takes its name from a coffee and tea processing and brokerage firm that occupied it from 1912 until 1956. This straightforward commercial structure, which usually housed leaf tobacco . . . — Map (db m40670) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 68 — Branch Public Baths
John Patterson Branch (1830–1915), banker, philanthropist and community leader, erected Richmond’s first public bath here in 1909 at 1801 East Broad Street as a gift to the city. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, cities such as Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York began operating municipally managed public baths that were open throughout the year to promote good public health. In 1913, Branch Public Bath No. 2 at 709 West Main Street was opened. At the peak in the early 1920s, . . . — Map (db m1902) HM
Virginia, Richmond — S 1 — British Invasion of Richmond, January 1781
On 4 Jan. 1781, British troops led by Brig. Gen. Benedict Arnold landed at Westover in Charles City County and began marching to Richmond. Learning of the threat, Governor Thomas Jefferson directed the removal of public records and military stores to safety before evacuating the capital. On 5 Jan., Arnold’s troops easily dispersed colonial forces arranged on defensive positions here on Church Hill and Shockoe Hill and occupied Richmond for twenty-four hours. Before returning the following day . . . — Map (db m1905) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 46 — Broad Street Station
Broad Street Station served passengers of the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railway and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad from 6 Jan. 1919 until 15 Nov. 1975. The Neoclassical Revival station was the only commercial building designed by John Russell Pope, who also designed the Branch House in Richmond and the Jefferson Memorial, National Gallery of Art, and National Archives in Washington, D.C. The station is noted architecturally for its Classical details, hundred-foot-high rotunda, and . . . — Map (db m9209) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Brown’s Island
Brown’s Island was created when the Haxall Canal was extended west to the Tredegar Iron Works. Encircled by the waterways that provided power and transportation to flour mills, foundries, and paper companies, Brown’s Island has been at the center of Richmond’s industrial activities for more than 200 years. Remains of Civil War-era bridges can be seen from its shores, and the CSX Railroad still runs along its southern edge. — Map (db m24095) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Brown’s Island
Brown’s Island is named for Elijah Brown who acquired it in 1826. Brown came from Rhode Island in 1811 to be a gunsmith at the Virginia Manufactory of Arms. In 1818, he entered the Public Guard, which was stationed at the Manufactory, and served as Lieutenant and Paymaster. For a time the Island was called Neilson’s Island, after a subsequent owner, but the name Brown’s Island eventually stuck. Since Elijah Brown’s day, the island has had a varied history, sketched in plaques around . . . — Map (db m24105) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Burnt District
More than 1,000 buildings burned between 4th and 15th Streets, from Main Street to the river. “The sky in the direction of Richmond is lurid with the glare of burning houses. …It was as if a great battle were going on around us.” Kate Mason Rowland, 1865 As the Confederates evacuated Richmond in 1865, they torched bridges, warehouses, and arsenals to keep them from the Union Army. All the buildings in the Shockoe warehouse district were destroyed. The devastation . . . — Map (db m24290) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk
(front panel) Railroads Richmond has been a railroad center since the 1830’s. In 1838, the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad had its main depot and shops at 8th & Byrd streets. A short north-south link, the R&P was the parent company of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. In 1967, the ACL merged with Seaboard Air Line Railroad to form the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad, now part of CSX. The Richmond & Danville Railroad opened its main depot on the James . . . — Map (db m26586) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk / Historic CanalsRichmond Riverfront
canal walk First envisioned by George Washington in 1774, the canals were to be part of a continuous transportation route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River. By 1789, initial construction of portions of the canal around the falls to the west of downtown had been completed by the James River Canal Company. Ultimately part of the James River and Kanawha Canal system, this canal entered the city from the west and ran behind the Tredegar Iron Works to a basin between 8th and . . . — Map (db m23793) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk / Historic CanalsRichmond Riverfront
canal walk One hundred and fifty years ago, Richmond’s waterfront bustled with business and trade, workers and travelers, hotels, saloons, and tobacco warehouses. Along the canals, barges were towed by teams of horses and mules. Batteaux for carrying freight plied the river and the canal around the rapids, and passenger boats, called “packets,” left for Lynchburg every other day. Richmond has now restored its historic canals. Once again, boats can bypass the beautiful . . . — Map (db m23854) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk / Historic CanalsRichmond Riverfront
canal walk One hundred and fifty years ago, Richmond’s waterfront bustled with business and trade, workers and travelers, hotels, saloons, and tobacco warehouses. Along the canals, barges were towed by teams of horses and mules. Batteaux for carrying freight plied the river and the canal around the rapids, and passenger boats, called “packets,” left for Lynchburg every other day. Richmond has now restored its historic canals. Once again, boats can bypass the beautiful . . . — Map (db m23866) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canal Walk / Historic CanalsRichmond Riverfront
canal walk One hundred and fifty years ago, Richmond’s waterfront bustled with business and trade, workers and travelers, hotels, saloons, and tobacco warehouses. Along the canals, barges were towed by teams of horses and mules. Batteaux for carrying freight plied the river and the canal around the rapids, and passenger boats, called “packets,” left for Lynchburg every other day. Richmond has now restored its historic canals. Once again, boats can bypass the beautiful but . . . — Map (db m23887) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Cannon over the Camp
The Belle Isle prisoner-of-war camp that stood before you here was a prison without walls. Federal soldiers were confined by the James River and by the low earthen "dead line," such as the one replicated in front of you, surrounding the camp. About a hundred Confederate guards were assigned here and were authorized to shoot any prisoner crossing the dead line. On the hill behind you, artillery pieces were positioned above the camp to intimidate the captives further. Gilbert E. Sabre, a . . . — Map (db m64041) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Canons and Corpses
Big guns on the hill deterred riots - in the over crowded prison encampment to your left. Few escaped, most died of starvation, dysentery, and disease. In total about 1,000 perished. The cemetery, now empty, was to your right where trees grow today. — Map (db m13994) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Chesapeake & Ohio RailwayChartered 1869
Origins in the James River & Kanawha Canal Co. (1785) and the Louisa Railroad (1836). Headquarted in Richmond. Profits came from hauling WVA coal to Newport News shipyards. Merged with B&O in 1972 to form Chessie System. Chessie System merged with Seaboard System in 1980 to form CSX. Church Hill Tunnel, 1873 • 18th & east Marshall Main Street Station, 1901 • 15th & East Main Penisula Trestle, 1901 • Elevated track to the right James River Viaduct, • 1901 East Dock Street Triple . . . — Map (db m70491) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Chimborazo Hospital
On this hill stood Chimborazo Hospital 1862-1865 Established by Surgeon General S.P. Moore, C.S.A. Directed by Dr. James B. McCaw. At that time, it was the largest military hospital in the world. It consisted of 150 buildings and 100 tents and cared for 76,000 patients with a mortality of less than 10 per cent. This tablet is placed by the Confederate Memorial Literary Society 1934 — Map (db m15507) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Chimborazo Hospital1861-1865
In this park Dr. James B. McCaw developed for the Confederate States of America a military hospital which was then the largest in human history. It received 17,000 wounded, served more than 76,000 patients, and had a mortality of less than 10%. Dr. McCaw was its commandant and medical director, Mrs. John Minge its chief matron. Erected by Lee Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy. Richmond, Virginia, June 3, 1953 — Map (db m16047) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Chimborazo Hospital
On this 40-acre plateau the Confederates built Chimborazo Hospital, one of the largest and best-known Civil War military hospitals: 78,000 sick and wounded Confederate soldiers passed through the hospital from 1861-1865. Chimborazo’s neat rows of buildings enhanced ventilation and served as a model for many postwar hospitals. None of Chimborazo's 150 wooden structures exists today. The large building before you was constructed in 1909 as a Federal weather station. It houses the Chimborazo . . . — Map (db m34784) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Christopher Newport Cross / Canal WalkRichmond Riverfront
Christopher Newport Cross On May 24, 1607, Captain Christopher Newport and a party of explorers who had landed at Jamestown just days earlier arrived at the site of modern-day Richmond. Hoping to find a passage to the Pacific, they found instead a fortified Indian village with outlying agricultural fields. Newport, advised by the leader of the village not to proceed farther than the falls, where a rival group of Indians lived, traveled the next day a short distance upstream. There he . . . — Map (db m23819) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Christopher Newport Monument
Capt. Christopher Newport John Smith Gabriel Archer Hon. George Percy With gentlemen, mariners, soldiers numbering twenty-one explored James River to the falls, and set up a cross Whitsunday, May 24th 1607 This monument is presented to the City of Richmond by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities June 10th 1907 “Dei Gratia Virginia Condita” — Map (db m23818) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 90 — Church Hill Tunnel
About 200 feet east is the western portal of the Church Hill Tunnel. On 11 Dec. 1873, Chesapeake and Ohio locomotive number 2 passed through the tunnel, marking the completion of one of the longest tunnels in the United States. The tunnel was being repaired on 2 Oct. 1925, when Chesapeake and Ohio locomotive number 231 entered the tunnel heading west, pulling ten flat cars. The train was near the western portal when suddenly 190 feet of the tunnel collapsed, trapping and killing railroad . . . — Map (db m54853) HM
Virginia, Richmond — City Locks River Gauge
The building before you holds equipment that measures the level of the James River leaving Richmond How it works: The gauge is a tube of air with a standard amount of pressure inside. How much the river water rises up the tube determines how much more the air is compressed. That increased pressure can be scaled to indicate the river level. In the beginning, people just read a numbered gauge, but it was hard to read when there were waves and impossible to observe when there was a . . . — Map (db m61821) HM
Virginia, Richmond — City of Richmond Bicentennial
On July 2, 1782, the people of Richmond gathered near this site to elect twelve citizens and constitute their first city government, known as the Common Hall. The next day, the Richmond Common Council held its first meeting on the same site and elected from its membership Richmond’s first mayor, William Foushee. Erected July 2, 1982, by the City of Richmond in celebration of the 200th birthday of Richmond’s incorporation as a city — Map (db m16306) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Civil War POW Camp
You are looking at the nationally significant site of the notorious Belle Isle prisoner-of-war camp where during the Civil War thousands of captured U.S. soldiers were confined. After the war began in 1861, military prisoners jammed Richmond’s jails and warehouses, until North and South signed a formal agreement on July 22, 1862, for prisoner exchanges. That month, Confederate authorities constructed a camp here on Belle Isle, and by the end of July 5,000 enlisted men were packed into it. . . . — Map (db m64034) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Civil War Visitor CenterRichmond National Battlefield Park
You are standing amid the remains of the Tredegar Iron Works, the nation’s largest and best-equipped ironworks in 1860. Some Tredegar iron industries operated until the 1950s. Today, Tredegar’s Pattern Storage Building, constructed around 1867, serves as Richmond’s Civil War Visitor Center. This building once held patterns for casting guns, railroad wheels, and machinery. Other surviving structures include the 1861 gun foundry, the office building, a 1915 carpenter shop, and the company . . . — Map (db m24474) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Coffer Dams
The large wood and steel rectangles before you are the walls of temporary dams. They are designed to be placed by crane at either end of the stone locks to your right. --- This allows the locks to be closed off, the water pumped out, and repairs made to the lock doors. In the past, mud built up at the base of the doors, wood rotted, and metal control pieces bent. At the moment, repairs are needed to the “wicket gates”. -- These are the small metal louvers at the bottom of . . . — Map (db m61822) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Colonel Thomas Stegge, Jr.
