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Winchester and Frederick County, Virginia Civil War Markers. Use the “First >>” button above to see these markers in sequence.
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-15 — Battle of Cedar Creek
Near this point General Early, on the morning of October 19, 1864, stopped his advance and from this position he was driven by Sheridan in the afternoon. — Map (db m568) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-14 — End Of Sheridan’s Ride
This knoll marks the position of the Union Army when Sheridan rejoined it at 10:30 A.M., October 19, 1864, in the Battle of Cedar Creek. His arrival, with Wright's efforts, checked the Union retreat. — Map (db m577) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-16 — Engagement Of Middletown
Here Stonewall Jackson, on May 24, 1862, attacked Banks retreating from Strasburg and forced him to divide his army. — Map (db m578) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephens City — A-12 — Stephens City
General David Hunter ordered the burning of this town on May 30, 1864; but Major Joseph Streans of the First New York Cavalry prevented it. — Map (db m580) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Battle of Cedar Creek
October 19, 1864. General Philip Sheridan defeated General Jubal Early here for the third time in 30 days. Sheridan’s pursuit of Confederates from Fisher’s Hill halted at Mount Crawford. On his return he encamped his three corps in this immediate area. Early followed the Federals, arriving at Fisher’s Hill October 13. Scarcity of food and forage forced him to decide on attack or withdrawal. Early chose to take the offensive despite the odds. At 4:30 a.m. on the 19th, General J. B. Gordon began . . . — Map (db m581) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A 56 — Battle of Cedar Creek
In early Oct. 1864, portions of Union Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s army bivouacked here on the hills and rolling farmland just north of Cedar Creek along the Valley Turnpike (present-day U.S. Rte. 11). Just before daybreak on 19 Oct., Confederate Lt. Gen Jubal A. Early’s infantry divisions surprised and attacked the Federals, routing two of Sheridan’s three infantry corps. Maj. Gen. Horatio G. Wright, commanding in Sheridan’s absence, organized a retreat north. Sheridan arrived on the . . . — Map (db m50310) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — A-17 — Tomb Of An Unknown Soldier
On the highest mountain top to the southeast is the grave of an unknown soldier. The mountain top was used as a signal station by both armies, 1861-1865. — Map (db m586) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Colonel Charles Russell Lowell
Commanding Reserve Brigade Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah Fell in action near this place October 19, 1864 Useful Citizen * Gallant Soldier He died too early for his country (reverse side) Cedar Creek October 19, 1864 — Map (db m1868) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownThe Beginning of “Stonewall” Jackson’s Valley Campaign
The First Battle of Kernstown, fought by 10,000 Americans on March 23, 1862, was the first battle waged in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, sixteen Union cannon crowned the knolls of Pritchard’s Hill (the high ground immediately north of here) to hold an overmatched Confederate force in place. Shortly after noon, Major General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson delivered the remainder of his Confederate army to the battle. Relying on faulty intelligence, Jackson attacked a . . . — Map (db m2169) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The Second Battle of KernstownMulligan’s Final Stand
Late in the afternoon on July 24, 1864, 1,800 Union soldiers led by Colonel James A. Mulligan fell back to this lane. Major General John B. Gordon’s Confederate force attacked from the ground beyond Opequon Church. Mulligan held off Gordon briefly, but Confederate Major General John C. Breckinridge’s devastating flank attack struck the Irishman from the east side of the Valley Pike. Breckinridge, a former U.S. Vice President, personally led his men forward. One soldiers deemed him, “the . . . — Map (db m2190) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownFulkerson’s Virginians Attack!
