|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Baynesville — J-75 — Westmoreland State Park|
|This park was developed by the National Park Service, Interior Department, through the Civilian Conservation Corps, in conjunction with the Virginia Conservation Commission. It covers 1300 acres and was opened, June 15, 1936. It was originally included in “Clifts Plantation,” patented by Nathaniel Pope about 1650, and became part of the Stratford estate when purchased by Thomas Lee in 1718. — Map (db m22314) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — A New World on the Chesapeake|
|The generous resources of the Chesapeake Bay invited Englsih exploration and settlement of Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware.
With Native American assistance, English settlers developed a cash crop industry. Tobacco cultivation and export was the first commercial enterprise in the New World and produced great wealth for Virginia and Maryland. "Tobacco Society" plantations, like the Washington home at Popes Creek, flourished along Chesapeake tributaries.
These plantations were tied . . . — Map (db m34136) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Archeology at Popes Creek|
|Most of what we know about George Washington's birthplace has come to us thanks to the archeologist's trowel.
After generations of uncertainty about the location of the main plantation house, archeologists excavated its foundations in 1936. They discovered a house built in many phases. At the time of George Washington's birth, probably only the central portion of the house existed. The addition of the wings - the last built in the 1760s - expanded the house to the dimensions you see marked on the ground before you. — Map (db m34195) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Artery of Commerce|
|Sailing ships and the rivers they travelled were vital to the tidewater plantations of Virginia and Maryland. They were the colonial counterpart to our vehicles, highways, and railroads.
In front of you is Popes Creek; beyond is the Potomac River. Every Potomac River plantation was an international port of call. A steady procession of ships graced the river, collecting hogsheads of tobacco for shipment to England and unloading both the necessities and niceties of colonial life.
The . . . — Map (db m34201) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Birthplace of James Monroe|
|April 28, 1758
July 4, 1831
Fifth president of the
United States 1817- 1825
Governor of Virginia
1799 and 1811
Proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine
December 2, 1823
Declares the Americas
no longer subject to
European colonization — Map (db m11940) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — JP-6 — Birthplace of Monroe|
|In this vicinity stood the Monroe home where James Monroe, fifth president of the United States, was born, April 28, 1758. His father was Spence Monroe and his mother, Elizabeth Jones. He left home at the age of sixteen to enter William and Mary College and left college to enter the army. — Map (db m11585) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — JT 21 — Charles B. Smith — 99th Fighter Squadron — (Tuskegee Airmen)|
|Born in Westmoreland County, Charles Bernard Smith (1917-1991) is one of more than 140,000 African Americans who served in the racially segregated U.S. Army Air Force during World War II. Trained at Chanute Field, Illinois, in aircraft ground support with the 99th Fighter Squadron, the famed “Tuskegee Airmen,” he served in North Africa and Europe as technical sergeant and crew chief. In more than 200 missions as bomber escorts, the Tuskegee Airmen never lost a bomber to enemy fire, . . . — Map (db m22255) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Colonial Beach Roll of Honor — World War I * World War II|
|In reverent tribute to the men and women of Colonial Beach, VA. who have served our country.
World War II
Stanley G. Adams •
James W. Allison •
William D. Bankett •
James R. Barnes •
William S. Barnes •
James B. Barnette •
Robert B. Bass •
William H. Berkeley, Jr. •
Cecil I. Bidgood •
Landon A. Billingsley •
Thomas C. Bland, Jr. •
Roy M. Bowler •
George Brown, Jr. •
Maurice M. Brown, Jr. •
Thomas M. Bunting •
Charles M. Carey, Jr. •
John R. Carey . . . — Map (db m20870) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Dairy|
|Site of eighteenth-century dairy used by the Washingtons for storage of milk, cheese and other dairy products. The original brick floor is still in tact.
Please leave undisturbed. — Map (db m34081) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Henry Brooks Farm|
|At the distant end of the field in front of you stood the home of Henry Brooks, the first owner of much of what would become Popes Creek Plantation.
