|Utah (Washington County), Central — 1990 Mountain Meadows Monument|
In the valley below,
between September 7 and 11, 1857,
a company of more than 120 Arkansas emigrants
led by Captain John T. Baker and Captain Alexander Fancher
was attacked while en route to California.
This event is known in history as the Mountain Meadows Massacre. — Map (db m46776) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Central — Mountain Meadows Massacre|
| Massacre of Men and Boys
On September 11, 1857, a procession of Arkansas emigrants bound for California marched northward up this valley having been persuaded to leave their beseiged camp by Mormon militiamen, bearing a white flag, who falsely promised them protection. As
directed by the militia leaders, the women, children and wounded left the camp first. The men and older boys were last to leave, each escorted by a militiaman. As the men neared this spot, a signal was given. The . . . — Map (db m60898) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Central — Mountain Meadows Massacre Grave Site Memorial|
|Built and maintained by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Out of respect for those who died and were buried here and in the surrounding area following the massacre of 1857. — Map (db m46792) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Central — The Burial Sites|
|The Baker-Fancher emigrants buried the bodies of ten men killed during the siege somewhere within the circled wagons of the encampment located west of the current monument in the valley. Most of the Baker-Fancher party died at various locations northeast of the encampment. In May 1859, Brevet Major James H. Carleton, commanding some eighty soldiers of the First Dragoons from Ft. Tejon, California, gathered scattered bones representing the partial remains of thirty-six of the emigrants, interred . . . — Map (db m14694) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Central — The Mountain Meadows Massacre|
|Led by Captains John T. Baker and Alexander Fancher, a California-bound wagon train from Arkansas camped in this valley in the late summer of 1857 during the time of the so-called Utah War. In the early morning hours of September 7th, a party of local Mormon settlers and Indians attacked and laid siege to the encampment. For reasons not fully understood, a contingent of territorial militia joined the attackers. This Iron County Militia consisted of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) acting on orders . . . — Map (db m46765) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Central — The Old Spanish Trail and The California Road|
|An arduous 1,200-mile route between Santa Fe and Los Angeles, the "Old Spanish Trail" passed through Mountain Meadows during its heyday, between 1830 and 1848. The trail served traders who loaded their pack mules with woolen goods from Santa Fe each fall and returned from Californian each spring with Chinese goods and mules and horses for markets in Missouri. The trail followed along the west side of the Mountain Meadows to a campsite at the south end of the valley, then down Magotsu Creek.
. . . — Map (db m46799) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Enterprise — American Legion Hiatt-Hunt Post 80 — 1946 Fifty Years 1996|
|After returning home from World War II, area veterans organized and requested membership to the National American Legion Program.
January 09, 946, national headquarters issued a charter for “Hiatt-Hunt Post 80”. The post was named in honor of the fist two area sons who gave their lives for freedom and their country: Alton Hiatt of World War I, and Alma Hunt of World War II.
This monument is erected on the southeast corner of a forty acre piece of property belonging to . . . — Map (db m14341) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Enterprise — Eliza Jane Pulsipher Terry — 26 July 1840 – 6 May 1919|
|Eliza Jane was born in Nauvoo, Adams County, Illinois, on 26 July 1840. Her parents were Zerah and Mary Brown Pulsipher. She was 7 years old when persecution drove the saints west. She walked across the plains with her family, picking up buffalo chips for fuel. They arrived in Salt Lake in the fall of 1848.
She became the second wife to Thomas Sirls Terry on 6 May 1855, she was not quite 15 years old. She was the youngest sister of Thomas Sirls’ first wife, Mary Ann. From this marriage 12 . . . — Map (db m14344) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Enterprise — Hannah Louise Leavitt Terry — 16 Mar 1855 – 5 Jan 1938|
|Hannah Louisa Leavitt was born on 16 Mar 1855 at Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah, to Dudley and Mary Ann Huntsman Leavitt, she was the oldest of her fathers 48 children. In the fall of that year the Leavitts moved south to Dixie and for the next 21 years, existence was very difficult for Hannah. Her family moved frequently, being called to establish new communities.
Because of her deep religious convictions and her belief in plural marriage, she married Thomas Sirls Terry on 5 April 1878. . . . — Map (db m14345) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Enterprise — Mary Ann Pulsipher Terry — 20 Nov 1833 – 18 Sept 1913|
|Mary Ann Pulsipher was a pioneer. She was born to Zerah and Mary Brown Pulsipher. Being born in the East (Scott, Courtland County, New York), she was old enough to realize the hardships incurred when the family became members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day-Saints (Mormons). She endured the bitter persecution of Kirtland and Nauvoo and crossed the plains by foot in 1848. She married Thomas Sirls Terry at the age of 16 on 25 Dec 1849. She struggled to help Thomas as they farmed in . . . — Map (db m14343) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Enterprise — Thomas Sirls Terry — 3 Oct 1825 – 12 Aug 1920|
|Thomas Sirls Terry was born in Bristol Township, Buicks County, Pennsylvania, on 3 Oct 1825 to Thomas Sirls and Mary Ann Murkins Terry. Thomas went to work at the age of 7 in a local cotton mill. At 17 he was apprenticed to learn the trade of printing calico cloth.
Thomas first heard of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day-Saints (Mormons) in November of 1841. He was taught and baptized by Joseph Newton on 12 Mar 1952. Thomas was always true to his new faith. On 19 Jun 1947 he began . . . — Map (db m14342) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Birth of Hurricane|
This monument is near the spot where a celebration took place on August 6, 1904. After nearly eleven years of arduous work on the canal, water was ready for diversion onto the land.
“Five or six wagon loads of people came from the little towns nearby, the crowd was solemn but happy.”
The let out a big shout as the water gushed down the hill. Names for the new city-to-be were discussed and voted upon.
We thank God for these pioneers of our valley.
— Map (db m1329) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Bradshaw House/Hotel|
|This house was built in 1906-08 by Ira E. and Marion Hinton Bradshaw, lifelong residents of southern Utah. It was the first permanent house built in the town of Hurricane, which was established soon after completion of the Hurricane Canal in 1904.
In addition to its use as the Bradshaw family residence, the house served as the first school in the town, as the Sunday School meeting place, and for a variety of public gatherings. The Bradshaws and later their daughter, operated it as a boarding . . . — Map (db m74619) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Convict Camp and Wagon Road|
|In 1915 prisoners from the Utah State Prison camped here among these very rocks. They were detailed to build a wagon road up the fault, directly east from here. Remnants of the road can still bee seen with its lava rocks retaining walls. The work was performed by about 50 men and 30 teams with scrapers, according to the Washington County News. The Men worked January through March.
State level support for this project came about because the road would become a key part of a highway to link . . . — Map (db m59429) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Early Day Wood Beam Walking Hand Plow|
|This plow was donated to the museum by Mr. and Mrs. Leslie E. Nelson, of Hurricane,
History of the plow is from Mr. Nelson’s grandmother, Hulda Ellertson Kay, who was housekeeper for Apostle Hyde during the period of 1875.