The low, marshy ground stretching from here to the distant road lay uncontested through the five-hour artillery duel that opened the First Battle of Kernstown. The scene changed dramatically at 2:00 P.M. when 900 Virginians marched toward this position from the leafless woods previously standing across the road. Colonel Samuel V. Fulkerson led this Confederate attack. A lawyer from Abingdon, Virginia, Fulkerson received his orders directly from General “Stonewall” Jackson, who . . . — Map (db m2195) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The First Battle of KernstownAn Unheralded Commander’s Unique Victory
At 9:00 A.M. on March 23, 1862, Confederate artillery unlimbered near the Valley Turnpike and fired on this height, called Pritchard’s Hill, to begin the First Battle of Kernstown. Union artillery rolled onto these knolls and responded by discharging 700 rounds of shot and shell over the next five hours. More than 300 Union soldiers crowded the height to protect the artillery while Colonel Nathan Kimball, the Union battlefield commander, set up headquarters on this same hill. Kimball . . . — Map (db m2197) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The Second Battle of KernstownTwo Future U.S. Presidents Fought at Kernstown
Colonel James A. Mulligan’s Union command of 1,800 men encamped on these heights on the night of July 23-24, 1864. When Confederate cavalry drove Union cavalry back toward Kernstown on the morning of the 24th, Mulligan deployed two cannon on this hill checking the Confederate advance. Mulligan subsequently advanced his small command to support the Union cavalry south of Kernstown. Mulligan’s immediate superior, Major General George Crook, doubted several reports indicating the presence of . . . — Map (db m2199) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — J 3 — Third Battle of Winchester
Here Confederate forces under General Jubal A. Early, facing east, received the attack of Sheridan’s army at noon on September 19, 1864. Early repulsed the attack and countercharged, breaking the Union line. Only prompt action by General Emory Upton in changing front saved the Union forces from disaster. At 3 P.M. Sheridan made a second attack, driving Early back to Winchester. — Map (db m2268) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — J 13 — Third Battle of Winchester
On a hill, approximately one-half mile to the west, Philip H. Sheridan established his final position on September 19, 1864. General Jubal A. Early held the ground one-half mile further to the west. At 4 P.M., Sheridan advanced with massed cavalry and infantry and broke Early's line. — Map (db m2271) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A 3 — Capture of Star Fort
The fort on the hilltop to the southwest, known as Star Fort, was taken by Colonel Schoonmaker of Sheridan’s Army in the Battle of September 19, 1864. — Map (db m2275) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephens City — NewtownBurnings and Hangings — 1864 Valley Campaign
As the Federal army attempted to conquer and hold the Valley in 1864, its lines of supply and communication were extended and became susceptible to attack by bands of Confederate partisans. On May 24, 1864, under orders from Union Gen. David Hunter, three residences in Newtown (now Stephens City) were burned in retaliation for shots fired at a wagon train the evening before. Five days later, Confederate Major Harry Gilmor’s 2nd Maryland Battalion attacked 16 wagons and their guards at the . . . — Map (db m41658) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The Pritchard HouseA Family Caught in the Midst of War!
The large brick dwelling before you is the Pritchard House, built by Steven C. Pritchard, Jr. and his son Samuel R. Pritchard. During the Civil War, Samuel, his wife Helen, and their two small children occupied the house. Fighting swirled around the home during the First and Second Battles of Kernstown, as it did during smaller engagements on June 13, 1863, and August 17, 1864. Whenever combat raged across the farmstead, Samuel sheltered his family in the cellar. When the fighting subsided, . . . — Map (db m2295) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — A 1 — Action at Stephenson’s Depot
Near this place on June 15, 1863, Confederate troops of General Edward “Allegheny” Johnson’s Division attacked and routed General Robert Milroy’s Union Army during its retreat from Winchester. The short, pre-dawn battle resulted in the capture of Milroy’s wagon train and more than 2300 Union prisoners. From here, the Confederate Army advanced into Pennsylvania where it suffered defeat two weeks later at Gettysburg. — Map (db m2329) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — Jordan SpringsHealing Springs
During the Civil War, both United States and Confederate forces used Jordan Springs resort as a hospital at different times. Wounded and sick Confederate soldiers from the Antietam and Gettysburg battlefields came to the springs—although Martinsburg, W.Va., was closer—because Confederate sympathies were stronger here. When soldiers died, they were buried on the resort grounds, and in 1866, their remains were reinterred in the Stonewall Cemetery in Winchester. The resort suspended . . . — Map (db m2358) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — Third Battle of Winchester"One Moving Mass of Glittering Sabers" — 1864 Valley Campaigns
On September 19, 1864, Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s Army of the Shenandoah routed Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Valley Army at the Third Battle of Winchester (also called Opequon) in the bloodiest and largest battle in the Shenandoah Valley. The opening action was several miles to the east, where opposing infantry divisions slugged it out at the mouth of Berryville Canyon and over the plain of First Woods, Middle Field and Second Woods. The crushing end of the battle began here, where . . . — Map (db m41660) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephenson — Stephenson Depot"The Thermopylae of my campaign.”