As you look toward the house site, perhaps you can sense the isolation Henry Brooks must have felt when he settled here in 1651; he stood on the frontier of Virginia's tobacco culture. During the next twelve years many others followed him to the area, and Brooks steadily sold off his 1,000 acres. By 1662 the area around Popes and Bridges . . . — Map (db m34080) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — James Monroe — 1758 - 1831|
|Soldier * Patriot * Statesman
This marks the birthplace of James Monroe, April 28, 1758
Westmoreland County, Virginia
Attended college of William & Mary; Officer, Continental Army, American Revolution; Married Elizabeth Kortright, 1786; US Senator; Minister Plenipotentiary to France and then to England; Represented the United States in Spain; Governor of Virginia; Signed treaty of Louisiana Purchase; Negotiated to acquire Florida; Secretary of State; Secretary of War; Fifth U.S. . . . — Map (db m11941) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — John Washington House|
|In 1664, John Washington, the great-grandfather of George Washington, built a small house on this site. From these modest beginnings, a powerful and prominent Virginia family would arise.
During his thirteen years here, John Washington attended to his farm, his growing business interests, and his social position. He purchased extensive tracts of land throughout Westmoreland county and as far north as Little Hunting Creek - a tract today called Mount Vernon. He served in the Virginia . . . — Map (db m34079) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Link to the World|
|While the essentials of life could be had from the waters, fields, gardens, and forests of Popes Creek Plantation, true economic prosperity depended on the plantation's link to the world; the Potomac River.
The boat landing for Popes Creek Plantation was located somewhere near here. Several times a year, ships from England would anchor in the river channel.
A small fleet of boats would then ferry cargo - chinaware, spices, linens, wines, silver, and other luxuries - to the landing. On . . . — Map (db m34067) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Paradise Found|
|The ...inhabitants of the Chesapeake Bay Region made ...its bountiful resources. The large pristine bay and its waterways including the Potomac River before ... sustained nearly 27,000 Native Americans.
...around...creeks... of the watershed. Bathing and swimming were ... in a world without horses, dug out canoes skimmed bay tributaries. Salty tidewaters provided seemingly unlimited fish, oysters, and crabs to supplement crops and game. Shells and pearls served as money, jewelry and . . . — Map (db m34070) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Popes Creek Plantation|
|Look at the landscape around you. Augustine Washington's reasons for settling here in 1718 are apparent. The ground to your left is slightly elevated and well drained - perfect for farming. Before you, Popes Creek teems with life: fish, crabs, and waterfowl. Deer and other game abound in the surrounding forests. Fresh water is abundant from numerous springs. And a mile to the northeast is the Potomac River, Augustine Washington's commercial lifeline to the world.
In an economy where crop . . . — Map (db m34192) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — Soldier - Statesman President James Monroe|
|On the morning of December 26, 1776, a small detachment of American Light Infantry, led by Lieutenant James Monroe, aged 19, breached the Hessian defenses at Trenton. This gallent action, in which Monroe was severely wounded, enabled the Continental Forces under George Washington to prevail. The American Revolution had begun its long march to victory at Yorktown, Virginia.
The patriotism, valor, and combat leadership of James Monroe exemplify character strengths of the citizen soldiers who . . . — Map (db m11942) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — The Bay Today|
|The Chesapeake Bay continues to be a generous provider of food, industry, and income. Millions of people are now drawn to the Bay in pursuit of leisure and tranquility.
Recreational uses have increased since Washington's time, when the watershed was a highway for commerce. Today powerboats, jet skis, and yachts bigger than a waterman's workboat traverse Bay waters. Quiet coves ringed by marshes beckon birders and canoeists.
These centuries of use, from early settlement to modern . . . — Map (db m34138) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — The Historic Area|
|At Popes Creek Plantation, George Washington was born into the plantation culture he would know his entire life. Today, no visible vestiges of the plantation remain. Instead, exhibits, buildings, and interpreters on the site give a sense of the lifestyle that would help shape the values of the most famous of all Americans.
The site of the main house - George Washington's birthplace - is clearly marked. Surrounding the birthplace is the memorial area, constructed in the 1930s to . . . — Map (db m34139) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Colonial Beach — The Memorial Area|
|Generations of Americans have expressed their reverence for George Washington at his birth site. The park is the cumulative result of a century of memorial efforts.
