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Stafford County Markers
Virginia (Stafford County), Berea — E-85 — Civilian Conservation Corps Company 2363
Here at Berea, during the Great Depression, was the site of Civilian Conservation Corps Company 2363. This camp, one of many in Virginia, was organized in 1935 and disbanded in 1940. During its existance, the company strung farm fences, planted trees, fought forest fires, and instructed farmers in the practice of soil conservation. The CCC, one of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal agencies, was created in 1933 to provide public service jobs for unemployed young men. Roosevelt later . . . — Map (db m2217) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Berea — N-4 — Fredericksburg Campaign
Frustrated by the Army of the Potomac’s lack of progress, President Abraham Lincoln replaced army commander Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan with Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, who assumed command on 9 Nov. 1862. Within a week, he had the army marching from its camps near Warrenton toward Fredericksburg along this road. Burnside hoped to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg by pontoon bridges and march on Richmond, but a delay in the arrival of the pontoons thwarted his plan. By the time . . . — Map (db m2216) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Berea — Hulls Memorial Baptist Church
Site of the Original Hulls Memorial Baptist Church Founded 1888 Erected 1897 — Map (db m4849) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Berea — Milton Snellings
Dedicated to the Memory of Milton Snellings General President 1916-1921 By the International Union of Operating Engineers Snellings 1870 - 1921 — Map (db m4842) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Berea — Original Bell of Hulls Memorial Baptist Church
This bell was taken from the Old Church Building and placed here by Elsie S. Truslow in memory of her husband Hansford Bryan Truslow 1896 - 1959 — Map (db m4858) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Berea — N-6 — The Mud March
In Jan. 1863, after the Federal defeat at the First Battle of Fredericksburg on 13 Dec., Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside sought to restore the army’s morale by crossing the Rappahannock River at Banks’s Ford two miles south and attacking the rear of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army. The march began on 19 Jan.; that night a warm front thawed the frozen road with 48 hours of pouring rain. Confederates across the river taunted the sodden Federals with large signs: “This Way to Richmond” and . . . — Map (db m2215) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brooke — Aquia LandingThe Railroad
The straight, level road you used to get here was once the bed of the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad. As its name implies, the railroad ran from Richmond, through Fredericksburg, to the Potomac River, ending here at Aquia landing. Passengers wishing to continue north boarded a waiting steamship here that carried them up the Potomac River to Washington, D.C., 55 miles away. Because of its location on the Potomac River and its proximity to Fredericksburg, Aquia Landing was . . . — Map (db m2200) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brooke — Aquia LandingNaval Engagement
Within weeks after Virginia seceded from the Union in the spring of 1861, state troops began fortifying Aquia Landing. One artillery battery was established on the waterfront while additional batteries, like this one, covered the landing from nearby hills. These guns posed a threat to Union shipping in the Potomac River, prompting Commander James H. Ward of the United States Navy to take steps to eliminate them. Between May 29 and June 1, 1861, Union gunboats on the Potomac River, ahead of . . . — Map (db m2201) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brooke — Aquia LandingSupply Base for the Union Army
Aquia Landing’s location on the Potomac River, coupled with its access to the R.F.&P. Railroad, made it an important supply base for the Union army. Food, clothing and other equipment were shipped down the Potomac River, unloaded here, and sent to the front by train. Recognizing its potential importance to the Union Army, Confederate troops destroyed Aquia Landing in April 1862 and tore up the railroad tracks running between here and Fredericksburg. The Union Army immediately rebuilt these . . . — Map (db m3678) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brooke — J-92 — Aquia Landing
The Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad was extended to its terminus here at Aquia Landing in 1846. By steamboat and railroad, travelers from Washington, D.C., to Richmond could complete in 9 hours a journey that took 38 hours by stagecoach. In May-June 1861, Confederate batteries at Aquia Landing exchanged fire with Union gunboats. The first use of nautical mines ("torpedoes") in the war occurred here on 7 July 1861 against the U.S.S. Pawnee. After the Confederates abandoned the site . . . — Map (db m3680) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brooke — Battle of Aquia Landing
This gun emplacement participated in the first significant battle of the Civil War between the U.S. Navy and Batteries of the Rebel State on May 31 and June 1, 1861. Colonel William C. Bate of the Tennessee (Walker) Legion successfully manned four 3 inch rifled cannons from this position, inflicting some damage to the ships of the Potomac Flotilla. The attacking Federal Gunboats, under the command of John A. Ward, withdrew after the action, but continued to monitor the landing. The . . . — Map (db m2249) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brooke — Brooke, Virginia
In 1921, Jethro Kloss opened this Health Food Factory. It was on this site that he started writing “Back to Eden” the ground-breaking guide to herbal therapy. Jethro Kloss is considered by many to be the father of the organic health food movement. — Map (db m2193) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brooke — Union Redoubt # 3
Established on this spot in February of 1863, by New York troops of the 12th Corps, 2nd Division, Army of the Potomac, Redoubt #3 was manned by up to 100 soldiers and supported by 4 rifled artillery pieces. It guarded the approaches to the Union Supply Depot at nearby Aquia Landing and the 12th Corps camps on the hills to the East during the winter of 1862-1863. Redoubt #3 was a square enclosure approximately 70' long and 12' high. — Map (db m2192) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brooke — Union Redoubt No. 3Aquia Creek Landing Defenses, 1863
On the ridge to the north stood the third of three large fortifications or redoubts built during February and March of 1863 by the Army of the Potomac. This redoubt protected Aquia Landing and the nearby camps of the Union 12th Corps. The fortification was square-shaped and designed for a garrison of 100 men. It was supported by four 3-inch guns. The actual site of redoubt No. 3 is currently marked with a large granite memorial erected in 2005. — Map (db m2191) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brooke — Union XIIth Corps Winter Camp
In the woods on this hill are the remains of a regimental-sized union infantry winter camp. A New York regiment of the 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, most likely occupied this camp, the remains clearly visible and run in most cases in lines from the bottom to the top of the hill. The remains of hut sites dug into the ground by the camp’s occupants remain clearly visibleand run in most cases in lines from the bottom to the top of the hill. The site was preserved by Syg Associates Inc. and the . . . — Map (db m39548) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Brookfield — N 34 — Gen. Hooker's Headquarters
Just northeast, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, commander of the Union Army of the Potomac, kept his headquarters, Jan. - June 1863, amid a vast city of tents and camps. It was here he rehabilitated he Union army after its catastrophic defeat in the First Battle of Fredericksburg in Dec. 1862 and its subsequent "Winter of Discontent." From here he designed a campaign to defeat Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Chancellorsville - a brilliant plan that failed in May 1863 because of his . . . — Map (db m9216) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — A “Picture of Desolation”
“ Tis a perfect picture of desolation, and a sad illustration of the ravages of war.”          —Newspaper correspondent, 1863 Union soldiers loll around Chatham in this February 1863 photograph. The scene here was not always so peaceful. Two months earlier, during the Battle of Fredericksburg, soldiers and wagons crowded the grounds; generals issued orders from the porch; surgeons converted the building’s interior into a field hospital. More than one hundred and . . . — Map (db m4655) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — A Bloody Crossing
Church bells in Fredericksburg tolled 3 a.m. on December 11, 1862, as Union engineers wrestled pontoon boats toward the river's edge in front of you. They intended to use the boats to construct two of the six floating bridges that the Army of the Potomac would need to cross the Rappahannock. For two hours the engineers toiled in darkness, trying to complete the spans before Confederate sharpshooters on the opposite bank spotted them. At 5 a.m. Confederate musket fire burst from cellars and . . . — Map (db m4725) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — Between Battles
As the spring of 1863 brought green to the countryside and fish up the river, the legions of civil strife faced each other cheerfully across the Rappahannock. After the slaughter of Fredericksburg, the embattled brothers held off death for the time. No cannon roared. No picket fired. Instead, fishing parties on either bank shouted caustic jokes, and rival bands sent plaintive melodies back and forth. During favorable winds, the doughboys traded souvenirs by means of toy sailboats improvised . . . — Map (db m4726) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — J-60 — Chatham
Here is Chatham, built about 1750 by William Fitzhugh. Here Robert E. Lee came to court his wife. In the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, the house was occupied by General Sumner. It was General Hooker’s headquarters for a time, 1863. — Map (db m1670) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — Chatham
