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Harrisonburg and Rockingham County in the Civil War. Use the “First >>” button above to see these markers in sequence.
Virginia (Rockingham County), Harrisonburg — A-29 — Cavalry Engagement
Here, at Lacey’s Springs, Rosser’s Confederate cavalry attacked Custer's camp, December 20, 1864. Rosser and Custer (of Indian Fame) had been roommates at West Point. — Map (db m649) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Harrisonburg — A-18 — Abraham Lincoln’s Father
Four miles west, Thomas Lincoln, father of the President, was born about 1778. He was taken to Kentucky by his father about 1781. Beside the road here was Lincoln Inn, long kept by a member of the family. — Map (db m656) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Elkton — Miller-Argabright-Cover-Kite HouseStonewall Jackson’s Headquarters, April 19-30, 1862 — 1862 Valley Campaign
Less than a month after his defeat at Kernstown, Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson retired to the Elk Run Valley to rest his troops and plan for the spring campaign. With his men camped all along Elk Run and into Swift Run Gap, Jackson made his headquarters here in Elkton (then Conrad’s Store). Jackson used this house, then the residence of the widow of John Argabright. According to staff member Henry Kyd Douglas, Jackson’s room was empty of furniture except for a thin mattress on . . . — Map (db m2835) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — A-35 — End of the Campaign
Here Stonewall Jackson, retreating up the Valley before the converging columns of Fremont and Shields, turned at bay, June 1862. A mile southeast Jackson’s cavalry commander, Ashby, was killed, June 6. At Cross Keys, six miles southeast, Ewell of Jackson’s army defeated Freemont, June 8. Near Port Republic, ten miles southeast, Jackson defeated Shields, June 9. This was the end of Jackson’s Valley Campaign. — Map (db m2869) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Elkton — Jennings HouseConfederate Hospital
1862 & 1864 Valley Campaigns. This eight-room brick dwelling was built in 1840 for Dr. Simeon B. Jennings, a former resident of Port Republic. At the time of the Civil War, it was one of only half a dozen houses located in the Conrad’s Store (present-day Elkton) community. On the evening of April 19, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s 6,000-man army marched by here and into a bivouac that stretched to Swift Run. After Jackson’s men departed on April 30, . . . — Map (db m2916) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Lynnwood — Port Republic
Port Republic Battlefield Civil War Site—Trail Stop 4. Struggle for the “Coaling” Federal commander Tyler placed at least 3 artillery pieces on this high part of the “Coaling,” and lined 3 more guns down the slope to the road on your right. All morning fire from this artillery played havoc with Confederate forces in front of you. With Jackson’s men facing a desperate situation on the plain to your right front, Brigadier General Richard . . . — Map (db m2926) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Lynnwood — Port Republic
Port Republic Battlefield Civil War Site—Trail Stop 1. Last Battle of Jackson’s 1862 Valley Campaign. You are standing on the “Coaling.” By the Civil War this area was nearly devoid of trees, the timber having been used for the production of charcoal. This was the key Federal artillery position during the Battle of Port Republic. Federal commander Brigadier General Erastus Tyler stretched his 3,000 infantry and 3 batteries of artillery in a line from a . . . — Map (db m2929) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Lynnwood — JD-10 — Battle of Port Republic
The cross road here roughgly divides the Confederate and Union lines in the battle of JUne 9, 1862. Jackson attacked Shields, coming southward to join Fremont, but was repulsed. Reinforced by Ewell, Jackson attacked again and drove Shields from the field. At the same time he burned the bridge at Port Republic, preventing Fremont from coming to Shields’ aid. — Map (db m2932) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Harrisonburg — D-6 — Battle of Cross Keys
Three miles south, on Mill Creek, Jackson’s rearguard, under Ewell, was attacked by Freemont, June 8, 1862. Trimble, of Ewell’s command, counterattacked, driving the Unionists back. Jackson, with the rest of his army, was near Port Republic awaiting the advance of shields up the east bank of the Shenandoah River. — Map (db m3474) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Cross Keys Battlefield
Here, June 8, 1862, Gen. J. C. Fremont—pursuing Gen. T. J. “Stonewall” Jackson—was checked by Gen. R. S. Ewell with part of Jackson’s army, which lay towards Port Republic. Federals engaged: 12,750, killed and wounded: 684. Confederates engaged: 8,000, killed and wounded: 288. — Map (db m4056) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Dayton — Lt. Col. Thomas F. Wildes