This tablet is dedicated to the memory of Colonel Thomas Stegge, Jr. proprietor of the Falls Plantation, 1659-70 first land-patentee permanently to reside at the falls of James River; uncle and benefactor of William Byrd I., whose son in 1737 caused the town site of Richmond to be surveyed. Erected by the people of south Richmond, 1937 on the occasion of the bicentennial celebration Map (db m30357) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Columbian Block
The Columbian Block at the dawn of the 20th Century. This building, probably erected in 1871 to house the grain and Cotton Exchange, also housed the original “Sam Miller Exchange Cafe.” The business of the Richmond Commodities Exchange was conducted on the third floor until the mid 1900’s. A new “Sam Miller Exchange Cafe” opened in October, 1973 after many decades of disuse. This plaque erected through the cooperation of the Reynolds Metals company, the . . . — Map (db m40671) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Commercial Block1211-1217 East Cary Street
This commercial row of warehouses and retail structures was built immediately after the Civil War, in 1866, to serve the nearby James River and Kanawha Canal. The Doric colonnade framing the doorways and windows on this building was produced in Richmond by Asa Snyder, who owned several ornamental iron companies during his career. The partial cast-iron fronts of many of our 19th-century buildings were supplied by the well-known iron industry in Richmond. In addition to serving as a . . . — Map (db m40668) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Company Store
The Tredegar Company operated a company store, or commissary, in this two story brick building. The company store was opened shortly after Tredegar resumed production at the end of the Civil War (c.1868) and remained in business until just after the end of World War I (c.1918). The entrance to the store was on the upper floor and faced the James River and Kanawha canal. The lower floor was used for storage, and a small rope and pulley elevator carried goods up to the sales area — Map (db m24129) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Confederate (Second) Alabama Hospital
Also known as Yarbrough's factory, Turpin's factory. Original building Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee 1965 Historic Building Built 1853 Yarbrough Turpin Tobacco Factory 1853 - 1909 Pohlig Bros. Paper Box Company 1909 - Used as hospital during Civil War — Map (db m32309) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Confederate General Hospital No. 12
Also known as Banner, Grant, Wayside Later used as barracks by Federal occupation forces. Original building. Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee 1965 Map (db m31167) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Confederate HospitalChimborazo 1861-1865
Here on this 40-acre plateau the Confederates built Chimborazo Hospital, one of the largest and best known Civil War military hospitals. Its neat rows of pavilion buildings enhanced ventilation and served as a model for many postwar hospitals. None of Chimborazo’s 150 wooden structures exist today. The large building before you was constructed in 1909 as a federal weather station. It houses the Chimborazo Medical Museum, which tells of the 78,000 sick and wounded Confederate soldiers who . . . — Map (db m16143) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Confederate Laboratory
Brown’s Island was the site of the Confederate Laboratory, a major powder-loading and cartridge-producing plant during the Civil War. During the Civil War, the hazardous work of loading powder was carried out here on Brown’s Island because of its separation from the city by water. On March 13, 1864, a huge explosion killed 46 workers – mostly women whom hard times had forced into this dangerous occupation. — Map (db m24098) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 52 — Confederate Memorial Chapel
The chapel was erected in 1887 in memory of the more than 260,000 Confederate war dead and as a place of worship for the veterans who resided here in the Robert E. Lee Camp Confederate Soldiers' Home. The veterans themselves, many of them disabled and impoverished, funded the construction. Marion J. Dimmock, Sr., designed the Gothic Revival structure and Joseph F. Wingfield built it. The chapel was used regularly until the last resident veteran died in 1941. The home was then closed and the . . . — Map (db m15908) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Confederate Memorial ChapelR. E. Lee Camp, No.1 — Confederate Soldiers’ Home
Between 1885 and 1941 the present-day location of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts was the site of a large residential complex for poor and infirm Confederate veterans of the Civil War. Established by R. E. Lee Camp, No. 1, Confederate Veterans, the camp was built with private funds, including donations from former Confederate and Union soldiers alike. At peak occupancy, residents numbered just over three hundred; altogether a total of nearly three thousand veterans from thirty-three states . . . — Map (db m41812) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Confederate Memorial Pyramid
[South side]: Numini et Patri ae Asto [West side]: Erected by the Holly-Wood Memorial Association A.D. 1869 [North side]: Memoria in Aeterna [East side]: To the Confederate Dead — Map (db m13973) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Confederate Navy Yard
Begun in 1862, the Confederate Navy Yard occupied both banks of the James River, including the community and port of Rocketts Landing on the north bank. The Yard was the base, construction site, and headquarters for the James River Squadron, commanded by Admiral Raphael Semmes, which included the famous ironclad vessel; C.S.S. Virginia II, as well as other ironclads. Here, too, the Confederate Navy fashioned prototype artillery mounted on a railroad car for General Lee’s use at the . . . — Map (db m23663) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 101 — Confederate Ordnance Lab Explosion
In 1862, during the Civil War, Confederates established an ordnance laboratory and complex on the western part of nearby Brown’s Island. Workers there, many of them women and children who were forced to find employment because of the economic disruption occasioned by the war, assembled cartridges and other ammunition. Despite Col. Josiah Gorgas’s stringent safety guidelines, on 13 Mar. 1863, worker Mary Ryan accidentally ignited a friction primer, resulting in a massive explosion that destroyed . . . — Map (db m64016) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Confederate Soldiers & Sailors Monument
Erected by the Confederate Soldiers & Sailors Monument Association Anno Domini 1887-1894. — Map (db m16230) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 34 — Craig House
The Craig House, perhaps Richmond’s second oldest structure, was built between 1784 and 1787 by Adam Craig (b. ca. 1760–d. 1808). He was clerk of the Richmond Hustings Court, the Henrico County Court, and the General Court. To save the house, a group of Richmond citizens in 1935 formed the William Byrd Branch of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. The house served Richmond’s black community as the Craig House Art Center from 1938 to 1941. — Map (db m1901) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Creole RevoltRichmond Slave Trail
In October of 1841, Madison Washington and over 100 other men were sold from Richmond’s slave jails and ordered for export to New Orleans. Although the infamous Robert Lumpkin did not own his jail until 1844, he was one of several shippers in Richmond who contracted with the Creole, and some sources suggest that he might have owned anywhere from 41 to 90 of the passengers slated for this particular voyage. After their purchase by slave traders, Madison Washington and the rest of the . . . — Map (db m41828) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Crossing the AtlanticRichmond Slave Trail
Spanning nearly 350 years, the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade displaced over 12 million Africans from their native lands to foreign soils. European traders eager to fill the labor vacuum in the New World participated in the capture and sale of African men, women and children. The victims experienced unimaginably inhumane, horrific circumstances as they crossed the Atlantic Ocean, a journey known as the Middle Passage. Their destination: the New World, primarily Brazil and the Caribbean. Roughly 4 . . . — Map (db m41821) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Cupolas from the Virginia State Penitentiary
The cupolas you see here sat atop the Virginia State Penitentiary building that stood not far from here. Benjamin Henry Latrobe's original penitentiary was replaced by the building below in the 20th century, but was torn down in 1992 when the state moved the penitentiary outside Richmond. Ethyl Corporation's new laboratory facility now stands on the site of the penitentiary. — Map (db m24143) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Davenport Trading CompanyThe Last Building Known to have been used in the Slave Trade
The brick structure before you once held the Davenport Trading Company. While it was primarily a dry goods business, it also functioned as a general auction site. This included farm animals, equipment …and slaves. The large open area on the first floor, usually filled with barrels of flour, bacon and cloth, could be easily cleared for crowds that gathered to watch the sale of human beings. Although located in the heart of the slave trading district, this was not a major sales site. Those . . . — Map (db m40675) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Despair of SlaveryRichmond Slave Trail
“I had noticed the bad condition of this gang several times on the road, the poor wretches being travel-worn and half starved, and having large sores caused by their loads and the blows and cuts they received. The ropes that confined them were also, in some instances, eating into their flesh. And I saw one woman still carrying the infant that had died in her arms of starvation.” “Across Africa” Verney Lovett Cameron, Commander in the Royal Navy Published 1877 . . . — Map (db m41872) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Downtown Richmond Millsites
Seven sites in downtown Richmond have been locations for water-powered industry: HOLLYWOOD: A flour mill was operating by 1800. Canal water powered a paper mill beginning in 1887, and a 2,100 kilowatt hydroelectric plant from 1940 to 1972. River water powered a City hydroelectric plant until 1986. TREDEGAR: Canal water powered a flour mill by 1801, the Armory by 1802, and Tredegar Iron Works beginning in 1837. BASIN RACE: Basin water supplied a mill race which powered . . . — Map (db m26580) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Early Industrial Patterns
The Pattern Building’s origins reflect the uses of the Valentine Riverside site by several industries that were key to America’s, and Richmond’s industrial development. The building’s stone and brick foundations are from a water-powered flour mill built by Lewis D. Crenshaw, later used a woolen mill. Crenshaw’s operation also included a warehouse-grain elevator on the canal. After Crenshaw’s mill burned in 1863, Tredegar Iron Works rebuilt the mill in its present form for making and storage of . . . — Map (db m24154) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 46-a — Early Quakers in Richmond
Near this site a meetinghouse was built in 1797 to 1798 by members of the Religious Society of Friends. Called Quakers, the earliest had arrived in Virginia from England in 1655. The building was the second house of worship in Richmond after St. John’s Church. Richmond Quakers advocated religious freedom, worked to make the prison system more humane and, as pacifists, usually refused to bear arms. They also joined with the Virginia Society of Friends to pressure the General Assembly for passage . . . — Map (db m32317) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Early Shockoe
"We laid the foundation of two large cities, one at Shacco's, to be called Richmond." William Byrd II, 1733 "In those days the river was the road to town. Tobacco was boated down to Westham, seven miles above the falls, and then brought by land carriage to Shokoes." John F.D. Smythe, 1769 Shockoe is Richmond's oldest neighborhood. In the late 17th century, tobacco, furs, rum, and enslaved Africans were traded within blocks of here. In 1742, the town was no more than a . . . — Map (db m23950) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 96 — Ebenezer Baptist Church
Free blacks and slaves living west of Second St. and north of Broad St. founded the Third African Baptist Church in 1857. In 1858, it was dedicated on this site as Ebenezer Baptist Church, with a white minister, the Rev. William T. Lindsay, as pastor, as required by law. On 21 May 1865, the Rev. Peter Randolph became the congregation’s first black pastor. The church made education one of its chief goals. It opened the first public school for black children in Richmond in 1866, organized . . . — Map (db m56178) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Edgar Allen Poe