In the spring of 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia began a march that culminated at the Battle of Gettysburg. Lee chose the Shenandoah Valley for his invasion route. Ninety-six hundred Federals under Gen. Robert H. Milroy stood in his way at Winchester. Lee sent Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s 2nd Corps to clear the way. On June 14, 1863, the Confederates attacked the Federals at Winchester. Realizing it was in danger of being surrounded, Milroy’s command . . . — Map (db m41659) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A 4 — Fort Collier
Just to the east, a redoubt known as Fort Collier was built by Joseph E. Johnston in 1861. Early’s left rested here during the Third Battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864. — Map (db m2481) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fort Collier“I never saw such a sight”
Confederate troops constructed Fort Collier in 1861 after the evacuation of Harpers Ferry. The earthworks, which surrounded the Benjamin Stine house here, commanded the approach to Winchester on the Martinsburg and Winchester Turnpike. The fort saw little action until late in the afternoon on September 19, 1864, when, during the Third Battle of Winchester, it became a focal point of the engagement. Here a great Union cavalry charge led by Gen. Wesley Merritt turned the battle against Gen. Jubal . . . — Map (db m2492) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Lt. Collier’s Earthworks
From the time of Virginia’s secession from the Union on May 23, 1861, until just before the Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861, the Confederate government in Richmond recognized the importance of defending the Lower Shenandoah Valley. When Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston occupied Winchester in June, 1861, he began to fortify the town with earthworks. Fort Collier was probably built under the supervision of General W.H.C. Whiting, Johnston’s chief engineer. In the first months of the . . . — Map (db m2494) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Fort Collier
1861-1864 General Joseph E. Johnston commanded all Confederate forces in Virginia from 1861 until late in May of 1862. His initial post had been at Harpers Ferry, thought to be the key to the defense of the Shenandoah Valley. Johnston, however, believed that Harpers Ferry was indefensible, and that, in fact, Winchester was the key to the Valley. In June 1861, he evacuated Harpers Ferry and fell back to Winchester, which he began to fortify. Winchester’s proximity to Manassas proved the . . . — Map (db m2508) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The Cavalry Charge at Fort Collier
September 19, 1864 The shocking impact of the great charge and capture of Fort Collier unhinged Early’s entire line of battle. Confederate troops streamed south through the streets of Winchester, Confederate artillery continued firing from Star Fort, slowing the Federal pursuit; a few regiments made a brief stand at Mt. Hebron Cemetery, enabling Early to withdraw his tired and battered forces to Fishers Hill, above Strasburg. Except for a few brief hours at the Battle of Ceder Creek, one . . . — Map (db m2509) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Third Battle of Winchester
September 19, 1864 Lieutenant General Jubal Early’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign began in June of 1864. Until the Third Battle of Winchester on September 19, he more than fulfilled General Lee’s hopes that the great success of 1862 could be repeated in 1864. Early’s opponent, General Philip Sheridan, assumed command of the Army of the Shenandoah on August 7, 1864. By September 19 its strength was just under 40,000 men. Sheridan’s mission, entrusted to him by General Grant and President . . . — Map (db m2511) HM
Virginia, Winchester — 2nd Battle of Winchester
June 13–15, 1863 General Richard S. Ewell with 14,000 Confederates defeated General Robert H. Milroy with 6,900 Federals. Prior to his second invasion of the North, Lee sent Ewell to Winchester to clear the Valley of Federals. Dividing his forces, Ewell on June 14th deployed General E. Johnson’s division to divert Milroy’s attention to the east, while General J.A. Early’s troops marched undetected around southwestern limits of town to attack from the west at 6 p.m. Anticipating . . . — Map (db m2518) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Q 4f — Jackson’s Headquarters
This house was used by Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, then commanding the Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia, as his official headquarters from November 1861, to March, 1862, when he left Winchester to begin his famous Valley Campaign. — Map (db m2519) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Jackson’s HeadquartersI am quite comfortable
Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, commanding the Shenandoah Valley military district, lived in this house from mid-November 1861 through early March 1862. Here he planned a winter campaign against Union forces at Romney and Bath (present-day Berkeley Springs) and prepared to defend the Shenandoah Valley. This Gothic Revival-style cottage, Alta Vista, was built in 1854 for William M. Fuller. The south-facing entrance overlooked a broad, open hillside with a commanding . . . — Map (db m2540) HM