In memory of Lt. Col. Thomas F. Wildes, 116th Ohio Regiment, who, when ordered by Gen. Sheridan to burn the town of Dayton, Va. in retaliation for the death of a Union officer, refused to obey that order, risking court-martial and disgrace. His refusal and plea to Gen. Sheridan resulted in a countermand to the order, and saved this town from total destruction. — Map (db m11701) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Mount Crawford — A 32 — Sheridan's Last Raid
Here was fought the engagement of Mount Crawford, March 1, 1865, in Sheridan's last raid. — Map (db m13710) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Port Republic — Palmer Lot at Middle FordFord was site of Jackson’s temporary bridge
Parallel to South River is seen the bed of the lower millrace which brought water power to several village industries. The Galliday Tannery was located on the far left; the Dundore/Downs Tannery on the adjoining property on the right. The Robert Waller Palmer house, known as Green Isle, stood between the race and the river. Its foundation, now covered by periwinkle, exceeds the measurement of sixteen by sixteen feet, the minimum allowed size of houses built on the first lots sold in the newly . . . — Map (db m14080) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Port Republic — Madison HallHomesite scene of colonial settlement, Civil War clash
The crest of the hill was the site of Madison Hall, built in the mid-1700s for John Madison, the first Court Clerk of Augusta County, which originally included this area of Rockingham County within its frontier boundaries. In response to the presence of unfriendly Indians in the area during the French and Indian War, he built a fortified structure on the corner of the property. Madison's son, James, would become president of William and Mary College in 1777 and the first Bishop of the Episcopal . . . — Map (db m14083) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — General Turner Ashby of Fauquier
A mile and a half southeast of this spot General Turner Ashby of Fauquier, “Knight of the Valley”, was killed in battle June 6, 1862. To honor him and all of Rockingham’s enlisted men, 1861-1865 this tablet is erected, 1926. — Map (db m14281) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Lynnwood — Port Republic Battlefield
Here, June 9,1862 Gen. T. J. "Stonewall Jackson" defeated Gen. J. Shield’s vanguard advancing from Elkton under Gen. R. O. Tyler Federals engaged, 4,500 killed, wounded, and missing, 551, captured, 450 Confederates engaged, 6,000 Killed and wounded, 804 — Map (db m14346) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Lynnwood — Port Republic BattlefieldJune 9, 1862
General Stonewall Jackson, with 6,000 Confederates, attacked James Shields' vanguard of 3,000 under E.B. Tyler, which had marched down Luray Valley to join General J.C. Frémont's army. Jackson's first attack by General C.S. Winder's brigade, bolstered by the 7th Louisiana, was repulsed. Counterattacking, the Federals captured one Confederate cannon. Jackson was reinforced by units from General R.S. Ewell's division and General Dick Taylor's Louisiana brigade swung to the East, . . . — Map (db m14354) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Dayton — Death of Lt. MeigsDeadly Encounter — 1864 Valley Campaigns
Here on the old Swift Run Gap Road on the evening of October 3, 1864, Union Lt. John Rodgers Meigs was killed in a fight with three Confederate scouts guided by local resident Pvt. Benjamin F. “Frank” Shaver, 1st Virginia Cavalry. Meigs, of Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s staff, and two orderlies encountered the Confederates, who had entered Union lines that morning to observe the dispositions of Sheridan’s army camped around Harrisonburg. A firefight ensued and Meigs wounded a scout, but . . . — Map (db m15121) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Dayton — Death of Lt. MeigsThe Heavy Hand of War — 1864 Valley Campaigns
The death of Union Lt. John R. Meigs, near the granite marker on the hill in front of you, unleashed a firestorm of retaliation. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, erroneously told that civilian “bushwhackers” had killed Meigs, reported to Gen. U.S. Grant four days later that “for this atrocious act all the houses within an area of five miles were burned.” The affected area initially was to include “Tunkerville, Bridgewater and Dayton.” On October 4-5, the 5th New . . . — Map (db m15123) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Dayton — Site Where Lt. John Rodgers Meigs Was Killed
This is the approximate site where Union Lt. John Rodgers Meigs was killed in a fight with three Confederate scouts on October 3, 1864. In retaliation, General Philip H. Sheridan ordered that buildings over a large area, including the town of Dayton, be burned to the ground. The order to burn the town was later rescinded, but 30 other dwellings were destroyed in what became known as the "burnt district." — Map (db m15140) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Broadway — Elder John Kline Monument