Presented to the people of Virginia by George Edward Barksdale, M.D. and gratefully accepted by the Commonwealth of Virginia as a tribute of admiration for Poe's scholarly genius as an eminent and vigorous writer and poet. — Map (db m4637) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 72 — Egyptian Building
In Oct. 1844, Hampden-Sydney College’s medical department first held classes in this Egyptian Revival structure designed by Philadelphia architect Thomas S. Stewart. Completed in 1846, it provided educational and clinical facilities for the medical school, which later became a centerpiece of the Medical College of Virginia. It is now part of Virginia Commonwealth University. The structure, named the Egyptian Building in 1927, was extensively renovated twelve tears later to carry the Egyptian . . . — Map (db m18855) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Egyptian BuildingMedical College of Virginia — 1844 - 1845
This building in the Egyptian style has been used continuously since its completion in 1845. During the War Between the States it was the chief Southern center for the education of physicians and surgeons. This tablet is erected by the Alumni Association as a tribute to the able faculty who constructed this first building owned by the institution: John Cullen, M.D., Professor Theory and Practice of Medicine L. W. Chamberlayne, M.D., Professor Therapeutics and Materia Medica R. L. . . . — Map (db m42672) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Electric Trolley
In 1888, Richmond built the first commercially successful electric trolley system in the world. The tops of the new cars were connected to an electrical line called a "troller" and thus became known as "trolleys." Richmond's horse-drawn carriage line was replaced in May 1888 with a trolley system powered by electricity generated at this end of the Haxall Canal. The streetcars ran for 60 years before giving way to buses and cars. — Map (db m23929) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Electricity for Streetcars
Power from Brown’s Island began to run streetcars in 1894, when Richmond Railway & Electric built a coal-fired generating plant. In 1888, the Richmond Union Passenger Railway became the first streetcar line in the world to be successfully powered by electricity. Designed by Frank Julian Sprague, the Sprague streetcar system was installed in cities around the globe. The main generating plant in 1888 was two blocks north of here, on 7th Street between Canal and Cary Streets. In . . . — Map (db m24106) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 54 — Engine Company No. 9 Fire Station
On 1 July 1950, the first professional Afro-American firefighters in Virginia were hired and in September were stationed on the northeast corner of this intersection. These courageous pioneers created a loyalty and dedication to each other and their profession notwithstanding discriminatory practices. Harvey S. Hicks, among those first hired, became the city's first black fire captain in September 1961. On 14 June 1963, Hicks and firefighter Douglas P. Evans sacrificed their lives in a rescue . . . — Map (db m22323) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Enterprise and Iron
By 1844, Tredegar Iron Works managers used this building for an office and as a residence. After the Civil War, it became the principal iron works office. It was rebuilt after being damaged by fire in 1903. During most of the history of Tredegar, the company was owned and operated by Joseph Reid Anderson and members of his family, with a few skilled workers and managers. Ownership by families or limited partnerships was not unusual for industrial organizations in the 1800s, but it became . . . — Map (db m24128) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Evacuation Fire
The Evacuation Fire destroyed roughly 1,000 buildings. It spread from here to the James River, and from the foot of Gambles Hill east to beyond 14th Street. The first tires were set by Confederate forces just after daybreak Monday April 3, 1865. Shockoe Warehouse at Shockoe Slip, and Public Warehouse on the site of Kanawha Plaza, were fired to destroy the tobacco. Railroad bridges and some private warehouses were also set on fire, but armed workers prevented the Tredegar Iron Works from . . . — Map (db m26582) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Evacuation of Richmond
On Sunday morning, April 2, 1865, Confederate President Jefferson Davis was notified while in church that Petersburg was falling. By noon, the evacuation of the Confederate government and army from Richmond was set in motion. Late Sunday evening, a train left Danville Station carrying Davis and other officials, and during the night the Confederate troops guarding Richmond marched out to the southwest. Before dawn on Monday, April 3rd, naval vessels and military stores were blown up, . . . — Map (db m26581) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 91 — Evergreen Cemetery
In 1891, Evergreen Cemetery was established as a preeminent resting place for many of Virginia's most influential African-American residents. These include Maggie L. Walker, president and founder of the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank, and John Mitchell, Jr., champion of African-American rights and editor of the Richmond Planet newspaper. J. Henry Brown, a stonemason by trade, designed many of the tombstones erected here. By the early 1970s, the cemetery had fallen into disrepair. In 1975, . . . — Map (db m53937) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 66 — Execution of Gabriel
Near here is the early site of the Richmond gallows and “Burial Ground for Negroes.” On 10 Oct. 1800, Gabriel, an enslaved blacksmith from Brookfield plantation in Henrico County, was executed there for attempting to lead a mass uprising against slavery on 30 Aug. 1800. A fierce rainstorm delayed the insurrection, which then was betrayed by two slaves. Gabriel escaped and eluded capture until 23 Sept., when he was arrested in Norfolk. He was returned to Richmond on 27 Sept. and . . . — Map (db m15116) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Falls of the James
The Falls of the James River are the central physical fact of Richmond, having directly influenced its history through their effect upon Trade, Energy, Community and Nourishment. Trade As the Falls of the James are a natural barrier between the sea and the interior, the area immediately surrounding the Falls has for centuries been a center for trade. Before European settlement, the Powhatan and Monacan Indians exploited the lands around the Falls as a trading center for the entire . . . — Map (db m23814) HM
Virginia, Richmond — First African Baptist ChurchRichmond Slave Trail
“As for the singing, when the vast congregation poured out its full soul in the old-fashioned songs, the long and loud bursts of praise reminded one parishioner of the ‘sound of many waters.” Slave Missions & the Black Church in the Antebellum South Janet Duitsman Cornelius (1999) Enslaved people in Virginia benefited at some times and suffered at others from white Christians’ attitudes or policies concerning African men, women, and children. On the one hand, the . . . — Map (db m41846) HM
Virginia, Richmond — First Break Rapids
In 1969 Hurricane Camille punched a hole in this dam that once funneled water to power plants on Belle Isle and below Hollywood Cemetery. It's now a popular boating site. Notice how a small current on the far side goes back upstream offering an opportunity to continually re-run the rapids. Sign funded by: Sierra Club Map (db m64050) HM
Virginia, Richmond — First Lieutenant Jimmie W. Monteith, Jr.
Commemorating the beautiful life of First Lieutenant Jimmie W. Monteith, Jr. He died June 6, 1944 on the shores of Normandy and lies buried at St. Laurent, France. Age 26 years. A Virginia by birth, descending from a long line of her patriots, he kept the Faith. “Tall men, sun crowned who live above the fog.” So beloved. — Map (db m61634) WM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 25 — First Trolley Car System in Richmond
In 1888, the world’s first successful electric railway, the Richmond Union Passenger Railway, branched at this point to link downtown and Jackson Ward with the suburbs. This system, designed by Frank Julian Sprague (1857–1934), contained 12 miles of track with 40 trolley cars running to Byrd Park in the West End and to 29th and Broad streets in the East End. This model system that revolutionized urban transportation ceased operation in November, 1949. — Map (db m1899) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 60 — Forest Hill Park
This 105-acre site was part of William Byrd III's vast 1700s holdings along the James River. In 1836, Holden Rhodes (1799-1857), noted jurist and early president of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad Company, purchased the property, named it Boscobel, and built what is now known as the Stone House. In 1890, the Richmond & Manchester Railway Company established a trolley terminus and an amusement park here called Forest Hill Park. The amusement structures were dismantled in 1932 and the city . . . — Map (db m28854) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Francis Asbury
To the glory of God and in grateful memory of Francis Asbury Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America An apostle whose only home was his saddle, his parish the continent. With fervent love for his Lord and a zeal that never flagged this lifelong missionary sought the people in the van of the advancing pioneers, made strong the moral foundations of the Commonwealth, and built up the Kingdom of God. Carried from his bed, frail and spent, to the . . . — Map (db m31163) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Francis Turbine
This Francis Type Turbine was used on the Tredegar site in the early twentieth century and is very similar to one of the five turbines located near the building to your left. It was built by the S. Morgan Smith Company of York, Pennsylvania. By turning the wheel attached to the gears, the cylinder gate (the part with the fin-like openings) moves in and out, controlling the amount of water passing into the turbine, thus controlling the power. The water pushes the buckets of the runner, turning the power shaft. — Map (db m24426) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Franklin Street Burying Grounds
. . . — Map (db m37129) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Frederick William Sievers
Sievers, 1872-1966, one of the South’s most prolific sculptors, maintained his residence and studio at what is now 1206 W. 43rd Street for more than one half century. Although best known for his Virginia monument at Gettysburg and the memorials to Jackson and Maury on Monument Avenue in Richmond, there are examples of his work throughout the Commonwealth, the South, and beyond. — Map (db m31785) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 6 — Freedmen's Bureau Freedman's Bank
Slavery denied African Americans the education and skills required to exercise the freedoms won by the Civil War. To redress this, Congress created the Freedman Bureau and Freedman’s Bank in March 1865. In Richmond, the Bureau and its Bank first operated out of two frame buildings here at 10th and Broad Streets, relocating several times before closing in 1872 and 1874 respectfully. The agencies reunited families, legalized marriages, and provided education, food, clothing, job placement, legal . . . — Map (db m25307) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Gallego Mill Flume
The Gallego Flour Mill was located in 1835 at the east end of the Great Basin, approximately where 12th and Canal Streets are today. The Mill, which when completed, stood nine stories high, contained 31 pairs of grinding stones, and was powered by six water wheels designed to use the water twice over. Water was drawn from the Great Basin to drive these water wheels and then returned to the canal along a flume which ran under 13th Street via the arch to your right. — Map (db m23951) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Gallego Mills
Richmond's Gallego Mills were a major 19th century industry. In 1834, Joseph Gallego built a mill on the Great Basin at the northwest corner of 12th & Canal Streets. The mill used Basin water to turn its waterwheels. After an 1848 fire, Messrs. Warwick & Barksdale, who had taken over Gallego Mills, rebuilt a 7-story mill on the same spot. In 1860, they built an even larger 12-story mill on the southwest corner of 12th & Canal Streets. It reused water from the original upper mill. Both . . . — Map (db m23880) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Gateway to the Civil WarDiscover more than 800 Civil War sites along ten breathtaking trails.