In 1923, on the eve of the bicentennial of Washington's birth, interested citizens decided to create a memorial landscape here, including the Memorial House, colonial kitchen, brick walkways, and an extensive cedar grove. When built, the Memorial House and colonial kitchen represented a best guess at the historic appearance of . . . — Map (db m34203) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Flat Iron — J-69-a — Popes Creek Episcopal Church|
|On this site, a part of “Longwood,” stood Popes Creek Episcopal Church, built about 1744 on land given by the McCarty family. The Lees and the Washingtons worshipped here. About 1826 it fell into disuse and was burned as being unsafe. — Map (db m22135) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Grays Corner — JT-20 — McCoy Revolutionary Soldiers|
|Bennett and James McCoy, free men (probably
brothers) from Westmoreland County, were
among the many African Americans who
served in the Virginia militia and the United
States Army or Navy during the Revolutionary
War. Bennett McCoy served for three years
starting in 1777, participated in several major
battles, and reenlisted with the 15th Virginia
Regiment until the end of the war. James McCoy
rendered guard service on the Potomac River
from 1777 to 1778. In 1781, he was drafted . . . — Map (db m22429) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Grays Corner — JT-4 — Washington’s Mother|
|At Sandy Point, seven and a half miles east, Mary Ball, Washington’s Mother, spent her youth in the home of her guardian, George Eskridge. There she was married to Augustine Washington, March, 1731. She is supposed to have named her eldest son for George Eskridge. — Map (db m22407) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Grays Corner — JT-7 — Yeocomico Church|
|Two miles east. Built in 1655 of oak timbers sheathed with clapboards. Rebuilt of brick in 1706. In this vicinity Mary Ball lived under the tutelage of Colonel George Eskridge, of Sandy Point, from 1721 until her marriage to Augustine Washington in 1730, and attended church here. In 1906 an association was formed to preserve the church. — Map (db m22400) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Hague — Lee Hall|
|A quarter-mile to the northeast stood Lee Hall, built about 1723 by Henry Lee of Stratford and the great-grandfather of Robert Edward Lee. He left his estate to his son Richard Lee, who for 36 years represented Westmoreland County in the House of Burgesses, the Revolutionary Conventions, and the House of Delegates, 1758–1794. — Map (db m22393) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Hague — JT-6 — Richard Henry Lee’s Grave|
|A mile and a half north, in the Lee burying ground, is the grave of Richard Henry Lee, who died, June 19, 1794. Lee was one of the first leaders of the American Revolution. On June 7, 1776, he introduced a resolution in the Continental Congress for a declaration of independence, and argued for it, June 7–10. The Declaration was signed, July 4, 1776. — Map (db m22395) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Hague — The Burnt House Field|
|A mile and a half to the north is the Burnt House Field, a Lee family graveyard in which were buried Richard Lee of “Machotick,” Thomas Lee of “Stratford,” Richard Henry Lee of “Chantilly,” their wives, and others. These burials were in the garden of the Lees’ “Machotick” plantation house, which burned down in 1729. — Map (db m22397) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Hague — JT-18 — Zion Baptist Church|
|Zion Baptist Church is home to one of the oldest African American congregations in Westmoreland County. Before slavery ended,
according to local tradition, services were
first held under a dogwood bush arbor on
Gawen’s Farm, near Tucker Hill, approximately
one and a half miles north of here. The
members had most likely worshiped at the
nearby white Machodoc (Sandy Valley)
Baptist Church. Zion Baptist Church was formally organized in 1867, when the congregation constructed a log building. . . . — Map (db m22399) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), King George — Z 6 — King George County / Westmoreland County — Area 180 Square Miles / Area 252 Square Miles|
King George County
Area 180 Square Miles
Formed in 1720 from Richmond, and named for King George I. James Madison, "Father of the American Constitution" and President of the United States, was born in this county.