(Front of Monument):At This Place Eld John Kline Was Killed June 15, 1864 (Reverse of Monument):Erected in the Year 1914 In Memory of Elder John Kline A Peace Martyr This parcel of ground, 10 feet square, is se- cured by deed and is on record. — Map (db m15632) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Linville — KB 65 — Lincoln's Virginia Ancestors
In 1768, John Lincoln moved here with his family from Pennsylvania. His eldest son, Abraham, grandfather of the president, might have remained a Virginian had his friend and distant relative, Daniel Boone not encouraged him to migrate to Kentucky by 1782. Abraham’s son, Thomas Lincoln, born in Virginia (ca. in 1778), met and married Nancy Hanks in Kentucky, where the future president was born on 12 February 1809. Nearby stands the Lincoln house built about 1800 by Captain Jacob Lincoln, the . . . — Map (db m15634) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Chestnut RidgeDeath of Ashby — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 6, 1862, the vanguard of Union Gen. John C. Frémont’s force, pursuing Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s army south up the Shenandoah Valley, reached this point near Harrisonburg. Jackson’s rear guard, led by Gen. Turner Ashby, engaged Federal cavalry here and captured Col. Sir Percy Wyndham, the English commander of the 1st New Jersey Cavalry who had earlier boasted that he would “bag Ashby.” The 1st Maryland Inf. And 58th Virginia Inf. set an . . . — Map (db m15752) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Port Republic — North River BridgeCovered bridge instrumental in Valley Campaign
The road seen across the river was the original route into the village from the north and west. Early visitors crossed North River by means of a ford, later a ferry, and finally a bridge. After the Civil War, four more bridges were built on approximately the same site; two of them destroyed by floods, two dismantled. In June 1862, near the end of his Valley Campaign, Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was being pursued by two Union forces, those of Gen. John Fremont on the . . . — Map (db m15792) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — The Battle of Cross Keys“It was not in men to stand such fire as that.” — 1862 Valley Campaign
Following Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s victory at Winchester, Union troops pursued the Confederates south, “up” the Shenandoah Valley. While Gen. John C. Fremont advanced on the Valley Turnpike, another Union force, led by Gen. James Shields, pursued Jackson through the Page (Luray) Valley father east. Jackson took position at Port Republic, four miles east of you, to engage Shields, leaving Gen. Richard Ewell here at Cross Keys to hold back Fremont. Ewell . . . — Map (db m16187) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysSlaughter of the 8th New York Infantry — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 8, 1862, during the Battle of Cross keys, Gen. Isaac R. Trimble’s Confederate brigade of a little more than 1,500 men occupied this line, a masked position behind a split-rail fence in what was then a wood line to your right and left. Shortly after noon, the 548-man-strong 8th New York Infantry of Gen. Julius Stahel’s brigade marched toward Trimble, but the regiment’s officers failed to put a skirmish line out front to locate the Southern position. Skirmishers from the 21st North . . . — Map (db m16191) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysThe Civilians of Cross Keys — 1862 Valley Campaign
During the Civil War, this battlefield contained some of the most productive farmland in the Shenandoah Valley and Virginia, as it does today. At the time of the battle, these fields were in stands of wheat, buckwheat, rye, corn, and clover. Almost all the farmers here were German Baptist Brethren, also called Dunkers or Dunkards because of their belief in adult baptism. Because they were pacifists who abhorred the taking of human life, many young Brethren men left the South or paid . . . — Map (db m25551) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysSouthern Artillery — 1862 Valley Campaign
Confederate Gen. Richard S. Ewell had five artillery batteries with him at Cross Keys. Four batteries and a 2-gun section (about 18 guns total) were massed on the ridgeline to your front. At the time of the battle on June 8, 1862, the ridge was mostly devoid of trees. Capt. Alfred Courtney’s Henrico Battery occupied the right of the Confederate position. Nineteen-year-old Lt. Joseph W. Latimer, who commanded a section of the battery, was later mentioned for his gallantry in Ewell’s report on . . . — Map (db m25550) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysDuel Attacks — 1862 Valley Campaign
