|California (San Bernardino County), Amboy — 126 — Amboy and Roy's Café|
|Amboy, settled as early as 1858, became a water stop when the Southern Pacific Railroad laid its tracks through the Cadiz Valley in 1883-84. Following the course of the railroad and the National Old Trails Highway, Route 66 was opened in 1926. Amboy soon saw heavy traffic along "The Mother Road" as flivvers, dust bowl emigrants, soldiers and vacationers made their way through the Mojave Desert. Facilities included a café, service station, school, motel and post office. Water was hauled by rail . . . — Map (db m78532) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Amboy — 92 — Amboy Crater — National Natural Landmark|
|Amboy Crater, formed of ash and cinders, is 250 feet high and 1500 feet in diameter. The crater is in one of the youngest volcanic fields in the United States. Six distinct periods of eruptions created the resulting nested group of volcanic cinder cones encompassing 24 square miles. Volcanic activity started an estimated 6000 years ago with the last period of eruptions occuring as recently as 500 years ago. Amboy Crater's recent origin and its near-perfect shape led to its designation as a . . . — Map (db m78561) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Amboy — 69 — Old Route 66|
|Perhaps no other highway in the U.S. is as fabled as old Route 66. It has been immortalized in song, literature, and even a T.V. series as the main street of America. Automobiles came early to the desert, following the railroad with its reliable water sources. In the early 1900's the route was known as the National Old Trails Road. In 1926 it became U.S. Highway 66, and within a decade was paved all the way from L.A. to Chicago. Heavy travel by dustbowl emigrants led John Steinbeck to label it . . . — Map (db m78574) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Amboy — The Story of Route 66|
[ Six panels are mounted on a half-moon base which tell The Story of Route 66 ]. Reading from left to right:
[ Panel 1: ]
The Story of Route 66
Commissioned in 1926 and soon dubbed "The Mother Road," Route 66 was a great asphalt river linking Chicago and Los Angeles – a highway of hope that led thousands of people to a new life.
You're standing on the site of one of the original Route 66 rest stops. Four covered picnic tables were located at this . . . — Map (db m33446) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Arrowhead — Donald S. Wieman — 1900 - 1977|
|In 1932, during the Great Depression, California launched a large public works project to aid recovery. A major component was the construction of masonry walls, parapets and fountains along the historic "Rim of the World" highway. This work, widely acclaimed for its beauty and craftsmanship, was the handiwork of Donald S. Wieman. This vista point is dedicated to his memory. — Map (db m51261) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Arrowhead — 34 — Mormon Lumber Road|
|In the spring of 1852, over one hundred Mormon men donated a full thousand man-days of arduous labor, to construct a road up Waterman Canyon, past this spot, and into the prime timber, where some of their enterprising bethren established six sawmills by 1854.
The lumber hauled over this road, thereafter, was used, not only to build San Bernardino, but also throughout Southern California, where the boards were sometimes called, "Mormon Banknotes." — Map (db m51260) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — 22 — Francis Marion "Borax" Smith|
|Francis Marion "Borax" Smith built the railroad to move borax out of the hills and Death Valley in 1907 to replace the twenty mule teams that crossed this way to Ludlow. — Map (db m78589) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — 622 — Harry Wade Exit Route|
|Some 100 wagons found themselves in Salt Lake City too late to cross the Sierra Nevada. They banded together under the name of Sand Walking Co. and started for the gold fields in California over the old Spanish Trail. After being in Death Valley with the ill-fated 1849 caravan, Harry Wade found this exit route for his ox-drawn wagon, thereby saving his life and those of his wife and children. At this point the Wade party came upon the known Spanish trail to Cajon Pass.
Lower . . . — Map (db m54761) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — 74 — Marl Springs / Seventeenmile Point|
Marl Springs was named in 1854 by Army Surveyor Lt. Amiel Whipple for the clay-like soil around the two waterholes. With the establishment of Fort Mojave in 1859, the Mojave (or Old Government) Road came into existence. Marl Springs became an important stop over being more than 30 miles eastward from the last dependable water Soda Springs (now Zzyzx). Though never abundant, the water here has always been reliable. In the fall of 1867 the springs were garrisoned by soldiers of . . . — Map (db m78571) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — Salt Creek — A Desert and Riperian and Wetland Area|
|Though they comprise less than 9 percent of the 270 million acres of public lands administered by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, riparian and wetland areas, such as Salt Creek, are considered the most productive resources found on public lands. The United States has lost more than half of its wetlands in the course of the last two centuries. While this decline has slowed in recent years, the conservation of wetlands in America remains a serious matter. Even at the current reduced rate of . . . — Map (db m72926) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — Salt Creek Hills — Area of Critical Environmental Concern|
|This area was the focus of both prehistoric...American activities and historic...mining. The rich environment provides...for numerous species.
Please...protect these natural and c... This ACEC is open for hiking and non...d vehicle use.
Enjoy your stay.
Geology of the Area
The Amargosa/Salt Spring mine lies in the Salt Spring Hills and in the vicinity of the contact zone of the Mesozoic granite rock and Cambrian age sedimentary rocks considting of limestone and limy shales. . . . — Map (db m72928) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — 34 — Soda Springs - Zzyzx Mineral Springs|
|In 1860 the U.S. Army established an outpost at Soda Springs to protect government supplies from Indians. Later, miners processed the adjacent lake minerals. In 1906 the Tonopah & Tidewater railroad arrived. From 1944 to 1974 Dr. Curtis H. Springer operated a health resort at the outpost site, which he renamed Zzyzx Mineral Springs. — Map (db m78587) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Baker — The Desert Studies Center|
| [Panel #1]
1776 - 1830: Early Explorers
1776 - As the Revolutionary War broke out, California was still a province of Spain, and the Spanish government decided to help feed a hungry Mexico by farming the fertile valleys around Monterey and San Francisco bays. While Juan Bautista de Anza explored a possible trade route south of here, Father Francisco Garces followed the Colorado River northward. He eventually met Mojave tribesmen who led him west, across . . . — Map (db m51480) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Amiel Weeks Whipple — 1817-1863|
|His Expedition for a transcontinental railroad, crossed the Colorado River on Feb. 27, 1854 and 3 weeks later reached Los Angeles, receiving aid from the Mojave Indians. The Atcheson, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railroad followed Whipple’s trail for much of the way from Albuquerque to California. The scientific reports are considered a “glorious chapter” in the history of American science. — Map (db m50577) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — 892 — Barstow Harvey House|
|Harvey Houses were legendary in the history of Western rail travel. Operated by Fred Harvey in conjunction with this Santa Fe Railway, the network of restaurant-hotels set a new standard in quality meal service. Barstow's Spanish-Moorish "Casa Del Desierto" opened in 1911 and closed in 1971. It was registered as one of the last and finest remaining examples of the West's famous Harvey Houses. — Map (db m50666) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Calico Mountain Mines — Mining the Mojave|
|April 6, 1881, S.C. Warden, Hues Thomas and John C. King located claims on Calico Mountain and named it the Silver King Mine. Below there, the tow of Calico grew from 100 people in the spring of 1882 to over 1,200 at the peak of the rush.
There were no less than 46 mines near Calico, like the Waterloo, Bismarc, Oriental, Garfield and Burning Moscow.
