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Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Kernstown Battles
Around this site and a mile to the west occurred two major battles of the Civil War. First Kernstown March 23, 1862 Stonewall Jackson attacked what appeared to be a withdrawing federal force led by federal Br. Gen. Shields. Desperate fighting along a stone wall west of here ended with the arrival of federal reinforcements and Jackson was forced to withdraw. This action opened Jackson’s famous Valley Campaign and succeeded in preventing the withdrawal of Federals from the Valley to . . . — Map (db m2632) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Battle of KernstownMarch 23, 1862
General James Shields with 7,000 Federals defeated Stonewall Jackson with 3,500 Confederates. Jackson's object was to create a diversion which would prevent troops being sent to McClellan for the attack on Richmond. He arrived south of Kernstown in early afternoon Sunday, March 23, and attempted to turn the Federal right flank. To counter this, Colonel N. Kimball who succeeded to command after Shields was wounded March 22nd, advanced Colonel E.B. Tyler's brigade. Savage fighting followed for . . . — Map (db m33024) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A 9 — Battle of Kernstown
On the hill to the west, Stonewall Jackson late in the afternoon of March 23, 1862 attacked the Union force under Shields holding Winchester. After a fierce action, Jackson, who was greatly outnumbered, withdrew southward, leaving his dead on the field. These were buried next day by citizens of Winchester — Map (db m3150) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownThe Beginning of “Stonewall” Jackson’s Valley Campaign
The First Battle of Kernstown, fought by 10,000 Americans on March 23, 1862, was the first battle waged in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, sixteen Union cannon crowned the knolls of Pritchard’s Hill (the high ground immediately north of here) to hold an overmatched Confederate force in place. Shortly after noon, Major General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson delivered the remainder of his Confederate army to the battle. Relying on faulty intelligence, Jackson attacked a . . . — Map (db m2169) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The Pritchard HouseA Family Caught in the Midst of War!
The large brick dwelling before you is the Pritchard House, built by Steven C. Pritchard, Jr. and his son Samuel R. Pritchard. During the Civil War, Samuel, his wife Helen, and their two small children occupied the house. Fighting swirled around the home during the First and Second Battles of Kernstown, as it did during smaller engagements on June 13, 1863, and August 17, 1864. Whenever combat raged across the farmstead, Samuel sheltered his family in the cellar. When the fighting subsided, . . . — Map (db m2295) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The Second Battle of KernstownMulligan’s Final Stand
Late in the afternoon on July 24, 1864, 1,800 Union soldiers led by Colonel James A. Mulligan fell back to this lane. Major General John B. Gordon’s Confederate force attacked from the ground beyond Opequon Church. Mulligan held off Gordon briefly, but Confederate Major General John C. Breckinridge’s devastating flank attack struck the Irishman from the east side of the Valley Pike. Breckinridge, a former U.S. Vice President, personally led his men forward. One soldiers deemed him, “the . . . — Map (db m2190) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownFulkerson’s Virginians Attack!
The low, marshy ground stretching from here to the distant road lay uncontested through the five-hour artillery duel that opened the First Battle of Kernstown. The scene changed dramatically at 2:00 P.M. when 900 Virginians marched toward this position from the leafless woods previously standing across the road. Colonel Samuel V. Fulkerson led this Confederate attack. A lawyer from Abingdon, Virginia, Fulkerson received his orders directly from General “Stonewall” Jackson, who . . . — Map (db m2195) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownAn Unheralded Commander’s Unique Victory
At 9:00 A.M. on March 23, 1862, Confederate artillery unlimbered near the Valley Turnpike and fired on this height, called Pritchard’s Hill, to begin the First Battle of Kernstown. Union artillery rolled onto these knolls and responded by discharging 700 rounds of shot and shell over the next five hours. More than 300 Union soldiers crowded the height to protect the artillery while Colonel Nathan Kimball, the Union battlefield commander, set up headquarters on this same hill. Kimball . . . — Map (db m2197) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The Second Battle of KernstownTwo Future U.S. Presidents Fought at Kernstown
Colonel James A. Mulligan’s Union command of 1,800 men encamped on these heights on the night of July 23-24, 1864. When Confederate cavalry drove Union cavalry back toward Kernstown on the morning of the 24th, Mulligan deployed two cannon on this hill checking the Confederate advance. Mulligan subsequently advanced his small command to support the Union cavalry south of Kernstown. Mulligan’s immediate superior, Major General George Crook, doubted several reports indicating the presence of . . . — Map (db m2199) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — First Battle of Kernstown