The Nelson family owned the original Hyde home in Spring City, Utah. This home was built of the same stone as the Manti Temple and still stands today as strong as it was when built. It was listed on the Utah State Register of Historic Sites on May 5, 1971, as . . . — Map (db m59403) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — 465 — Harrisburg/ Harrisburg Residents|
The town of Harrisburg was founded by Moses Harris in 1859. By 1868, twenty-five families had made their homes in this little valley along Quail Creek, located three miles south of Leeds and twelve miles northeast of St. George. The town thrived almost fifty years and included some thirty homes surrounded by vineyards and orchards. Cane for sorghum and molasses was raised by bringing water from Quail Creek. Wagon freighters, plodding from Salt Lake to St. George, made . . . — Map (db m59644) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Heritage Home & Pioneer Corner|
|Original Home of Ira E. and Marion Hinton Bradshaw
(Placed on the National Register of Historic Places – 1991)
This plain carpenters’ Victorian eclectic style home, with a cross-wing and stone foundation and cellar was the first permanent home built in Hurricane. During the first and second year of families settling in this valley, public gatherings such as socials, dances, church meetings, and the first Christmas Program were held here.
The first school for . . . — Map (db m59406) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Historic Kolob Mountain|
by Owen Sanders
When lassitude tugs at your body
and robs you of zest to exist
come with me to Kolob
and walk through the mild morning mist
Huddle at dawn on a hillside
and scan the green valley below;
Listen to snapping and crackle of twigs
and thumping of hoofs on the go!
When shots re-echo at daybreak
your pulse starts pounding anew
as you search to locate your quarry
and forget the breathtaking view
Come back with me to Kolob
it’s fun . . . — Map (db m59367) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Hurricane Canal — Utah Historic Site|
|The construction of the Hurricane Canal is one of Utah's proudest stories of pioneer determination. This canal, built completely by hand, opened the Hurricane Bench to farming and the establishment of the town of Hurricane.
In 1893 two local men, James Jepsen and John Steele, decided to try to build the canal, even though earlier reports had determined it impossible. Company shares were sold to help finance the project. This stock was issued in blocks, not to exceed twenty shares. Each share . . . — Map (db m59363) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Hurricane Canal — 1893 - 1906|
|We give love and honor to the memory of the men who built our Hurricane Canal; and the ditch riders who cared for it. These pioneers were men of integrity who had a dream, an improbable dream. They built the canal high on a hill, sometimes through solid rock ledges. With just a few scarce tools, a homemade wheelbarrow and often using their bare hands; they saw it through to its full fruition.
We now enjoy the little Garden of Eden they created and are deeply grateful for our noble pioneer heritage. — Map (db m59432) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — 23-C — Hurricane City|
|Hurricane had its humble beginning in the year 1906 with the coming of eleven families to establish their homes. These first settlers were the families of T. Maurice Hinton, Ira E. Bradshaw, Anthony Jepson, Thomas Ison, Bernard Hinton, Erastus Lee, Jacob Workman, Charles Workman, Amos Workman, Nephi Workman, and Frank Ashton. However, the story of our city cannot be told without looking back to Palmyra, New York, where a new church was organized on April 6, 1830. These people (our forebearers) . . . — Map (db m1461) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — 20 — Hurricane Pioneers|
|In 1863 settlers of the upper Virgin River whose lands were being washed away made preliminary surveys for irrigating and occupying these lands. Erastus Snow, David H.
Cannon and Nephi Johnson came down the hill over an old Indian trail, with a heavy buggy drawn by mules, using ropes to keep it from tipping. A whirlwind took the top of the buggy. Erastus Snow exclaimed, "Well, that was a hurricane. We’ll name this Hurricane Hill." The fault, bench and town were named from this event. — Map (db m59405) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Look-out Point — Hurricane Valley Historic Rock Fort and Corral|
|With the settlement of Toquerville in 1858 by the first six families and others soon to join them, they soon realized that the pressures on the available irrigated farmland could not support the increasing population. Survival would depend on grazing and ranching the surrounding country. Cooperative herds were formed. The Hurricane Bench area, just seven miles to the south, seemed well suited for their needs.
These first structures were built in the Hurricane Valley approximately forty . . . — Map (db m59446) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Many Came by Handcart|
|Between June 9, 1856, and July 6, 1860, ten separate Handcart Companies left Iowa
City, Iowa, or Florence, Nebraska to their land of Zion in the Utah Territory. There were
653 handcarts and 50 wagons.
Nearly 3,000 souls, some with babes in arms, and grandparents in their 70’s, pulled their worldly possessions and their fervent hopes across 1,400 miles of treeless prairie, lonely desert, icy rivers and rugged mountains. They came undaunted in their fragile two-wheeled carts, powered and . . . — Map (db m59369) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Pioneer Bowery|
|A bowery was built near here in August 1904 for the celebration of the long-awaited arrival of water to the Hurricane Bench and to name this new town. After twelve years of back-breaking work, the Virgin River water, carried seven miles from the diversion dam upstream, was now ready to flow onto the parched ground of this valley.
Originally, shade was provided by chaparral, cottonwood limbs, and juniper boughs, which formed the roof of the bowery. Several wagon loads of future Hurricane City . . . — Map (db m59430) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Pioneer Gratitude — Claron Bradshaw Family — Sponsor|
|When Claron Bradshaw was asked by the Heritage Park Foundation Committee if he would sponsor the expense of casting the “Pioneer Gratitude” statue in bronze and placing it on the monument in the park, he responded –
“I Appreciate My Dixie Pioneer
Heritage! I Will Do It!”
Claron is the grandson of Ira Elsey Bradshaw and Marian Hinton Bradshaw who built the first permanent home in Hurricane. When Hurricane City was colonized in 1906, they moved down . . . — Map (db m59366) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Pioneer Trails — Two Important Pioneer Trails Lie to the South of Here|
|Historic Temple Trail
The Temple Trail which has two parts, was used during the years 1874-1876 to bring lumber by ox-team from two sawmills at Nixon Springs on the south face of Mount Trumbull to St. George, eighty miles away, for constructing the L.D.S. Temple. Forty-five volunteers from local communities constructed the roadways during April and May of 1874. Over a million board feet of lumber were produced by the sawmills which operated during the warmer months only. Much of the . . . — Map (db m59362) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Smith Mesa|
|Smith Mesa, northeast of Hurricane and nearly one-half mile higher in elevation, was named after Charles Nephi Smith, Bishop of Rockville from 1867 to 1891. He had a ranch house on Smith Creek and ran his cattle on this beautiful mesa.
Shortly after Hurricane was colonized in 1906, families from Hurricane, La Verkin and Toquerville filed on land for homesteads on Smith Mesa. These ranchers cultivated over 5000 acres of sandy loam.
Harvey and Emma Bradshaw Ballard, who helped colonize . . . — Map (db m59404) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — 134 — Southern Exploring Company - 1849 — Parley P. Pratt — Southern Utah Expedition|
|The confluence of Ash and LaVerkin Creeks with the Virgin River is important in the history of this region. Footsteps long forgotten have passed through this region. Some have been remembered but most have faded with time. Roaming bands of Indians, Spanish explorers, trappers and finally settlers came. Regrettably, we know little of the history before the mid 1800's when a Mormon exploring party came through in 1849. They had been sent south by Brigham Young to find locations with the right . . . — Map (db m59447) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — Survival in Utah’s Dixie|
|The warm comfortable productive climate in the sheltered valleys along the meandering Rio Virgin and its lower tributaries in Washington County became known as "Utah's Dixie".