The falling price of silver shut down the mines by 1896. They had produced between $13,000,000 and $20,000,000 worth of silver. . . . — Map (db m50540) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Christiansen Memorial Plaza — "You Are Not Forgotten"|
Dedicated in honor of
Barstow-Kennedy High School student,
Eugene F. Christiansen – US Army
Born February 16, 1949
M.I.A. February 6, 1969
Republic of Viet Nam
Barstow, California – 1990 — Map (db m50539) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Father Garces — 1738-1781|
|In early 1776, he set out northward from Yuma Villages on the Colorado River on a journey that took him across the Mojave Desert to the Mission of San Gabriel. He was a master of finding guides who would escort him through their own lands. — Map (db m50562) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — General Beale Uses Camels|
|In 1857, under orders to survey a wagon road from New Mexico to California, General Edward Beale followed the 35th parallel to paths opened by Francis Aubry and Lt. A.W. Whipple. Beale’s orders required importation of camels and drivers to experiment carrying freight to the Southwest.
Out-performing mules, the camels carried 700 pounds and could go for three days without water. Their feet adapted to rocky-sandy soil, they succeeded both summer and winter, though they were not popular with . . . — Map (db m50561) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — General Steven Watts Kearny — 1794-1848|
|He was “the Father of the US Calvary” and President Polk named him “Commander of the Army of the West”. In 1848 he went from Santa Fe, NM on to CA with 100 men on an arduous trip across our desert and on to a battle at San Pascual in a fight for independence from Mexico. — Map (db m50576) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Jedediah Smith — 1798-1831|
|In 1826 he led a party of 17 men through the territory of the Mojave Indians, then west across our Great desert. During the trek, the heat became so intense that it forced him and his men to bury themselves in the sand to keep cool. They were the first Americans to enter California overland from the east. — Map (db m50571) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — John Charles Fremont — 1813-1890|
|Called “Pathfinder”, he was known as the west’s greatest adventurer, noted for bravery and his meticulously recorded notes on vegetation and geography. On his 3rd expedition across California in 1845 he, along with Kit Carson, led the California pioneers to rebel against Mexico to gain independence. — Map (db m50572) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Kit Carson — 1809 - 1868|
|At 19, he was hired for an expedition to California. They traveled south of the Grand Canyon, crossed the Colorado, then followed the dry bed of the Mojave River and crossed the mountains at Cajon Pass to arrive at San Gabriel Mission in early 1830. In the 1840’s he guided Fremont several times across the high desert. — Map (db m50573) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Mojave Runners|
|The Mojave Indian Runners helped get messages and information to far flung villages. They could run up to 100 miles a day barefoot and only donned sandals on very rocky or spiney [sic] areas. A group of them met Capt. John Fremont in 1844 near where Hinkley is now. These six Mojave told Fremont they had once lived in the area and raised vegetables. Because of these Indians, Fremont named the river and surrounding desert “Mohahve”. The later use of “Mojave” was a . . . — Map (db m50542) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — National Old Trails Hwy/Route 66|
|In the early 1920’s, an emigration to California started from the Midwest. Families packed up and headed West on National Old Trails Hwy., and proceeded right along Barstow’s Main street. The depression and dust storms of the 1930’s sent families to California seeking work. Some ended their journey in Barstow and made it their home. In 1926 the road traveled became Route 66, the “Mother Road”. — Map (db m50530) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — 141 — Slash X Ranch|
|The Slash X Ranch was started in 1942 by Lee and Mary Berry. Lee was known as the "Cattle Baron" of the Mojave Desert. At its peak the Slash X ran about 3000 head of cattle. Mary, his wife, did not want drinking and carousing in her house. So using cowboy logic... in 1953 Mr. Berry and some of his ranch hands built a cafe and bar across the road from the ranch house for the enjoyment of his ranch hands, friends and locals. The logs and beams used in the construction of the cafe and bar were . . . — Map (db m78519) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — The California Gold Rush|
|With the discovery of gold in California in 1848, it’s statehood in 1850, and the resulting emigration to the west, the interest of the government in exploring a rail link to the Pacific became serious in the early 1850’s. Not only would a Pacific Railroad help build population and expand commerce, it was also an important element in defending the nations borders by providing a means of economically and rapidly transporting the army and its provisions to the remote posts beyond the Mississippi. — Map (db m50558) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — The Harvey House|
|In the late 1800’s to 1930’s, rail travel was considered the choice of transportation, Fred Harvey had set up a string of dining rooms and boarding housed for Santa Fe passengers.
In 1911, Mr. Harvey opened million dollar “Casa Del Desierto”. It was considered one of the jewels of the Harvey House system for many years.
Dining was gourmet cuisine on fine china and quality drink served in crystal. Comfortable, luxurious rooms rested the weary rail travelers.
The “Harvey . . . — Map (db m50535) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — The Mormon Trail|
|The Southern Route of the Mormon Trail followed paths explored by Father Garces and Jedediah Smith. In 1848, Mormon Battalion Captain Jefferson Hunt trailed cattle to Utah on this trail. The Daniel Davis family, also of the Mormon Battalion, followed in a covered wagon – the first American family to travel the route.
In 1851, a wagon train of Mormon pioneers settled San Bernardino Valley. They established farms, ranches, stage stops, mining and freighting interests and started a pony . . . — Map (db m50580) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — The Old Spanish Trail|
| [Text from the bottom panels, left to right]
The first explorers kept detailed journals of their expeditions detailing the route taken and the friendly and hostile encounters with Indians along the way. Journals assisted those who followed and helped communicate the New World that was being discovered.
The Mexican mule trains traveled a distance of 1200 miles across 6 states from Santa Fe to Los Angeles. The mule train was often led in single file and the caravans could be as . . . — Map (db m50615) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Barstow — Waterman Junction Becomes Barstow 1886 — William Barstow Strong|
|In 1885, the California Southern R.R. Co. connected with the Atlantic and Pacific R.R. line on the Mojave River creating Waterman Junction.
Being named for Governor Waterman, owner of Waterman Mine and a mill nearby.
A post office was established on May 15, 1886 and the budding town of Waterman Junction was named Barstow, honoring William Barstow Strong the “Executor” of Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroads’ western achievements. — Map (db m50533) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Big Bear City — 21 — Bellevill Holcomb Valley|
|Founded in late 1859. Bellevill was named after Belle Van Dusen, the first child born in Holcomb Valley, she was the daughter of Ted Van Dusen, the town blacksmith and early pioneer. — Map (db m78590) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Big Bear City — 2 — Holcomb Valley|
William Francis "Bill" Holcomb
who, in this valley discovered
Southern California's richest
gold field - May 5, 1860 — Map (db m50610) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Big Bear City — 619 — Holcomb Valley|
|Southern California's largest gold rush followed the discovery of rich placer deposits by William F. Holcomb and Ben Choteau on May 4, 1860. Miners rushed to the valley and established boom towns. Belleville, the largest, rivaled San Bernardino in population and almost became the county seat. Violence and hangings were common in this remote valley. Over time, major placer and quartz mining declined although some activity continues today. — Map (db m50702) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Chino — Cornerstone to Chino’s First Reservoir|
|This reservoir, now demolished, was built for Fenton Mercer Slaughter in 1894. It was located about one-quarter mile north of this adobe. — Map (db m249) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Chino — 942 — Rancho Chino Adobe Site|
|Near this site, Isaac Williams in 1841 built a large adobe home, located on the 22,000-acre Rancho Chino which he acquired from his father-in-law Antonio Lugo. The "Battle of Chino" occurred at the adobe on September 26-27, 1846, during which 24 Americans were captured by a group of about 50 Californios. Located on the Southern Immigrant Trail to California, the adobe later became an inn and stage stop famous for its hospitality. — Map (db m50665) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Chino — Site of the Battle of Chino|
|Near this spot once stood the home of Isaac Williams, first American settler in this valley, about which on September 26-27 1846, was fought the first important engagement in California of the war with Mexico.