Was fought here Sunday, March 23, 1862 Confederates under Gen. T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson attacked Federals under Gen. James Shields. The fighting was chiefly west of the road and continued from early afternoon until nightfall. When Jackson retired with—his first and only reverse—Confederates engaged 3,000, casualties 718. Federals engaged 8,000, casualties 590. — Map (db m2635) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rose Hill“I do not recollect having ever heard such a roar of musketry.” — 1862 Valley Campaign
The First Battle of Kernstown, on March 23, 1862, was also the first major Civil War battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, 16 Union cannons on Pritchard’s Hill held off Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s overmatched Confederate command. Relying on intelligence that was soon proved faulty, Jackson not only attacked a force that outnumbered his by 3,000 men, but also tried and failed to dislodge the Union guns by direct assault. In mid-afternoon, the tide . . . — Map (db m2646) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — War in the Backyard
At the beginning of the Civil War, the third generation of the Scots-Irish Glass family lived at Rose Hill. The household consisted of Thomas Glass (age 67), and his wife Margaret (age 51), his son William (age 25) and fifteen slaves, most of them children. The following year Thomas passed away. His son, William, recently married, took over the management of the farm. A Southern supporter, William was commissioned Lt. Col. of the 51st Regiment Virginia Militia serving under Gen. Thomas J. . . . — Map (db m3495) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — How To See the Battlefield
On March 23, 1862, the opening conflict of the famous Valley Campaign began on the adjoining Glass and Pritchard farms. You are visiting the Glass Farm called Rose Hill. The neighboring Pritchard Farm is 1½ miles to the southeast (right) of where you are standing. The conflict began early in the morning on the Pritchard Farm and concluded on the Glass Farm with the loss of sunlight at the end of the day. Acting on faulty intelligence that his small army outnumbered the Northern forces at . . . — Map (db m3496) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fight for the High Ground
The Shenandoah Valley's strategic location and rich farmland caused it to be the scene of two major Civil War campaigns that comprised hundreds of battles and skirmishes. Many Valley farms, like Rose Hill, became battlefields or campgrounds unexpectedly and often repeatedly. By far the most significant event to occur here was the 1st Battle of Kernstown, March 23, 1862. Here soldiers fought the first Civil War battle in the Sheanandoah Valley. Here Southern Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson suffered . . . — Map (db m3498) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Advance of Tyler’s Brigade
Northern Colonel Nathan Kimball saw the position of his troops on nearby Pritchard's Hill (1.5 miles left and in front of you) becoming indefensible. Southern artillery recently placed on the higher elevation of Sandy Ridge (just in front of you) seriously threatened them. In an effort to capture these guns, Kimball dispatched Colonel Erastus B. Tyler (Ohio) with a brigade of infantry from Winchester. He hoped Tyler's troops would conduct a surprise attack on the Southern left and rear. . . . — Map (db m3501) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Defense of the Stone Wall
Southern General Thomas Jackson was already going by the nickname "Stonewall" when he directed his troops to this location to support the Southern artillery on Sandy Ridge. Ironically, his troops' retreat from this stone wall led to Jackson's only tactical defeat of the war. The stone wall here at 1st Kernstown was originally waist-high. It was a farm fence, made of stones picked up from the farm fields full of limestone outcroppings common to the northern Shenandoah Valley. The wall began . . . — Map (db m3502) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Order for Retreat
Northern commander Colonel Nathan Kimball 1.5 miles away (over the hill on your right) on Prichard's Hill faced the threat of defeat. He decided to seize the initiative and order a second assault against the Southern artillery atop Sandy Ridge. At approximately 5:00 p.m., the first of these troops arrived, causing some of the Southern artillery to withdraw and threatening the Southern right flank behind the stone wall. The troops behind the stone wall were now under Southern Brigadier General . . . — Map (db m3504) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Northern Victory, Southern Defeat
As Southern units retreated and resistance fell apart, Northern victory was assured. Jackson found himself surrounded by a disorderly retreat of his soldiers. In the growing dark, a few fresh Southern units made gallant attempts to cover the Southern retreat from Northern pursuit. One group formed a defensive square until they were completely surrounded and had to surrender. In the fields where you now stand, Northern horsemen gathered up approximately 250 wounded and retreating Southern . . . — Map (db m3507) HM
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