The rugged pioneer colonizers and their descendants are known as "Dixieites" and the stalwart men and women who took hundreds of covered wagon loads of "Dixie sorghum", "Dixie fruit", "Dixie wine", nuts, dried fruits, figs, pomegranates, etc. northwards to sell and barter in communities as far north as Salt . . . — Map (db m59365) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — 118 — The Historic Dixie-Long Valley, Utah Pioneer Trail|
|Segments of the old Indian trails between St. George and Long Valley were used by Mormon pioneers to settle Long Valley in 1864 and for its resettlement in 1871 following Indian conflicts. This trail scaled the Hurricane Fault on the Johnson Twist. One segment went south from Virgin City and then east and the other went east to Rockville-Crafton and then south to Big Plains where they merged. The desert trail, about 85 miles long, traversed deep sand, sandstone ledges and lava faults and was . . . — Map (db m74618) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — 100A — The Historic Hurricane Canal|
|When first conceived, the Hurricane Canal seemed like an impossible dream. Beginning at a point seven miles up the Virgin River, water had to travel through flumes, tunnels, and over deep ravines. The canal had to hang on steep, unstable cliffs and be tunneled through sections of mountain. To make matters more difficult, money was virtually non-existent for the local residents. Engineers said the canal could not be built.
Upriver, the little towns suffered from the flash floods of the wild . . . — Map (db m1328) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — 101B — The Historic Hurricane Canal|
|When first conceived, the Hurricane Canal seemed like an impossible dream. Beginning at a point seven miles up the Virgin River, water had to travel through flumes, tunnels, and over deep ravines. The canal had to hang on steep, unstable cliffs and be tunneled through sections of mountain. To make matters more difficult, money was virtually non-existent for the local residents. Engineers said the canal could not be built.
Upriver, the little towns suffered from the flash floods of the wild . . . — Map (db m74617) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — The Roads to Utah’s Dixie|
|The Black Ridge .
The toughest, heartbreaking barrier to the colonization of “Utah’s Dixie” was the Black Ridge between New Harmony and Pintura, north of Toquerville, Utah.
A deep, rough, lava flow clogged the valley from the base of the towering Hurricane cliffs on the east, to the foothills of Pine Valley Mountain on the west.
The jolting rocks subjected the pioneer wagons, animals, and human tempers to a terrific strain. There were broken axles, broken wheels and . . . — Map (db m1427) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Hurricane — 166 — The Town Named After a Buggy Incident|
|Buggies, such as the one before you, were an important part of early America. As the name implies, Doctors' Buggies were used by physicians but they were also a popular choice for many others as well. Buggies were dearly prized and generally kept in a carriage house.
In 1863, LDS Church Apostle Erastus Snow was traveling in a similar buggy from Kanab to St. George, Utah. Accompanying him were horsemen (Nephi Johnson and David H. Cannon) who told him of an old Indian trail leading over the . . . — Map (db m59373) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), La Verkin — Hurricane/LaVerkin Bridge|
|In 1908 the Midland Bridge Company was awarded a contract in the amount of $3,299 to fabricate and erect the Hurricane/LaVerkin Bridge. This structure incorporates distinctive characteristics in its method of construction, is one of the earliest and longest surviving examples of rigid Warren pony truss-type bridge in the state of Utah, and retains its historical design, material, and workmanship.
The Hurricane/LaVerkin Bridge's historical role was that of a vital transportation link that . . . — Map (db m59453) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), La Verkin — 134 — La Verkin — "Indian for Beautiful Valley"|
|In 1881 Thomas Judd, promoter, with others completed an 840 foot tunnel and 1 1/4 mile canal to bring water from the Rio Virgin for the cultivation of this valley. Excavations opened a large crystal cave of stalactite and stalagmites.
In 1903, the first post office with H.W. Gubler as post master. June 23, 1904, an L.D.S. Ward was organized under a bowery with Morris Wilson as bishop, in 1904 first school house was built. — Map (db m59448) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), La Verkin — 474 — La Verkin Canal|
|In December of 1888, Thomas P. Cottam and Thomas Judd made a preliminary survey to determine the probable cost of a canal. Early in 1889, Isaac C. MacFarlane made a working survey, and work was started as soon as his survey was completed.
In June of 1889, the La Verkin Fruit and Nursery Company was incorporated to establish nurseries, orchards, and vineyards and to promote fruit raising, stock raising and general farming, all of which would be benefited by the canal.
The building of this . . . — Map (db m59451) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), La Verkin — 135 — Southern Exploring Company – 1849 — Parley P. Pratt — Southern Utah Expedition|
|The confluence of Ash and LaVerkin Creeks with the Virgin River is important in the history of this region. Footsteps long forgotten have passed through this region. Some have been remembered but most have faded with time. Roaming bands of Indians, Spanish explorers, trappers and finally settlers came. Regrettably, we know little of the history before the mid 1800’s when a Mormon exploring party came through in 1849. They had been sent south by Brigham Young to find locations with the right . . . — Map (db m59449) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Leeds — "They Were Poor, Hungry, and They Built to Last" — The Civilian Conservation Corps|
|The era of the "Great Depression" began with the crash of the stock market in 1929. The economy of the United States changed dramatically. Americans were in peril; unprecedented numbers were jobless. President Franklin D. Roosevelt took office in 1933 with a mandate to put Americans back to work. Congress acted quickly and on March 31, 1933, passed the Emergency Conservation Work Act which established the Civilian Conservation Corps or CCC. Thousands of unemployed young men enrolled in the . . . — Map (db m59941) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Leeds — A Tale of Three Towns|
|The history of three towns – Harrisburg, Silver Reef, and Leeds – is intricately connected. Harrisburg and Silver Reef are ghost towns today, while Leeds persists. Like many locations in the arid west, water and its availability and accessibility was the determining factor in whether a town lived or withered away.
The first settlement in the area was Harrisburg, founded in 1861 by Moses Harris and a few Mormon families who settled along Quail Creek. Despite . . . — Map (db m59662) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Leeds — Civilian Conservation Corps, Leeds, Utah|
|The Leeds CCC camp opened in October 1933 under the direction of the Dixie National Forest Service on the site of an existing ranger station. Leeds, a town of less than 200, more than doubled with the opening of the camp. Two hundred young men from all over the country now resided and worked at Camp #585. Townspeople were relunctant at first about the impact the camp would have on local life, but support grew as the CCC camp clearly provided a boon to the struggling economy of Leeds. The . . . — Map (db m59659) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Leeds — From Schoolhouse to Town Hall — A Building on the Move|
|The building to your left was originally built as a schoolhouse in 1880 in nearby Silver Reef. It also served in the mining boomtown as a place for community dances and other gatherings.