Welcome to our nation’s only multistate Civil War driving trail, which links hundreds of authentic sites in three states. Established in Virginia in 1995 as the Route of Lee’s Retreat trail, the program has grown to include more than 400 sites in five regions throughout the state. In 2001, Maryland and North Carolina joined the program, and now trails in Tennessee and West Virginia are being developed. Today, the Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina Civil War Trails program includes more than . . . — Map (db m23652) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Gen'l Joseph E. Johnston
Gen'l Joseph E. Johnston, Confederate States Army, desperately wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines, was brought to the Crenshaw residence standing on this block, and nursed to recovery. This marker is placed by the Confederate Memorial Literary Society.A.D.1915 — Map (db m29838) HM
Virginia, Richmond — George Washington Monument
Washington (Marker conveys the impact of Virginians on our Country's history through its prominent and allegorical figures. See the "More about this marker" section and the links for more information). Map (db m4715) HM
Virginia, Richmond — George Washington’s Vision
George Washington’s Vision George Washington promoted the concept of a great central waterway long before he became this nation’s first President. A surveyor of western lands as a young man, and later a landowner of vast tracts beyond the Alleghenies, Washington had close knowledge of the western territories, which he feared would be controlled by France and Spain if trade routes to eastern markets were not established. Washington’s vision was to connect the Atlantic Ocean to the . . . — Map (db m23753) HM
Virginia, Richmond — George Wythe
Site of the home of George Wythe, Signer of the Declaration of Independence — Map (db m47016) HM
Virginia, Richmond — George Wythe
This tablet is dedicated to mark the site where lie the mortal remains of George Wythe Born 1726 - Died 1806 Jurist and Statesman Teacher of Randolph Jefferson and Marshall First Professor of Law in the United States First Virginia signer of the Declaration of Independence Erected by Patriotic citizens of Virginia A.D. 1922 Map (db m76535) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 76 — Giles Beecher Jacksonca. 1852-1924
The first African American to practice law before the Supreme Court of Virginia, Jackson lived and worked in Jackson Ward. Although local tradition holds that Jackson Ward was named for him, in fact, the ward’s name first appeared during his childhood. In 1903 Jackson secured a charter from the Commonwealth of Virginia for the Negro Development and Exposition Company to facilitate the Negro Exhibit at the Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition in 1907. He helped organize the Southern Negro . . . — Map (db m64017) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Governor Edmund Randolph
Site of the home of Governor Edmund Randolph, Patriot, Soldier, Statesman. Placed by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities 1907. — Map (db m74180) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 80 — Grace Evelyn Arents1849-1926
Grace Evelyn Arents worked tirelessly as an urban reformer and philanthropist to improve the daily life of individuals regardless of race, gender, or class. She developed a church complex that included St. Andrews Episcopal Church, St. Andrew’s School, the Grace Arents Free Library, a teachers’ house, and a medical clinic. Arents also established a night school for working children, built public baths and playgrounds, and funded numerous social programs. She supported the formation of the . . . — Map (db m24338) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 40 — Grant House / Sheltering Arms Hospital
William H. Grant, a prominent Richmond tobacconist, built this mansion by 1856 on property acquired from John Wickham's estate. The house, an early example in Richmond of the Italianate style, reflected the wealth and sophistication of late antebellum society. In 1892, after years of mixed use, it was acquired by Sheltering Arms Hospital, founded in 1889 as a "haven of mercy" for impoverished Virginians. The building underwent alterations, including the construction of a connecting wing . . . — Map (db m16170) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Great Ship Lock
The Great Ship Lock connected the navigable part of the James River with the Richmond city dock, which extended for ten blocks to the west. Ocean-going vessels were raised up from sea level to the level of the city dock which accommodated ships as large as 180 feet long by 35 feet wide. The Great Ship Lock was completed along with other canal improvements in 1854, although earlier ship locks were located in the same location. — Map (db m23672) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 6 — Great Ship LockCaptain John Smith’s Adventures on the James — www.johnsmithtrail.org
James River Park System Despite the presence of a large Indian village just below the falls—or perhaps because of good relations with the local ruler Parahunt and his father Powhatan—Capt. Francis West built a fort near the Falls of the James in 1609. By George Percy’s account, his group numbered 140, by John Smith’s, only 20. Nominally allied with Powhatan, the English were supposed to help defend the village from the Monacan, Powhatan’s historic enemy to the . . . — Map (db m23706) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Great Ship Lock
The first Great Ship Lock was built in 1816. It connected the navigable part of the James River with the Richmond city dock, which extended for 10 blocks to the west. The lock raised sailing ships and steamboats approximately 13 feet above the tidewater of the river into the harbor, safe from the river current, for loading and unloading cargo. In 1854, the James River and Kanawha Company constructed the present Great Ship Lock to accommodate ships as large as 180 feet long by 35 feet wide. It . . . — Map (db m47452) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Great Turning Basin
The stones in this plaza have been arranged to suggest the outline of a typical lock on Richmond’s James River and Kanawha Canal. Where you now stand was once a part of the Great Turning Basin which served the heart of the commercial area in antebellum Richmond. This Basin was connected to the James River by a flight of five locks known as the Tidewater Connection Locks which were built between 1850 and 1854. This lock “footprint” is the same width as a real lock but only sixty . . . — Map (db m26569) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Gun Emplacement
To large pits on top of this hill were intended for cannons to guard this prison island from northern attack. Rapids actually protected the island, there was never an attack, and no guns were ever installed. Sign funded by: Blue Ridge Mt. Sports Map (db m64049) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Hancock-Wirt-Caskie House
Built 1808 Once home of William Wirt 1816-1818 lawyer, author, politician Attorney General of the United States This Federal Period house is a superior example of its type Acquired in 1970 by The William Byrd Branch of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities — Map (db m47012) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Harry Flood Byrd
State Senator 1916-26 Governor of Virginia 1926-30 United States Senator 1933-65 The General Assembly of Virginia on March 9, 1974, authorized this memorial to Harry Flood Byrd, of Winchester, Virginia, declaring that "The sum total of this one life has had a larger and more lasting effect upon the history and destiny of Virginia and her people than any other in the twentieth century; established personal integrity and fiscal responsibility as first principles of public life and . . . — Map (db m4711) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Hartshorn Memorial College
This stone marks the site of eight surrounding acres of Hartshorn Memorial College. Founded in 1883 as a Christian College for Negro women by Joseph C. Hartshorn, of Rhode Island, in memory of his wife, Rachel Thurber. Lyman Beecher Tefft, A.M., D.D. first president of the college 1883-1912 united in 1931 with Virginia Union University. This memorial marker is given by the Alumnae Association and friends. — Map (db m29207) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Haxall Headgates
One of Richmond's early canals began as a millrace, built by David Ross in 1789. When the Ross Mill was acquired by the Haxall family in 1809, the race became known as the Haxall Canal. Before the American Revolution, Samuel Overton built a mill on rocks in the James River. In 1789, David Ross purchased this property and, to power his mill, dug a new waterway. This later became a canal that extended from 12th Street to headgates here at Tredegar Iron Works. — Map (db m23921) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Haxall Millrace
The first gristmill in Richmond was built on rocks in the river and approached by planks laid from one rock to another. In the 19th century, fleets of schooners and brigs carried Richmond's flour to Brazil and around Cape Horn to San Francisco and Australia. From Colonial times, the waterpower of the James was used to grind wheat into flour. This became even more effective when millraces, like the Haxall canal, were dug to divert water from the river for this purpose. Eventually, . . . — Map (db m23928) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Headgate
The river brings logs and debris with every flood, but clear water is needed to push the turbine blades that turn electric generators. Logs were floated away through the gate in the dam straight ahead. (Look under the wheel.) Small debris was caught on the steel slats ("rack") under the walkway and cleaned off with the "rolling rake" to your right. (Note the steel rails in the walkway to which the handrails are now attached.) The water went through this strainer, into the canal and to the . . . — Map (db m64047) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Headgate Cleaner
Water leading to the power plant was kept clean by passing it through slats in the headgate called trash racks. Bits of wood can wear away the edges of turbine blades and make them unbalanced. Repair was complicated and expensive. This "mechanical rake" kept the trash racks clean of leaves and small debris. Notice how the steel teeth fit between the metal slats and could slide up and down. The wheels rode on the rails which now have handrails attached. The log jam is now a home for . . . — Map (db m64048) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 2 — Hebrew Cemetery
Richmond’s Hebrew Cemetery was established in the early 19th century by Congregation Beth Shalome, which was formed by 1789 and merged with Congregation Beth Ahabah in 1898. The cemetery was listed on the Virginia Landmarks Register and National Register of Historic Places in 2006. It is the oldest active Jewish cemetery in the south. Many leading Richmond merchants, civic leaders, and rabbis are interred here. Hebrew Cemetery displays traditional Jewish burial ground characteristics in its . . . — Map (db m22605) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Heron Rookery
In the trees, on the island in front of you, are the nests of a colony of Great Blue Herons. They look like loose bundles of sticks a yard across and are often near the ends of tree branches. Herons usually gather in isolated areas away from people, and are not so easily seen as they are here. This setting may say something about the improved quality of the river, the number of fish, the inaccessibility of the island and the probable lack of raccoons. • There were no nests in 2006 • . . . — Map (db m73911) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Historic Belle IsleJames River Park System
Early History Belle Isle, at 54 acres, is the largest island in the James River at Richmond, and also one of the most historic sites in the city. Virginia’s native tribes, including the Powhatans, fished in the river here for thousands of years before the English arrived. Captain John Smith was among the first Europeans to visit this site in 1607, and the island was acquired by William Byrd I in 1676. William Byrd II, Richmond’s founder, called it “the broad rock . . . — Map (db m64038) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Historic Belle Isle
In front of you is Belle Isle. At 54 acres, it is the largest island in the James River at Richmond, and one of the most historic sites in the city. Virginia Indians fished in the river here long before the English arrived, Captain John Smith was among the first Europeans to visit in 1607, and William Byrd I acquired the island in 1676. William Byrd II, the founder of Richmond, called it “the broad rock island.” Sold by the Byrd family about 1776, the island soon became one of . . . — Map (db m64056) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Historic Shockoe Valley
Richmond is one of the most historic cities in the nation. Captain John Smith was among the first Europeans to visit in 1607, and William Byrd II, the founder of Richmond laid out the original street pattern. This photograph, taken in 1865 shows Shockoe Valley as it appeared from the Taylor's Hill Park overlook. Note in the distance upon the hill, Thomas Jefferson's majestically designed Virginia State Capitol Building. It houses the oldest legislative body in the United States, the . . . — Map (db m67162) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Historic Tredegar
The Tredegar Iron Works was one of the nation’s largest and best-equipped ironworks in 1860. At its height, this industrial powerhouse employed Richmond’s largest industrial working force, approximately 800 free and slave laborers—a figure exceeded by only three other ironworks in the United States. Today, Historic Tredegar is operated by the private not-for-profit American Civil War Center in partnership with the Richmond National Battlefield Park of the National Park . . . — Map (db m47018) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Hollywood Rapids
The rapids to your left are named for the cemetery on the hill straight ahead. The granite rocks that cause them are part of a geological scar that stretches 1000 miles from New Jersey to Georgia. It resulted from the clash of the continents of Africa and North America 250 million years ago. The curved shaped rocks are the result of silt in the river grinding down the granite. Flat and sharp-edged rocks (seen at low water levels) are a result of former quarrying operations. . . . — Map (db m64053) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Horseshoe Shops
In the late 1800s, horse-drawn carts, wagons, and carriages dominated city streets, and southern agriculture still largely depended on the power of horses and mules. To meet the demand for horse and mule shoes, Tredegar began selling machine-made horseshoes in 1873. By 1887 a series of buildings for the producing horseshoes had been constructed at Tredegar in the area where you are standing. Machine-made Horseshoes Tredegar hired J.H. Snyder in the early 1870’s to develop machinery . . . — Map (db m24137) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Hunter Holmes McGuire, M.D.
