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Markers related to the Battle of Crampton's Gap Use the “First >>” button above to see these markers in sequence.
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — BurkittsvilleHouses of Worship Become Houses of Misery — Antietam Campaign 1862
Union surgeons turned Burkittsville, a quiet rural village of some 200 people, into a hospital complex after the September 14, 1862, Battle of Crampton’s Gap. The building in front of you, the German Reformed Church, was Hospital D. Twenty-year-old Henrietta Biser gasped when she saw the church pews strewn in the front yard and “a pile of amputated limbs lying just inside the door of the church. Blood was running...over the floor...and things were torn to pieces.” Henry M. Wiener . . . — Map (db m1864) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 5 — Confederate ForcesMunford’s Brigade and Mahone’s Brigade
Confederate Forces Col. T. T. Munford, 2nd Virginia Cavalry, Commanding, Munford’s Brigade, 2nd & 12th Virginia Cavalry. Mahone’s Brigade, Lt. Col. Wm. A. Parham, 41st Virginia, Commanding. 6th, 12th, 16th, 41st, and 61st Virginia Infantry (September 14, 1862) Upon the approach of the Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, Munford’s Cavalry fell back through Jefferson and Burkittsville and prepared to dispute the passage of South Mountain. Mahone’s Brigade was marched over Crampton’s Pass . . . — Map (db m2045) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Chew’s Ashby Artillery
Captain R. Preston Chew organized Chew’s Ashby Artillery, the first “horse artillery” in the Confederate army, in November 1861. He named it for Colonel Turner Ashby. Chew’s battery bosted a 3 in ordinance rifle, a 12-pounder smoothbore howitzer, and an English Blakeley rifle. Blakeley guns were not commonly used during the Civil War. The battery, attached to Colonel Thomas T. Munford’s cavalry brigade, crossed the Potomac River on September 7. They followed Munford to Burkittsville . . . — Map (db m2055) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Burkittsville: Henry Burkitt’s Town
The first settlers in this area cleared their farm land and raised their families along two Indian trails that crossed here. Joshua Harley, one of these pioneers and a veteran of the American Revolution, started the settlement’s first dry goods store. In 1824 Harley’s store became Harley’s post office. Henry Burkitt moved here from Pennsylvania about 1825 and laid out a town along the east-west trail, subdividing larger tracts bought from his neighbors. In 1829, Burkitt donated property on . . . — Map (db m2051) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — “Sealed With Their Lives”
Just before the Confederate line along Mountain Church Road gave way, Brigadier General Howell Cobb arrived in Crampton’s Gap with his Georgia and North Carolina troops. After meeting with Colonel Thomas Munford, who had been directing the battle, Cobb allowed Munford to deploy Cobb’s troops. Munford ordered the 15th North Carolina to the Arnoldstown Road. There they took a position behind a stone wall facing Whipp’s Ravine. The 24th Georgia was ordered into the ravine while Cobb’s Legion . . . — Map (db m2060) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Battle for Crampton’s Gap“Sealed With Their Lives” — Antietam Campaign 1862
The Battle of South Mountain struck Crampton’s Gap late in the afternoon of September 14, 1862, when Union Gen. William B. Franklin finally ordered an attack against Confederate Gen. Lafayette McLaws’s force here. As the Confederate defensive line along the Mountain Church Road began to disintegrate, Gen. Howell Cobb arrived in Whipp’s ravine with reinforcements to stop the Federal onrush. Soon, they were surrounded on three sides. Lt. Col. Jefferson Lamar, leading Cobb’s Georgia Legion, . . . — Map (db m1909) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South Mountain . . . — Map (db m1958) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — George Alfred TownsendA Man and His Mountain — Antietam Campaign 1862
None of the structures you see here in Crampton’s Gap existed during the battle on September 14, 1862. George Alfred Townsend constructed all the stone buildings and walls, as well as the Correspondents’ Arch, between 1884 and 1896. Townsend, perhaps the most widely published Civil War correspondent of his time and the author of 21 books, wrote under the pseudonym GATH, which was derived from his initials plus the letter H. His father, a Methodist minister, gave Townsend a strong . . . — Map (db m1931) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Cobb’s Brigade McLaw’s Division C.S.A.Lt. Col. Jefferson M. Lamar & Cobbs Georgia Legion
Cobb’s Brigade McLaw’s Division C.S.A. ———— At 1 P.M. on September 14, 1862, Cobb’s Brigade under Gen. Howell Cobb of Athens, GA. marched from Sandy Hook to Brownsville at the west foot of South Mountain. At 4 P.M., as Cobb’s Brigade reached Brownsville, word came that the Union VI Corps, numbering 12,000 troops, was attacking Crampton’s Gap. The sole Confederate troops stationed there were Col. William A. Parham’s Brigade augmented . . . — Map (db m1964) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 4 — Sixth Army Corps