Soon after the schoolhouse was built, Silver Reef began to decline in population, and by the early 1900s the building was no longer in use. At that time, the building was divided into two parts and moved on logs pulled by horses along the road, two miles from Silver Reef to it present site in Leeds. For . . . — Map (db m59663) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Leeds — Leeds CCC Camp — Utah Historic Site — National Register|
|Built in 1933, the Leeds Civilian Conservation Corps Camp is significant as perhaps the best remaining example of a CCC camp in Utah. These camps were typically built of relatively temporary frame construction, and the surviving buildings and features such as the stone terraces at the Leeds camp present a unique, if somewhat limited, view of these important facilities. The economic impact of the Great Depression was especially severe in Utah where unemployment averaged 25 percent during the . . . — Map (db m55807) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Leeds — Leeds Historic CCC Camp|
|In the depression year of 1933, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt initiated the Civilian Conservation Corps. This program provided much needed employment for the nation's youth 18-25 years old. The men had to complete the 8th grade, and have 3-4 family members dependent on their paycheck. The men received $30.00/month of which $25.00 was sent home to their family.
The men at this base camp developed the Oak Grove Campground, built bridges and constructed roads from Leeds to St. George. . . . — Map (db m57169) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Leeds — Mile-long Main Street|
|Between 1875 and the end of 1876, Silver Reef boomed with development, going from a boulder-strewn flat to a town of 1,500 people, one of the largest in Washington county.
Silver Reef soon became the center of permanent development, and many stone and wooden buildings were erected along a mile-long Main Street. Among the many businesses and buildings were six saloons, nine grocery stores, two dance halls, a brewery, billiard hall, the Wells Fargo Express Office, post office undertaker, . . . — Map (db m59660) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Leeds — St. John's Church / Bishop Lawrence J. Scanlan — Silver Reef, UT — 1879|
|St. John's Church
After his 1877 visit to Silver Reef, Father Scanlan appointed Father Dennis Kiely as the local pastor. The increasing Catholic population continued to ask for a church. Father Scanlan returned in November 1878 to accomplish this objective. The money was collected and the church completed in the spring of 1879 at the cost of $2,372.14. Father Henry T. Hyde was pastor in 1880; Father P. O'Connor, in 1881; and Father P. Galligan, in 1882.
The church had no tower when . . . — Map (db m59627) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Leeds — N-18 — Wells Fargo and Company Express Building — Utah Historic Site|
|Built in 1877
Used by Wells Fargo Company and by St. George merchants, Woolley, Lund and Judd. — Map (db m59661) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), New Harmony — 59 — Fort Harmony|
|Established May 9, 1854, by John D. Lee, Richard Woolsey, William R. Davis and others who had founded Harmony in 1852. County seat of Washington County until 1859. Headquarters of Mormon Mission to Lamanites 1853-1854.
The fort was finally abandoned in February 1862, following heavy storms that caused the walls to crumble and fall, the settlers founding New Harmony and Kanarraville. The wall was 300 feet square. Houses on east side were one story and wall 10 feet high; on west side two . . . — Map (db m59470) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), New Harmony — Kolob Canyons — Zion National Park|
|This overlook reveals the cooler, more thickly forested world above the finger canyons. From this elevated viewpoint you can see the pattern of canyon-carving streams along cracks in the Colorado Plateau. Each finger canyon is like a miniature Zion Canyon showing similar erosion dynamics: broad at the mouth, it narrows to a deep slot in its upper reaches. — Map (db m72549)|
|Utah (Washington County), New Harmony — 261 — New Harmony|
|In 1852 Elisha H. Groves, John D. Lee and others built a fort on Ash Creek, called Harmony. The fort was abandoned in 1854 and a new site located called Fort Harmony. Following disastrous floods in 1862 settlers again moved and established New
Harmony where the first log school house was built in 1863. Through community effort a frame structure was erected. For nearly a century the bell atop this building called citizens to
church, school and all other public gatherings. Wilson D. Pace served as first Bishop. — Map (db m59471) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), New Harmony — 159 — Snowfield Monument — "Franciscan Fathers"|
|October 13, 1776: "We set out southward from the small river and campsite of Nuestra Senora del Pilar ("Our Lady of the Pillar" – Kolob Canyon of Zion Canyon National Park)…" and…"We traveled a league and a half to the south, descended to the little Rio del Pilar (Ash Creek) which here has a leafy cottonwood grove, crossed it, now leaving the valley of the Senor San Jose, and entered a stony cut in the form of a pass between two high sierras…" "We continued without a guide, and . . . — Map (db m59468) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Rockville — Rockville Bridge|
|Constructed in 1924, the Rockville Bridge incorporates distinctive characteristics in its method of construction and is the only surviving example of a rigid Parker through truss type bridge in the state of Utah. The Rockville Bridge is historically significant in the region as the first direct link between Zion National Park and the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. Between 1924 and 1928 the Rockville Bridge provided the primary automobile route from Utah's National Parks to the Grand Canyon. — Map (db m74628) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — Brigham Young Home|
|Brigham Young was prophet and president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for 30 years. During those three decades he directed the establishment of more than three hundred communities throughout the American West. It was "Brother Brigham" as he was affectionately known, who sent the original company of settlers to St. George in 1861 to help establish the "Cotton Mission." His plan was to make the Latter-day Saints more self-sufficient by establishing communities in the south . . . — Map (db m59229) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — Erastus Snow's Big House|
|On this site in 1867, Erastus Snow began construction on a four-story, adobe home which later became known as the "Big House." Snow, an LDS apostle, was the presiding Mormon leader during the colonization of St. George. The "Big House" was an uncommonly large dwelling which served as lodging for many of the guests which visited early St. George. The structure had three stories and a basement, the southern expose of which was level with the ground. A balcony supported by pillars was attached to . . . — Map (db m59233) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — Gardeners Club|
|This structure, built by St. George's first horticulturist J.E. Johnson in 1863, for use as a meeting place for the club, was never used as a residence. — Map (db m59238) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — Orson Pratt – Richard Bentley|
|Orson Pratt was one of two Latter-day Saint Apostles called by Brigham Young to lead the St. George colony in 1864. When Orson was called on a mission to Europe, the home passed to Richard Bentley. It was partially converted to a mercantile business with the family residence upstairs. — Map (db m59309) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — Pioneer – Washington County - Courthouse|
|St. George was designated as the county seat on January 14, 1883. This building was begun in 1866 and completed in 1876. It served the county government as offices. The 18-inch thick walls housed the jail in the basement and school was held upstairs during the day and served as courtroom by night. Still reflecting days of old are the original panes of glass alongside the entrance doors, the chandeliers, security vault, exterior cornice work, roof cupola, dome, and original murals of Zion and Grand Canyon in upstairs assembly room. — Map (db m59226) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — Pioneer Museum|
|This red brick building completed in 1938 was financed by Mrs. Hortense McQuarrie Odlum to house pioneer relics. The addition was financed by Ferol McQuarrie Kincade in 1985. Daughters of Utah Pioneers volunteer their services as docents for the Museum. — Map (db m59224) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — St. George Opera House|
|The Opera House served as the cultural center of the community from 1875 until the 1930s. The original "T" shaped building seated 300 persons. A mechanically adjustable sloping floor afforded an excellent view of the stage. — Map (db m59093) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — Tabernacle|
|Brigham Young's purpose in building this tabernacle was to provide an ornament to the city. Its 3-foot thick basement walls of hand-cut limestone bear individual stone cutter marks. Roof trusses were hand-hewn and the twin spiral staircases with balustrades were also hand-carved. The ceiling and cornice work were locally cast, but the 4-faced clock was made in London. Started in 1863, the building was completed in 1871. — Map (db m59271) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — Temple Quarry Trailhead|
|Pioneer workmen transported basalt stone
blocks for construction of the Saint George
LDS Temple foundation by wagon over this
"Temple Quarry Trail".