(Front): To Hunter Holmes McGuire, M.D., LL.D., President of the American Medical and of the American Surgical Associations; Founder of the University College of Medicine; Medical Director, Jackson's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia; an eminent civil and military surgeon, and beloved physician; an able teacher and vigourous writer, a useful citizen and broad humanitarian, gifted in minde and generouse in heart, this monument is erected by his friends. . . . — Map (db m4735) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Inauguration of Davis
On a platform erected on this spot Jefferson Davis was inaugurated as the regularly elected President of the Confederate States of America, February 22, 1862. — Map (db m4742) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Industrial Recycling
Iron companies in the late 1800s began melting down scrap metal from old machines and parts to make new products, just as we recycle materials like aluminum cans today. The “car wheel crusher” that stood here broke up old railroad car wheels so that the pieces could be melted and reshaped. A large weight was dropped on the wheels to break them. — Map (db m24405) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Inner Line of Defence
This cannon marks the spot where in 1861 a large earthwork of the Inner Line of Defence was constructed Placed in 1915 by the City of Richmond at the request of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society — Map (db m15509) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Inside A Flour Mill
One of the first industries to benefit from American industrial innovation was flour milling. Oliver Evans published The Young Mill-wright and Miller's Guide in 1795, and his patented principles of design spread quickly. Evans' mechanized system required manual labor "only to close the barrels." The main driveshaft of the waterwheel powered the grinding stones and mill machinery through gears and smaller driveshafts. Hopper elevators and screw conveyors moved grain and flour around . . . — Map (db m23883) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Intermediate Line of Confederate Defenses
This cannon marks the intermediate line of Confederate defenses of Richmond 1862 - 1865 Placed here in 1958 by the Confederate Memorial Literary Society in memory of Alexander Wilbourne Weddell — Map (db m38902) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Ironworks Oil House
This stone storage shed was built to hold flammable lubricants and dangerous acids. The hand-cut stone likely was quarried here on Belle Isle. The shed served the Old Dominion Iron and Nail Company, which expanded from this area eastward, behind you, late in the 19th Century. An 1886 fire insurance map identified the shed as an “oil house” and showed a “laboratory” next to it. The oil house may have been constructed by 1876, when another map showed a similar building in . . . — Map (db m64043) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-74 — Jackson Ward
Before the Civil War this neighborhood was home to free blacks and enslaved individuals, along with European immigrants and Jewish residents. The area served as a city electoral district (1871-1903) and is still called Jackson Ward. By the early 20th century it had become one of the premier centers of African American business, social, and residential life in the United States. Black-owned businesses such as the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank, the Southern Aid Insurance Company, the Richmond . . . — Map (db m24202) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 63 — Jacob House
In 1817 George Winston built the Jacob House nearby, in the development known as Sydney. Winston (1759-1826), a Quaker who built the first Richmond Friends Meeting House at 19th and Cary Streets about 1798, employed a large number of free black apprentices. An important builder here during this period, Winston participated in the construction of the Virginia State Capitol and the Virginia State Penitentiary. The Jacob House derives its name from John Jacob, an assistant superintendent at the . . . — Map (db m25953) HM
Virginia, Richmond — James Monroe
Born in Westmoreland County 28” April 1758. Died in the City of New York 4“ July 1831. By order of the General Assembly, his remains were removed to this cemetery 5” July 1858 as an evidence of the affection of Virginia for her good and honored son. — Map (db m8017) HM
Virginia, Richmond — James River & Kanawha Canal
In its peak years the canal employed 75 deck boats, 66 open boats, 54 batteaux, 6 passenger or packet boats, 425 horses, and 900 men. "The batteaux...charmed my young eyes more than all the gondolas of Venice." George William Bagby, c. 1830 In addition to commercial barges and batteaux, passenger boats, called "packets," ran along the James River and Kanawha Canal between Richmond and Lynchburg. At night, the lower deck was divided into two sleeping compartments - one for men . . . — Map (db m23865) HM
Virginia, Richmond — James River & Kanawha Canal
The James River and Kanawha Canal was completed as far as Buchanan in 1854. The canal provided a continuous navigable waterway from Tidewater to Buchanan, a distance of 197 miles. Consisting of ninety lift locks and a total lift of seven hundred and twenty-eight feet, traffic on the canal flourished to its peak in the late 1850's. With the expansion of railroads the canal suffered heavily, and in 1880 was sold to the Richmond and Allegheny Railroad Company, who built tracks along the towpaths . . . — Map (db m23870) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Jefferson DavisPresident of the Confederate States of America — 1861 – 1865
Jefferson Davis --------------- Exponent of Constitutional Principals Defender of the Rights of States --------------- Crescit occulto velut arbor aevo fama Right of Pedestal: With constancy and courage unsurpassed, he sustained the heavy burden laid upon him by his people. When their cause was lost, with dignity he met defeat, with fortitude he endured imprisonment and suffering, with entire devotion he kept the faith. Left Marker: The Army of the Confederate States --------------- . . . — Map (db m19809) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Jefferson Davis Highway
This tree marks the site of Battery 17 of the inner defenses of Richmond, 1862-1865, and is planted in soil taken from battlefields A memorial to Confederate soldiers by the Elliott Grays Chapter U.D.C. 1929. Map (db m31749) HM
Virginia, Richmond — John Jasper
“The manner he preaches is only in keeping with the openness and candor of his heart.” Deacon and Officers of the Sixth Mount Zion Baptist Church, 1884 “Jasper didn’t convert me to his religion, but he did convert me to himself….I felt his greatness.” A Richmond reporter “You felt the ground got holy where he went along." One of Jasper’s converts Born in a slave cabin, John Jasper became one of the most famous preachers of his . . . — Map (db m24102) HM
Virginia, Richmond — John Jasper
John Jasper was born in a slave cabin on Peachy Plantation in Fluvanna County on July 4, 1812, and lived until 1901. In 1839, while working in a Richmond tobacco factory, he was "annointed by the Holy Ghost" and went on to become a preacher. On Sunday, April 2, 1865, the day the Evacuation of Richmond began, John Jasper preached at the Armory Rolling Mills, next to Tredegar Iron Works. In September, 1867, Rev. Jasper formed a church on Brown's Island "in a little, old wooden shanty" . . . — Map (db m24180) HM
Virginia, Richmond — John Marshall HouseBuilt 1790
The third United States Supreme Court Justice lived here until his death in 1835. His family remained until 1909, and the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA) opened it to the public in 1913. — Map (db m29353) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA-61 — John Miller House
John Miller, a free black cooper and minister, built this house about 1858. It is significant as a rare surviving antebellum house in Richmond constructed by and for a free African American family. More than two thousand free blacks lived in Richmond at the time of the Civil War; at least two hundred of them were homeowners. Miller was an influential member of the small free black community that existed in present-day Oregon Hill. Originally erected at 614 S. Laurel Street, the dwelling moved . . . — Map (db m4498) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 73 — John Mitchell, Jr., "Fighting Editor"
Born enslaved near Richmond in 1863, John Mitchell, Jr. came of age in the tumultuous post–Civil War era. In 1883, he launched a daring journalism career, becoming editor and publisher of the black-owned Richmond Planet once located near here. Known as the "Fighting Editor," Mitchell crusaded against lynching, served on the Richmond City Council (1888–1896) and founded the Mechanics Savings Bank in 1902. In 1904, he led a boycott of Richmond’s segregated streetcars. In 1921, . . . — Map (db m57530) HM
Virginia, Richmond — John Tyler
State Legislator, U.S. Congressman Governor of Virginia, U.S. Senator, Vice President of U.S., Peace Commissioner, Confederate Congressman and tenth President of the United States This marker was placed in 1949 by the Head Camp Jurisdiction of Virginia Woodmen of the World — Map (db m4713) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Joseph Reid Anderson
Born February 16, 1813 in Fincastle, Virginia Died September 7, 1892 at Isle of Shoales, New Hampshire Buried in Hollywood Cemetery Cadet Captain, Class of 1836, West Point Military Academy Purchased Tredegar Iron Works, April 4, 1848 Five term member, Richmond City Council 1847-1861 Virginia General Assembly 1852-1859 Brigadier General, Confederate States of America Wounded in action, June 30, 1862, Frayser's Farm Commanded Tredegar Battalion - Defence of Richmond 1862-1865 — Map (db m75316) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 56 — Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalome
Jews have participated in Virginia’s social and economic life from the colony’s beginnings. Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalome (Holy Congregation House of Peace) was founded in Richmond in 1789, when the Jewish community grew large enough to establish the first Jewish congregation in Virginia and the sixth oldest in the United States. Temporary sites housed Beth Shalome until a permanent synagogue was built nearby and dedicated on 15 Sept. 1822. The modest one-story brick structure was sold in 1891 and . . . — Map (db m27135) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Kanawha CanalRichmond Slave Trail
(left panel) In Virginia and the rest of the United States, the waterways, both rivers and man-made canals served as the main avenues of commerce. Ships from across the Atlantic or from other American ports transported goods that were transferred to smaller ships and bateaus—flat boats designed to navigate shallow water—which in turn carried them further into the interior. Enslaved men were frequently employed on these boats, responsible for transporting hogheads of tobacco . . . — Map (db m41895) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Kanawha Plaza
Stone Number SB-01 from Lock Number 1 of the Tidewater Connection of the James River and Kanawha Canal. The lock was completed in 1854. The stones of this lock have been saved for future restoration. — Map (db m26584) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Lee
< No Inscription > — Map (db m19852) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Libby Prison“Hope was all that sustained many.”