This was also the site of the Chino Ranch Station of the Butterfield Stage Line, 1858–61.
— Map (db m379) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Chino — 191 — Yorba-Slaughter Adobe|
|This example of early California architecture was built in 1850-53 by Raimundo Yorba. Purchased in 1868 by Fenton Mercer Slaughter, it was preserved as a memorial to him by his daughter, Julia Slaughter Fuqua. — Map (db m923) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Colton — 121 — Agua Mansa|
|This historic site marks the resting place of the pioneers of the Agua Mansa area which was started about 1840. The preservation of this cemetery began in 1951. — Map (db m63926) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Colton — 617 — Fort Benson|
|This is the site of an adobe fortification erected about 1856-57 by the "Independent" faction in a dispute with the Mormons over a land title. The fort was maintained for about a year. This also is the site of the Indian village of Jumuba, and Jedediah Smith camped here in January 1827. — Map (db m51027) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Daggett — 83 — Daggett|
|This community long served as a supply point and railhead for the mines of Death Valley and Calico. In the early 1880's the first borax produced in Death Valley was hauled by mule team to the Atlantic & Pacific R.R. (later the Santa Fe) at Daggett. The station formerly Calico, was established in 1882 to service the silver mines, but was soon renamed for Lt. Gov. John Daggett. In 1888 it was connected to Calico by the narrow gauge Calico R.R. Silver prices dropped in the early 1890's and the . . . — Map (db m78568) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Daggett — 115 — Daggett Garage|
|The Daggett Garage began life in the 1880s at the borax town of Marion, located on the northeast shore of Calico Dry Lake, as a locomotive repair roundhouse for the narrow-gauge Borate and Daggett Railroad. Daggett blacksmith Seymour Alf used a twenty-mule team to move the building to the Waterloo Mill and mine, southwest of Calico, circa 1896, where it served a similar purpose for a silver ore narrow-gauge railroad. Walter Alf, Seymour Alf's son, moved the building to its current location in . . . — Map (db m78541) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Daggett — 98 — Forks of the Road|
|Three miles north lies the Mojave River and the site of Forks of the Road. This was the junction of two major travel routes: The Old Spanish or Salt Lake Trail and The Ancient Mojave River Trail. In the 1830s and 1840s the Old Spanish Trail saw regular trade caravans from Santa Fe, bound for Los Angeles via Cajon Pass. The founding of Salt Lake City in 1847 and Mormon San Bernardino in 1851 brought renewed traffic, as did limited numbers of 49ers during the Gold Rush. The Mohave River Trail was . . . — Map (db m78556) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Devore — 573 — Sycamore Grove|
|This campsite on both the Mojave Trail over the mountains and the Cajon Pass Route was probably first seen by Spanish and American traverlers in the 1770's and was noted by them in 1806, 1849 and 1850. Michael White, grantee in 1843 of the Muscupiabe Rancho lived near by.
The Mormon colony camped in 1851 on either side of this little pass for about four months while Amasa Lyman, Charles Rich, Jefferson Hunt, David Seely and Andrew Lytle negotiated the purchase of the San Bernardino Rancho from the Lugo family. — Map (db m70606) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Earp — 82 — Wyatt Earp|
|Wyatt Earp was born in Illinois March 19, 1848. In 1864 he came west with his family, settling near San Bernardino. He later served as lawman in Wichita and Dodge City, then came to Tombstone in 1879. After the gunfight at the O.K. Corral in 1881, he fled Arizona to avoid prosecution. He frequented the western boom camps, including Alaska, and in later years retired on income from Kern County Oil and the Happy Day Gold Mine group in the nearby Whipple Mountains. He and his wife Josephine spent . . . — Map (db m78569) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Fenner — 985 — Clipper Divisional Camp — Camp Clipper - Desert Training Center — California-Arizona Maneuver Area|
|Camp Clipper was established at a site that reached
From Essex Road to this location in the spring of
1942. It was one of twelve such camps built in the
Southwestern Desert to harden and train United
States troops for service on the battlefields of
World War II. The Desert Training Center was a simulated theater of operations that included portions
of California, Arizona and Nevada. The other camps
were Young, Coxcomb, Iron Mountain, Ibis, Granite,
Pilot Knob, Laguna, Horn, Hyder, . . . — Map (db m72258) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Fenner — John Wilkie Safety Roadside Rest Area At Fenner|
|As Caltrans Highway Superintendent for the Needles area, John Wilkie sought ways to improve maintenance at this Rest Area. Pursuing this goal, John became a statewide leader in increasing employment opportunities for persons with disabilities.
John's passionate belief in the abilities of people let him to develop and promote the "Roads as Bridges to Employment" program. Today, throughout California, Rest Areas are maintained by persons with disabilities.
John represented the highest . . . — Map (db m335) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Fontana — 950 — Site of U.S. Rabbit Experimental Station|
|In March 1928, the Federal Government established the first and only experimental station in the United States devoted solely to research on the breeding and raising of rabbits on a five-acre property donated by A. B. Miller of Fontana. The station successfully pioneered new techniques of rabbit care and breeding until 1965 when the City of Fontana acquired the property for use as a senior citizens facility. — Map (db m50670) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Fort Irwin — Deep Space Station - 14 — Commemorating 40 Years of Service to the Deep Space Network — 1966 - 2006|
|As a communication platform: Supporting space exploration beginning with the Mariner 4 mission to Mars, and through the years providing a vital link to NASA's robot explorers across the solar system, including Voyager, Mars Exploration Rovers, Casini and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
As a radio/radar telescope: Studying the nearest asteroids and planets to the distant quasars and objects in the universe.
"From the Desert to the Stars...Exploring our Solar System and Beyond" — Map (db m50371) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Glen Helen — Pioneer Women|
|Erected in memory of the pioneer women of the San Bernardino Valley who dared to travel across the country by ox team and covered wagon to help lay the foundation for the building of this state. — Map (db m72579) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Goffs — 136 — Army Camp at Goffs — Desert Training Center — California-Arizona Maneuver Area|
|The U. S. Army maintained a camp at Goffs 1942-1944. Goffs was an important railhead, supply point, hospital, and for three months in 1942 Headquarters of the 7th Infantry Division. That unit went on to distinguish itself in combat in the Aleutians and at Kwajalein, Leyte, and Okinawa. This monument is dedicated to all the men and women of the U. S. Army who served here with a special salute to those who laid down their lives for their country. — Map (db m78523) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Goffs — 65 — Goffs Schoolhouse — 1914|
|The first school in Goffs opened its doors for the fall term in 1911 serving the needs of cattle ranches, mining districts, homesteaders, the railroad, and, most of all, the people supporting expanding travel on the National Old Trails Road – Later U. S. Highway 66. A new school, featuring a distinctive mission style, was designed by architect A. Beimer in 1914 and constructed by Tom Ware land donated by H. P. Ware.