Virginia, Winchester — A 5 — First Battle of Winchester
On May 24, 1862, Confederate forces under Major General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson pursued Major General Nathaniel Banks’ Union Army from Strasburg to Winchester. Banks made a stand south of Winchester, posting one of two infantry brigades on Bower’s Hill, now known as Williamsburg Heights, and the other here in the plain below. In attacks the following day, Jackson routed the Union Army and drove it through the town towards Harper’s Ferry. — Map (db m2570) HM
Virginia, Winchester — First Battle of Winchester
May 25, 1862 between Confederates under Brig. Gen. T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson and the Federals under Maj. Gen. N.P. Banks began just south of this site. The Federals were driven in retreat through Winchester’s streets with loss of stores and many prisoners. Confederates engaged, 16,000, casualties 400. Federals engaged, 8,000, casualties 2017. — Map (db m2591) HM
Virginia, Winchester — 1st Battle of Winchester
May 25, 1862 General Stonewall Jackson with 16,000 Confederates defeated General N.P. Banks and 6,000 Federals. On May 24, at Middletown, 12 miles South, Jackson attacked Banks’ army withdrawing toward Winchester, cutting off the rear guard and capturing or destroying a large number of wagons. Jackson launched his attack on Winchester at 5 a.m. May 25. Contesting this thrust was Colonel George Gordon’s 3rd Brigade. General Dick Taylor’s Louisiana Brigade, reinforced by the 10th and 23rd . . . — Map (db m2594) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A 11 — First Battle of Winchester
Here Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson and his army, early on the morning of 25 May 1862, defeated Union Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Bank’s forces during Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley campaign. Banks, outnumbered and outflanked, hastily retreated north through the streets of Winchester. The Confederate pursuit was lethargic, as the men were exhausted from a week of heavy marching, but they captured many Union soldiers and a heavy quantity of wagons and stores. President . . . — Map (db m2596) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A 8 — Second Battle of Winchester
On June 14, 1863, Jubal A. Early moved west from this point to attack Federal fortifications west of Winchester. — Map (db m2597) HM
Maryland, Baltimore — Frederick DouglassAbolitionist / Orator / Author
Frederick Douglass was born into American slavery on Maryland's Eastern Shore in February 1818. In March 1826, Douglass, a slave child, was sent to live in the Hugh Auld household at this location, from 1826-1831. Douglass periodically resided in Fells Point as a slave until Monday, September 3, 1838, when he escaped to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Douglass returned to Baltimore as a free man on May 19, 1870 to address the 20,000 participants in the 15th Amendment Celebration . . . — Map (db m2603) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Abram’s Delight“Best wishes to all at your house”
The oldest dwelling in Winchester, Abram’s Delight experienced the passage of both Union and Confederate armies during the war. Although the property stood in the path of the First Battle of Winchester on May 25, 1862, it survived and now illustrates the civilian side of the conflict. Mary Hollingsworth and her siblings, Jonah and Annie, occupied the house during the war. Standing more than six feet tall, Mary Hollingsworth may have impersonated a man to spy for the Confederates, according to . . . — Map (db m2606) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Opequon Presbyterian Church
Early Years This historic church was established by Scotch-Irish and German settlers who migrated from eastern Pennsylvania in the early 1730’s. William Hoge donated two acres of land for a meeting house, and an additional two acres for a burying ground. Two log and two stone houses of worship have occupied this site. The congregation was officially organized as a Presbyterian Church circa 1736 under oversight of the Donegal (Pa.) Presbytery. Named Opequon Church after the original name of . . . — Map (db m2620) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Kernstown Battles
Around this site and a mile to the west occurred two major battles of the Civil War. First Kernstown March 23, 1862 Stonewall Jackson attacked what appeared to be a withdrawing federal force led by federal Br. Gen. Shields. Desperate fighting along a stone wall west of here ended with the arrival of federal reinforcements and Jackson was forced to withdraw. This action opened Jackson’s famous Valley Campaign and succeeded in preventing the withdrawal of Federals from the Valley to . . . — Map (db m2632) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — 1790 Stone Church