Near this site, from about 1845 until 1889, stood the building that housed Richmond’s famous Libby Prison. Originally built as a warehouse by wealthy Richmond businessman John Enders, Sr., a portion of the structure was leased prior to the Civil War by Northern-born Luther Libby, who sold groceries and shipping supplies here. When the war began Libby was evicted by the Confederate government, which used the building as a prison for Union officers captured at battlefields throughout the South. . . . — Map (db m35933) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Libby Prison1861-1865
Libby Prison, one of the most notorious prisons of the Civil War, housed mostly Union officers. It was located at the southeast corner of 20th and Cary streets (the doorway in the floodwall is at 20th, and the wall runs through the site of the building). Its appalling conditions — overcrowding, lack of sanitation and rampant disease — were chronicled by numerous inmates, including Robert Sneden, a Union soldier, who wrote that the prisoners “walk up and down, ragged, shoeless . . . — Map (db m47433) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Libby Prison CSA1861-65
On This Site Stood Libby Prison CSA 1861-65 For Federal Prisoners Of War Placed By Confederate Memorial Literary Society A.D. 1911 — Map (db m30295) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Lumpkins JailArcheology Study Site
The grass and wood chips to your right mark the area of an archeological examination of the remnants of one of our nations most notorious slave jails: the Devil’s Half Acre ---- the place where run-away slaves were punished and large numbers of “surplus” slaves were collected for re-sale in the large markets of Charleston and New Orleans. The specific test site was a 15 foot deep pit dug near the center. It revealed two things: the foundation of a kitchen . . . — Map (db m40679) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Lumpkin's JailRichmond Slave Trail
(left panel) Lumpkin’s Jail was owned by Robert Lumpkin, who maximized profits in his compound by including lodging for s1ave traders, a slave holding facility, an auction house, and a residence for his family. A port city with water, ground and rail connections, Richmond was linked to slave buying markets such as Charleston and New Orleans. Enslaved Africans referred to Lumpkin’s Jail as “the Devil’s Half Acre,” reflecting the despair and anger of people separated forever . . . — Map (db m41838) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Maggie Lena Walker
Maggie Lena Walker was the first woman and the first African-American woman to found and be president of a chartered bank in the United States. She was born into poverty on July 15, 1864 in Richmond, Virginia to parents who worked in the mansion of the abolitionist, Elizabeth Van Lew. At the age of 14, Walker volunteered for the Order of St. Luke, a mutual aid society that provided financial and educational support to African-Americans in need. As an entrepreneur, Walker founded the St. Luke . . . — Map (db m77446) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Maggie Walker(1867-1934)
Founder of the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank in 1903, now Consolidated Bank & Trust Company, whose headquarters stood here 1910-1975. "What do we need to still further develop and prosper us, numerically and financially? Let us put our moneys together; let us put our money out at usury among ourselves, and reap the benefits ourselves. Let us have a bank that will take the nickels and turn them into dollars." ...August 20, 1901 Placed by the Directors of Consolidated Bank & Trust Company, August, 1976. — Map (db m25957) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart
[Monument's east side]: Commanding Cavalry Corps Army Northern Virginia Confederate States of America *** This statue erected by his comrades and the City of Richmond A.D. 1906 [Monument's south side]: “Tell Gen. Stuart to act on his own judgement and do what he thinks best, I have implicit confidence in him” Gen. T. J. ‘Stonewall’ Jackson in turning over the command of his troops to Gen. Stuart after being wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, . . . — Map (db m9150) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Major James Gibbon
Here stood the home of Major James Gibbon 1750 + 1835 A soldier of the Revolution He led the forlorn hope against Stony Point for which he received through Congress the thanks of a grateful Country — Map (db m47011) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Making Machines at Tredegar
During the 1880’s the Tredegar Iron Works made many of the specialized machines necessary in iron production. This was especially true for machinery used in the rolling mills. Two major parts of the stand of rolls you see in the display behind you, were made at Tredegar–the rolls which shape the metal, and the large housings that hold the rolls and gears together. The rolls were turned on the lathe displayed here. The lathe copies the form of an already shaped piece. — Map (db m24427) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Manchester & Free Bridges
By 1873, complaints about Mayo’s’ tolls led to the opening of the Free Bridge. The day after the Free Bridge opened, thousands crowded onto it to watch the Reverend John Jasper conduct a large group-baptism ceremony in the river. For years, the only James River crossing for pedestrians and vehicles was Mayo’s toll bridge, at 14th Street. Richmond’s first “free” bridge was built east of here in 1873. Today’s Manchester Bridge, built in 1972, includes a legally mandated free walkway. — Map (db m24104) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Manchester Canal
The still water in front of you once flowed freely to the right. It once spun the water wheels and turbines of several paper companies (like the one to your left), ...grist mills (where the grain elevator is now to your right) ...and an electric generating station (the remains of which are also to your right.) Today it is home to turtles, ducks and muskrats. The canal was dug by black African slaves ans white Irish immigrants. Water came into the canal at the . . . — Map (db m30068) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Manchester Elliott Grays
(front) Here on the site of the old market square the Manchester Elliott Grays, the first volunteer company in this section, was mustered into service May 9, 1861, commanded by Louis Francis Bossieux. After attending services at the old Ninth Street Methodist Church, they entrained for Norfolk May 10, 1861. Erected by Elliott Grays Chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy. May 9, 1935. (rear) Here the Manchester Artillery, composed of Manchester . . . — Map (db m30071) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Manchester Lodge No. 14
On September 19, 1795, Manchester Lodge No. 14, A.F.&A. M., laid the cornerstone of its first temple on this site. The ceremony was conducted by the worshipful master Archibald Campbell, grand master John Marshall, and deputy grand master Robert Brooke. It served the brethren and the community as a meeting hall, a place of worship and a schoolhouse. The first school for deaf mutes in this country was held in this building. — Map (db m19683) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Manchester Slave Docks
In the late 1700s, newly captured Africans walked this route from the docks to the salve jails near 15th and Franklin Streets. Chained at the neck and legs, they were marched at night to avoid offending citizens with their oozing sores, filth and stench from the slave ships. From the 1820’s to the Civil War this route was walked the other direction. Richmond shipped “Surplus” slaves to markets like New Orleans for resale to huge sugar cane and cotton plantations. The purposeful . . . — Map (db m30065) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 3 — Mary-Cooke Branch Munford1865-1938
Mary-Cooke Branch Munford received her primary and secondary education in Richmond and New York. Prevented from attending college by her mother, Munford became an avid reader and developed an active social conscience. She served as the first woman on the Richmond School Board, helped organize the Virginia Inter-Racial Committee, advocated equal educational opportunities, and worked to improve rural high schools. Through her efforts, women were admitted to the College of William and Mary in . . . — Map (db m25622) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Matthew Fontaine Maury
In this house Matthew Fontaine Maury L.L.D.-U.S.N.-C.S.N. invented the Submarine Electrical Torpedo 1861-1862 This stone is placed by the Confederate Memorial Literary Society A.D. 1910. — Map (db m30000) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Maupin - Maury House
Originally built in 1846 at 1105 East Clay, Street, this Greek Revival townhouse was reconstructed on this site in1993 using much of the original architectural fabric. The builder, Dr. Socrates Maupin, was one of the founders of the medical department of Hampden-Sydney College that later became the Medical College of Virginia. It was in this house in 1861 that Matthew Fontaine Maury developed plans for his underwater torpedo for the Confederate Navy. — Map (db m30001) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Maury
Pathfinder of the Seas — Map (db m19851) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Mayo's BridgeRichmond Slave Trail
“The Union soldiers would put out the fires and push into the city within hours of the Confederates passing over the bridges. Among the first Union soldiers to put down their muskets and pick up fire hoses and axes would be several regiments of the United States Colored Troops, freed slaves who had joined the Union army to free other blacks. Instead of letting the Confederate capital burn to the ground, these black men who had every reason to hate Richmond helped save it.” . . . — Map (db m41840) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Mechanics of Slavery
“But the circumstance which struck us most forcibly was how it was possible for such a number of human beings to exist, packed up and wedged together as tight as they could cram, in low cells three feet high, the greater part of which, except that immediately under the grated hatchways, was shut out from light or air, and this when the thermometer, exposed to the open sky, was standing in the shade, on our deck, at 89°. The space between decks was divided into two compartments 3 feet . . . — Map (db m41871) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Memorial Bell Tower
To the Glory of God and in Memory of James Thomas, Jr. This Bell Tower is the gift of Mrs. Laura Thomas Rutherford who has presented this memorial to her father, as a tribute to his love for and loyalty to the First Baptist Church, of which he was for many years a faithful friend and active member. The bell was formerly in the steeple of the old church at 12th and Broad Streets. On Sunday, April 6th, 1862, by resolution unanimously adopted by the church membership, it was offered to the . . . — Map (db m64125) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 67 — Monroe Park
In 1851 the City of Richmond planned a series of parks including Western Square now known as Monroe Park. In the 1850s it served as grounds for what became the state fair organized by the Virginia State Agricultural Society. During the Civil War it was the site of a Confederate instructional camp, and in 1864, a military hospital. In 1866, some of the city's earliest baseball games were played here. Its development as a park began in 1869 in one of Richmond's emerging fashionable neighborhoods. . . . — Map (db m20534) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 38 — Monumental Church
The church is a memorial to the 72 people, including Virginia Governor George W. Smith, who died when the Richmond Theatre burned here in 1811. Several survivors owed their lives to the bravery of Gilbert Hunt, a slave blacksmith. A committee chaired by Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall raised funds for the church's construction. Designed by Robert Mills and completed in 1814, the octagonal building served as an Episcopal church until 1965 and later as a chapel for the adjacent Medical College of Virginia. — Map (db m18853) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Native American Fishing
In April and May, the Falls of the James is the richest source of food available. 400 years ago, Native American men would wade with nets and spears among the rocks and rapids to catch migrating shad, herring and striped bass. Enormous schools of these ocean-living fish came into fresh water to spawn and thereby escape the many predators that lived in salt water. There was a seasonal fishing village at the broad, flat, eastern end of this island. It was located about where . . . — Map (db m64054) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 85 — Navy Hill
The Navy Hill neighborhood, named as a tribute to nearby naval victories during the War of 1812, was settled by German immigrants beginning in 1810. It became a vibrant African American community by the turn of the century. Navy Hill’s distinctive character was embodied in the buildings here between North Third and Thirteenth Streets. Navy Hill School was the only Richmond public school to employ black teachers. Area landmarks included the Bill “Bojangles” Robinson home, Good . . . — Map (db m47368) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Neighborhoods at Tredegar
[Three] communities grew up around the Tredegar Iron Works: Oregon Hill, Penitentiary Bottom, and Gamble’s Hill. Today little remains of these communities. A part of Oregon hill still survives, but Penitentiary Bottom and Gamble’s Hill are both gone, torn down after years of decay and neglect. Their evolution mirrored the industrial, commercial and social development of the city and the diversity of the urban experience in Richmond and the nation. Oregon Hill was once the location of . . . — Map (db m24413) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Norfolk and Southern Bridge
The Kanawha Canal Draw Bridge was built in 1930 by the Virginia Bridge and Iron Company to carry the Norfolk and Western Railroad's West Point line over the James River and Kanawha Canal. This type of bridge is known as a single-leaf bascule bridge. The bridge lifts its hinged single span using a large counter weight. Sketches for bascule bridges have been found among notes made by Leonardo da Vinci in 1500. Although the bridge has not been raised in years, it is still in use carrying Norfolk Southern railroad traffic across the canal. — Map (db m23671) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Oak Tree Planted in Honor ofDr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Minister of the Gospel, Author, Nobel Laureate, Civil Rights Leader, and Drum Major for Justice. Dedicated by Mrs. Coretta Scott King, Gov. James S. Gilmore, III, and the Citizens of Virginia on November 14, 2001 — Map (db m4652) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Oakwood CemeteryConfederate Section