This expansive estate and its impressive Georgian dwelling have dominated Stafford Heights overlooking Fredericksburg for over two centuries. William Fitzhugh, a wealthy landowner from Virginia's Northern Neck, completed construction of his new residence in 1771 and named it in honor of William Pitt, the Earl of Chatham. Fitzhugh and subsequent ante-bellum owners of Chatham managed a large plantation employing as many as one hundred slaves. After the war, Chatham's land was gradually sold until . . . — Map (db m4719) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — Chatham and the Civil War
The Civil War focused national attention on Chatham, which became known as the Lacy House after its wartime owner, J. Horace, Lacy. Federal troops first occupied Fredericksburg in the sping of 1862 and their commander, Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell, was the first of a series of Northern officers to establish his headquarters at the Lacy House. Union artillerymen bombarded the city and its Confederate defenders from gun emplacements near Chatham and Federal infantry crossed the Rappahannock on . . . — Map (db m4718) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — E 45 — Fredericksburg
Fredericksburg was established in 1728 and named for Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales and eldest son of King George II. It served as the county seat of Spotsylvania County from 1732 to 1778 and was an important port during the colonial era. In his youth, George Washington lived nearby at Ferry Farm. He later spoke of the city’s influence on him. The town was devastated by fire in 1807 and again by the First and Second Battles of Fredericksburg that were fought here during the Civil War, yet . . . — Map (db m2206) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — Fredericksburg Campaign
Ambrose E. Burnside's Union army had found existing bridges destroyed, and now R. E. Lee's Confederates awaited attack on high ground beyond Fredericksburg. On December 11, 1862, the Union engineers shivered in the early morning as they broke a skim of ice and began laying pontoons across the Rappahannock here. A hail of death from advanced Confederate riflemen drove and kept the workmen ashore. In awesome retaliation, massed cannon on the heights behind the harassed engineers thundered . . . — Map (db m4723) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — Lincoln's Review
During the Civil War Chatham saw soldiers of both Northern and Southern armies come and go. The presence of Union troops this far south often attracted the attention of officials in Washington and this vicinity witnessed three reviews between 1862 and 1863. In these fields on May 23, 1862, President Lincoln inspected the command of General Irvin McDowell which had recently arrived here. The scene depicted in this woodcut was a gala review of the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac which occurred . . . — Map (db m4717) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — Pontoon Bridges
At Fredericksburg, the Union army crosseed the Rappahannock River by means of temporary, floating bridges built upon pontoons. In front of you is a reconstructed section of such a bridge, built to eighty percent of its original size. More than 30,000 Union soldiers crossed the two bridges that spanned the river below you. Under ideal conditions skilled engineers could construct a bridge in a couple of hours. First, they would row or pole pontoon boats into the river. Then they would . . . — Map (db m4724) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Chatham Heights — Union Soldiers View
Union soldiers and officers gazing upon Fredericksburg from this spot in 1862 saw many of the same landmarks visible today. The skyline of this peaceful river town, population 4,500 in 1860, is still dominated by the three steeples of City Hall and the Episcopal and Baptist Churches. The Rappahannock River which served as a source of power, a transportation artery, and a military obstacle in the 19th century, flows from right to left along its journey from the Blue Ridge Mountains to Chesapeake . . . — Map (db m4721) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Daffan — Potomac Creek Bridge“Beanpoles and Cornstalks”
The mounds of earth beside you and the stone blocks protruding from it are all that remain of the south abutment of a bridge that once carried the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad across Potomac Creek. During the first year of the Civil War, the railroad was the principal lifeline for Confederate encampments and batteries located along the nearby shore of the Potomac River. In the spring of 1862, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston ordered Confederate forces to abandon the area. Advancing . . . — Map (db m2194) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — "Lest We Forget"
In memory of those from Stafford County who served during the Civil War "Lest We Forget" Map (db m6800) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — A Changed Landscape
The sketch below, done by a Union soldier, shows the landscape in front of you as it looked in 1863. During the Civil War, this was the rear of Chatham—a functional space unadorned with gardens or architectural finery. Union soldiers had cut down whatever trees stood here. Graves of men killed at Fredericksburg dotted the yard. During the 1920s, Chatham’s owners moved the main entryway from the river side to the façade in front of you. They also moved the formal gardens to this side, . . . — Map (db m35387) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — A Sad Duty to Perform
His second day of freedom, Former Slave John Washington wrote about seeing the “side-by-side” burial of seven Union soldiers April 19th, 1862, in Falmouth’s Union Church Cemetery. “The soldiers had a sad duty to perform…The funeral was one of the most solemn and impressive I had ever witnessed in my life before. Their company (cavalry) was dismounted and drawn up in lines, around the seven new graves which had been dug side-by-side. The old Family Burying Ground . . . — Map (db m49673) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — E 133 — Anthony Burns(1834 ~ 1862)
Anthony Burns was born into slavery in Stafford County. In 1854 Burns escaped from Richmond, where he had been hired out, to Boston. His owner demanded his return under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Burns' arrest on 24 May 1854 inspired abolitionists to attempt his rescue. They were unsuccessful, and a judge ruled that Burns must be sent back to his owner. The episode increased antislavery sentiment across the North. Activists, including African American Bostonians, freed Burns through . . . — Map (db m92728) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Beleaguered Town
Union soldiers and officers gazing upon Fredericksburg from this spot in 1862 saw many of the same landmarks visible today. The skyline of this peaceful river town, population 5,000 in 1860, is still dominated by the three steeples of City Hall and the Episcopal and Baptist churches. The Rappahannock River, which was a source of power, a transportation artery, and a military obstacle in the 1800s, flows from right to left along its journey from the Blue Ridge to the Chesapeake Bay. To the . . . — Map (db m35390) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Bethlehem Primitive Baptist Church
Organized 1868 by Rev. York Johnson, an ex-slave, who with 27 others separated from White Oak Primitive Baptist Church. Rev. Johnson, assisted by The Freedmen Bureau, established a benevolent organization "The Union Branch of the True Vine" and founded The Union Branch School. Besides its primary role as a religious institution, Bethlehem, the House of Bread, promotes individual advancement, community involvement, historical endeavors, and has always advocated for civil rights. — Map (db m77354) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Beyond the Big House
Slaves did virtually all the work that kept Chatham worthy of its widespread reputation for productivity, elegance, and hospitality. Before the Civil War, it’s unlikely that white residents ever amounted to more than 20 percent of Chatham’s population. At times as many as 100 slaves lived here. They worked fields, cooked meals, ran the mill, seined for shad and sturgeon, shod horses, slaughtered livestock, made barrels, did the laundry, picked fruit, and did a thousand other things that . . . — Map (db m35386) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Bombardment
When Confederate sharpshooters blocked his efforts to span the Rappahannock River with pontoon bridges, General Ambrose E. Burnside ordered his artillery to bombard the town. For eight hours more than one hundred cannon, some as large as the 4.5-inch ordnance rifle behind you, hurled shot and shell into Fredericksburg from these bluffs, east of the river. In all, more than 6,000 shells rained down upon the doomed town. Civilians fled Fredericksburg or sought shelter in cellars. . . . — Map (db m35392) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Chatham
Chatham has watched quietly over Fredericksburg for almost 250 years—an imposing, 180-foot-long brick manor house once visible from much of town. It has witnessed great events and played host to important people. George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln were here; Clara Barton and Walt Whitman too. To some residents it was a home, to others a place of toil, and to soldiers during the war a headquarters or a hospital. Here at Chatham, as at few other places, is the . . . — Map (db m35385) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Civil War Observation Balloon Site
This site, once part of the Phillips property and occupied by the Union Army in the winter of 1862-1863 became the launch site for Aeronaut Thaddeus Lowe reconnaissance balloons. The tethered balloon Eagle with General Edwin Sumner's staff officer, Lt. Col William Teall ascending to the heights of 900 feet to observe and report the troop movements engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg. — Map (db m76275) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Conway House