Early on June 8, 1862, Union commander Gen. John C. Frémont viewed the field at Cross Keys and without proper reconnaissance assumed that Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s left flank was the strong side of the Confederate line. Frémont ordered his artillery to soften Ewell’s position. A duel ensued from 10 a.m. until noon, 20 Confederate guns against almost 50 Union cannons. Accurate Confederate fire caused a soldier from Ohio to remark that Stonewall Jackson himself must have paced off the range . . . — Map (db m25549) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysImmigrant Soldiers — 1862 Valley Campaign
Many immigrants fought for the North and the South during the Civil War. Their numbers were especially high in Gen. Louis Blenker’s division of Gen. John C. Fremont’s union army at Cross Keys on June 8, 1862. Two Germans (Gen. Henry Bohlen and Col. John Koltes) and one Hungarian (Gen. Julius Stahel) commanded Blenker’s three brigades on this part of the field. Blenker and his lieutenants had been officers in European revolutions during the 1840s. German, Swiss, Irish, English, Italians, . . . — Map (db m16265) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysTrimble’s Ravine — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 8, 1862, Confederate Gen. Isaac R, Trimble led part of the 15th Alabama Infantry Regiment through the then-swampy ravine in front of you to attack Union Gen. Louis Blenker’s division. Trimble intended to move around the 54th New York infantry Regiment on the rising ground beyond . he left the 21st Georgia Infantry, the 16th Mississippi Infantry, and the remaining portion of the 15th Alabama behind to make frontal assaults against the New Yorkers’ position. At about the same time, the . . . — Map (db m16267) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Mill Creek ChurchWar Strikes Peaceful Homes and Fields
This church, Mill Creek Church of the Brethren, stands on the site of an antebellum house of worship that, during the Battle of Cross Keys on June 8, 1862, was used as a hospital. Amputated arms and legs were dropped outside from a window and piled up until they finally reached the sill. Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson came here and asked a wounded staff officer about the progress of the battle. On September 30, 1864, this became the center of a wide area in which . . . — Map (db m16268) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysWalker’s Flank Attack — 1862 Valley Campaign
After repulsing the initial Union attack, Confederate Gen. Isaac R. Trimble’s brigade heavily engaged two brigades of Union Gen. Louis Blenker’s division near here on June 8, 1862. During the afternoon fighting, Col. James A. Walker’s demi-brigade consisting of the 13th and 25th Virginia infantry regiments reinforced Trimble. Walker marched his men along the Goods Mill Road on the Confederate rifght flank in an effort to move around the union forces facing Trimble. Walker’s first attempt to . . . — Map (db m16435) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Bridgewater — BridgewaterBridgewater During the War
The town of Bridgewater was a center of Confederate logistical activity during the Civil War. It also sent one company of infantry, the Bridgewater Grays, to the 10th Virginia Infantry Regiment, which fought in most of the major battles in Virginia as well as at Gettysburg. A Confederate remount station for cavalrymen from states other than Virginia was located a few blocks behind you. Confederate partisan ranger chief Capt. Charles Woodson of Missouri got mounts for his men here when they . . . — Map (db m16438) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Bridgewater — BridgewaterHistoric North River Crossing
After his victory at the Battle of McDowell on May 8, 1862, Gen. Stonewall Jackson made plans to attack another Federal force in the Shenandoah Valley. Earlier he had ordered Col. John D. Imboden to burn the bridges at Mount Crawford and Bridgewater to keep another union army from capturing Staunton while he fought in Highland County. When his army arrived here on Sunday, May 18, Capt. Claiborne Mason’s black pioneers were erecting a makeshift bridge using farm wagons parked in the river. . . . — Map (db m16439) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Dayton — DaytonDark Days in the Burnt District
In the fall of 1864, attacks by Confederate raiders and bushwhackers angered Federal officers in the Shenandoah Valley. On September 22, Union soldiers captured a hapless man named Davy Getz near Woodstock who was wearing civilian clothes and carrying a squirrel rifle. When Union Gen. George A. Custer ordered his execution as a bushwhacker, town elders pleaded with Custer for leniency, claiming that Getz had only the mind of a six-year-old. Custer ignored their pleas, and on October 1 or 2, . . . — Map (db m16440) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Dayton — Daniel Bowman Mill at Silver LakeShenandoah Valley Mills