Almost every Confederate soldier who died in a Richmond hospital during the war was buried in one of three local cemeteries: Hollywood, Oakwood, or Shockoe Hill. Although Hollywood Cemetery is the best known because of the many prominent men buried there, Oakwood’s Confederate section covers an equivalent area and contains the graves of more than 17,000 of the South’s fighting men. Burials occurred here between August 1861 and April 1865. Most of the soldiers died in one of Richmond’s many . . . — Map (db m61820) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA -64 — Oakwood Cemetery Confederate Section
After the First Battle of Manassas, Richmond appropriated this approximately 7.5 - acre lot on 12 Aug. 1861 for burial of Confederate war dead. These Soldiers from every Southern state either died in Richmond's military hospitals, such as Chimborazo, or were brought directly from local battlefields. Eventually they numbered about 17,200, including some 8,000 unknowns. The first recorded Memorial Day observance in Richmond occurred here on 10 May 1866, organized by the Ladies' Memorial . . . — Map (db m15426) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Odd Fellows HallRichmond Slave Trail
Established in England in the mid-1700’s, the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows began as a philanthropic organization that welcomed both white and black membership. 1813 witnessed a significant rift in the Order’s structure when many of the members broke away to form the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, or I.O.O.F.. Setting its sights on American enrollment, this new faction sent members oversees and by 1819 established its first official American chapter in Baltimore at the Seven Stars . . . — Map (db m41842) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Old Dominion Iron & Steel CompanyThe Chrysler Building
The tall design, thick "I" beams and a mix of different sized pieces mark this as one of the first factory buildings constructed by the ODIS -- probably in the early 1900's. OIDS was famous for is advanced metallurgy and fine casting important in fabricating complex structures like heat exchangers. During WW I the hatches for tanks were made for Chrysler Motors and the structure became known as the "Chrysler Building". Sign funded by: Sierra Club Map (db m64044) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Old Negro Burial Ground
The land beyond this tunnel was once part of a cemetery for slaves and poor free blacks. The exact size and shape is unknown as is the number of persons once interred. What happened to their remains is a mystery as well. This was also the site of the city hanging grounds. Slave rebellion leader Gabriel Prosser was executed here. Several stones from the gallows platform were used in the construction of the Broad St. overpass. You can see them on the other side of the tunnel, to your right. They are the largest blocks in the wall. — Map (db m25960) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 39 — Origins of Richmond
There was "no place so strong, so pleasant, and delightful in Virginia, for which we called it None-such." So wrote Captain John Smith about the site he chose in 1609 when he established the first English settlement near the falls of the James River. It stood a few miles south until 1610. William Byrd I founded the second settlement when he patented land here in 1676. He soon built a fortified community, trading post, and warehouses just across the river near the mouth of Goode Creek. In 1737 . . . — Map (db m15925) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Overshot Waterwheel
This is a reconstruction of one of many waterwheels used on this site. It is called an overshot wheel because the water flows over the top. The Tredegar Iron Works used waterwheels from its founding in 1836 until the 1870s when turbines were installed. Two different wheels were located here, powering foundry blowers and an early machine shop. No photographs of these waterwheels exist. Information from maps, insurance policies, and company records was used to reconstruct this waterwheel, as . . . — Map (db m24148) HM
Virginia, Richmond — People-Technology-Commerce-Warfare
The area around you was the site of events that shaped the history and culture of Richmond. The stone docks (earlier made of wood) were the principal port for the collection and re-export of Virginia slaves. This awful trade was augmented by 5 railroads, several dirt highways and the dock on the other side of the river. Forgotten today, Richmond was the largest exporter of human beings in the nation for the 40 years leading up to the Civil War … It shipped out as many as 10,000 people in a . . . — Map (db m30066) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Pipeline Trail
The stairs below you lead to a narrow catwalk that rests on top of a large pipe. It’s a wonderful place to watch nature and escape the city for even just a few minutes. Located underneath the rail line, it follows the river and crosses above some of the rapids. (The metal grid walking surface and access via a ladder makes it unsuitable for pets or persons with disabilities.) The pipe itself carries storm water and sewage down to the huge holding tank located just beyond the Mayo Bridge . . . — Map (db m73910) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 1 — Pony Pasture RapidsCaptain John Smith’s Adventures on the James — www.johnsmithtrail.org
James River Park System The James River’s rocky rapids marked a border between the Algonquian Indians and the Monacan Indians. In 1608, Capt. Christopher Newport and a band of colonists may have passed by here as they travelled by foot further up the river in search of gold. They visited a Monacan town somewhere near modern Richmond. According to William Strachey, who arrived at Jamestown in 1610, the English had claimed the territory for their king: "One day’s journey into the . . . — Map (db m23711) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Powers-Taylor Building13 South 13th Street
A handsome cast-iron storefront ornaments the ground floor of this row of buildings at 9-15 South 13th Street. Probably built during the 1880s, these structures housed a cigar manufactury and commission merchants' offices. For over 80 years parts of it served as a warehouse, and sometimes headquarters, for the Powers-Taylor Drug Company, suppliers of "soda fountain, druggist and fancy goods." The ironfront, which accents the entries and defines the public areas of this handsome four-part . . . — Map (db m68765) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Powhatan Stone
An old Indian stone removed from and now overlooking “Powhatan Seat” a royal residence of King Powhatan when Captain John Smith and his fellow “Adventurers” made the first permanent English settlement in this country at Jamestown, Virginia 1607. “Powhatan Seat” was the residence from 1726-1865 of the ancestors of Peter H. Mayo by whose daughters this stone was presented to the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. — Map (db m16110) HM
Virginia, Richmond — President Lincoln Visits Richmond
The Civil War framed the presidency of Abraham Lincoln. Within weeks of his election in 1860 as the sixteenth American president, South Carolina seceded from the Union. The primary Confederate army surrendered on April 9, 1865, only days before Lincoln’s assassination. Lincoln lived long enough to articulate his postwar vision. In his concise and powerful second inaugural address on March 4, 1865, the president delivered this now-famous passage; “With malice toward none; with charity . . . — Map (db m4804) HM
Virginia, Richmond — President’s MansionWhite House of the Confederacy
This house was the executive mansion of Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his family from August 1861 until April 2, 1865. A West Point graduate, former U.S. senator from Mississippi, and former U.S. secretary of war, Davis was the Confederacy’s only president. He worked long hours here, meeting with Confederate civilian and military leaders. On April 14, 1862, he held a council of war here with Secretary of War George W. Randolph, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, Gen. Robert E. Lee, and other . . . — Map (db m16271) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Quality Row
During the 1920's this block of East Leigh Street was known as Quality Row. Upper middle class African-American families lived in these homes. Their neighborhood, Jackson Ward, became the most enterprising African-American business district in the nation and its leaders flourished in these surroundings. (left) Reverend J. Andrew Bowler lived here at 112 E. Leigh Street with his family from 1915 until his death in 1935. Reverend Bowler founded nearby Mount Olivet Baptist . . . — Map (db m29354) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Quarry Equipment
Winches mounted here hauled rough granite out of the quarry pit and down to the rail connection at the ast end of the island. Steam from boilers powered the drills. The use of concrete here foretells the end of the cut stone industry -- between 1900-1910. Sign funded by: Richmond Audubon Society Map (db m64052) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Quarry Pond
Granite blocks were cut and winched up from the 19 foot deep quarry pit. Workers, mostly black prisoners, hit 2 cracks that led to the river. Water entered continually and the site was abandoned. Sunfish now live in the shallows, catfish at the bottom and bass cruise in between. Watch for big turtles like yellow bellied River Cooters. Sign funded by: Richmond Sierra Club Map (db m64051) HM
Virginia, Richmond — R&P Railroad Piers
"The railroad bridge — then a frail, giddy structure, wide enough for a track and footway - spans near a mile across the boiling current." Thomas Cooper De Leon, 1890 Across the canal stands one of the remaining piers from the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad bridge. This was the railroad that brought Jefferson Davis to the city to be inaugurated as President of the Confederacy in 1861. When the city fell to the Union army four years later, all the James river bridges were burned. — Map (db m23809) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Raceways
As you explore the grounds of the Tredegar Iron Works, you will occasionally see evidence of underground networks. Below the ground are numerous “raceways,” tunnels of stone and brick, which carried water downhill from the canal to provide water power to the various industrial facilities. The raceways powered water wheels during the mid-nineteenth century which were replaced by more efficient turbines after the Civil War. — Map (db m24209) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Rail Lines at Tredegar
Nearly all of the materials shipped to and from Tredegar moved by railroad after the Civil War. The company’s small fleet of industrial switcher locomotives moved car loads along the spur lines that connected Tredegar to the outside world. Over two miles of railroad tracks criss-crossed the Tredegar complex. They ran alongside, between, and through many of the large buildings that filled the site. Other tracks ran to elevated dump sites where metal and coal were off-loaded. The photographs shown here were taken c.1918 through c.1940. — Map (db m24404) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Ratification of the Constitution
On this site the Virginia Convention ratified the United States Constitution June 25, 1788 In the ratifying convention were Edmund Randolph, James Madison, George Wythe, Henry Lee, John Marshall, Patrick Henry, George Mason and James Monroe The Virginia delegates to the Federal Convention were George Washington, James Madison, Edmund Randolph, George Mason, George Wythe, James McClurg and John Blair — Map (db m18851) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Reconciliation StatueRichmond Slave Trail
Dedicated 2007 CE Identical statues in Liverpool, England; Benin, West Africa; and Richmond, Virginia, memorialize the British, African, and American triangular trade route, now identified as the Reconciliation Triangle. Traders profited from delivering over 114,000 Africans to Virginia between the 1600’s and the American Revolution – and at least 337,800 to other North American places before 1808. The “triangle” extended between Liverpool and other large British cities, . . . — Map (db m41843) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Residential Life at R. E. Lee Camp, No.1R. E. Lee Camp, No.1 — Confederate Soldiers’ Home
Between 1885 and 1941 the present-day location of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts was the site of a large residential complex for poor and infirm Confederate veterans of the Civil War. Established by R. E. Lee Camp, No. 1, Confederate Veterans, the camp was built with private funds, including donations from former Confederate and Union soldiers alike. At peak occupancy, residents numbered just over three hundred; altogether a total of nearly three thousand veterans from thirty-three states . . . — Map (db m41813) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 55 — Richmond DefencesBattery 16 of the Inner Line
On this spot stood Battery 16 of the Inner Line of the Richmond Defences, constructed in 1862-64. This Battery, which was never assailed by the Federals, was one seventeen placed between the Confederate capital and the Intermediate Line. — Map (db m15506) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Richmond Dock / Chapel Island
Richmond Dock In 1816, the Virginia legislature chartered the Richmond Dock Company. It operated independently of the James River and Kanawha Canal until 1854, when the Tidewater Connection was constructed. The Tidewater Connection, a series of locks and basins from 17th Street to the Canal Basin, joined Richmond Dock to the Kanawha Canal. Much of the labor to build these waterways was provided by African Americans and immigrants, whose strength and toil moved the earth and hauled . . . — Map (db m47430) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA–42 — Richmond Evacuation Fire
After midnight on 3 April 1865, Confederate soldiers set fire to several tobacco warehouses nearby on orders from Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, as the army evacuated Richmond and marched west. Two distinct fires spread rapidly throughout the commercial and industrial sections of the capital. The core of the burned-out area, some 35 blocks, extended from the James River in some areas as far north as Capitol Square, and from 4th St. east to 16th St. Frightened citizens huddled in Capitol . . . — Map (db m8161) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Richmond Howitzers Monument
To commemorate the deeds and services of The Richmond Howitzers of the period 1861-1865 [On south side of granite base, on the bronze emblem of the Richmond Howitzers]: Cita Mors Aut Victoria Laeta 1859 [On north side of granite base, on bronze emblem of the Confederacy]: From Bethel to Appomattox — Map (db m13971) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Richmond Local Flood Protection