Completion of the trailhead, archway, and
access to the trail has long been Dr. Mark H,
Greene's dream. The City of Saint George
dedicates this project in memory of him. — Map (db m59017) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — The Bentley House and Judd Store|
|The house behind the store was built in 1876 by William Oscar Bentley. It was sold in the early 1900's to Thomas Judd, who attached a mercantile to the dining room. The Judd family owned and operated the store from 1911 until it was purchased and became part of the Greene Gate Village. The Green's detached the store but not Tom Judd, Thomas's grandson, who still sells candy to the children attending Woodward School across the street. — Map (db m59310) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — The Burgess House|
|The house was built in 1916 by Joe Burgess. He hauled lava rock from the nearby black hill for the foundation stones and constructed the home out of formed cement blocks made by lime canfield. These formed cement blocks became popular in the early part of the 20th century when the stone masons, who had brought their trade from the old country, started becoming extinct. The forms were made so the blocks had the exterior texture of handcut sandstone blocks. — Map (db m59202) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — The Hardy House|
|Built by Augustus Poore Hardy in 1871, this house, with classical Dixie dormers, has quite a history. Hardy was sheriff of St. George and was holding a man accused of murder. An armed group of vigilantes broke into the house and forced the keys from the sheriff. A bullet hole can still be seen in one of the doors. The prisoner was removed from the jail and hanged. Sheriff Hardy never got over the fact that a prisoner was taken from him. — Map (db m59235) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — The Jail House|
|The jail is a small one room building constructed from black lava rock gathered in the nearby foothills. The exact date of construction is not known, however, it is assumed to be built by Sheriff Hardy around 1880. Though used as a granary after the new county jail was built in the late 19th century, it was apparent that it at one time was a jail in that the original bars are still in the windows. — Map (db m59270) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — The Jones Adobe Home|
|Dedicated to memory of
Clarence Amos Jones & Madaline Empey Jones.
Donated by their children Boyd Grant Jones and Sylvia Jones Chamberlain,
Wayne Hyrum Jones
to the Washington County Historical Society.
This one room home, with a partition, was moved from 306 West 300 North to this location in 1996. It was funded and restored by the generous donation from the George S. & Dolores Dore Eccles Foundation. — Map (db m59222) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — The Judd House|
|Joseph Judd, son of Thomas Judd, who built the store east of here, built this home in 1917. His family lived in the house until 1974. Joseph and his son Thomas operated the Judd Store while they lived here, and Thomas Judd still manages it for the present owners of both buildings, Mark and Barbara Greene. — Map (db m59308) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — The Sandstone Building|
|It is difficult to establish an exact date of construction of this building. It is one of a half-dozen structures built in St. George from leftover rock from the tabernacle during the 1860's. George Brooks is thought to have built the building, as he did his own similar home up Main Street.
The building was scheduled for demolition when it was discovered to be historic. Ancestor Square was redesigned to save this gem. — Map (db m59268) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — The Temple & Honeymoon Trails|
|The Temple Trail
The temple trail is the route used from 1871 to 1877 to haul timber from Mt. Trumbull, Arizona, to St. George, Utah, for the building of the St. George LDS Temple. Pioneers traveled 80 miles along the rough, dirt road, hauling by horse drawn wagon, one million board feet of timber. In places, rock was laid by hand to build up a roadway which would support the heavy logging wagons. Negotiating the trail laced with washes, canyons, and sandy areas, from the valley bottom to . . . — Map (db m59311) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Saint George — Utah-Idaho Sugar Company — Former site of the — c.1934-1979|
|The Utah-Idaho Sugar Company after determining that sugar beet seed was a good cash crop, bought these grounds and started production that would last for nearly fifty years.
Sugar beets were planted in the fall in the Bloomington and Washington Fields. Due to the mild winter climate in Utah's Dixie, the crop could stay in the ground over winter. In the spring, the beet stalks would sprout and grow several feet high and then fall over. The plants would be harvested and hauled by horse-drawn . . . — Map (db m59221) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — Frederick and Anna Reber Home|
|Fredrick and Anna Reber reached Santa Clara in November of 1861. Laboring with other members of their faith, they forged an existence out of the barren, sandy valley that had been their destination. In direct contrast to their native Switzerland, this new climate and harsh environment must have been an incredible shock to their very existence. None the less, they hung on and built a good life that was evidenced with their fine home on the main street in tiny Santa Clara.
The Frederick and . . . — Map (db m59194) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — Hug-Gubler Home|
|The Henry Hug family came to Santa Clara with the original Swiss Company in November of 1861. The Hugs and other members of this group lived in their wagon boxes and hillside dugouts until more adequate shelters could be built. The Hugs built this home in 1870. The original structure consisted of a dirt cellar, with two rooms overhead on the main floor and an attic room with a tiny, twisting staircase. The original walls were sandstone block and adobe brick. Original bricks are still visible in . . . — Map (db m59188) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — Jacob Hamblin Home|
|The Jacob Hamblin Home was built in 1862-1863. The home's construction materials were obtained locally-ponderosa pine from Pine Valley and rock from nearby hillsides. Pioneer craftsmen from Cedar City laid the stone in what is know as a coursed rubble pattern-stone of irregular size and shape laid in approximate horizontal courses. A sense of Classical design, common during the period, is demonstrated by the geometrical composition and symmetrical balance depicted by the chimneys and vertical . . . — Map (db m59201) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — John George and Susette Bosshard Hafen Home|
|This 1 ½ story Victorian, eclectic crosswing home is believed to have been built in 1881. The adobe bricks that form the walls were made on the property from sand and clay from the backyard and the nearby hill to the north. Some of the other materials in the home were previously used and came from the mining town of Silver Reef. Silver Reef is located approximately 30 miles north of Santa Clara on Interstate 15 and had been a silver mining boomtown in the 1860's. By the 1880's, the town . . . — Map (db m59199) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — Preston and Vella Ruth Hafen Home|
|The term Period Revival refers to a wide range of historically based house styles favored by the American public for nearly half a century. A number of these styles, including Spanish Colonial, English Tudor, Mission, Pueblo, and French Norman were based on the indigenous building traditions of North America and Europe and were especially popular for domestic architecture built after World War I.