These native limestone steps are in their original position and mark the main entrance to a 40' x 60' stone church built on this site in 1790. The entrance was in the center of its east wall with the pulpit area against the west wall. This church replaced the second of two log meeting houses which had occupied the site since Opequon’s organization in 1736. During the Civil War, the building was badly damaged and was used as a stable for horses by Union troops. Following the war, and after . . . — Map (db m2634) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — First Battle of Kernstown
Was fought here Sunday, March 23, 1862 Confederates under Gen. T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson attacked Federals under Gen. James Shields. The fighting was chiefly west of the road and continued from early afternoon until nightfall. When Jackson retired with—his first and only reverse—Confederates engaged 3,000, casualties 718. Federals engaged 8,000, casualties 590. — Map (db m2635) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Second Battle of WinchesterLouisiana Tigers Capture West Fort — Gettysburg Campaign
In June 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee marched his infantry from Culpeper County to the Shenandoah Valley to launch his second invasion of the North. First, however, he had to capture Winchester, the largest town on his line of communication, which Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy and a 9,000 man garrison occupied. Milroy soon faced Gen. Robert S. Ewell and 17,000 men of the Army of Northern Virginia’s Second Corps. After heavy skirmishing on June 12-13, Milroy ordered his command into three . . . — Map (db m2645) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rose Hill“I do not recollect having ever heard such a roar of musketry.” — 1862 Valley Campaign
The First Battle of Kernstown, on March 23, 1862, was also the first major Civil War battle fought in the Shenandoah Valley. Throughout the morning, 16 Union cannons on Pritchard’s Hill held off Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s overmatched Confederate command. Relying on intelligence that was soon proved faulty, Jackson not only attacked a force that outnumbered his by 3,000 men, but also tried and failed to dislodge the Union guns by direct assault. In mid-afternoon, the tide . . . — Map (db m2646) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Sheridan’s Headquarters
1861 hdqts. for Gen. R. H. Milroy. 1862 hdqts. for Gen. N.P. Banks who took the town for the first time. Was again used by Gen. Milroy in 1863. In the fall of 1864–1865 Gen. Sheridan used it as hdqts. Sheridan left here to rally his troops at the Battle of Ceder Creek on Oct. 19, 1864. After the war it became the Episcopal Female Institute. — Map (db m2652) HM
Virginia, Winchester — J 4 — Third Battle of Winchester
Near here Early, facing east, took his last position on September 19, 1864. About sundown he was attacked and driven from it, retreating south. Presidents Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley served in this engagement on the Union side. — Map (db m2656) HM
Virginia, Winchester — WinchesterThe Valley Campaigns — 1862 & 1864 Valley Campaigns
Winchester’s location at the north end of the Shenandoah Valley made it a place of strategic importance during the Civil War. From here, roads led north and east threatening Washington, D.C., and the Valley Turnpike led south and west endangering the breadbasket of the Confederacy. Winchester endured a seemingly endless series of occupations and evacuations as the war ebbed and flowed through the city. Stonewall Jackson made his headquarters here during the winter of 1861–1862. He . . . — Map (db m2657) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Second Battle of Winchester
June 13-15, 1863 took place during Gen. Lee’s advance to Gettysburg between Confederates under Gen. Ewell and Federals under Gen. Milroy. The Federals occupied positions on the hills north and west of Winchester now called Milroys and Star Forts from which they retreated and a large part of their army made prisoners by the Confederates. — Map (db m2658) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Frederick County CourthouseWitness to War
During the Civil War, the Union and Confederate armies each used the Frederick County Courthouse as a hospital and a prison. Cornelia McDonald, a local citizen, nursed the wounded here after the First Battle of Kernstown on March 23, 1862. She later wrote, “I went to the court house; the porch was strewed with dead men. Some had papers pinned to their coats telling who they were. All had the capes of their coats turned over to hide their still faces; but their poor hands, so pitiful . . . — Map (db m2659) HM
Virginia, Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(The Battle of the Opequon) September 19, 1864 The decisive assault in the campaign set in motion by General Grant to free the Shenandoah Valley from the control of the Confederacy took place here. This high ground was part of Winchester’s defensive rampart against attack from the east. At daybreak the first gunfire was heard as General Ramseur’s North Carolinians fired on Capt. Hull’s NY Cavalry as it emerged from the Berryville Canyon (VA 7 near the I-81 overpass) 1.5 miles northeast of . . . — Map (db m2660) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Glen Burnie"Winchester is a very pleasant place to stay in, sir."