Richmond Virginia is located at the fall line of the James River in Eastern Virginia. Its specific location makes the area vulnerable to all floods originating in the 6,760 square miles of drainage area upstream. Flooding in the city’s two business districts, Shockoe Valley on the north bank and Manchester in the southside, has resulted in serious and extended business losses to commercial and industrial activities, disruption of rail and highway transportation, and prolonged interruption of . . . — Map (db m23953) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Richmond’s African Burial GroundRichmond Slave Trail
(left panel) “Se wo were fin a wosankofa a yenkyi.” “It is not wrong to go back for that which you have forgotten.” -A proverb of the Akan people of West Africa An elder once said that cemeteries are not for the dead, but for the living. They are a place where the living come and pay homage to those to whom a debt is owed. This reclaimed sacred ground is where the living descendants of those enslaved and free Africans who rest here now come to pay . . . — Map (db m41823) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 65 — Richmond’s First African American Police Officers
On 1 May 1946, Richmond’s first professional African American police officers were hired and assigned to the First Precinct at Smith and Marshall Streets. They were Howard T. Braxton, Doctor P. Day, Frank S. Randolph, and John W. Vann. On 16 December 1949, Ruth B. Blair became the first professional African American female police officer hired and assigned to the Juvenile Division. On 18 July 1964, Sergeant Randolph was promoted to Detective Lieutenant. While challenged by segregated conditions . . . — Map (db m1896) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 89 — Richmond's Civil War Hospitals
During the Civil War, overwhelming numbers of sick and wounded soldiers came to Richmond seeking treatment at one of the city's dozens of Confederate medical facilities, the best known of which was Chimborazo Hospital, established on this site in 1861. Some of the hospitals were purpose-built, while others operated in converted churches, warehouses, and hotels. Families often took in soldiers to help ease overcrowding. Many hospitals had matrons: women who mixed administrative supervision with . . . — Map (db m72991) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Robert E. Lee Bridge
Erected 1933 – 1934 by Richmond Bridge Corporation John J. Wicker, Jr., President R. Keith Compton, V. Pres Allen J. Saville, V. Pres. Horace L. Smith, Jr., V. Pres. Wilmer L. O’Flaherty, Sec-Treas. —— In conjunction with City of Richmond J. Fulmer Bright, Mayor R. Keith Compton, Director of Public Works W. C. Carpenter, Chairman of Finance Committee W. E. Sullivan, Chairman of Streets Committee —— . . . — Map (db m4736) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Robinson HouseR. E. Lee Camp, No.1 — Confederate Soldiers’ Home
Between 1885 and 1941 the present-day location of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts was the site of a large residential complex for poor and infirm Confederate veterans of the Civil War. Established by R. E. Lee Camp, No. 1, Confederate Veterans, the camp was built with private funds, including donations from former Confederate and Union soldiers alike. At peak occupancy, residents numbered just over three hundred; altogether a total of nearly three thousand veterans from thirty-three states . . . — Map (db m41814) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Rocketts Landing
Rocketts, or Rocketts Landing, is the river frontage of the community, named for Robert Rockett who operated a ferry across the James River beginning in the 1730s. Tenant laborers and merchants filled the floodplain with clusters of small houses and commercial establishments. Free black residents, Jews, and immigrants from Germany, Scotland, and Ireland worked to make Rocketts a prosperous world seaport between 1790 and 1830. Shipping lines connected Rocketts to Philadelphia, New York, . . . — Map (db m23664) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Rocketts Landing and Wharf / Confederate Navy Yard / Powhatan’s Birthplace
(bottom panel) Rocketts Landing and Wharf Rocketts is the river frontage and community named for Robert Rockett, who operated a ferry across the James River beginning in the 1730s. Over the years, tenant laborers and merchants filled the floodplain with clusters of small houses and commercial establishments. Between 1790 and 1830 free black residents and immigrants from Germany, Scotland and Ireland also settled here. Growing opportunities in trade gradually made Rocketts a . . . — Map (db m47461) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Ross' Mill Race
The fluctuating water level of the James River inspired David Ross to construct this mill race. He designed it to provide a continuous source of water power for the mills he owned on this site from c. 1784 to 1809. David Ross was born in Scotland c. 1739, and came to Virginia in the 1750s. He became a prominent Richmond merchant, tobacco planter, ship owner and operator of one of the largest iron works in the Revolutionary South. On the occasion of his death in 1817, the "Richmond . . . — Map (db m23931) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Rutherfoord’s Mill
Thomas Rutherfoord, a Scottish immigrant, built a flour mill on this site around 1800, using water power from the James River and Kanawha Canal. The ruins of the stone foundation can still be seen. Grain milling was the earliest industrial use of the Tredegar site, and was critical to Richmond’s development as an industrial city that was home to the largest flour milling operations in the world. In 1812, Edward Cunningham purchased Rutherfoord’s mill. — Map (db m24204) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 94 — Sadie Heath CabanissNursing Innovator — (1865-1921)
Sadie Heath Cabaniss laid the foundation for professional nursing in Virginia and was the founder of the VCU School of Nursing in 1893. Cabaniss, who held leadership positions in both state and national nursing organizations, led the movement to secure licensing registration for Virginia nurses in 1903. As superintendent of the Old Dominion Training School, Cabaniss molded Virginia's first generation of professional nurses. Her devotion to the cause of public health led her to develop a nurses' . . . — Map (db m69106) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 37 — Saint John’s Episcopal Church
Here on 23 March 1776 Patrick Henry delivered his “Liberty or Death” speech, calling for American independence, during the second Virginia revolutionary conventions that included as members George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Peyton Randolph, and Richard Henry Lee. Saint John’s Church was built in 1741 by Richard Randolph on land donated by Richmond’s founder, William Byrd II. It continues to serve Henrico Parish (founded 1611). Buried in its churchyard are George Wythe and Elizabeth Arnold Poe, mother of Edgar Allan Poe. — Map (db m1907) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 79 — Saint Joseph Catholic Church
In 1884, Bishop John Keane bought this property and established Saint Joseph, making it the first-known Catholic congregation organized for African Americans in Virginia. The original congregation began in the basement of the all-white Saint Peter's Church in 1879, and grew to 50 members. During the years 1904-1968, this site also contained the Franciscan convent, still standing. Saint Mary's; a two-room school for grades K-12, later named Van de Vyver; a parish house; a trade school; and a . . . — Map (db m24177) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 62 — Samuel Pleasants Parsons House
Completed in 1819, 601 Spring Street was the home of Samuel Pleasants Parsons (1783-1842). Parsons, a Quaker, was an early reform-minded superintendent (1816-1822, 1824-1832) of the Virginia State Penitentiary, formerly located across Belvidere Street. The Parsons family was part of a network of important Richmond Quaker families that were collectively involved in a series of abolition and prison reform activities. Parsons later served as a superintendent for the James River and Kanawha Company . . . — Map (db m25948) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Second Line of the Confederate Defenses
This cannon marks the location of the Second Line of the Confederate Defenses of Richmond Placed in 1938 by the City of Richmond at the request of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society — Map (db m15510) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 4 — Shockoe Hill Cemetery
The City of Richmond opened Shockoe Hill Cemetery on four acres in 1822, when the burial ground of St. John’s Church approached its capacity. By 1871, Shockoe Hill had reached its current size of 12.7 acres. John Marshall (1755-1835), Chief Justice of the United States, and his wife Mary (“Polly”) Willis Ambler Marshall, are interred here. Marshall often walked to the cemetery from his nearby home to visit his wife’s grave after her death in 1831. Revolutionary War hero Peter . . . — Map (db m22606) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Shockoe Slip
"How many varieties in language, dress, manner and appearance could be seen:-the English, the Scotch and the Irish....the Indian, the backwoodsman, the Spaniard, the Dutchman and the African." John P. Little, historian, 1851." Built at the crossroads of Indian trade routes, Richmond has always been a place where people, languages, and goods have mixed. In the 19th century, immigrants, free blacks, and industrial slaves all lived and worked in Shockoe's tobacco warehouses and residential neighborhoods. — Map (db m23910) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 32 — Site of J. E. B. Stuart's Death
Major General James Ewell Brown Stuart, C.S.A., Commander of the cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia, died here on May 12, 1864, in the home of his brother-in-law, Dr. Charles Brewer. Cause of his death was a wound received the previous day in the defense of Richmond at the Battle of Yellow Tavern. Dr. Brewer's house was demolished in 1893. — Map (db m15907) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Site of Richmond College — 1834 - 1914
These gateways erected by the Trustees as a memorial to the Founders of Richmond College mark the site of the Institution 1834 - 1914 — Map (db m39947) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 43 — Sixth Mount Zion Baptist Church
The Rev. John Jasper, born a slave in Fluvanna County on 4 July 1812, organized the Sixth Mount Zion Baptist Church congregation in Richmond on 3 Sept. 1867 in a former Confederate stable on Brown’s Island. A nationally celebrated preacher, Jasper was best known for his 1878 sermon “De Sun Do Move,” which he later delivered by invitation more than 250 times. He died on 30 Mar. 1901 and is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in Richmond. In 1869, the congregation moved to this site. The . . . — Map (db m5600) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Slave Auction Site
You are standing in the geographical heart of the slave trading district of Richmond. To your left, around and behind you, were the cobble stone streets that led to the large, fashionable, brick hotels where dealers had their first floor offices and buyers rented upstairs rooms. The St. Charles Hotel, one of the major sales sites, was located on this corner. Adjacent was Bell Tavern (later known as the City Hotel) and nearby was the Exchange and Ballard hotels. Public auctions . . . — Map (db m20779) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Slave Trade Reconciliation Triangle
Identical statues in Liverpool, England; Benin, West Africa; and Richmond, Virginia, memorialize the British, African and American triangular trade, now identified as the Reconciliation Triangle. Traders profited from delivering over 100,000 Africans to Virginia between the 1600’s and the American Revolution—and at least 260,000 to other North American places before 1808. The “triangle” extended between Liverpool and other large British cities, the Republic of Benin, and other . . . — Map (db m20766) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Slavery ChallengedRichmond Slave Trail
“How is it that we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the drivers of negroes?” - Samuel Johnson, 1775 “We have the wolf by the ear and we can neither hold him nor safely let him go. Justice is on one scale and self-preservation on the other.” - Thomas Jefferson, regarding the abolition of slavery At the time of the American Revolution, chattel slavery was an accepted institution from Canada to South America and practiced by all thirteen American colonies. . . . — Map (db m41827) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Southern Firepower
This 6.4-inch Brooke rifled canon represents one of the greatest sources of pride for the Confederacy. Named for its inventor, John Mercer Brooke, this type of gun was renowned for its superior range, accuracy and reliability over its smoothbore counterparts. Because of their effectiveness, Brooke’s guns were mounted inside many southern fortifications and were also used on board many Confederate warships.
Map (db m24109) HM
Virginia, Richmond — 8 — St. John’s Church“Give me liberty or give me death!” — Patrick Henry, March 23, 1775
St. John’s Church symbolizes the foundations of our republic and the founding ideal of liberty. Here, Patrick Henry’s masterful argument summoned Americans toward independence with the immortal words, “Give me liberty or give me death” during the Second Virginia Convention of March 1775. In recognition of its historic significance, St. John’s Church was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961. The colony of Virginia held five conventions to organize its protests against . . . — Map (db m32695) HM
Virginia, Richmond — St. Philip School of Nursing
During the era of racial segregation, the Medical College of Virginia established the St. Philip School of Nursing for African-American women. It operated from 1920 until September 1962, when the last of its 688 graduates received their nursing diplomas. Five years earlier, in 1957, the MCV School of Nursing admitted its first African-American student. — Map (db m20721) HM
Virginia, Richmond — SA 44 — Stewart-Lee House
Built in 1844 for Norman Stewart, a Scottish tobacco merchant, the house was rented from his nephew, John Stewart, by Gen. Robert E. Lee's family during the Civil War. Following Lee's surrender at Appomattox, he lived here for just over two months. In 1893, John Stewart's widow and daughters donated the house to the Virginia Historical Society, which occupied it until 1958. Subsequently, it was used by the Museum of the Confederacy and Historic Richmond Foundation. The building, the sole . . . — Map (db m20518) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Stonewall Jackson
Born 1824 Killed at Chancellorsville 1863 — Map (db m19850) HM
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