Conway House was the home of Moncure Conway who freed himself from the dogmas of his culture and became an abolitionist. He is the only descendent of one of our nation’s Founding Fathers to actively lead escaping slaves to freedom, thereby taking the initial steps to correct what was not accomplished in the Constitutional Convention. Conway House makes a significant contribution to understanding the desire to achieve freedom of one’s own self destiny. Designated July 16, 2004 — Map (db m23147) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Duff McDuff Green Memorial Park
The Green family was established in Virginia when Duff McFuff Green's great-great grandfather, Robert Green, settled in Orange County in 1710. Duff McDuff Green was born in Stafford county on 2 August 1832 to Capt. Duff Green and Elizabeth Ann Payne Green. Duff McDuff Green was a prominent farmer and merchant who operated a cotton mill in Falmouth both prior to and after the Civil War. He served Virginia and Stafford County as a Falmouth Trustee and Justice of the Peace. From 1879 to 1885, . . . — Map (db m76690) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Falmouth
Approximately one mile east at the junction of U.S. Route 17 and U.S. Route 1 is the town of Falmouth, which was established at the falls of the Rappahannock River and incorporated in 1727. Although a small town, Falmouth was one of the most significant parts and business centers in Virginia during the 18th and early 19th centuries. It was a prosperous commercial hub that include tobacco and cotton warehouses, grist and timber mills, mercantile, taverns, and nail factory, a church, a canal, a . . . — Map (db m48761) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Falmouth Railroad StationStafford, Virginia
During the Civil War, a railroad station stood on this site. The station consisted of a warehouse, a platform, quartermaster tents, and several sidings. Trains arrived and departed on the hour traveling to and from Aquia Landing. The station witnessed distinguished visitors like President and Mrs. Lincoln, Clara Barton, and Walt Whitman. In 1862, many (10,000 – 12,000) escaped slaves traveled from here to Aquia Landing and freedom. — Map (db m75944) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Wilderness, and Spotsylvania—this is the bloodiest landscape in North America. No place more vividly reflects the Civil War’s tragic cost in all its forms. A city bombarded, bloodied, and looted. Farms large and small ruined. Refugees by the thousands forced into the countryside. More than 85,000 men wounded; 15,000 killed—most now in graves unknown. The fading scars of battle, the home places of bygone families, and the granite tributes to . . . — Map (db m35378) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Freedom Began HereTrail to Freedom
”The soldier assured me that I was now a free man…I never would be a slave no more.” - John Washington, a Fredericksburg slave ”Our camps are now flooded with negroes, with packs on their backs and bound for freedom. No system of abolition could sweep away the system more effectually than does the advance of our army.” - Rufus Dawes, Sixth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, April 1862 On April 18, 1862, advancing Federal forces reached the banks of . . . — Map (db m32391) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Gari Melchers Home and Studio"Belmont"
Overlooking the Falls of the Rappahannock River on a major 17th and 18th century trade route, this site became the setting for the artist's internationally acclaimed early 20th century paintings celebrating the lives and character of the citizens of Falmouth and Fredericksburg. Presented by The George Mason Chapter-Virginia Society National Society Colonial Dames XVII Century May 2007 Map (db m77688) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — E 47 — Historic Falmouth
Founded in 1727 as a trading center for the Northern Neck. Hunter’s iron works here were an objective in the Virginia campaign of 1781. The Army of the Potomac camped here from November, 1862 to June, 1863 and moved hence to Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. — Map (db m1671) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Hobby School
In 1930, this 1880s log cabin was moved to its present location from the corner of Butler Road and Carter Street. The Falmouth historic community saved it with the help of noted architect Edward Donn, for they believed it was similar to the type of house where Master Hobby conducted school for young plantation boys such as George Washington. — Map (db m49662) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — E-116 — Hunter’s Iron Works
Located south of here on the Rappahannock River, stood Hunter’s Iron Works, founded by James Hunter and was in operation by the 1750s. With the outbreak of the American Revolution, the Rappahannock Forge there supplied the Continental army and navy with muskets, swords, and other armaments and camp implements. Due to its wartime significance, Gov. Thomas Jefferson ordered special military protection for the complex. The ironworks contained a blast furnace, forge, slitting, merchant, and other . . . — Map (db m2729) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — James HunterPatriot — 1721 - 1785
Owner of the famed Hunter Iron Works in Stafford County, which manufactured most of the camp utensils and weapons for the Virginia forces during the Revolutionary War. A true patriot, he received little, if any, compensation. — Map (db m32392) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Magistrate’s Office
The Magistrate’s Office is the oldest existing municipal building in Stafford County. Originally built for the town of Falmouth, the structure has been used as a courthouse (magistrate’s office) and voting place. Traditionally referred to as the Customs House, the earliest known account of the building, in 1895, refers to it as a courthouse. Its original date of construction is not known, however, its architectural style and remaining original material suggest that it may have been constructed . . . — Map (db m2545) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — N 36 — Moncure Daniel Conway
Nearby to the northwest is the childhood home of renowned abolitionist, writer, and lecturer Moncure Daniel Conway (1832-1907). In 1838 his family moved into this Federal-style house. Conway graduated from Dickinson College in 1849 and Harvard Divinity School in 1854 and became outspoken in the abolitionist movement. During the Civil War, Conway lived in Cincinnati, Ohio and traveled east in 1862 to lead his family’s slaves to freedom in Yellow Springs, Ohio. Conway moved to London in 1863 and . . . — Map (db m1676) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — OlympiansStafford, Virginia
Three Stafford High graduates competed in the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. Jeff Rouse won a gold and a silver medal swimming. Mark Lenzi received a gold medal in diving. Conrad Adams was the captain of the U.S. Olympic Pentathlon Team. In 1996, Rouse and Lenzi participated in the Atlanta, Georgia Olympics. During this competition Rouse won two gold medals and Lenzi a bronze. — Map (db m75946) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — On this site in 1862...
Guard Duty in Falmouth: Eight members of Company "F" 2nd Regt. U.S. Sharpshooters pose for a photograph in front of the O'Bannon House on Caroline St. (current day Butler Road) in Falmouth, Virginia, about May or June of 1862. They are Pictured with their model 1855 Colt Revolving Rifles, just prior to being issued the Sharps Breechloading rifle. From Right to Left: Pvt. Charles Applin, Pvt Isaac Farnum, Sgt. Horace Caldwell, Pvt. Amos S. Abbott, Pvt. William C.Beard, Pvt. William Spead, . . . — Map (db m36873) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Shelton Cottage
This cottage is an example of an 18th century working man's home and was named for the family that owned it for several generations. A unique feature of the cottage is a central fireplace, more commonly seen in New England. — Map (db m76276) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — Sow…Tend…Harvest
For most of its existence, Chatham had an unchanging rhythm: sow, tend, and harvest, each according to the crop. Most of Chatham’s slaves lived out their lives to this seasonal cadence, year after year. More than 50 enslaved workers—sometimes more than 100 tended to Chatham’s 1,300 acres. Slaves in these fields managed huge swaths of wheat or long rows of corn. Some of the crop went to feed the plantation’s cattle. The rest was ground into meal at Chatham’s mill on nearby Claiborne . . . — Map (db m35389) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Falmouth — The Forlorn Hope
“A group of soldiers detached from the main group for a very dangerous mission.” On December 11, 1862, from the north side of the Rappahannock River in Stafford County, the 7th Michigan Infantry led an amphibious assault against the City of Fredericksburg’s tenacious Confederate defenders. The mid-day attack across the river successfully dislodged the Confederate sharpshooters, gave the Union army a foothold on the opposite bank, and most importantly, allowed Union . . . — Map (db m23146) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Ferry Farm — J 102 — Creek Delegation in Fredericksburg
In July 1790 a delegation of Creek Indians from Georgia, headed by Muskogee leader Alexander McGillivray, made their temporary headquarters nearby on their way to New York City. President George Washington invited them to treaty negotiations to resolve territorial disputes and develop further formal relations. While in Fredericksburg, the delegation visited with Washington’s family at Kenmore and viewed Ferry Farm, his boyhood home. The group continued north to discuss and sign the 1790 Treaty . . . — Map (db m1673) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Ferry Farm — George Washington Boyhood Home Site
has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of AmericaKnown as Ferry Far, the primary home of George Washington from 1738-1754, this site is uniquely associated with Washington's formative years and the stories and traditions regarding his youth that became a fundamental part of American national culture. 2000 National Park Service United States Department of the Interior — Map (db m14414) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Ferry Farm — J 61 — George Washington’s Childhood Home