The new school house was a source of pride for the community. It . . . — Map (db m78575) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Goffs — 61 — Pah-Ute Creek — Fort Pah-Ute — Mojave Road|
|Pah-Ute Creek, which runs year around, attracted many Indian tribes, who used several Indian trails through this area. The first white man to visit Pah-Ute Creek was Fr. Francisco Garces in May of 1776. It was given it's name by Lt. A.W. Whipple during his Pacific Railroad Expedition of 1854.
The War Department ordered, in 1857, that the Mojave Indian Trail be used as a wagon road from the Colorado River to the Pacific Ocean. It became known as the Mojave Road.
Fort Pah-Ute was . . . — Map (db m78577) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Hesperia — 1 — Las Flores Ranch / Mojave Trail|
| [This is a four sided monument with four different markers:]
Las Flores Ranch
Near this spot on March 25, 1866, Edwin Parrish, Nephi Bemis and Pratt Whiteside, young cowboys employed on this ranch, were ambushed, killed and mutiliated by Piute Indians, who then burned several ranch buildings and fled down the Mojave River to the rocky narrows below Victorville.
At or near this place was once located a Vanyume Indian village called . . . — Map (db m50609) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Hesperia — Las Flores Ranch Barn|
|Largest old barn in Southern California. Erected in 1872 by ranch owners, Amos P. Houlton and James F. Houghton, with lumber cut and transported from Sawpit Canyon by oxen. — Map (db m50649) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Kelso — Kelso Depot|
|Several panels outline the history of the Kelso Depot
Kelso: Why here?
The railroad town of Kelso arose because of the steepness of the grade beyond and the abundance of groundwater below.
The Cima Grade was too long and steep for locomotives to pull a train up without assistance. “Helper engines” provided the extra power. These engines required a “helper station,” including a roundhouse, a wye track for turning around, fuel, and plenty of . . . — Map (db m80564) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Lake Arrowhead — Memorial to Pauliena LaFuze|
|"I never thought I would outlive the trees"
A century old herself in 2005, and seeing many of her beloved trees bow to beetle and flame, Pauliena Lafuze had done just that. She has been a Lake Arrowhead Woman's Club member since the 1930's, and has helped restore Switzer Park many times after fires and other natural events. She planted trees on April 9, 2005, to help Switzer Park recover from the 2003 Old Fire. This plaque recognizes her inspiring, lifelong efforts to conserve and restore this forest. — Map (db m30409) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Lake Arrowhead — Mountain History Museum|
|Founded in 1986 as the Crest Forest Historical Society, the Rim of the World Historical Society now operates the Mountain History Museum in this renovated San Bernardino County Firehouse.
Today, in its 25th anniversary year, the society continues its mission to promote, collect and preserve a broad knowledge of mountain history essential to a basic quality of life.
The museum fosters the education and appreciation of history in our mountain communities. — Map (db m72092) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Landers — 123 — The Integratron|
|The Integratron is the creation of George Van Tassel, and is based on the design of Moses' Tabernacle, the writings of Nikola Tesla, and telepathic directions from extraterrestrials. The domed structure 35 feet high and 55 feet in diameter, was originally constructed of wood and fiberglass without the aid of metal fasteners. In 1947 Van Tassel began operating the Giant Rock Airport a short distance northeast of here, and in 1953 initiated communications with extra terrestrials. He subsequently . . . — Map (db m78533) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Lanfair Valley — 135 — Nevada Southern Railway|
|In January of 1893 construction of Isaac C. Blake's Nevada Southern Railway commenced northward from Goffs toward Manvel (later known as Barnwell) for the purpose of hauling ore from the mining districts of southeastern California and southern Nevada. It soon went bankrupt and was reorganized in 1895 as the California Eastern Railway. Six years later the line was extended north into Ivanpah Valley and in July of 1902 was acquired by the Santa Fe Railroad. Four years later the Barnwell & . . . — Map (db m78524) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Loma Linda — 95 — Guachama Rancheria|
|"Guachama Rancheria, lying along this road, was named San Bernardino May 20, 1810, by Francisco Dumetz. In 1819 it became the San Bernardino Rancho of Mission San Gabriel. The adobe administration building stood about 70 yds. north of this spot, an enramada serving as chapel. The Zanja was constructed to convey water from the mountains for irrigation. Control by mission fathers ended in 1834." — Map (db m51015) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Lucerne Valley — 737 — Chimney Rock|
|Conflicts between Indians and white settlers over the rich lands of the San Bernardino Mountains culminated in The Battle at Chimney Rock on February 16, 1867. Although the Indians defended themselves fiercely, they were forced to retreat into the desert. In the years following, the Indians' traditional mountain food-gathering areas were lost to white encroachment. — Map (db m63982) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Lucerne Valley — Peter Davidson|
|In Honor of
Born in Scotland, 1826, settled in Lucerne Valley in 1883 and is believed to be the areas first white settler. He build a home on the knoll behind this site and gave food and lodging to wayfarers.
He died, unmarried, Jan.17.1908 at the age of 82. His grave is 30 or 40 feet north. — Map (db m63948) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Lucerne Valley — The Last Indian Fight in Southern California|
|In January 1867 Indians left their camp east of Chimney Rock to go into the San Bernardino Mountains where they looted and burned several cabins and a sawmill. In retaliation, a possee surprised the Indians at their camp and killed and wounded many, thus ending the hostilities. — Map (db m50849) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Ludlow — 139 — Project Carryall|
|...and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. Micah 4:3
With the end of World War II and the onset of the Cold War, America embarked on an ambitious program to ensure the nation's preeminence in the nuclear arms race. To this end Edward Teller and the Atomic Energy Commission detonated hundreds of nuclear devices underwater, underground, and in the atmosphere. . . . — Map (db m78521) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Ludlow — 133 — Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad Shops|
|Seeking a more efficient way to get borax from his mines on the east side of Death Valley to processing facilities near Los Angeles, and hoping to tap the booms at Rhyolite, Tonopah, and Goldfield, Nevada, Francis Marion Smith built the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad. Construction started at Ludlow in August 1905 and proceeded quickly across Broadwell Dry Lake (just north of Ludlow), reaching Dumont by May 1906. However, it took nearly a year to build through the difficult terrain of the . . . — Map (db m78526) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Lytle Creek — 147 — Lytle Creek Canyon|
|Lytle Creek Canyon in the San Gabriel Mountains has a long and interesting history. It is named for Andrew Lytle, who served as a company commander in the famed Mormon Battalion during the Mexican War. Lytle was among the earliest settlers of the town of San Bernardino, where he later served as mayor. The canyon
contains the North, Middle, and South Forks of Lytle Creek, a major tributary of the Santa Ana River. It also is home to Bonita Falls, which consists of three separate drops, making it . . . — Map (db m78514) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Mentone — Henry Harbinson Sinclair — 1858-1914|
|In memory of
Henry Harbinson Sinclair
A testimonial to his high and useful
service as a pioneer
in the establishment
and development of the
hydro electric industry in California — Map (db m58597) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Morongo Valley — Morongo Indian Village|
| This monument located on site of the
Morongo Indian Village
Here John Morongo was born 1850, became outstanding member of the Morongo clan for whom Morongo Basin was named. Later was appointed U.S. Peace Officier with title of Captain.