Area 252 Square Miles
Formed in 1653 from Northumberland and King George, and named for an English county. In it were born George Washington, James Monroe, and Robert E. Lee. — Map (db m22268) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Kinsale — JT-8 — Kinsale|
|Two miles east, on the picturesque Yeocomico River, is Kinsale, the founding of which the Assembly ordered in 1784. Near by at the old home of the Bailey family, “The Great House,” is the tomb of Midshipman James B. Sigourney, who in command of the sloop “Asp” fell in an engagement with the British in Yeocomico River, June 14, 1813. — Map (db m22463) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Kinsale — Z-4 — Northumberland County / Westmoreland County|
|Northumberland County. Area 205 square miles. Originally an Indian district called Chicacoan. In 1648 it became Northumberland County, named for an English county. The mouth of the Potomac River is here.
Westmoreland County. Area 252 square miles. Formed in 1653 from Northumberland and King George, and named for an English county. In it were born George Washington, James Monroe, and Robert E. Lee. — Map (db m22471) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Leedstown — JT-15 — Leedstown|
|Here at the then thriving port of Leedstown on February 27, 1766, ten years before the Declaration of Independence, the Leedstown Resolutions (or Westmoreland Association) were drawn. This association, a protest against the Stamp Act and a pledge of mutual aid in event of its execution, was signed by 115 men from Westmoreland and surrounding counties. — Map (db m22085) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Leedstown — J-98 — Pissaseck Indians|
|The Pissaseck Indians lived along the Rappahannock River, here at Leedstown and in a few other villages in Westmoreland County. They spoke a language derived from the Virginia Algonquian family and were hunters and farmers. The Pissasecks were tributaries of Chief Powhatan, who ruled a political configuration of Indian groups that occupied the coastal plain of Virginia from the James River to the Potomac River. English Capt. John Smith featured the Pissaseck Indians on his Virginia map published in 1612. — Map (db m22106) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Lerty — J-76 — Stratford and Chantilly|
|Two miles east is Stratford, built about 1725 by Thomas Lee (1690–1750), president of the Virginia Council and father of Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee, both signers of the Declaration of Independence. Here also was born Robert Edward Lee (1807–1870). Three miles east of Stratford stood Chantilly, the home of Richard Henry Lee in his later years. — Map (db m22349) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Machodoc — J-72 — Nomini Hall|
|The house was built about 1730 and burned in 1850. It was not rebuilt. Only some poplar trees remain. A fine colonial mansion, it was the home of the celebrated “councillor” Robert Carter. Philip Fithian, tutor at Nonimi Hall, 1773–74, wrote his well-known “Journal” there. — Map (db m22384) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Montross — JT-19 — Armstead Tasker Johnson School|
|The A.T. Johnson High School was built in 1937 in the Colonial Revival style as the first public high school constructed for African Americans in Westmoreland County. The new school was named for Armstead Tasker Johnson (1857–1944), a black educator and community leader of the grassroots effort for its construction. Local African Americans raised money to build the school. Additional financing came from the federal Works Progress Administration, the Jeanes and Slater black education . . . — Map (db m22352) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Montross — J-79 — Nomini Baptist Church|
|Nomini Baptist Church was established on 29 April 1786 with 17 members. By 1809 it was reputedly the largest Baptist church in Virginia with 875 members. The original meetinghouse, built nearby in 1790 on land donated by a charter member, Captain Joseph Pierce, was replaced in 1858–59 by the present brick church. During the past two centuries Nomini Baptist Church has had 27 ministers, beginning with Elder Henry Toler, and is considered the mother church of ten congregations in three counties. — Map (db m22359) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Montross — J-84 — Nomini Baptist Meetinghouse|
|Nearby stood the original “Nomony” (early variant spelling) Meetinghouse. On 29 Apr. 1786, 17 members established Nomini Baptist Church. Until 1790, when the meetinghouse was built on land donated by charter member Joseph Peirce, the congregation met in the homes of Pierce, Samuel Templeman, and Elizabeth Steptoe. With 875 members by 1809, Nomini was the largest Baptist church in Virginia. The meetinghouse served the congregation for almost three-quarters of a century until replaced . . . — Map (db m22361) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Montross — J-71 — Old Westmoreland Courthouse|