This historic Shenandoah Valley home, known as Glen Burnie, is the homestead of Col. James Wood, who founded Winchester on a portion of his land in 1744. Wood’s son, Robert, began the present house in 1794, but the estate was home to the Wood-Glass families from the 1730s to the 1990s. During the Civil War, Winchester changed hands many times, as Union and Confederate forces occupied, fought over, and won or lost possession of the town. Each side occupied Glen Burnie several times because of . . . — Map (db m2665) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — B 19 — Second Battle of Winchester
Here Jubal A. Early, detached to attack the rear of Milroy, holding Winchester, crossed this road and moved eastward in the afternoon of June 15, 1863. — Map (db m2666) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — J 16 — Defenses of Winchester
The fort on the hilltop to the north is one of a chain of defenses commanding the crossings of the Opequon. It was constructed by Milroy in 1863. — Map (db m80324) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — B 16 — Colonel John Singleton Mosby
This road, along which many of his skirmishes took place, is named for Colonel John Singleton Mosby, commander of the 43rd Battalion of the Confederate Partisan Rangers. Their activities in this area helped keep the Confederate cause alive in Northern Virginia toward the end of the Civil War. — Map (db m2668) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Third Battle of WinchesterA Gathering of Future Leaders — 1864 Valley Campaign
The Third Battle of Winchester, fought here on September 19, 1864, was a proving ground for several men on both sides who shaped post-war America. They included two future presidents, two senators, a state governor, and several military leaders. Statesmen Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, who commanded a Federal VIII Corps brigade, was president from 1877 to 1881. Capt. William McKinley, who led a VIII Corps infantry company, was president from 1897 to 1901, when he was assassinated. Gen. John B. . . . — Map (db m3086) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on a wide front north from Winchester. Sheridan planned to use his army of 39,000 men to attack the portion of Early's force near Winchester. Early, however, learned of the impending attack and raced to concentrate his army at Winchester. The Third . . . — Map (db m3090) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Confederate Horse Artillery
"A more murderous fire I never witnessed..."Col. Thomas Munford, C.S.A. In an effort to protect the Confederate left flank, Gen. Fitzhugh Lee placed a detachment of cavalry and six pieces of horse artillery, lighter cannons made specifically for horse soldiers, along this rise. These guns, under the command of Major James Breathed, poured a devastating fire into the ranks of the Union Nineteenth Army Corps as it advanced and retreated across the fields on the other side of Red Bud . . . — Map (db m3091) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Attack of the Eighth Corps
"The order was to walk fast, keep silent, until within about one hundred yards of the guns, and then with a yell to charge at full speed." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. At noon on September 19, Union General Sheridan's Sixth and Nineteenth Corps met Early's Confederate force in attacks on the south side of Red Bud Run. Union Gen. George Crook's Army of West Virginia, the Eighth Corps, waited in reserve two miles east of here as the battle raged. When it became clear that the . . . — Map (db m3092) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A 9 — Battle of Kernstown
On the hill to the west, Stonewall Jackson late in the afternoon of March 23, 1862 attacked the Union force under Shields holding Winchester. After a fierce action, Jackson, who was greatly outnumbered, withdrew southward, leaving his dead on the field. These were buried next day by citizens of Winchester — Map (db m3150) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Fording Red Bud Run
"To stop was death. To go on was probably the same; but on we started again." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. Red Bud Run is as wide and boggy today as it was in 1864. During their attack, the men of the Eighth Corps sank into the marshy flood plain on the north bank, then trudged through the waistdeep water. The men forged on amid enemy fire and some reportedly fell wounded and drowned in the crossing. Hayes reported that "the rear and front lines and different regiments of . . . — Map (db m3159) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Hackwood House