Hans de Crevecoeur - first white settler, lived in tent where son Ben, first white boy was born in Morongo Basin 1876.
Mark (Chuck) Warren homesteaded in 1876, first house in this entire area, son Edwin born 1888 - daughter Lela, first . . . — Map (db m80563) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Mount Baldy-Wrightwood — 146 — Blue Cut|
|Cajon Pass, separating the San Bernardino and San Gabriel ranges, has long been an important natural gateway. It is traversed by Indian trails, emigrant routes, railroads, and a superhighway. Early in the nineteenth century it became the southern end of the Old Spanish or Salt Lake (Mormon) Trail. In the 1840s it was the scene of massive horse-stealing raids led by Indians and renegade mountain men, in which as many as 3000 head at one time were driven eastward. The Mormon pioneers who founded . . . — Map (db m78515) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Needles — 44 — Ibis Divisional Camp - Desert Training Center — California – Arizona Maneuver Area — 440th Anti – Aircraft Artillery - (Automatic Weapons) Battalion|
|Camp Ibis was established at this site in the spring of 1942 – one of eleven such camps built in the California – Arizona Desert to harden and train United States Troops for service on the battlefields of World War II.
The 440th AAA AW Battalion was activated per General Order No. 1 at Camp Haan, CA, on July 1, 1942. It trained at Camp M.S.S.R. (Irwin), Camps Young, Iron Mountain, Ibis, and then Camps Pickett, VA. & Stewart, GA. The battalion shipped out to England in December, . . . — Map (db m78585) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Needles — 781 — National Old Trails|
|This bridge marks the site where the National Old Trails Highway later Highway 66 crossed the Colorado River. It links the Mojave Indian lands visited by Father Garces in 1776. Near this location the American Explorer, Jedediah Smith and his band of Rocky Mountain men crossed the river in 1826 and opened the Pioneer Trail into Southern California. — Map (db m50647) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Needles — Needles El Garces Train Station — Needles, California|
|Formerly one of the grandest Harvey House Hotel, Restaurant & Santa Fe Train Stations. The hotel and restaurant were open from 1908 to 1949. The train station closed in 1988.
Recognized by Hampton Hotels Save-A-Landmark program as a site worth seeing. — Map (db m33445) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Needles — 859 — Von Schmidt State Boundary Monument|
|This boundary monument, a cast iron column erected in 1873, marks the southern terminus of the California – Nevada State Boundary established by A. W. Von Schmidt's 1872 – 73 survey. Von Schmidt's line, the first officially recognized oblique state line between California and Nevada, erred slightly, the boundary was later corrected to the present line, ¾ mile to the north. — Map (db m29467) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Needles — 188 — Von Schmidt State Boundary Monument|
|This marker commemorates the iron column erected in 1876 at the southernmost tip of the boundary survey line run by Allexey W. Von Schmidt, U. S. astronomer and surveyor. The line dividing Nevada and California was based on preliminary geodetic work by Lieutenant Joseph Christmas Ives. Ives determined the Colorado River end of the proposed oblique California-Nevada boundary. Von Schmidt calculated and ran the first complete survey of the boundary. His solar observations erred slightly - - the actual line now being ¾ mile to the north. — Map (db m29468) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry Springs — Bagdad Cafe — Route 66 Roadside Attraction|
|Originally built in the 1950s, this world-famous restaurant was the location of the 1988 film, "Bagdad Cafe," which became the new name of the restaurant in 1995. — Map (db m52229) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry Springs — 963-1 — Camp Cady (1860-1871)|
|Camp Cady was located on the Mojave Road which connected Los Angeles to Albuquerque. Non-Indian travel on this and the nearby Salt Lake Road was beset by Paiutes, Mohaves, and Chemehuevis defending their homeland. To protect both roads, Camp Cady was esablished by U.S. Dragoons in 1860. The main building was a stout mud redoubt. Improved camp structures were built 1/2 mile west in 1868. After peace was achieved, the military withdrew in 1871. This protection provided by Camp Cady enabled . . . — Map (db m50718) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry Springs — 145 — Historic Mojave River Road|
|The River Bluff Ranch is on the north bank of the Mojave River near the historic locations of Calico Ghost Town, Newberry Springs, Yermo, and abandoned relics of U.S. Army outpost Camp Cady. To the east are the Mojave Road, the Old Spanish Trail, and the Salt Lake Trail (Mormon Road) that all converge near Daggett.
The Mojave River has been described as “upside-down” and “backwards” because water generally flows below ground and inland from Silverwood Lake (near . . . — Map (db m73477) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry Springs — 143 — Newberry Springs|
|The history of Newberry Springs can be traced back more than 20,000 years. Digs at the Early Man Site north of here discovered tools dating prior to 20,000 BC. At that time, much of the land was covered by the prehistoric Lake Manix. Then, around 18,000 BC, a massive earthquake caused the lake to be drained through what is now known as Afton Canyon. Early humans are thought to have lived and hunted in the area where the swamps and marshes remained. Due to the availability of abundant water and . . . — Map (db m78517) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 19 — Camp Rock Spring|
|To the United States Soldiers of Camp Rock Spring --- who guarded the U.S. Mail
No glory there, nor much chance for military fame, but true patriots and heroes were they, to submit to such privations--yet these are the nurseries of the army, and from such hard schools we graduated a Grant and Sherman, Sheridan and Thomas. General James. F. Rusling USA — Map (db m78592) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — Fort Pah-Ute — (1867-68)|
|As many as eighteen enlisted men of Company "D," 9th U.S. Infantry once served duty here within the now crumbling walls of "Fort Pah-Ute." Although never established as an official fort, "Pah-Ute Creek," as it was commonly called, did house a small number of army troops from November 17, 1867 to May 3, 1868.