U. S. A. Sixth Army Corps. Major Gen. W. B. Franklin, Commanding (September 14, 1862) The Sixth Corps consisted of two Divisions commanded by Major Generals H. W. Slocum and W. F. Smith. On the march of the Army of the Potomac through Maryland, this Corps with Couch’s Division, Fourth Corps, temporarily attached, formed the left of the advancing line. It moved through Tennallytown, Darnestown, Poolesville and Barnesville, reaching Buckeystown, west of the Monocacy, 12 miles southwest of . . . — Map (db m2024) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 3 — Crampton’s Pass Tablet C.P. 3
(September 14, 1862) Upon the approach of the Sixth Corps, Army of the Potomac, from Jefferson, Col. T. T. Munford, Commanding Cavalry Brigade, prepared to dispute its advance through this Pass. Mahone’s Brigade, Lt. Col. Parham, Commanding, was put in position at the foot of the mountain, with the Cavalry, dismounted, on either flank. Chew’s (Va.) Battery of Horse Artillery and two guns of Grimes’ Portsmouth (Va.) Battery were placed half way up the mountain; later in the day Grimes’ guns . . . — Map (db m2023) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 2 — Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws' Command
C. S. A. Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws' Command (September 12-13, 1862) McLaws’ Command consisted of Kershaw’s, Barksdale’s, Semmes’ and Cobb’s Brigades of his own Division and R. H. Anderson’s Division of six Brigades-Wilcox’s, Mahone’s, Featherston’s, Armistead’s, Wright’s and Pryor’s. On the morning of the 12th, Kershaw and Barksdale crossed Pleasant Valley, ascended Maryland Heights at Solomon’s Gap and moving along the crest of the heights, attacked and drove the Union forces from the . . . — Map (db m2021) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — C.P. 1 — Crampton’s Pass Tablet C.P. 1
Between September 4th and 7th, 1862, the Army of Northern Virginia, General Robert E. Lee, Commanding, crossed the Potomac near Leesburg, and occupied Frederick, Maryland. On the 10th a movement was made to surround and capture the Union forces at Harpers Ferry. Early that morning General T. J. Jackson with Jackson’s (Stonewall) Division and the Divisions of R. S. Ewell. and A. P. Hill left Frederick, marched over South Mountain at Turner’s Pass, six miles north of this, crossed the Potomac . . . — Map (db m2020) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — The Battle of South Mountain
In September, 1862, after the second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee led his victorious Confederates on their first invasion of the North. At Frederick, Md. he boldly divided his army. Three columns (No. 1) were to surround and capture the Federal garrison at Harpers Ferry and then reunite with Lee and Longstreet (No. 2) at Boonsboro and Hagerstown and continue north. Gen. George McClellan’s strong Union army (No. 3) was hot on Lee’s heels, threatening to overrun his divided units. . . . — Map (db m2032) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — First New Jersey Brigade
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Infantry and Hexamer’s Battery September 14, 1862 Late in the afternoon the brigade advanced from the fields north and west of Burkittsville, charged up the mountain, carried this point and followed the enemy to the west foot of the mountain. Loss in the brigade 40 killed, 134 wounded. — Map (db m2061) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Troup Light Artillery
Organized in 1858 as the National Artillery, this unit changed its name to the Troup Light Artillery in honor of the former Georgia governor George W. Troup. It became a part of Cobb’s Legion when the war began. During the Maryland Campaign, the battery had two ten-pound Parrott rifles and two smoothbore bronze howitzers, a twelve-pounder called “Jennie” and a six-pounder named the “Sallie Craig.” Cobb’s Legion, including the Troup Light Artillery, was part of Major . . . — Map (db m2143) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — The Stage is Set
On the evening of September 13, 1862, Confederate cavalry under Brigadier General Wade Hampton and Colonel Thomas Munford occupied the Crampton’s Gap/Burkittsville vicinity. Early on the 14th, Major General J.E.B. Stuart, en route to Harpers Ferry, met with Munford and Hampton. Stuart took Hampton’s cavalry with him, leaving Munford’s 2nd and 12th Virginia Cavalry regiments behind. Late that morning Munford, who had fewer than 300 troopers, spotted a large Federal force approaching his position . . . — Map (db m2150) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Padgett’s Field: Confederate Last Stand
On September 14, 1862, this area was an open field belonging to George W. Padgett. A wooden, rail fence lined the road on the east. A low, stone wall bordered the field to the west. As the shattered remnants of Brigadier General Howell Cobb’s force streamed up Whipp’s Ravine and through the gap toward the safety of Pleasant Valley, Cobb attempted to check the retreat. He would put up a “last ditch” defense here on the summit of Crampton's Gap. With most of his troops in headlong . . . — Map (db m2144) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Medal of Honor Recipients
In July 1862 Congress authorized the president to present medals to soldiers of the United States Army for gallant and meritorious service. On September 14, 1862, two soldiers so distinguished themselves during the fighting at Crampton’s Gap that they would later be awarded this “Congressional Medal of Honor.” The 4th Vermont pursued Munford’s retreating Virginians from the stone wall near the foot of South Mountain to an unused wagon track on the eastern slope of the mountain. . . . — Map (db m2152) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Burial: A Most Disagreeable Task