Various explanations have been offered for the popularity of these Period Revival styles, but . . . — Map (db m59196) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — Santa Clara Merc|
|Right from the beginning, the Santa Clara Merc developed a presence on the main street of this small western town. Morphing from a one-room operation to a small, free-standing unit to a thriving mercantile that supplied needed essentials to residents and jobs for many of its youth, the Merc was the heart of Santa Clara. The building's design is simple, reflecting the austere modern influence of the times with little architectural ornamentation, but the operation of the business wove a rich . . . — Map (db m59115) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — Santa Clara Relief Society House|
|The Santa Clara Relief Society House was built in 1907. It was spearheaded by the sisters of the community who belonged to the local ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is a simple frontier dwelling that demonstrates single-cell architecture, a design commonly used in pioneer dwellings. The form originated in England and consists of a single, square-constructed unit. This is an example of simple construction that generally was built with whatever materials were at hand. . . . — Map (db m59117) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — Santa Clara Tithing Granary|
|The Santa Clara Tithing Granary was built in 1902-1903 by the Santa Clara First Ward of the St. George Stake of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Tithing granaries were used throughout Utah during pioneer times as a depository for Church members' tithing. Where modern-day Church members pay 10 percent of their income to the Church, pioneer Church members often paid in kind with a 10 percent equivalent of their new crops or livestock to the Church.
The Santa Clara granary . . . — Map (db m59114) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — 49 — Swiss Colony|
|November 28, 1861 about 93 pioneers under the leadership of Daniel Bonelli, were sent by President Brigham Young to settle southern Utah and raise cotton and grapes. They located at the fort built by Jacob Hamblin and others along Santa Clara Creek, one mile west of the
The fort and many other buildings, dam and ditches were washed away by floods January 1, 1862. Lack of food, shelter and clothing tested their endurance for years. — Map (db m59019) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Santa Clara — The Settling of Santa Clara / First Public Buildings / Missionaries and Settlers|
| [Side A:]The Settling of Santa ClaraThomas Carlyle said of the Switzers, "They are honest people... they are not philosophers or tribunes; but frank, honest landsmen."
In April 1861 a company of Mormon converts from Switzerland, under the direction of mission president Jabez Woodward, bade farewell to their native land and set out for Zion in the new world of Western America. They traveled to Liverpool, England where they sailed for America. Landing in New York, they took the . . . — Map (db m59190) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Springdale — 42 — Discovery of Zion Canyon|
|In 1858, Nephi Johnson, one of Brigham Young's scouts, with a party of Indian guides arrived at the mouth of the canyon. Due to superstition, the Indians refused to enter the canyon. Nephi Johnson, alone, followed up river to the Narrows, a place "where the sun is seldom seen," returning to the mouth at nightfall. Isaac Buhannin, an early settler, seeing the spires remarked, "Surely this is God's first temple and should be called Zion." William Heaps helped to build homes for the early settlers in the canyon. — Map (db m74630) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Springdale — Zion Mt. Carmel Tunnel and Highway, Utah — National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark|
|This 5,613- foot-long tunnel, the longest vehicular tunnel in the National Park System, was blasted through the towering sandstone cliffs above Pine Creek Canyon. Construction required extraordinary access through cliff-face galleries for blasting and excavation. The tunnel and the 25-mile-long highway, completed between 1927 and 1930, promoted the "NPS-Rustic" style of engineering and landscape architecture used throughout the National Park System.
Constructed: 1927 – 1930 Designated: 2011 — Map (db m74632) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — And the Desert Shall Blossom|
|Water—the lack of it and too much of it—was the greatest challenge to Dixie’s early Mormon settlers. When the original company of families entered the St. George valley late in 1861, they had little more than two small springs to reply upon for drinking water, and the capricious currents of the Virgin and Santa Clara Rivers for irrigation. From the day those indomitable pioneers set foot in this valley until the day they died, their lives were spent in search of, diverting, . . . — Map (db m1395) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — 505 — Bloomington|
|Numerous petroglyphs are the only record of the original settlers of this area, the Anasazi and Paiute Indians. In January 1858 a small Mormon pioneer group was sent south from Salt Lake City to raise cotton. The pioneers settled the east side of the Virgin River calling it Heberville; it was later changed to Price City.
New settlers coming in 1861 built homes on the west side of the river. This settlement was called Bloomington because of the wealth of wild flowers. It became the larger . . . — Map (db m59015) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — Brigham Young Winter Home|
|The original portion of this home was begun in 1860 and completed in 1871. When Brigham Young purchased it he added the front addition which was completed in 1873. It served as his winter home from that time until his death in 1877. — Map (db m59181) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — Dixie Academy|
|Across the street west, and 2 blocks south of here, stands the building originally known as the St. George Academy. After the turn of the century Southern Utah citizens realized a great need for higher education in this isolated corner of the state. The LDS Church determined to establish an academy in St. George. Leaders at church headquarters in Salt Lake City agreed to contribute $20,000 in cash if people of the St. George Stake would pay the remaining $35,000 in money, materials and labor. . . . — Map (db m1392) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — Dixie Academy|
|Dixie Academy was constructed to provide advanced courses of study. The St. George Stake Academy officially began in 1888 and moved into this building in 1911. A four year program was recognized as two years of senior high school and two years of college. The college program grew into the institution known as Dixie Jr. College and eventually Dixie College. — Map (db m1462) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — Erastus Fairbanks Snow|
|Missionary, Founder of St. George, President of the Cotton Mission.
Erastus Snow was born in St. Johnsbury, Vermont in 1818. He entered the Salt Lake Valley on July 21, 1847, in advance of the fist company of Mormon Pioneers. He was ordained an Apostle, at the age of thirty. As a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, he crossed the Great Plains seven times and published the first foreign translation of the Book of Mormon in Denmark in 1850. Elder Snow presided . . . — Map (db m59168) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — Gardeners’ Club Hall|
|Built just five years after St. George was settled, the Gardeners’ Club Hall is considered to be the oldest public building standing in the city. This small, unassuming adobe building predates the courthouse, the Tabernacle and the Temple by several years. Located across the street north and half block west of here, the one-room structure was built in 1867 as the meeting place for the Gardeners’ Club, an organization formed to promote the growing of fruit trees, shrubs and flowers.
The . . . — Map (db m1385) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — Pioneer Courthouse|
|The seat of county government was originally established at Fort Harmony from 1856 until 1859. It was then moved to the city of Washington until 1863 when St. George became the County Seat. By 1866, work had begun on the Washington County Courthouse, a large and stately building with a balcony and a cupola.
The beautifully restored building still stands across the street north and one clock east of here. Construction on the courthouse proceeded concurrently with construction of the . . . — Map (db m1391) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — St. George Social Hall “Opera House”|
|At a time of colonization, colonizors of the Dixie Cotton Mission were struggling to survive, their leaders planned a higher priority on culture. The Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith, taught that “man is that he might have joy.” His successor Brigham Young interpreted this “joy” to be participation in and enjoyment of the cultural arts. The first locally produced drama was presented in a bowery made of tumble weed just 9 months after the city’s birth. The historical social . . . — Map (db m1393) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — 97 — St. George Stake Tabernacle|
|In 1863, Orson Pratt, Amasa M. Lyman, erastus Snow, Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, laid the corner stones 18 months after pioneers arrived in St. George. Truman O. Angell, Sr. Architect. Miles Romney, Supt. of Construction, assisted by Edw. L. Parry, Archibald McNeil, Samuel Judd, Wm. Burt, David Milne and many others. Peer Neilson gave $600 cash. Tower capstone laid Dec. 1871. Costing over $110,000, it was dedicated 14 May 1876, by Brigham Young Jr. — Map (db m1388) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — St. George Tabernacle|
|Less than a year after St. George was settled, residents were directed by Brigham Young to “build a building as soon as possible which would be commodious, substantial and well furnished with a seating capacity of 2,000.” The building, he said, should be a “ornament” to the city and a credit to its people’s “energy and enterprise.” The result is the handsome and graceful red sandstone building one block south of here known as the St. George Tabernacle.