During the 1860's, a chain of five military "redoubts," including "Fort Pah-Ute," were established approximately "a day's ride apart," spanning the Mohave Desert from "Camp Cady" near . . . — Map (db m51274) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 16 — Jack and Ida Mitchell|
|Modern Pioneers, Miner and Geologist
who helped to preserve these caverns — Map (db m78594) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 963 — Mojave Road|
|Long ago, Mohave Indians used a network of pathways to cross the Mojave Desert. In 1826, American trapper Jedediah Smith used their paths and became the first non-Indian to reach the California coast overland from mid-America. The paths were worked into a military wagon road in 1859. This "Mojave Road" remained a major link between Los Angeles and points East until a railway crossed the desert in 1883. — Map (db m50687) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — Pozos de San Juan de Dios|
|On March 8, 1776, Fr. Francis Garces, OFM, on his most famous journey of over 2,000 miles from Mission San Xavier Del Bac, Tucson, Arizona, to Mission San Gabriel, California, rested here and named these waterholes "St. John of God Springs", (Marl Springs), and on the return journey passed through here, May 22, same year. — Map (db m56915) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 40 — The Mojave Road|
|Long ago Mohave Indians used a network of pathways to cross the Mojave Desert to reach the Pacific Coast from their homes along the Colorado River. In 1776, the Spanish Missionary Francisco Garces became the first non-Indian to trek these trans-desert routes. In 1826 Jedediah Smith trod these trails to become the first white man to reach the California Coast overland from mid-America. The route became a military wagon road in 1859 when Fort Mojave on the Colorado River was established. This . . . — Map (db m78586) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 70 — Valley Wells|
|In the late 1860's copper was discovered on Clark Montain and the Clark Mining District was organized. Ore was rich but high transportation costs soon caused mining to cease. In the late 1890's the railroad came within 30 miles and the original strike, the Copper World Mine, was reopened. Two wells were sunk and in 1899 a 50-ton smelter was built, treating ore hauled by 20-mule teams. In 1917 a 100-ton furnace was built, but was in use only a short while. In 1894 Valley Wells (formerly known as . . . — Map (db m78573) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Nipton — 99 — Nipton|
|The town of Nipton was born on February 9, 1905 with the coming of the first train on the newly constructed San Pedro, Los Angles and Salt Lake Railroad. Originally called Nippeno Camp after a nearby gold discovery, the name was changed to Nipton when the SP, LA & SL merged with the Union Pacific Circa 1910. For many years, the depot was a cattle-loading station for several local ranches including Yates Ranch, the Walking Box, and Rock Springs Land and Cattle Co. The town and depot also . . . — Map (db m78555) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Ontario — Mule Car|
|From August 14, 1888, to September 24th, 1895,
the Ontario & San Antonio Heights R.R.
Company’s gravity mule car transported citizens
up-and-down Euclid Avenue from Holt Boulevard
to 24th Street. The cars were designed by
John H. Tayes. After the termination of service,
the original cars disappeared.
In 1956, William Richardson headed a group of
citizens to have a replica of the original Mule
Car constructed for the city's 75th anniversary
in 1957. With donated funds "a . . . — Map (db m37512) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Ontario — Nine Young Pepper Trees|
|This is one of nine young pepper trees purchased and planted on Euclid Avenue by the students of Ontario's nine public elementary schools in observance of Arbor Day, March 8, 1954.
The young trees were planted as replacements for mature trees of lost in the severe windstorm that struck this area in December, 1953. — Map (db m375) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Ontario — WCTU Fountain|
|This fountain was built by the Women's
Christian Temperance Union and dedicated
to this City of Ontario on July 4th 1908, to
provide the town with "a drinking fountain
where only the pure, sparkling water
can be had at any time by the thirsty one."
It was originally located on the
northwest corner of the Holt ("A" St.) and
Euclid Avenue and was relocated on this
site to commemorate the Bicentennial Year on September 6th 1975 by the Ontario Parkway Kiwanis Club. — Map (db m37513) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Phelan — 577 — Mormon Trail Monument|
|In June 1851, 500 Mormon Pioneers came through this pass to enter the San Bernardino Valley where they colonized and established a prosperous community. — Map (db m51024) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Pioneertown — 117 — Pioneertown|
|Pioneertown was founded in 1946 by a group of Hollywood personalities led by cowboy actors Dick Curtis and Russell Hayden as a permanent 1880s town for filming western movies. On Sept 1, 1946 Roy Rogers broke ground for the first buildings. Assisted by the Sons of the Pioneers from whom the town takes its name, over 200 movies and TV serials were filmed here as were an unknown number of background shots for other productions. TV westerns including the Gene Autry Show, Cisco Kid, Annie Oakley, . . . — Map (db m78539) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Rancho Cucamonga — Bear Gulch|
|In memory of
the California Pioneers.
Bear Gulch, the home of oso.
Father Font camped here
on his way to Monterey.
— Map (db m383) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Rancho Cucamonga — 490 — Cucamonga Winery|
|Established by Tiburcio Tapia, to whom the Cucamonga Rancho was granted March 3, 1839 by Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado of Mexico. — Map (db m382) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Rancho Cucamonga — Red Hill — City of Rancho Cucamonga Historic Point of Interest|
|This site sits at the base of the prominent Red Hill Landmark. The early historic importance of the property stems from its proximity to a reliable water source, Cucamonga Creek, and to its location on the major roadway between Los Angeles and San Bernardino. By about 1200 AD, the Kukumonga Native Americans, part of the Gabrielino Culture, established a village near Red Hill in 1839. Tiburcio Tapia, a wealthy merchant and former Alcalde (Major) of Los Angeles, was granted 13,000 acres of land . . . — Map (db m53036) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Rancho Cucamonga — 360 — Tapia Adobe Site|
|In 1839 Governor Juan Alvarado granted the 13,000-acre tract called Cucamonga to Tiburcio Tapia, an ex-soldier who was a prominent merchant and alcalde in Los Angeles. A half-mile west of this marker Tapia, employing Indian laborers, immediately built an adobe house on a vantage point on Red Hill. The large adobe was abandoned in 1858 when Tapia's heirs sold the rancho. The adobe soon disintegrated into its native earth. This marker is located on land which once was a part of Tapia's rancho. — Map (db m50672) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Redlands — 994 — A.K. Smiley Public Library|
|Albert K. Smiley, a leader of the city's library movement, donated this building and park to the citizens of Redlands in 1898. Through his generosity, Redlands was given one of California's few privately funded libraries of that era. In 1906, he also contributed a wing, built to blend with the original design for this outstanding Mission Revival library. — Map (db m51029) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Redlands — 1019 — Kimberly Crest|
|Mary Kimberly Shirk, an advocate for women's education and acting president of Scripps College during World War II, made a gift of her home, Kimberly Crest, to the people of Redlands. The house, an excellent example of Chateauesque architecture designed by the firm of Dennis and Farwell, was constructed in 1897. Mrs. Shirk's parents purchased it in 1905, adding the magnificent Italian style gardens, designed by Parkinson and Bergstrom, in 1909. Mrs. Shirk's father, J. Alfred Kimberly, was a . . . — Map (db m51030) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Redlands — 43 — Mill Creek Zanja|
|Spanish missionaries introduced the principle of irrigation in San Bernardino Valley, thus opening the way to settlement. Franciscan Fathers engineered, and Indians dug, this first ditch (or "zanja") in 1819-20. In historical sequence the zanja supported the San Bernardino Asistencia, Rancho San Bernardino, pioneer ranches, orchards, and Redlands' domestic water supply. — Map (db m51013) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Redlands — 42 — San Bernardino Asistencia|
|This branch of San Gabriel Mission was constructed about 1830 on the San Bernardino Rancho. During the 1840s, its buildings were used by José del Carmen Lugo as part of his rancho grant. Later, after its sale to the Mormons, it was occupied by Bishop Tenney in the 1850's, and by Dr. Benjamin Barton in the 1860's. Its restoration was completed in 1937 by the Works Progress Administration, assisted by the San Bernardino County Historical Society. — Map (db m51012) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Rimforest — 579 — The Daley Road|
|Built by Edward Daley & Company
1870 — Map (db m51026) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — Arrowhead Plaza|
|Rancho Agua Caliente by 1820 was established by Mission San Gabriel authorities in this area to supply water and grass for mission cattle.