The treatment of soldiers killed in action depended on which army held the battlefield after the guns fell silent. At South Mountain a few men from each Union regiment were assigned to burial details. To prevent the spread of disease, they lined up the dead where they fell and hurriedly buried them in shallow trenches. Under the best of circumstances it was not pleasant duty. The burial details processed their own dead first, often identifying bodies by notes pinned to the dead soldiers' . . . — Map (db m2145) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Bartlett Leads the Way
Colonel Joseph J. Bartlett, the Commander of the Second Brigade of Franklin’s First Division, found himself in a curious position. As a brigade commander, Bartlett chose both the field across which Franklin’s Corps would attack and the formation for the attack. Bartlett wrote: “I suggested the formation of the three brigades, in column of regiments, deployed, two regiments front, at 100 paces interval between lines (that would give us six lines); that the head of the column should be . . . — Map (db m2151) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Maryland Campaign of 1862 / The Lost Orders
(Left Side) On September 4, 1862, General Robert E. Lee, hoping to shorten the war by winning a decisive victory on Northern soil, crossed the Potomac River into Maryland. Lee planned to draw the Army of the Potomac through South Mountain into Pennsylvania and fight on ground of his choosing. His plan depended on securing his supply line down the Shenandoah Valley past Harpers Ferry—then garrisoned by nearly 13,000 Federal troops. When the Federals did not withdraw, Lee decided to . . . — Map (db m2039) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Mell Rifles & Troup Light Artillery
(Front Side): The Mell Rifles, Co. D, Cobb’s Legion Infantry, was raised in Athens, GA. in July 1861, by Patrick Hues Mell, Baptist minster and Vice Chancellor of the University of Georgia. After Mell resigned due to his wife’s death, Thomas U. Camak was named commander. John Boswell Cobb, Robert Goodman, and W.A. Winn were named lieutenants. Noncommissioned officers were J.F. Wilson, Wm. A. Gilleland, S.P. Kenney, G.W. Barber, J.J. Mattox, and L.H. Horne. The unit fought throughout . . . — Map (db m2044) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — GATH: The Man and His Mountain
George Alfred Townsend, known by his pen name of “GATH,” was born in Georgetown, Delaware, in 1841. One of the youngest and most renowned special correspondents of his time, he reported on politics and war in both the United States and abroad. In 1860, Gath’s natural talent and classical education earned him a job with the Philadelphia Inquirer. In 1861 he transferred to the New York Herald, where he reported on the Civil War. Noted for investigative . . . — Map (db m2038) HM
Maryland (Frederick County), Burkittsville — Brownsville Pass: Semmes’ Gamble
General Robert E. Lee directed Major General Lafayette McLaws to close in on the Federal garrison at Harper’s Ferry via Elk Ridge, west of South Mountain. McLaws’ route from Frederick took him through Middletown, where he turned southwest on the Middletown-Burkittsville Road. At Burkittsville, he marched southwest to Brownsville Pass. McLaws left Brigadier General Paul Semmes and his brigade at the western foot of the mountain at Brownsville on September 11. Semmes stayed at Brownsville until . . . — Map (db m2159) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Boonsboro — “Crampton’s Gap” “Maryland Heights” and “Pleasant Valley”
Important points during the first invasion of Maryland by the Army of the Confederacy in 1862. — Map (db m1879) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Gapland — “Crampton Gap”
An important part of the Battle of South Mountain was fought here September 14-15, 1862, when the Federal forces pressed the Confederate troops back into Pleasant Valley and on to Sharpsburg — Map (db m3901) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Gapland — Confederate Retreat
Driven from Crampton’s Gap on Sept. 14, 1862, by Gen. Franklin’s Sixth Corps, elements of McLaws’ Confederates formed across Pleasant Valley to bar Union advance on Maryland Heights and Harper’s Ferry. Later these Confederates joined Lee about Sharpsburg. — Map (db m2065) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Brownsville — Brownsville-Burkittsville Pass
Marching from Middletown to seize Maryland Heights, McLaws’ and Anderson’s Confederate Divisions crossed South Mountain by this road September 11, 1862. On September 14th Manley’s N.C. Battery and elements of Semmes’ Brigade defended the pass and protected Howell Cobb's right flank. — Map (db m2068) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Brownsville — St. Luke’s Episcopal ChurchBrownsville, Maryland — Founded 1837
During the civil war, St. Luke’s served as headquarters for General Lafayette McLaws, who’s troops from the Army of Northern Virginia were bivouacked around Brownsville, September 11, 1862. It served as a hospital for his wounded following the Battle of Antietam. Union forces later burned the interior of the church, leaving it a shell until its reconstruction in 1869. — Map (db m2072) HM
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