. . . — Map (db m1387) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — St. George Temple|
|When the Mormon pioneers arrived in Utah, they had left behind 2 temples—one in Kirkland, Ohio, and one in Nauvoo, Illinois. Work began on a temple in Salt Lake City in 1853, but was delayed for various reasons. Desirous of having a temple built in the new Mormon territory before his death, Brigham Young chose St. George as the “site” where the goal could be accomplished. Work on this unique structure, located 3 blocks east and five blocks south of here, began in November . . . — Map (db m1386) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — 14 — The Dixie Pioneers|
|In Memory of the Dixie Pioneers who were sent by President Brigham Young to colonize this section of territory. Fort Harmony was built in 1852. Treaties were made with the Indians and other settlements started where conditions were favorable. When experiments proved that cotton could be raised, Brigham Young sent more than 300 families to promote that industry. These people arrived late in 1861. Most of them settled here; in St. George, while some joined other settlements in Washington County.
— Map (db m1396) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — 298 — The Stone Quarries|
|Mormon Pioneers came to St. George in 1861 where they found rocks of many kinds for building purposes. After Brigham Young, President of the L.D.S. Church, advised them to erect a large meeting house, long layers of red sandstone ten inches thick were found in ledges north of town. Slabs of rock, loosened with wedges were loaded on running gears of wagons and hauled to the Tabernacle site. In 1871 a black lava quarry was located to supply rock for the foundation of a temple and stone for its . . . — Map (db m59148) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — The Woodward School|
|When the first settlers arrived in St. George late in 1861, school was held in a wagon box, a tent, a willow shack, or whatever shelter could be improvised. By 1864, the first of four ward houses was completed. It was not until nearly the end of the 1800s that work on a large, substantial school began. Woodward School, located one block south and one block west of here, was completed in 1901.
The school was built on a black volcanic rock foundation, and its walls are of red sandstone from . . . — Map (db m1389) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — The Woodward School|
|With the arrival of the families in St. George, school began. A tent, slates and a few books served students in the 1st Central School. Later school was held in different private homes and public buildings until this permanent school was completed in 1901. George Woodward furnished $3000 needed for hardware and glass and paid for the heating plant. To honor him, the school was named Woodward School.
— Map (db m1390) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — 130 — Utah Is Rich in Aviation History|
|The first regularly scheduled overland passenger flight in the USA was made by Western Air Express on May 23, 1926, from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles. This 50-foot concrete arrow was one of four here in the St. George area, placed every 10 miles, for navigation of mail and passenger planes. The steel posts held coal oil lamps to illuminate the arrows after dark. — Map (db m59016) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), St. George — 98 — Winter Home of Brigham Young|
|During construction of the St. George Temple, Brigham Young found the climate in this vicinity beneficial to his health, and decided to have a winter home built in St. George. On December 15, 1873, he arrived from the north and moved into his new house, though still unfinished. Later he had an office built east of his home where he took care of his various duties, both here and in the North. The winters which followed until his death in 1877 were enjoyed in this winter home. — Map (db m59071) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Toquerville — In Honor of Chief Toquer|
|In early June 1854, eight members of the Southern Utah Indian Mission left Harmony to visit Toquer, chief of the Paiute Indian band living on lower Ash Creek. Chief Toquer's tribe referred to themselves as Paiute, Toquit, or Toquart Indians. They lived and cultivated a small piece of ground along Ash Creek in a small valley called Toquer, which means black in Paiute. Their homes were tents of leaves formed over a framework of cane and willows. In response to Chief Toquer's friendly reception, . . . — Map (db m59467) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Toquerville — Toquer — Old Jail Rock — 1860|
Old Jail Rock
— Map (db m59466) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Toquerville — 81 — Toquerville|
|In 1854 President Brigham Young sent scouts to locate sites for settlement. Indians living here called it Toquer (Meaning Black). In 1858 eight families were sent from New Harmony to colonize here. They named it Toquerville, which became the county seat of Kane County. Its principal industries were cotton, cane, grapes and fruit. They built the first cotton-gin mill in Utah and the first furniture shop in Dixie. The building that held the mill still stands. — Map (db m59465) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — “Utah’s Dixie” Washington City|
|Founded 1857. This monument is erected in honor and memory of the founders of Washington City. The settlers who arrived 1857 were sent here by Brigham Young, president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, for the purpose of growing cotton to clothe Mormon pioneers and to colonize the territory. Those early pioneers named their city on May 5 or 6, 1857 in honor of George Washington and also called the area “Dixie” in rememberence of their former homes in the South. . . . — Map (db m59317) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — Adair Spring — Birthplace of Utah's Dixie — Washington City, Utah|
|In early 1857 Brigham Young called a group of Southerners on a cotton mission to southern Utah to raise cotton. Samuel Newton Adair, the leader of ten families, arrived at this spot Apr. 15, 1857, after leaving Payson, Utah on Mar. 3. They camped here a short time and then moved down near the Virgin River on what became known as the "Sand Plot." Apostle Amasa M. Lyman who was passing through the area recommended that they move back to the spring area which they did. Robert Dockery Covington . . . — Map (db m59321) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — 430 — Covington Mansion|
|In 1857, Robert D. Covington, directed by Brigham Young, led twenty-eight families to Washington, Utah, to establish the "Cotton Mission." In 1859, a large structure was built that would serve as a meeting house for the Saints, a way station for the early missionaries to the Indians, and the home of the first bishop in Dixie, Robert Covington. The spacious upper floor, entered by an outside stairway, became a community social center with parties, dances and plays held there until 1877. Built of . . . — Map (db m59322) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — Historic Pine Valley Mountain|
|To the north stands historic Pine Valley Mountain, one of the best known and most historic mountains of the Southern Utah Rockies. Indian legends carry traditions of this imposing landmark back many generations. To the Mormon Pioneers it furnished fuel and food -- wild game, pinenuts, and berries -- in abundance.
In 1866 mountain mahogany and yellow pine, particularly suitable for use in making certain types of pipes for the Mormon Tabernacle Organ, construction of which was just beginning, . . . — Map (db m59323) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — Prominent Pioneer Men and Women Who Helped Settle Washington City|
|Present city officials and citizens of Washington City desired to pay tribute to early prominent pioneers who first settled here in 1857. These pioneers sacrificed their all while improving conditions in this harsh, dry, hot inhospitable, mosquito-infested area. This spot was selected because it represents the early town square where meetings were held in an open-air bowery. Our first adobe school and first rock school and church once stood here or close by. Those represented here in this park . . . — Map (db m59315) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — Relief Society Hall — Built 1875|
|The Relief Society Hall's main section was built in 1875 and the west wing about 1904. This makes the present "L" shaped building. Both sections were built of adobes that were produced locally. Its style of architecture is Greek Revival that prevailed in Utah during the early settlement days. It is the only remaining late-nineteenth -century public building in Washington City and is the oldest standing Relief Society Hall in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
This building . . . — Map (db m59312) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — S-3 — Robert D. Covington House — Utah Historic Site|
|Built c. 1859 by Washington's
first Bishop and leader
of the 1857 Cotton Missionaries.