Jose Del Carmen Lugo, Jose Maria Lugo and Vicente Lugo acquired the mission lands in 1823 and built a small adobe house as headquarters for their rancho.
After the Mormon colonists purchased San Bernardino Rancho from the Lugo family, they built a stockade at this site in 1851. A Council House inside the stockade in 1852 served as the colony . . . — Map (db m79020) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — Charles C Rich / Amasa M Lyman|
|In memory of
Charles C Rich
Amasa M Lyman
Builders of the Council House 1852
First school, church, and later Court House of this county. — Map (db m79017) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — Mormon Pioneer Trail|
|On June 1851, the first major group of 520 Mormon settlers entered Southern California at Baldy Mesa Ridge in the West Cajon Pass. This location is northwest of Highway 138, about four miles from the Palmdale Freeway offramp. The Wagon Route ran past this location, along the base of the mountains and into the valley. The pioneers purchased 35,509 acres of land from the Lugo family, and the settlement of San Bernardino was established. — Map (db m51259) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — 302 — Settlement of San Bernardino|
| (top-center plaque)
In March 1851 Charles C. Rich and Amasa M. Lyman, apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, left Utah with 437 people "to establish a stronghold for the gathering of saints in California." Jefferson Hunt, David Seeley and Andrew Lytle were captains of organized companies. They purchased the Rancho 'de San Bernardino', selected a site for settlement, built a fort enclosing 100 homes and erected an adobe building for church and school. 1300 acres . . . — Map (db m79018) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — 44 — Site of Mormon Stockade|
|On this site in 1839 was built the first house in San Bernardino. The home of Jose del Carmen Lugo one of the grantees of the Rancho San Bernardino.
Also on this site in 1851 a stockade of logs was built as a protection against Indians. In it more than a hundred pioneer families lived for over a year. — Map (db m51014) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — 578 — Stoddard-Waite Monument|
Sydney P. Waite
came over this trail
helped erect this
1912 — Map (db m51025) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — 977 — The Arrowhead Landmark|
|Located in the foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains directly above the City of San Bernardino, the Arrowhead Landmark can be seen for miles around. This important landmark has for centuries been a symbol of the San Bernardino Valley to the Native Indians and then to the pioneers and settlers that followed.
It is believed to be a natural landmark. The face of the arrowhead consists of light quartz, supporting a growth of short white sage. This lighter vegetation shows in sharp contrast . . . — Map (db m51028) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — The Council House|
|On this site the first public building erected in this county was the Council House. Built by Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich in 1853. Built of adobe, it was the central office of the Mormon interests both religious and secular. Later it was our first county court house.
It was two stories, one room below and one above 24x26 feet and surrounded by a white fence. The building stood until 1867 when it was demolished to make way for the Starkey Hotel, a brick building. — Map (db m79019) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), San Bernardino — To Jedediah Smith — Pathfinder of the Southern Sierras|
|Born at Brambridge in Northern N.Y. January 6, 1799 he discovered south pass of the Rocky Mts. the great gateway through which passed nearly all subsequent migration west and northwest from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
He was the first American to enter California by the overland route through Cajon Pass in November 1826. Jedediah Smith stands peerless among the pathfinders of California's epic past. — Map (db m79016) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Trona — Austin Hall|
|Austin Hall, the much loved focal point of the Trona community, once stood on this site. Built in 1912 the unique structure, with its one-foot thick concrete walls, boasted 45 arches on three sides, the building provided a cooling shelter from the blazing heat with its patio center and oleander trees. Early employees were housed and fed in its spacious rooms and eventually all the town’s businesses were housed here. The patio became an open-air theatre with adjoining pool hall, a barber shop, . . . — Map (db m51859) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Trona — 134 — Epsom Salts Monorail|
|In 1917 a deposit of Epsom salts was discovered near the old Wingate Wash Borax Road at the southern end of Death Valley. In 1919 the claims were acquired by Los Angeles florist Thomas Wright. Although close to an existing road, Wright devised other plans to exploit the find. A scheme to dissolve the salts and transport them via a 28-mile pipeline to the Trona Railroad had to be abandoned due to lack of water. In 1922 Wright began construction of a monorail at Magnesia Siding on the Trona . . . — Map (db m78525) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Trona — 101 — John & Dennis Searles Wagon Routes — 1875 - 1895|
|This monument commemorates two wagon routes used by the Searles brothers to haul borax from their plant on Borax Lake (now Searles Lake) to the railhead at Mojave. The southern route traveled west of the Trona Pinnacles to Searles' freight station at Garden City. This is the present route of the Trona Railway which connects with the Union Pacific at Searles Station. Garden City was a virtual oasis, providing food and shelter for the teamsters and a barn accommodating 100 mules. The western . . . — Map (db m78554) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Trona — 774 — Searles Lake Borax Discovery|
|Borax was discovered on the nearby surface of Searles Lake by John Searles in 1862. With his bother, Dennis he formed the San Bernardino Borax Mining Company in 1873 and operated it until 1897. These chemicals in Searles Lake which include borax, potash, salt cake and lithium were deposited here by the runoff waters from melting ice age glaciers. John Searles discovery has proved to be the worldís richest chemical storehouse, containing half the natural elements known to man. Plaque placed by . . . — Map (db m50241) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Trona — Welcome to the Trona Pinnacles — ... a National Natural Landmark|
|Rising from the bottom of what was once an ancient lakebed, the Trona Pinnacles represent one of the most unique geologic landscapes in the California Desert. Over 500 of these tufa or calcium carbonate spires are spread out over a 14 square mile area across the Searles Lake basin. These features range in size from small coral-like boulders to several that top out at over 140 feet tall.
The Pinnacles were formed between 10,000 and 100,000 years ago when Searles Lake formed a link in a . . . — Map (db m50221) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Twentynine Palms — 23 — Minerva Hamilton Hoyt|
|Her tireless efforts to establish Joshua Tree National Monument contributed to a heightened appreciation, not only of the Joshua Tree, but of the total desert environment. — Map (db m78588) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Twentynine Palms-Morongo Valley — 118 — Old Woman Springs Ranch|
|This area of Lucern Valley became known as Old Woman Springs when a government survey party discovered a number of Indian women camping here in 1856. The original water source, now called Cottonwood Springs, is directly in front of you. In 1907 cattleman Albert "Swarty" Swarthout homesteaded Old Woman Springs Ranch for use as winter pasture. He and partner Charlie Martin, cattle rustler and later police chief in San Bernardino, puchased Heart Bar Ranch, south of Big Bear, for summer range. By . . . — Map (db m78538) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Upland — George Chaffey, Jr. — 1848–1932|
Man of Vision
Land, Water and Power
The Model Colony
Upland Sister Cities Association.
Upland's Sister City
was founded by
George and W.B. Chaffey.
John Edward Svenson, FNSS
Sculptor — Map (db m168) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Upland — 1028 — Madonna of the Trail|
Covered Wagon Days.
This trail, trod by the Padres in Spanish Days,
became, under Mexican rule, the road connecting
Los Angeles, later the American Post Road.
The National Old Trails Road.