|At a public meeting here, on June 22, 1774, resolutions of Richard Henry Lee offering aid to Boston, whose port had been closed by the British government, were adopted. Here, on May 23, 1775, the Westmoreland Committee on Safety passed resolutions denouncing the Royal Governor, Lord Dunmore, for seizing the colony’s powder supply at Williamsburg. — Map (db m6585) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Mount Holly — JT 92 — The War of 1812 / British Landing at Nomini Ferry|
The War of 1812
Impressment of Americans into British service and the violation of American ships were among the causes of America’s War of 1812 with the British, which lasted until 1815. Beginning in 1813, Virginians suffered from a British naval blockade of the Chesapeake Bay and from British troops’ plundering the countryside by the Bay and along the James, Rappahannock, and Potomac rivers. The Virginia militia deflected a British attempt to take Norfolk in 1813, . . . — Map (db m76407) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Mt. Holly — JT-5 — Bushfield|
|A mile and a half east, this was the home of John Augustine Washington, younger brother of George Washington, who visited here. Here was born, in 1762, Bushrod Washington, who became Justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1798, and died in 1829. He inherited Mount Vernon. — Map (db m22390) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Mt. Holly — JT-14 — Morgan Jones Kiln|
|The Morgan Jones Kiln, located 5.2 miles north of here, operated for a short time in 1677. According to Westmoreland County records, Morgan Jones and Dennis White entered into a partnership for the “making and selling of Earthen ware,” which provided utilitarian pottery to settlers in the Chesapeake Bay area. An archaeological excavation in 1973 uncovered Jones’s kiln and fragments of his pottery, marking available a valuable dating tool for other archaeological sites in the . . . — Map (db m22391) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Mt. Holly — JT-3 — The Glebe|
|Five miles north is the home of the rectors of Cople Parish, one of whom, Walter Jones, married Washington’s parents, March 6, 1781. Here lived Thomas Smith, rector of the parish, 1764–1799, and chairman of the County Committee of Safety, 1775. He entertained Washington, May 25, 1771. The house is possibly the oldest in the Northern Neck. — Map (db m22389) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Mundy Point — JT-16 — Sandy Point|
|Here at Sandy Point, Mary Ball, George Washington’s mother, spent her youth in the home of her guardian, Colonel George Eskridge. Here she married Augustine Washington in March 1731. She is supposed to have named her eldest son, George, for Colonel Eskridge. — Map (db m22434) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Nomini — JT-2 — Nominy Church|
|One of the two churches of the Cople Parish. It was built in 1704 on land given by Youell Watkins, and was replaced in 1755 by a brick church at the same site. George Washington attended services here twice in 1768. The last colonial church burned (1814) by the British Admiral Cockburn, who carried off the church silver. The present building was erected about 1652. The first Nominy Church of 1655 stood on the north side of the river opposite this place. — Map (db m22379) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Oak Grove — J-69 — George Washington’s Birthplace — (Wakefield)|
|George Washington’s birthplace is two miles north, on Pope’s Creek, just off the Potomac River. He was born on 22 Feb. 1732 and lived there only for three years. Washington’s father, Augustine, purchased the land in 1718 and built the house by 1726. President Washington s half-brother Augustine, Jr., inherited the property after his father’s death in 1743. The dwelling, a U-shaped timber-frame house, burned on Christmas Day 1779. The present Memorial House, erected in 1930–31 is a . . . — Map (db m22134) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Oak Grove — George Washington’s Birthplace|
|On the ground before you once stood the plantation home of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington. Here, on February 22, 1732, George Washington—farmer, general of the Continental Army, and first president of the United States—was born.
George Washington lived here only three years, but returned often during his youth and came to know Popes Creek Plantation well. The house remained in the Washington family until 1779, when it burned in a Christmas Day . . . — Map (db m22983) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Oak Grove — J-67 — History at Oak Grove|
|Here George Washington, while living at Wakefield with a brother, went to school, 1744–1746. Here Union Cavalry came on a raid through the Northern Neck, May 1863. Several miles north of this place, James Monroe, fifth President of the United States, was born, 1758. — Map (db m22108) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Oak Grove — John Muse — October 13, 1633 – April 5, 1723|
|The land encompassing this marker has been in the continuous possession of the Muse family since September 16, 1668.