Good example of pioneer stone work. — Map (db m59585) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — N-180 — Robert D. Covington House — Utah Historic Site|
|This house was built c. 1859 for Robert D. Covington, leader of the Mormon colonizing group sent from Salt Lake City to establish a cotton industry in this warm region of the Utah Territory. The native sandstone building material was quarried 1/4 mile to the east. The twin brothers who built this structure also worked on other historic buildings in the area, including the Cotton Mill in Washington, Utah and the fort at Pipe Springs, Arizona. Robert D. Covington lived to the ripe old age of 87, and died here in Washington in 1902. — Map (db m59586) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — Telegraph Street / Millcreek Mills|
|Telegraph Street. When Washington was laid out in May, 1857, there was not a street named or located where Telegraph Street is today. It was not until the resurvey of January, 1873, ordered by Wm. Snow, Judge of the Probate Court dated December, 1872, that Telegraph Street was shown on a city map. The Telegraph was completed between St. George and Logan, Utah on January 10, 1867, and the wire for the telegraph was located about where Telegraph Street is today.
Millcreek Mills. . . . — Map (db m1444) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — The Granary|
|The first settlers of Washington City built granaries to store dry grains, tools, wine and other items.
The sandstone and black lava rock in this reconstructed building came from the Morgan Adam granary which was originally located at 60 South 100 West. The original granary was probably erected in the late 1800s. It was slightly smaller than this building and had air holes instead of windows.
Some of the granaries in this community were used not only for storage but for family living space, and on one occasion, a school. — Map (db m1315) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — Thomas W. Smith's Corn Cracker & Grist Millstone|
|Thomas Washington Smith was one of the original pioneers to settle Washington in 1857. He must have started to build his mill immediately after arriving the millstones were large and of granite and would have taken a Herculean effort to shape and transport them to the mill site. It is almost beyond comprehension to think he arrived in Washington in early May 1857, went to the base of Pine Valley Mountain and found large granite boulders these he cut into millstones, by hand, and built a mill on . . . — Map (db m59314) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — Utah’s Dixie Birthplace, Washington City|
|Founded 1857.After the Adair and Covington companies meetings with Isaac C. Haight in May 1857, they immediately started to prepare the land to grow crops. William H. Crawford, secretary of the group, wrote to the Deseret News, May 7, 1857, “... thinking you would like to hear from the Saints that were called to come to this place for the purpose of raising cotton and such things as could be raised in other parts of the valleys of the mountains and so far as we have examined I . . . — Map (db m59316) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — Washington City 1857|
|Washington City was founded by 38 southern families in the spring of 1857. Brigham Young called these families to serve on a mission to grow cotton in an area explored by John D. Lee in 1852. The mission was called the Cotton or Southern Mission. Brigham Young knew that southerners knew how to grow or at least had seen cotton grown. The city laid out on the 6 or 7 of May and the officials for the city’s operation were elected. Robert D. Covington was selected as the religious branch president, . . . — Map (db m1442) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — M-21 — Washington Cotton Factory|
|Built 1865-1870 on orders from Brigham Young. Appleton Harmon supervised construction. Center of Dixie “Cotton Mission”. Operated as a co-operative business and briefly under private lease until c. 1900 — Map (db m1308) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — 213 — Washington Cotton Factory|
|Early in 1857 Brigham Young called Samuel Adair and Robert D. Covington as leaders of two companies of pioneers to settle here and grow cotton. In 1861 a Scandinavian company came to assist in the work. The town was named in honor of George Washington and was the county seat from 1859 to 1863. A cotton factory was built to process the cotton grown in the Virgin River Valley and the area became known as “Utah’s Dixie.” — Map (db m1309) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — ZCMI Co-op Building — 1872 - 1875|
|Official outlet of ZCMI (Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution), "America's First Department Store." This building housed the Zions Co-op Rio Virgin Manufacturing Company from 1872-1875. It was part of the ZCMI co-operative system which served more than 150 communities in the Intermountain area with retail commodities and services beginning in 1868. — Map (db m59313) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Washington — ZCMI Co-op Building 1875–1921|
|Official outlet of ZCMI (Zion’s Co-operative Mercantile Institution), “America’s First Department Store.” This building housed the Washington Co-op from 1875 to 1921. It was part of the ZCMI co-operative system which served in the Intermountain area with retail commodities and services beginning in 1868. — Map (db m59014) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Zion National Park — Birth of a Park|
| Zion was little visited by outsiders during the 19th Century. The region's isolation began to erode in 1908, when Deputy Surveyor Leo Snow mapped the upper Virgin River for the U.S. Department of the Interior. Snow's report was so persuasive that just the next year, President W.H. Taft created Mukuntuweap National Monument. By 1919, it had been enlarged and renamed Zion National Park.
[Photo inset caption] Leo A. Snow, a native of St. George, Utah, on a survey expedition. In his report . . . — Map (db m40420) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Zion National Park — Cables from the Rim|
| Barely visible on the canyon rim are the ruins of a cableworks from the early 1900s. Mormon pioneers in the Zion area needed lumber for construction, but the good timber - ponderosa pine - was out of reach on the mesa above. Settlers had to haul lumber by wagon from as far away as Arizona's Kaibab Forest, a two-week trip.
In 1900 Springdale resident David Flanigan began looping 50,000 feet of telegraph wire through a series of drums and pulleys in the cableworks above and down to a second . . . — Map (db m40444) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Zion National Park — Original Inhabitants / Living Traditions|
| Original Inhabitants
Native peoples lived in the Zion area long before the first Euro-Americans came to this canyon. "Southern Paiutes believe they have lived in this area since the time of creation. Because of the abundance of animals, plants, and water in these places, Southern Paiute people thrived and lived along the Virgin River..."
Ethnographic Overview and Assessment, 1995
[Blue marker below]
"Within the lives of Southern Paiutes, there is an inherent understanding that . . . — Map (db m40425) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Zion National Park — Promised Land|
| The early Mormon settlers of Springdale and other Virgin River communities were resourceful and enterprising farmers. Taking advantage of the natural water resources available on the canyon floor, they dug irrigation systems and planted corn, vegetables, fruit, and tobacco. Timber was harvested from atop the plateaus and livestock grazed in the canyons and on the surrounding mesas.
[Blue marker below]
When the settlers first arrived, the high plateaus around Zion were thickly forested . . . — Map (db m40424) HM|
|Utah (Washington County), Zion National Park — Westward Expansion|
| Until the late 18th Century, Zion's only visitors were the original inhabitants of the region. The earliest appearance of Europeans came in 1776 when the Dominguez-Escalante expedition after abandoning their quest for an overland route to California passed within 20 miles of Zion Canyon on their way back to their base in Santa Fe. The detailed maps they created began a new era of exploration.
[Photo inset captions and blue marker below not transcribed] — Map (db m40435) HM|