Over this trail, November 1826, Jedediah Smith, seeking a river flowing westward, led a band of sixteen trappers, the first Americans to enter California overland. — Map (db m162) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Victorville — 142 — Emma Jean's|
|Emma Jean's Holland Burger Cafe a Route 66 icon has been serving up meals to locals and hungry travelers on the highway since 1947. The building was built by Bob and Kate Holland from cinder blocks manufactured at the old fiber tile plant located south of here approximately where the Cemex plant sits today.
Richard Gentry drove a cement truck on Route 66 for 31 years and ate here since it opened. His wife Emma Jean worked here as a waitress for many years. In 1979 Richard bought the then . . . — Map (db m78518) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Victorville — 150 — Lane's Crossing|
|Since ancient times, indigenous peoples have used the many networks of trails in the East Mojave Desert for both seasonal migration and to carry on trade with coastal Indians. Most of these trails converged at narrow passes and safe river crossings. Such was the case here at what has become known as the Lower Narrows, or Lane's Crossing. The Serrano-Vanyume village of Tobiabit was located here. The Mojave River flowed almost all year, providing weary travelers with much needed water and rest. . . . — Map (db m73550) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Victorville — Mojave River Crossing|
|From pre historic times thru the 1800s, here was the main crossing of the old Indian Mojave Trail. Padre Garces (1776), Jedediah Smith (1826-27), Kit Carson (1840s) crossed here. Westward immigrants, Mormons, Army camels and Mule trains (1850s) also passed this spot.
Once known as Lane's Crossing (1857), Wells Fargo and Pony Express had stations here. Early Victorville called this, the Turner Ranch (1883). — Map (db m73472) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Victorville — Mormon Springs|
|In the 1860's, Freshwater springs in the area were developed by Mormon freighters making the springs and surrounding cottonwood trees a popular campsite. — Map (db m63945) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Victorville — Old Town Victorville Veterans Memorial — City of Victorville|
That smile, that twinkle or tear in your eye,
when you were growing up on the streets,
the grocery stores, the soda fountains, pharmacies and shops;
When you attended our elementary schools
and Victor Valley Highs School;
when war or conflict came, our nation called
on you and you responded;
when you came home on leave, proudly
wearing your uniform
when you where . . . — Map (db m63923) WM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Vidal — 108 — Earp Cottage — Vidal, California|
|Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp
1848 – 1929
Josephine Sarah Marcus Earp
1861 – 1944
The legendary lawman, gun-fighter, gambler, businessman and miner along with his wife, Josephine, inhabited this "dream – come – true" cottage from 1925 – 1928. During the fall, winter and spring months, while he worked his "Happy Days" mines in the Whipple Mountains a few miles north of this site. This is the only permanent residence they . . . — Map (db m78548) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Vidal — 54 — Granite Divisional Camp — Camp Granite — Desert Training Center, California-Arizona Maneuver Area|
|Camp Granite was established at this site in the spring of 1942. It was one of twelve such camps built in the southwestern desert to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The Desert Training Center was a simulated theater of operations that included portions of California, Arizona and Nevada. The other camps were Young, Granite, Iron Mountain, Ibis, Clipper, Pilot Knob, Laguna, Horn, Hyder, Bouse and Rice.
A total of 13 infantry divisions . . . — Map (db m78580) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Vidal — 151 — Iron Mountain Divisional Camp — Desert Training Center — California-Arizona Maneuver Area|
|Iron Mountain divisional camp was established at this site in the spring of 1942. One of eleven such camps built in the California-Arizona desert to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The first major unit trained here was the 3rd Armored Division followed
by elements of the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th Armored Divisions. In all, one million men trained in the desert before the training center was officially closed in May of 1944. The most unique . . . — Map (db m77424) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Vidal — 63 — Rice Divisional Camp — Camp Rice — Desert Training Center, California-Arizona Maneuver Area|
|Camp Rice was established at this site in the spring of 1942. It was one of twelve such camps built in the southwestern deserts to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The Desert Training Center was a simulated theatre of operations that included portions of California, Arizona and Nevada. The other camps were Young, Coxcomb, Granite, Iron Mountain, Ibis, Clipper, Pilot Knob, Laguna, Horn, Hyder and Bouse.
A total of 13 infantry divisions . . . — Map (db m78576) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Yermo — Calico Lives Again — 1881|
|Under the auspices of Knott’s Berry Farm, Buena Park, Calif. Buildings shall be rebuilt on their original sites.
Walter Knott is dedicating Calico Ghost Town to the memory of the heroic silver miners who lived and toiled here.
The preservation of this singular California heritage is also dedicated to you, the visitor, as a constant source of learning and enjoyment.
Please respect this historic property.
[Smaller marker under the main marker]: . . . — Map (db m10576) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Yermo — Calico’s School House|
|Calico’s original school house was built in 1885, at this location above the town.
What you are seeing here is a replica, built in the early 1950’s. Old photographs were used in order to match the architecture as closely as possible, however this replica is about one-third less than the size of the original!
Calico’s first school operated out of a boarding house until the new school was built. Overall, the “Calico School District” ran from a fall term in 1882 until fall of . . . — Map (db m13073) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Yermo — 56 — Lucy Bell Lane|
|Calico’s most distinguished and long time resident was Lucy Bell Lane (1874-1967). Known at one time as the “Queen of Calico”, Lucy lived at Calico for nearly 67 years. Of her many gifts, she is most remembered for her warm hospitality and vivid storytelling of the historic Calico silver mining camp. Lucy was indeed part of the history of Calico and was an accomplished prospector. Lucy Bell King arrived at Calico with her parents, her two brothers and sister in 1884, three years . . . — Map (db m78579) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Yermo — 782 — Town of Calico|
|Centered about the “Town of Calico”, The Calico Mining District, which had a peak population of 3,000, produced between $13 and $20 million in silver and $9 million in borate minerals between 1881 and 1907. On April 6, 1881, several claims were located that formed the largest mine in the district, the Silver Queen. Profitable mining of silver in the area ceased in 1896. — Map (db m10573) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Yucaipa — 528 — Yucaipa Adobe|
|Consructed in 1842 by Diego Sepulveda, nephew of Antonio Maria Lugo, this is believed to be the oldest house in San Bernardino County. The land, formerly controlled by San Gabriel Mission, was part of Rancho San Bernardino, granted to the Lugos in 1842. Later owners included John Brown, Sr., James W. Waters, and the Dunlap Family before acquisition by San Bernardino County in 1955. — Map (db m51018) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Yucaipa — 620 — Yucaipa Rancheria|
|Yucaipa Valley suported a large population of Serrano Indians. The fertile valley was watered by springs and creeks. The Indians called this area "Yucaipat" which meant "wet lands." These Native Americans lived at this village site most of the year, with occasional excursions to the mountains to gather acorns and other food items during the harvesting season. — Map (db m50684) HM|
|California (San Bernardino County), Yucca Valley — 109 — Warren's Well|
|Warren's Well marks the beginning of the town of Yucca Valley. Mark "Chuck" Warren drove freight wagons through the vally and settled here about 1880. In 1881 he hand-dug the well and later built a windmill, water trough, barn and a small cabin. Warren's Well became a stage stop, a "watering hole" for cattle ranchers, and the center of social life for early settlers. The cabin burned in 1929 and was replaced by the adobe house still standing to the north of the well. Dr. John Bendall, known as . . . — Map (db m78547) HM|