The Washington family moved to a plantation here in 1738 when George Washington was six years old. Along with his three brothers and sister, young Washington spent most of his early life here, where, according to popular fable, he cut down his father’s cherry tree and uttered the immortal words, “I cannot tell a lie.” His father, Augustine, died here in 1743, leaving the property to him. His mother, Mary Ball Washington, lived here until 1772 when she moved to a house in Fredericksburg that Washington bought for her. — Map (db m1708) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Ferry Farm — The Civil War at Ferry Farm
George Washington's Ferry Farm, seen here from the opposite side of the river, was in the middle of the Union lines during the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862. On December 11th Union engineers began building a pontoon bridge at the ferry landing, but work was halted by sniper fire. Late in the day soldiers of the 89th New York crossed the river in pontoons and drove the Confederates back. The bridge was completed and artillery was stationed to cover the crossing of the Union army on . . . — Map (db m14458) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Ferry Farm — The Ferries
The Washington plantation was located at one of the main river crossings. A ferry was established in 1726 a few hundred yards downstream from here. This ferry was the setting for one of the most enduring stories about Washington's childhood. In his Life of Washington, first published in 1800, Mason Locke Weems reported that "Col. Lewis Willis, his playmate and kinsman, has been heard to say, that he has often seen him throw a stone across Rappahannock, at the lower ferry of . . . — Map (db m14457) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Ferry Farm — The Washington Plantation
The Washington plantation consisted of two farms: the Home House Farm, where the family lived, and a quarter, (outlying farm) located to the east. The main crops were corn, wheat, and tobacco. The plantation complex included the Washington house, a kitchen dependency, dairy, storehouses, barns, and slave quarters. When Augustine Washington died here in 1743, there were 20 slaves living at the Home House Farm and 6 at the quarter. The inventory of his estate lists 27 head of cattle, 21 sheep, 21 . . . — Map (db m14455) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Fredericksburg — Camp PitcherHistory at Leeland Station
Following its defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862, the Union Army of the Potomac went into winter quarters in Stafford County. Here at Bell-Air (the nearly 400-acre estate of Abraham Primmer, which the Leeland Station community now encompasses), elements of Brigadier General David B. Birney’s division laid out its camps, while their commander established his headquarters at the house. In honor of Major William L. Pitcher of the 4th Maine Infantry, who was killed at . . . — Map (db m33406) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Fredericksburg — J 93 — Little Falls
On 11 December 1862, Union engineers began the construction of pontoon bridges here so the army could cross the Rappahannock River to Fredericksburg. They began in the morning, hidden by fog. Soon the fog lifted, however, and Confederate sharpshooters drove them off. A heavy Union artillery barrage and an amphibious assault finally secured the crossing and the engineers completed the bridges. Two days later, Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin’s Left Grand Division, including divisions led by Maj. . . . — Map (db m1674) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Fredericksburg — Mud March
In early January 1863, General Ambrose E. Burnside strategized to out-flank Confederate forces by crossing the Rappahannock at Bank’s Ford, well upstream of Fredericksburg. His advance was brought to an abrupt halt when a vicious winter storm settled in for days and pounded his troops with wind and rain. With two divisions and 150 artillery pieces stuck firm in cold, ankle high mud, Burnside reluctantly retreated back to Stafford from the Greenbank area of Celebrate Virginia. This famous . . . — Map (db m66251) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Fredericksburg — Union Army Ninth Corps
In the winter of 1863-1863, following the Battle of Fredericksburg, Colonel Edward Harland’s Union brigade camped on this site. Six infantry regiments comprised the brigade: the 4th Rhode Island and the 8th, 11th, 15th, 16th and 21st Connecticut. The brigade had been held in reserve at Fredericksburg and took just 40 casualties there, many from Union artillery shells that exploded prematurely overhead. It suffered far greater losses here from the hardships of camp’s exposure and disease. . . . — Map (db m84926) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Fredericksburg — War Balloons
During the Civil War, both the Union and Confederate armies performed reconnaissance while suspended from Hot Air Balloons. The Union Army’s use of balloons began in the summer of 1861. After observing civilian balloonist Thaddeus Lowe float in a basket 1500 feet above Washington, D.C., President Lincoln realized the military potential for balloons. He promptly established the Balloon Corps and approved funding for equipment and personnel. On August 28, 1861, the first U.S. military balloon, . . . — Map (db m66253) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Garrisonville — Ebenezer Cemetery
(Left Gate Structure) Ebenezer Cemetery This gate was donated by those below in loving memory of family and friends buried here. Billy & Mary Ann Gallahan, Jack Garrison, Russell & Barbara Decatur, James T Edwards, Kenneth & Darlene Davis, Lucille Ferguson, David & Susan Pierce, Edith F. Harrison, John Myers, Rose Marie Miller, James Myers, Barbara G. Moriarty, William Garrison, Ernest L. Gallahan, Thelria Roles, Lynda Flatford, Patricia Ozols, Shirley Emery, Agnes A. Mills, Emma . . . — Map (db m2553) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Garrisonville — Shiloh Old Site Baptist Church
Established in 1870 by purchasing one acre of land from E. G. Phillip for $1.00. The first Pastor, Reverend Horace Crutcher, served as pastor for 38 years. The first church was bush harbor, the second a log building. In 1894 a frame structure was erected. The U. S. Government purchased the original church land in 1942 for the U. S. Marine Corps. The church was rebuilt in 1949. — Map (db m78364) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Hartwood — N-5 — Cavalry Affairs
Near here Wade Hampton with a small cavalry force surprised and captured 5 officers and 87 men of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry, November 28, 1862. At that time Burnside was moving toward Fredericksburg. On February 25, 1863, Fitz Lee, on a reconnaissance, attacked Union cavalry here, driving it back on Falmouth where the Union army was encamped. — Map (db m2355) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Hartwood — E-17 — Gold Mining in Stafford County
Near here are located ten of the nineteenth century gold mines of Stafford County. The best-known were the Eagle, Rattlesnake (Horse Pen), Lee, New Hope, and Monroe mines. The Eagle Gold Mining Company, Rappahannock Gold Mine Company of New York, Rapidan Mining and Milling Company of Pennsylvania, United States Mining Company, and Stafford Mining Company operated here between the 1830s and the early twentieth century. Mining activities gradually ceased because of declining profits. — Map (db m2239) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Hartwood — E-126 — Hartwood Presbyterian Church
Organized in June 1825 by the Winchester Presbytery as Yellow Chapel Church, the brick church was constructed between 1857 and 1859. It became Hartwood Presbyterian Church in 1868. During the Civil War an engagement took place here on 25 Feb. 1863. Confederate Brig. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, commanding detachments of the 1st, 2d, and 3d Virginia Cavalry Regiments, defeated a Union force and captured 150 men. The interior wooden elements and furnishings of the church suffered considerable damage during . . . — Map (db m2232) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Hartwood — Hartwood Presbyterian ChurchThe Writing on the Wall
This is Hartwood Presbyterian Church, which Federal troops occupied during the Civil War. They removed and burned all the woodwork, leaving only the bare plaster walls. On November 24, 1862, Capt. George Johnson, 3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry, arrived here with two squadrons. An amateur artist, he spent more time drawing graffiti on the church’s plaster walls than attending to his troops’ security. Johnson also failed to heed his superior’s warnings of an impending attack. On November 28, while most . . . — Map (db m19718) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Leeland — History at Leeland StationBelle Air
Near this spot stood Belle Air, a prominent Stafford County landmark and home of the Fitzhugh and Primmer families. John Fitzhugh first constructed a house here in the mid-eighteenth century, but by 1854, when the property was sold to Abram Primmer, a new structure occupied the site. Primmer lived here with his wife and six children and owned nearly four hundred acres, which the Leeland Station now encompasses, and was valued at $7,200. Primmer opposed secession and sent one of his sons to . . . — Map (db m5062) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Leeland — Land for God's Work
Placed here in recognition of Don and Jane Greenawalt's Donation of this Land for God's Work — Map (db m5059) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — 10th Special Basic Class
In Memory of these brave Marine Lieutenants of the 10th Special Basic Class who trained here from September 1951 – February 1952. They gallantly gave their lives for their country and Corps during the Korean conflict.      John L. Babson, Jr.                Cornelius J. Baker      James W. Bannantine            Roger B. Beem      Robert K. Benjamin              John J. Bissell      Paul C. Burrus                      Byron H. Chase      Franklin P. . . . — Map (db m2912) WM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — 13th Special Basic Course (1952)