Possession has been handed down through the toils of the descendants of the founding father of the Muse family in America. — Map (db m6670) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Oak Grove — The Burial Ground|
|Three generations of George Washington’s forebears are buried here. The first burials were made in 1668, when John Washington’s wife Anne and two small children died. During the next thirty years, at least nine more Washingtons—including George Washington’s grandparents—were interred here.
The cemetery today bears no resemblance to the cemetery George Washington visited during his youth. In 1930, the Wakefield National Memorial Association constructed the wall around the . . . — Map (db m23077) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Oak Grove — J-68 — Westmoreland Association|
|At Leedstown, seven miles south, an association was formed to resist the enforcement of the Stamp Act, February 27, 1766. The Resolutions, drafted by the revolutionary leader, Richard Henry Lee, were one of the first protests against the Stamp Act and influenced public opinion in all the colonies. — Map (db m22110) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Smith Hill — J-64 — Bristol Iron Works|
|On the river a short distance south is the site of the Bristol Iron Works, which were projected by John King and Company, of Bristol, England, and established in 1721 by John Tayloe, John Lomax and associates. The works, which were on the Foxall’s mill property owned in 1670 by Major Underwood, were in operation in 1729 and later. — Map (db m22084) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — Burrell Eskridge and His Son Vernon Eskridge|
|In memory of Burell Eskridge and his son Vernon Eskridge who gave this parcel of ground to the Shiloh Baptist Church in 1881 and 1894 respectively; and his great grandson Norman Bryant in 1957. May the memory of these gentlemen and of their good deeds never die. — Map (db m22350) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — Clifts Plantation Burial Ground — Who Was Buried Here?|
|The Clifts Plantation cemetery was located on the opposite side of the current road. Because of long distances to the nearest church in the 17th and early 18th centuries, plantation burial grounds were common in the Chesapeake region.
Archaeologists found 17 burials in the cemetery - seven white and ten black. In the early 18th century, wealthy planters throughout the Chesapeake turned increasingly from white to enslaved black labor. To a large extent, the switch from indentured whites to . . . — Map (db m34568) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — Clifts Plantation Site — A Busy Tobacco Plantation Once Flourished Here|
|Between 1976 and 1978, archaeological excavations on this spot revealed the remains of the "Clifts," a busy tobacco plantation. When first occupied in 1670, this land belonged to Thomas Pope, an English merchant and Westmoreland County planter, and was farmed by his tenants. After Pope's death, it passed to his widow Joanna, and later to his son Nathaniel, who lived here just over a decade. In 1717 Nathaniel Pope sold "the manner house erected on the second clift [cliff]," its outbuildings, and . . . — Map (db m34569) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — Controlling the Water Supply to the Mill|
|When the head gates at the pond are opened, water runs under the dam into the wooden flume. Since the mill is started and stopped at frequent intervals, the flood gate at the side of the flume is left open to keep from overloading the flume when the water is shut off from the wheel. The gate over the waterwheel can be regulated from either floor of the mill. It controls the speed and power of the wheel. Both the force of the water entering the wheel buckets and its weight turn the wheel. Under full head the wheel produces about 15 horsepower. — Map (db m34469) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — Oval Site|
|University of Mary Washington-Stratford Hall Field School of archaeological excavations reveal a mid-eighteenth-century farm complex purposely demolished by the 1780s. At least two earthfast buildings (one with basement addition) and possibly other small outbuildings stood here. This area remained plowed field until the early 1930s. — Map (db m34446) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — Slave Cemetery — In Memoriam|
|This monument was erected by the Board of Directors of Stratford Hall in 1953. The reference to “those negroes who served Stratford so faithfully” reflects the attitude of the time shown by upper and middle class whites to former slaves and their descendants.