During the Civil War, the Daniel Bowman Mill occupied this site, grinding wheat brought here by Rockingham County farmers. The county was part of the prosperous agricultural region known as the “breadbasket of the Confederacy.” It was no accident that the reaper was perfected in the Shenandoah Valley or that the largest flourmills in the world were constructed in Richmond to process Valley wheat harvests. The Shenandoah Valley’s agricultural success brought devastation to the . . . — Map (db m46125) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Warren-Sipe HouseHome and Hospital
This was the home of Edward T.H. Warren, a Harrisonburg attorney. As a lieutenant in the Valley Guards, a Rockingham County militia company, Warren attended the trial and execution of John Brown in Charles Town (in present-day West Virginia) in 1859. Warren was elected a town councilman in 1860, but soon left for the war. His former militia unit became Co. G in the 10th Virginia Infantry, which he helped form. He was commissioned lieutenant colonel on July 1, 1861, and commanded the regiment . . . — Map (db m41497) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Court Square & SpringhouseTemporary Prison Camp
During the Civil War, a road (Market Street) ran east and west through the courthouse square, dividing it roughly in half. The courthouse occupied the northern portion while the jail, clerk’s office, and springhouse were in the southern section. Plank fences surrounded both yards. These enclosures occasionally were used as holding pens for prisoners during the conflict. After the First Battle of Winchester on May 25, 1862, Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson confined about 2,000 . . . — Map (db m16482) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Bridgewater — Famous Travelers Along the Turnpike
In its 82 year history, the Warm Springs Turnpike was used by many noted travelers. Daniel Boone, when an old man, used the road when he visited the sons of his boyhood friend Henry Miller at Mossy Creek Ironworks to the south of Bridgewater. He spent about two weeks with younger Millers, hunting and recalling earlier times. Tradition says that Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay frequented Bridgewater inns on their travels between their homes in Tennessee and Kentucky, and Washington, D.C. . . . — Map (db m16485) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — The Woodbine Cemetery
The Woodbine Cemetery Company, Incorporated March 19, 1850 1877 These gates are erected in memory of the officers and members of the Woodbine Society, who gave generously of their time and means to beautify this cemetery, where they now rest from their labors. 1915 — Map (db m16486) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Confederate Monument
(North face):This Monument is erected by the Ladies Memorial Association in grateful remembrance of the gallant Confederate Soldiers, who lie here. They died in defense of the rights of the South, in the war between the States, from 1861 to 1865. (West face):1876. In memory of men who with their lives vindicated the principles of 1776. (South face): Battles of the Valley of the Shenandoah. McDowell, Piedmont, Cross Keys, Port Republic, New Market, Cedar Creek, Kernstown, . . . — Map (db m16487) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — 30A — Where Ashby Fell
A mile and a half east of this point, Turner Ashby, Stonewall Jackson’s cavalry commander, was killed, June 6, 1862, while opposing Fremont’s advance. — Map (db m16488) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Port Republic — The Frank Kemper HouseThriving river community was transportation hub
When Virginia Governor Alexander Spotswood’s 1716 expedition first laid claim to the Shenandoah Valley, the area had already been used for centuries by Native Americans. The town of port Republic was laid off into lots and chartered by an 1802 act of the Virginia Assembly. John Cathrae, Jr., son of a colonial landowner here, platted the village whose layout has changed little in the ensuing years. By 1832, Port Republic had become a thriving industrial town and shipping port. The millraces . . . — Map (db m16634) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Hardesty-Higgins HouseBanks's Headquarters
This was the home of Harrisonburg’s first mayor, Isaac Hardesty, an apothecary. Elected in 1849, Hardesty served until 1860. His Unionist sympathies compelled him to leave for Maryland after the Civil War began. Early in the first week of May 1862, Union Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks established his headquarters here while attempting to locate Confederate forces under Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson and Gen. Richard S. Ewell. Banks telegraphed Washington several times during his stay . . . — Map (db m41496) HM
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