The 13th Special Basic Course (1952) has erected this monument to honor its members who were killed in the Korean War and to remind those who follow us into the ranks of Marine Corps Officers of their awesome responsibility to our Country, the Corps, and the Marines they command. John W. Alling, Jr. William F. Fano Laurie Fitzgibbon, Jr. Edward, J. Flanaghan Edward T. Fogo Raymond D. Godfrey John J. Leohhard David C. Theophilus William D. White May they rest in peace . . . — Map (db m2852) WM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — 5th Special Basic Class
(obverse) This monument is dedicated to the 5th Special Basic Class comprised entirely of Marines from the ranks and the first to be based at Camp Barrett 26 May 1951 – 8 September 1951 (reverse) Buried under this monument are samples of soil representing countries in which members of the 5th SBC served Designed by CDR Nelson C. Longnecker, CHC, USNR (Ret.), a member of Company F of the 5th SBC Erected by Kline Memorials, Manassas, VA Dedicated May . . . — Map (db m2857) WM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — 6th Marine Division Medal of Honor Recipients
. . . — Map (db m2849) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — 9th Special Basic Class
In Memory of these Courageous Marine Lieutenants of the 9th Special Basic Class who trained here from July 1951 – December 1951. They gallantly gave their lives for their Corps and their Country. Glen Allen James M. Laramore Charels A. Pearson William R. Phillips Burton W. Randall Morris F. Reisinger Jerome C. Stuart Earl L. Valentine Dedicated in fond memory by their classmates who ask present and future Marines to remember their sacrifice. — Map (db m2911) WM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — Austin Hall
Private First Class Oscar P. Austin United States Marine Corps Company E, Second Battalion, Seventh Marines, First Marine Division Awarded the Medal of Honor (Posthumously) for heroism during combat against enemy forces in the Republic of Vietnam on 23 February 1969 He gallantly gave his life for his country. — Map (db m2839) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — Captured Iraqi T-69 Tank
Dedicated to the enlisted Marines of The Basic School past and present. You have inspired countless legions of newly commissioned officers. — Map (db m3050) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — F/A – 18A HornetBureau Number 161970
Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, members of Marine Fighter attack Squadron 321 reported to Andrews Air Base to prepare for their role in defense of Washington D.C. On the morning of September 12th, the squadron Commanding Officer, LtCol Robert A. Ballard, flew aircraft 01, buno 161970, on the first armed Combat Air Patrols by USMC aircraft over the Nation’s Capital. The aircraft was flown in the paint scheme presently displayed and was loaded with AIM-9M Sidewinder missiles and 500 . . . — Map (db m2836) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — First Special Basic Class
We honor the memory of our classmates of the First Special Basic Class who trained here October – December 1950 and who gave their lives for Corps and Country.      Felix W. Goudelock                       Feb. 2, 1951      William P. Finch                            Mar. 2, 1951      Cary S. Cowart, Jr.                        Mar. 22, 1951      James L Ables                               Apr. 29, 1951      Robert E. Buchmann                    May 29, 1951 . . . — Map (db m2853) WM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — Graves Hall
Named in honor of Second Lieutenant Terrence C. Graves United States Marine Corps Third Force Reconnaissance Company Third Reconnaissance Battalion Third Marine Division Awarded the Medal of Honor (Posthumously) for action against the enemy forces in the republic of South Vietnam on 16 February 1968 He gallantly gave his life for his country. — Map (db m3010) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — Heywood Hall
Charles Heywood Major General United States Marine Corps Commandant of the Marine Corps 1891–1903 Recognizing the need for Education of Newly Commissioned Officers, he established the School of Application, Marine Barracks Washington, D.C., the forerunner of the present Basic School. — Map (db m2546) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — Mitchell Hall
Named in Honor of 1st Lt Frank N. Mitchell Platoon Leader, A/1/7 Awarded the Medal of Honor (posthumously) for action against enemy forces in Korea on 26 November 1950. While on patrol and suddenly receiving fire at point blank range, 1st Lt Mitchell dashed to the front under blistering fire to direct and encourage his men to drive the outnumbered enemy from their position. Wounded, he reorganized his platoon and spearheaded a fierce hand-to-hand struggle to repel the onslaught. . . . — Map (db m2547) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — Murphy Demolition Range
Dedicated to the memory of Major Walter M. Murphy United States Marine Corps Instructor Field Engineering The Basic School 1964 – 1967 Killed in Action Battle of Hue City RVN 31 January 1968 Donated by Fox Company 6/74 — Map (db m2915) WM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — Quantico Marine Athletes of the Sixties
This monument is donated by the Quantico Marine Athletes of the Sixties in honor of their teammates who gave their lives in Vietnam      2LT Tyrone S. Pannell             Nov. 30, 1965      2Lt John B. Capel                     May 12, 1966      2LT Gene S. McMullen             July 16, 1966      1LT Walter J. Spainhour          Sept. 15, 1966      1LT Thomas J. Holden             Oct. 22, 1966      Capt. John L. Prichard               Jan. 27, 1968      Capt. Ronald H. . . . — Map (db m2855) WM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — Raider Hall
Marine Corps Martial Arts Center of Excellence One Mind Any Weapon Raider Hall is dedicated to all the Marine Raiders who fought and died in WWII, and embodied the physical, mental, and character discipline, which we hope to imbue in all Marines who train in this building. — Map (db m3054) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — Ray Hall
Hospital Corpsman Second Class David R. Ray, U.S. Navy Awarded the Medal of Honor (posthumously) for combat operations against the enemy in the Republic of Vietnam on 19 March 1969 while serving with Battery D, Second Battalion, Eleventh Marines, First Marine Division He gallantly gave his life for his Country — Map (db m3056) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Quantico Marine Corps Base — William Groom Leftwich, Jr.
William Groom Leftwich, Jr. Lieutenant Colonel, U. S. Marine Corps Born Memphis, Tennessee, 28 April 1931 Graduated U. S. Naval Academy 5 June 1953 Killed in Action, Vietnam, 18 November 1970 Remembered for his Leadership, Tactical Skill, Bold Fighting Spirit, and Unflagging Devotion to Duty... Felix de Weldon, Sculptor 1985 — Map (db m2512) WM
Virginia (Stafford County), Ramoth — Ramoth Memorial Gardens
Given to the Glory of God by Marion L. Sterne March 26, 1995 Marker donated by Carroll Memorials Map (db m3411) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — 11th Corps Road
On 15 Feb 1863 Major-General Joseph Hooker directed that the road passing about one mile to the west of Brooke's Station and leading to Stafford Court House be put in condition to be practicable for artillery at all times, corduroying it where necessary with material of sufficient length to form a double-track roadway. A large segment of that road built by Union 11th Corps soldiers and engineers can be seen behind this sign. Nearly 150 years later, the VA Army National Guard's 276th Engineer . . . — Map (db m65213) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E-49 — Accokeek Iron Furnace
The Principio Company constructed the Accokeek Iron Furnace nearby about 1726 on land leased from Augustine Washington (father of George Washington), who became a partner. After Washington’s death in 1743, his son Lawrence inherited his interest in the company and the furnace. When he in turn died ten years later, his share descended first to his brother Augustine Washington Jr. and later to William Augustine Washington. The archaeological site is a rare example of an 18th-century Virginia . . . — Map (db m2261) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E-90 — Aquia Church
Here is Aquia Church, the church of Overwharton Parish, formed before 1680 by the division of Potomac Parish. It was built in 1757, on the site of an earlier church, in the rectorship of Reverend John Moncure, who was the parish minister from 1738 to 1764. The Communion Silver was given the parish in 1739 and was buried in three successive wars, 1776, 1812, and 1861. — Map (db m7642) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Aquia Landing
Aquia Landing was a significant gateway for enslaved people seeking freedom, including William and Ellen Craft, Henry “Box” Brown, and John Washington. Aquia Landing was the RF&P Railroad terminus from 1842-1872, and the only direct rail-to-steamboat transfer point on the Potomac River between Richmond, VA and Washington, DC. From April-September 1862, an estimated 10,000 freedom seekers sought refuge in Stafford behind Union lines. Many passed through this point on their trail to . . . — Map (db m75940) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Austin Run Pyrite MineStafford, Virginia
Pyrite, an important source of sulfuric acid, was discovered in Stafford in 1902. Mining commenced near Smith Reservoir in 1903 but soon moved south to Garrisonville Road in what is now Hampton Oaks subdivision. The main shaft was 650 feet deep. In 1909, a narrow gauge railroad opened to carry ore to coal landing for shipment. Plagued by financial troubles, the mine closed c. 1926. — Map (db m76066) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Cavalry Review
On April 6, 1863 near here "on an elevated plain", President Lincoln reviewed 13,000-17,000 men on horseback. the cavalry review was said to be the largest in the world. Reporters wrote it was a grand sight "with banners waving, music crashing, and horses prancing, as the vast column came winding like a huge serpent over the hills past the reviewing party,and then stretching far away out of sight." — Map (db m82480) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Crow's Nest