The cemetery is the final resting place for many African Americans, including members of the Payne family, whose association with Stratford Hall dates back to the early 19th century and possibly to the period when Stratford . . . — Map (db m34454) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — Stratford Hall|
Has been designated a
Under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935
This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States
U.S. Department of the Interior
National Park Service
1961 — Map (db m34444) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — Stratford Landing: Significant Events|
|In 1744 the Lancaster Commission, headed by Thomas Lee and William Beverley, set forth from Stratford Landing to Lancaster, Pennsylvania to treat with the Chiefs of the Iroquois. Lee’s knowledge of the Indians and his arbitration skills contributed greatly to the resulting “Treaty of Lancaster” which transferred Indian ancestral rights to the colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania and opened the Northwest Territory beyond the Alleghenies to settlement by the English.
In April . . . — Map (db m34467) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — The Landing: Gateway to the World|
|The narrow strip of beach between the cliffs was Stratford’s main gateway to the outside world. By 1743, Thomas Lee had built a wharf at “Lee’s Landing.” Over the next two decades the Lees owned or held interest in several large vessels which sailed from this landing on the Potomac to England with cargoes of tobacco.
In 1759 Philip Ludwell Lee constructed a public wharf and tobacco inspection station and warehouse at the landing, making it one of the most important commercial . . . — Map (db m34466) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — The Stratford Cliffs|
|Approximately 17 million years ago, during the Miocene Epoch, these 150-foot-high cliffs along the Potomac River formed the ancient seashore. Rich Miocene fossil deposits, which exist in the 1 1/2 -mile-long series of Horsehead, Stratford and Nomini Cliffs, can only be found in several locations in the world. Fossil remains of salt-water crocodiles, whales, porpoises, turtles, rays and sharks can be discovered along the shoreline. This overlook is one of a few spots along Stratford's northern . . . — Map (db m34585) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — The Stratford Mill|
|When Thomas Lee Purchased this one-acre mill site in 1743, nothing remained but the “old mill dam.” By 1745, he had built a mill which operated-off and on-until the Lees sold Stratford in the 1820s. The names of Stratford’s millers remain a mystery, with one exception: a 1782 inventory listed James, an enslaved African American, as miller. In the 1860s, Elizabeth Storke, Stratford’s owner, leased the site to Muse and Jenkins, local entrepreneurs who built a one-story mill which . . . — Map (db m34468) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — To Keep in Perpetual Remembrance the Name of Thomas Lee|
|President of his majesty's council and Commander in Chief of the colony and dominion of Virginia 1749 - 1750
A leader in the movement which resulted in the treaty of Lancaster 1744 by which Virginia was united with Maryland and Pennsylvania in joint effort to protect their boundaries and common interests and to open the Ohio Basin to English settlement
Councilor of State and Judge of the Supreme Court of Judication in the colony of Virginia 1732
Member of the House of Burgesses 1726 - . . . — Map (db m34442) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Tucker Hill — JT 93 — War of 1812 — Poisoning Inquiry at Yeocomico Church|
|In Spring 1814, a 36th U.S. Infantry detachment camped here at the near ruinous Yeocomico Church to guard against British Potomac River raids. Soon after the British landed at nearby Nomini Ferry in July, they found poisoned wine at the Thompson house and accused the Virginia militia of uncivilized warfare. Militia Gen. John P. Hungerford held a court of inquiry here in the repaired church and found the accusations “utterly without foundation.” The British accepted the finding. In . . . — Map (db m76406) HM|
|Virginia (Westmoreland County), Zacata — JT-17 — Private Tate, Buffalo Soldier|
|Walter Tate was born nearby in 1854. He
enlisted as a private on 6 May 1879 at Fort
Concho (present-day San Angelo), Texas, in
Company M, 10th Regiment, U. S. Cavalry.
Tate and those who served with him on the
western frontier defended settlements, livestock,
the U. S. mail, and stage routes from bandits,
cattle thieves, and Mexican revolutionaries.
The Indians called Tate and other soldiers of
color “Buffalo Soldiers” because of their dark
curly hair, endurance, and . . . — Map (db m22351) HM|