Named after the black schooner called The Crow that harbored off the peninsula in the mid-1800s, Crow's Nest Peninsula is one of the last great, undisturbed places in the mid-Atlantic area. With both a rich history and remarkable environmental values, this peninsula between Accokeek and Potomac Creek is one of the most pristine areas in the lower Potomac. Crow's Nest Natural Area Preserve provides nesting, roosting, and migratory habitat for a large number of neotropical migratory . . . — Map (db m82309) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Crow's Nest Natural Area Preserve / Virginia’s State Natural Area Preserves
Crow's Nest Natural Area Preserve Situated on a peninsula located between Accokeek and Potomac creeks in Stafford County, Crow’s Nest Natural Area Preserve contains extensive mature coastal plain hardwood forests and wetland communities. Much of the site retains original, intact soil layers which support exemplary natural communities including Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest, Basic Mesic Forest, Oak-Beech / Heath Forest, Oak / Heath Forest, Coastal Plain Bottomland Forest, Tidal . . . — Map (db m75975) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Early Escape RouteTrail to Freedom
"For a few moments, silence prevailed. My master [Ellen] looked at me, and I at him, but neither of us dared to speak a word, for fear of making some blunder that would tend to our detection. we knew that the officers had the power to throw us in prison..." — William Craft, Dec. 24, 1848. The opening of the rail line to Aquia in 1842 provided opportunity for slaves seeking freedom. In 1848, slaves William and Ellen Craft of Georgia embarked on their dangerous journey to . . . — Map (db m40130) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Eleventh Corps Encampment AreaUnion Army of the Potomac
In 1863, over 135,000 Union Army of the Potomac soldiers established winter camps throughout Stafford County - the largest encampment of any Army during the Civil War. Two-thirds of Civil War deaths occurred while armies were in camp. Many soldiers throughout Stafford compared their camps and experiences to Valley Forge during the Revolution. Unlike Valley Forge however, none of the Stafford camps have been preserved in a park - until now. The Army of the Potomac reached its lowest point . . . — Map (db m65152) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — English Knot GardenStafford, Virginia
In 1992, the Borough of Stafford, England and Stafford, Virginia, Friendship Association was established in recognition of the close cultural and historical ties between the two communities. In 1994, this English Knot Garden was planted to celebrate the connection between two different peoples. English boxwoods in the garden form the shape of the Stafford Knot; a symbol of the Borough of Stafford, England. Since then, members of the association have crossed the Atlantic Ocean many times, . . . — Map (db m76268) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E-76 — First Roman Catholic Settlement in Virginia
The crucifix by sculptor Georg J. Lober, erected in 1930, commemorates the first English Roman Catholic settlement in Virginia. Fleeing political and religious turmoil in Maryland, Giles Brent and his sisters Margaret and Mary established two plantations called Peace and Retirement on the north side of Aquia Creek between 1647 and 1650. Later, they jointly acquired 15,000 acres in Northern Virginia, including the site of present-day Alexandria. Their nephew George Brent, whose plantation . . . — Map (db m2156) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Fleurries
Former house of Miss Anne E. Moncure, The existing portion of the house was moved in 1987 to this site, now owned by the Aquia Church. Marked by the Bill of Rights Chapter, National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, April 26, 1998. — Map (db m2227) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E-50 — From Indian Path to Highway
In 1664, a colonial road here probably followed the trace of an old Indian path. Two years later, the road was extended to Aquia Creek. It became a post road in 1750, and in Sept. 1781 Gen. George Washington passed over it on the march to Yorktown. By 1900, a crude dirt road followed this route. The 1914 American Automobile Association Blue Book described it as mostly “very poor and dangerous; should not be attempted except in dry weather.” By 1925, auto camps and cabins, the . . . — Map (db m2188) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Gateway to FreedomTrail to Freedom
"I bounded across the Gang plank and concealed Myself for a while until the Steamer got off from the Wharf. I then came out and arrived Safe at 6th Street Wharf in Washington D.C. on the Night of September 1st, 1862 in a hard rain." —John Washington During the Civil War, most white Stafford residents greeted the arrival of the Union army in April 1862 with outrage and fear. But many slaves throughout the region rejoiced at the opportunity for freedom. Thousands left their . . . — Map (db m40131) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — German-Americans and the Eleventh Corps
A large number of the soldiers who camped in and built the roads and fortifications preserved in this park were German-Americans. Most studies of ethnicity in the Civil War have focused on Irish or African-American soldiers, yet German-Americans were the largest ethnic group in federal service, enlisting in numbers beyond their proportion to the overall population. In the Army of the Potomac, these immigrant soldiers outnumbered those of Irish descent two to one. Most came from New York and . . . — Map (db m70404) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Government IslandGovernment Island Orientation
Welcome to Government Island. This 17-acre historic site is an early American quarry originally named Brent’s Island or Wiggington’s Island. As early as 1694, stone was quarried from this site for use as architectural trim in Colonial America. The quarry’s fine-grained sandstone was called Aquia (ah qui’ ah) stone, due to its location along the Aquia Creek, or freestone, for its ability to be freely carved without splitting. The stone was a desirable building material for its composition as . . . — Map (db m39550) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E-123 — Historic Aquia Creek
The first known permanent English Roman Catholic settlers in Virginia, Giles Brent, his sister Margaret, and other family members, emigrated here from Maryland by 1650. In May 1861, Confederates built artillery batteries on the bluffs overlooking Aquia Landing at the creek’s mouth on the Potomac River. An early clash between U.S. Naval vessels and Confederate land batteries took place here, 30 May and 1 June 1861. After the Confederates withdrew in March 1862, the U.S. Army established a huge . . . — Map (db m2157) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — In Honor of Those Who Served
In honor of the men and women of Stafford County who served in defense of their Commonwealth and Country — Map (db m6524) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — In Memory of September 11, 2001
The Pentagon      The World Trade Center Somerset County, PA "All Gave Some"     "Some Gave All" For those who were lost For those who lost family and friends For those protecting our families For those protecting our freedoms God Bless Them All God Bless America Dedicated by the Board of Supervisors and Citizens of Stafford County — Map (db m7293) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — In the Name of Christ the King
To commemorate the first English Catholic Settlers in Virginia: Colonel Giles Brent, Deputy Governor of Maryland 1643; Margaret and Mary Brent who settled at Aquia 1647; George Brent, King’s Attorney General 1686, Member House of Burgesses 1688, who petitioned for and obtained on Feb 10th, 1686 from James II, King of England, a proclamation of religious tolerance for all people settling in the Colony of Brenton. Nearby rests the remains of those Catholic Pioneers. (Plaques on . . . — Map (db m2183) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Island Ownership
In 1647, Giles Brent established the first English settlement in this area along Aquia Creek. Nearly 50 years later, George Brent, Giles Brent’s nephew, became the island’s first documented owner. George purchased “…a small tongue or neck or Island of Land with small point of marsh…” in 1694. The property remained in he Brent family for almost 100 years, during which time is was used as a private quarry. In 1791, the property was purchased by the federal government, which . . . — Map (db m39759) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — John Smith Explores the ChesapeakeCaptain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail
(panel 1) Captain Smith explored the Chesapeake Bay in the early 1600s seeking precious metals and a passage to Asia. He traveled the James, Chickahominy, and York rivers in 1607, and led two major expeditions from Jamestown in 1608. Smith and his crew sailed and rowed a primitive 30-foot boat nearly 3,000 miles, reaching as far north as the Susquehanna River. Although Smith did not discover gold, or a river passage to the Pacific, his precise map and detailed . . . — Map (db m75973) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E 135 — Katherine Harwood Waller Barrett(1857 - 1925)
Born nearby at Clifton, Katherine Harwood Waller Barrett earned medical and nursing degrees. She devoted her professional life to the care and education of unmarried pregnant women, a group previously treated as outcasts. With philanthropist Charles Nelson Crittenton, Barrett founded a rescue home for unmarried pregnant girls in Atlanta in 1893. After her move to Northern Virginia, they co-founded the national Florence Crittenton Mission, the first philanthropic institution chartered by . . . — Map (db m70949) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E-48 — Kidnapping of Pocahontas
Near here, Pocahontas visited friends among the Patawomecks on the Potomac River in April 1613. Capt. Samuel Argall saw an opportunity to capture Pocahontas and exchange her for English prisoners held by her father Chief Powhatan. Argall sought out Iopassus, the chief of the Indian town of Passapatanzy. After Argall made veiled threats, Iopassus obtained permission from his brother the Patawomeck district chief to aid Argall. Iopassus had one of his wives insist that Pocahontas accompany her on . . . — Map (db m2218) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Lincoln Review
Nearby here was Sthreshley Farm, site of Abraham Lincoln's Grand Review. On April 8, 1863, 60,000 men passed the president who sat on a horse for the long, 5½ hour review. 10 year old Tad stayed by his father, while Mrs. Lincoln watched from a carriage. Lincoln constantly touched his tall hat in a return salute to the officer, but uncovered his head when enlisted men passed by. — Map (db m82481) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Lincoln VisitStafford, Virginia
On April 10, 1863, President Lincoln was here at the Stafford Courthouse headquarters of General O.O. Howard. Taking off his hat to get in Howard's tent, he noticed scripture written on tablets. The men discussed Psalm 23:1 "The Lord is my Shepherd. I shall not want." Later, Linclon selected Howard to be commissioner of the “Freedmen's Bureau” for freed slaves. In 1867, the general founded Howard University in D.C. — Map (db m76366) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Little Forest Baptist Church
Founding members met in homes or under a persimmon tree. Led by Pastor Uriah Johnson, in 1905 they built their first church west of here. In 1959 that building was demolished to make a road later renamed Interstate-95. Some church members met at nearby Hills Texaco Service Station, but feared losing their congregation! In 1960 land was donated by B. A. and Eva Moyler so this church could be constructed. — Map (db m78382) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E-75 — Marlborough
Strategically situated at the tip of a peninsula jutting into the Potomac River at Potomac Creek, Marlborough was established under the Town Act of 1691 as a river port town. It served as the county seat of Stafford County from 1691 until about 1718. Marlborough never fully developed. In 1726, noted lawyer John Mercer (1705–1768) moved there and built Marlborough plantation and attempted to revive the town. Mercer had one of the largest private libraries in Virginia, in which the young . . . — Map (db m2219) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E 90-a — Mary Kittamaquund
Mary was the only child of Kittamaquund, paramount chief of the Piscataway tribes when Lord Baltimore's settlers arrived in Maryland in 1634. In 1641, seven-year-old Mary became the ward of Maryland governor Leonard Calvert and his sister-in-law Margaret Brent. Three years later Mary was married to Margaret Brent's 38-year-old brother, Giles Brent, who likely intended to gain control of Piscataway lands through the alliance. The Brents moved to Virginia to lands near here in 1647, where Giles . . . — Map (db m41820) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Mason's Homestead
Near here was the home of George Mason (1629-1686), the great grandfather of George Mason of Gunston Hall. Well educated and with some financial means, the elder Mason came from Worcestershire, England and settled in Virginia c. 1652. He acquired the Accokeek Creek property in 1664 where he lived until his death. Mason sat on Stafford's first court of 1664, commanded the county militia, and served as sheriff and burgess of Stafford. — Map (db m79036) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Mt. Hope Baptist Church
Sunday School gathered in 1877. Church established October 16,1880 by Rev. Natus Washington. Originally worshipped at St. John School House near Brooke. Pickle Factory building nearer to church later became Brooke School. May 1904 Church cornerstone laid. First area ethnic church to implement worship every Sunday. 15 Pastors have served. 10th Pastor, Rev. Edward Smith, educator, civic and civil rights leader, was instrumental in the local integration movement. — Map (db m79035) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Mt. Olive Baptist Church
Stafford's First African American Church. Founded May 16, 1818 near Roseville by Rev. Horace Crutcher, along with five others. Original place of worship was a slab wood arbor. Recognizing the importance of enlightening individuals both spiritually and academically, the Mt. Olive Community founded Mt. Olive School soon after the Civil War. "They hewed out the wilderness and drew up a highway for coming generations to have a path to follow." — Map (db m76193) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Native American Presence
Native American artifacts were recovered in various locations on Government Island. The largest concentration of artifacts was found overlooking Aquia Creek. a rare Clovis projectile point was found, indicating the Paleoindians were present in this area prior to 8000 B.C. Paleoindians likely operated out of temporary camps located near high-quality stone supplies and areas plentiful with game where they carved their points and tools, as well as hunted and gathered food. Other recovered . . . — Map (db m39946) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Oak Grove Baptist Church
Organized 1873 in a log cabin as St. Ross Baptist Church. An 1879 group meeting at Oak Grove Church of concerned parents determined to strive for their children's education, resulted in Oak Grove School being organized. Widewater native, Palmer Hayden, (Jan 15 1890 - Feb 18, 1973), a renown Harlem Renaissance Era artist, was an Oak Grove Church member. Oak Grove proudly stands on its them, "A Ministry of Excellence." — Map (db m76341) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Patawomeck People at Belle Plains
The Creek provided fish for centuries for the Patawomeck people who in turn taught the colonists to fish to survive, to plant vegetables hitherto unknown to the English and to hunt in the forests. A surviving remnant of the Patawomeck became commercial fishermen in the 19th Century and their descendants today continue to work as watermen. Thus, many Patawomeck words have been incorporated permanently into the English language. — Map (db m76274) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Patawomeck Tribe Village
The Patawomeck Tribe, members of the Powhatan Confederacy and millennial original residents of Indian Point, greeted Captain John Smith as he sailed up the Potomac River in 1608. Smith viewed the Tribe's palisaded villages, built by the Patawomeck who saved Jamestown in the Starving Time. In 1613 Captain Samuel Argall kidnapped Pocahontas, beloved daughter of Powhatan, while she was visiting the people of her mother-a Patawomeck in this matrilineal society — Map (db m79037) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E-79 — Peyton’s Ordinary
In this vicinity stood Peyton’s Ordinary. George Washington, going to Fredericksburg to visit his mother, dined here, March 6, 1769. On his way to attend the House of Burgesses, he spent the night here, October 31, 1769, and stayed here again on September 14, 1772. Rochambeau’s Army, marching north from Williamsburg in 1782, camped here. — Map (db m2187) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Potomac Church Road
The Potomac Church Road dates from the 17th century. During the late 18th century, and well into the 19th century, this road and the Old Telegraph Road to its west, now roughly Route 1 were primary travel routes connecting Stafford with important points south. In 1863 the Union Army corduroyed sections of this road to facilitate troop and artillery movements and to help protect and supply Union army encampments. The trail at the west end the parking area leads to a Union battery. Sections of the original road and pre-war bridge remain. — Map (db m70398) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Z-158 — Prince William County / Stafford County
Prince William County, named for William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and third son of King George II, was officially formed from Stafford and King George Counties in 1731. Manassas was designated the county seat in 1892. Previously the county seat had been located at Occoquan Creek, Cedar Run, Dumfries, and Brentville. The two battles of Manassas took place here on 21 July 1861 and 28-30 August 1862. Both battles resulted in Confederate victories over the Union army. Several sites here are . . . — Map (db m2160) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Quarrying the Stone
Quarrying stone during the late 18th and early 19th centuries was very labor intensive. Stone quarried here was cut and shipped with the use of simple machines and animal power. Various workers were needed to extract the stone. A master-mason, usually a European who was a master in all aspects of stone work, would oversee the entire quarrying operation. Skilled workers included stone cutters and stone carvers who extracted and rough-cut the stone into desired sizes. . . . — Map (db m39751) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Quarrying the Stone
Background: The same geologic attributes responsible for Stafford’s rich deposits of iron ore and other metals, also rendered a unique and eventually much desired type of sandstone called “freestone.” As a result, a significant stone quarrying industry had evolved as an equitable pursuit in Stafford by the late 1700s. The presence of high-quality sandstone was known at the beginning of the eighteenth century, but it wasn’t until the late 1700s that the stone was quarried for . . . — Map (db m70402) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Redoubt # 2Aquia Landing Defenses
Approximately seventy yards to the northeast of this sign on private property are the well preserved remains of Redoubt #2, the last surviving and largest of three built by the Union Army of the Potomac in February and March of 1863 to defend Aquia Landing from land attack. The Landing was a critical source of supplies for the Army of the Potomac during parts of 1862, 1863, and 1864. This redoubt guarded the old Stafford Court House Road. It could support 200 soldiers and two internally mounted 3-inch rifled cannons. — Map (db m82306) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Redoubt No. 2 / Fort No NameFederal Defenses of Aquia Creek Landing
Twelfth Corps / Army of the Potomac, USA Stafford County, Virginia Circa 1863 National Historic Registry February 2006 Virginia Historic Registry DHR # 089-5057/44ST0082 — Map (db m55988) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Sandstone Quarry
On the trail to the right of the picnic area beyond this sign are the remains of a late 18th and early 19th century sandstone quarry. Archaeological reports on this site noted that stone quarried here was loaded onto scows or shallow boats and taken down the small tributary to the larger and deeper Accokeek Creek. Quarrying operations have been key to Stafford County growth since the 1700s. In 2011-2012 Vulcan Materials Co. donated nearly 6,000 tons of Stafford stone and gravel to this park's construction. — Map (db m65228) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Site Selection / Architectural Features
Site Selection In 1791, President George Washington (who was raised in Stafford County 10 miles south of this site at Ferry Farm) appointed three Commissioners to oversee construction of the new federal capital city (later named Washington, D.C.). The Commissioners sent Major Pierre Charles L'Enfant to survey the lands along the Potomac River for adequate deposits of freestone. L'Enfant selected Brent's Island for its bountiful supply of good-quality freestone, proximity to the . . . — Map (db m39788) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Stafford County Tri-Centennial
August 7, 1964 In celebration of its 300th Birthday, here is buried a capsule by order of the Circuit Court, to be opened on August 7, 2064. Planted by the Stafford County Lions Club and Stafford County Board of Supervisors — Map (db m6522) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — E-231 — Stafford Training School
Stafford Training School, later known as H. H. Poole School, was constructed in 1939 by the Public Works Administration after African American parents raised money to buy the land. During the segregation era, this was the only school in Stafford County offering black students an education beyond seventh grade. After an earlier attempt failed, two young students from this school, Doretha and Cynthia Montague, successfully entered the all-white Stafford Elementary School on 5 Sept. 1961, . . . — Map (db m78074) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Steamships, Stages and Slave TradeTrail to Freedom
"In the forenoon the steamer reached Aquia Creek. There the passengers took stages — Burch and his five slaves occupying one exclusively. ...He told me to hold up my head and look smart. That I might, perhaps, get a good master if I behaved myself. I made him no reply." — Solomon Northrup, 1841 Aquia Landing (pronounced 'uh kwhy' yuh'), here at the junction of Aquia Creek and the Potomac River (to your right) was once a vital hub in Virginia's transportation . . . — Map (db m40129) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — The Daniel Bridge
The Daniel Bridge first appears in county records on a deed map dated 1837. The bridge had three sandstone piers, the remnants of which are still visible today and which likely supported a wood superstructure. The bridge likely took its name from Peter V. Daniel (1784-1860) who along with his wife, Lucy, owned land south of Accokeek Creek. Daniel was admitted to the VA bar in 1808. In 1818 he was elected President of the Council of State in served as Lieutenant Governor. He served on the U.S. Supreme Court from 1841 until his death in 1860. — Map (db m70401) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — The Robertson Quarry
In the 1800s, the Robertson Quarry was one of many quarries in Stafford County which provided stone for government buildings, private homes, and public buildings, not only in Washington, D.C., but across the nation. The Robertson Quarry, along with the quarries on Government Island, contributed the stone for the United States Capitol. In 1818, the area was known as the Towson Quarry. Both slave and white laborers worked in the Quarry. They loaded the heavy Aquia sandstone into ox carts and . . . — Map (db m35394) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — The Robertson-Towson HouseCirca 1820
When Benjamin Henry Latrobe, architect of the U.S. Capitol, visited Stafford in 1806, he found on this “beautiful little knoll in the midst of the woods close to his quarry…a log house,” the home of quarryman William Robertson. Robertson’s quarry was, and had been, contributing Aquia stone, or sandstone, for construction of the United States Capitol. After Robertson’s death in 1818, Baltimore architect and stone carver, Thomas Towson, acquired the land. Towson designed and . . . — Map (db m31209) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Transporting the Stone
A historic road is visible to the right. It was created by skids or "stone boats" that were loaded with stone and dragged by oxen to the wharf. The stone was very heavy. One cubic foot of stone weighed 120 pounds. In addition to moving the stone by skids, a canal was needed to transport the stone. The canal was "cut about 18 feet wide to let scows [flat-bottom boats] into the quarry..." (Commissioners Records, 1793). Although the exact location of the canal is unknown, Benjamin Henry Latrobe . . . — Map (db m39799) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Trooper Jessica Jean Cheney
State Police — In Memory of — Jessica Jean Cheney January 17th 1998 "What she lacked in experience, she made up for in hard work and spirit."                               -E. Futrell — Map (db m4935) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Union Army Double-Track Corduroy Road
At right is the order for a dual-track corduroy road, remains of which can still be seen just beyond this sign. Below are details for construction of corduroy roads as reported earlier in the war by a Union staff officer. Corduroy roads were needed in swampy areas or loamy soils such as Stafford’s, to allow for the timely movement of troops, artillery, ammunition and supplies as necessary to support either offensive or defensive operations. “As to the nature of the construction, that . . . — Map (db m70403) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Union Army Winter Camp Remains
You are now standing inside the perimeter of what was once a Union 11th Corps winter camp. Soldiers not only camped and drilled here, but also built roads and fortifications in and around this park. Since the Civil War, the majority of Stafford’s Civil War camps have been lost to farming or development. This site’s trail takes you through a regimental-size camp that today still contains visible remains of soldiers’ hut sites, chimneys, trash holes and defensive positions. Individual camp . . . — Map (db m70397) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Union Batteries at Accokeek Creek
By late May 1863 Major-General Joseph Hooker, likely concerned over a possible attack to cut off or capture his supply depot at Aquia Landing, adjusted his lines. Four additional batteries were built in the 11th Corps area south of the Accokeek. This battery had two gun-shelves for artillery, 216 linear feet of parapet, a 56’ long zig-zag trench and they blockhouse. The fortification with ideally positioned to repel a Confederate force should it attack the 11th Corps via the Potomac Church Road or bridge to the north. — Map (db m70399) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Union Battery
The largest and strongest battery in this park; this one contains nearly 300 linear feet of parapet 30 feet thick. The foundation of a large blockhouse also remains. The battery could have supported all three nearby batteries. Its blockhouse also protected the double-track army corduroy road, remains of which can be seen to its rear. The battery contains evidence of multiple gun embrasures and interior structures. its thick walls and large blockhouse indicate possible use of heavy caliber rifled guns from the artillery reserve. — Map (db m65199) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Union Battery
At 200 feet above sea level, this is the highest of the three batteries in this park. Its three-faced parapet allowed it to support other nearby batteries and encampments against attacks from multiple directions. Its very steep approaches would have been cleared of trees in 1863 and, combined with its well-preserved 182' of parapet and ditches, would have proved exceedingly difficult to attack from the Accokeek Valley. It is estimated to have held from four to five guns. — Map (db m65217) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Union Eleventh Corps Artillery
Eleventh Corps artillery units in 1863 were equipped with 3-inch ordnance rifles and 4.62-inch model 1857 Napoleon cannon often referred to as 12-pounders. Ordnance rifles could fire a solid or hollow 3-inch, iron, buIlet-shaped projectile nearly 2,800 yards. Explosive shells contained iron or lead shot around a black powder explosive charge. The Napoleon guns also fired both solid and explosive cannonballs. Both types of guns could fire canister shot, iron balls inside a tin container . . . — Map (db m70400) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), Stafford — Union Infantry Winter Camp
These woods contain remains of hut sites, chimneys and defenses of a large Army of the Potomac winter camp, soldiers of the 11th Corps 1st and 3rd Divisions moved to this area from Belle Plain and Stafford Courthouse in late Feb/early Mar, 1863, in camps like this throughout Stafford 135,000 plus soldiers in 8 Corps recovered from the Battle of Fredericksburg, the Mud March and and Chancellorsville, many called these camps their "Valley Forge," NY, OH, CT, PA, IL and WI units camped in or near . . . — Map (db m65151) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), White Oak — 6th Corps Encampment
From November 1862 to June 1863 the 6th Corps of the Army of the Potomac were encamped in the immediate area of White Oak Church — Map (db m4259) HM
Virginia (Stafford County), White Oak — White Oak Church"Seems to Have Belonged to some Former Age"
Across the road stands White Oak Church, an important Civil War landmark during the winter of 1862-1863. Stafford County Baptist constructed the simple weatherboard structure sometime after 1789, later adding an attached shed with a separate entrance for African-American members of the congregation. A Union soldier described it disparagingly as a “miserable, insignificant structure, dilapidated and steepleless, and seems to have belonged to some former age. It looks,” he thought, . . . — Map (db m4254) HM
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