Prominent Virginian John Smith was charged with guarding prisoners of war held in Winchester during the Revolutionary War. He purportedly had this stately home (in front of you) built by Hessian and British prisoners around 1777. During the fighting at the Third Battle of Winchester, Gordon's Confederate troops formed around the Hackwood House and its outbuildings. At 3 p.m. the Union Eighth, Sixth, and Nineteenth Corps attacked. Col. Thoburn of the Eighth Corps described what happened next: . . . — Map (db m3164) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Confederate Defense
In the mid-morning of September 19, Confederate Gen. John B. Gordon's infantry, veteran troops from Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia, took position to your right on the other side of Hackwood Lane. At 11:40 a.m., at the sound of artillery fire, infantry of the Union Nineteenth Corps advanced upon the Confederates. During the assault, Confederate Col. Carter M. Braxton brought seven guns to the hill on which you are standing. Braxton positioned his guns wheel to wheel, loaded with double . . . — Map (db m3174) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Second Woods
You are standing at the site of what is known as the Second Woods. The fighting in and around the Second Woods was so rapid and chaotic that many participants disagreed on the details and order of the events. But this is much clear: at 11:40 a.m., Gen. Cuvier Grover's Union Division attacked with fixed bayonets across the Middle Field before you. The rapid and impetuous charge caught the Confederates unprepared - apparently only Gen. Clement Evans' Brigade of Georgians was positioned in and . . . — Map (db m3175) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Confederates Reform
"Unless this force were driven back, the day was lost." General Jubal A. Early, C.S.A. Standing here about noon during the battle, you would have seen Union troops under Gen. Henry Birge pursuing Gen. Clement Evans' Georgians from right to left. The Confederates took shelter behind a rocky ledge and began to regroup. "The position was most critical," remembered Confederate commander Jubal Early, "for it was apparent that unless this force were driven back, the day was . . . — Map (db m3187) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The West Woods
You are standing near the center of General Early's infantry line at what has come to be called the West Woods. Although these particular trees were not here during the Battle of Third Winchester, some are in the same location as those that stood on that day. At 11:40 a.m., the Union Sixth and Nineteenth Corps marched toward you to confront Early's troops positioned to your left and right. As Union Gen. Horatio Wright's Sixth Corps advanced along the Berryville Pike, it veered southward . . . — Map (db m3188) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Middle Field - Bloodiest Encounter in the Shenandoah Valley
You are standing in the Middle Field - perhaps the bloodiest place in the Shenandoah Valley. After hours of preparation, Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah was ready to advance against the Confederate position east of Winchester at 11:40 a.m. Emerging from the woods behind you Union Gen. Cuvier Grover's 2nd Division, Nineteenth Corps was to move across the field in two lines of battle, advancing with the Sixth Corps to its left. Unfortunately, the Sixth Corps was ordered to follow the Berryville . . . — Map (db m3189) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The First Woods - A Perfect Slaughterhouse
As Confederates drove Union Gen. Grover's 2nd Division back across the fields in front of you, the 1st Division of the Nineteenth Army Corps was moving up to the edge of the First Woods behind you, (the tree line was then some 400 yards further east). Union Gen. William Dwight recalled that his men were barely in position when the 2nd Division "came back ... flying over the open ground between the two woods in the grandest disorder." Union Gen. William H. Emory, commander of the . . . — Map (db m3192) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on a wide front north from Winchester. Sheridan planned to use his army of 39,000 men to attack the portion of Early's force near Winchester. Early, however, learned of the impending attack and raced to concentrate his army at Winchester. The Third . . . — Map (db m3194) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Camp Averell
In the months after the Third Battle of Winchester, this area became home to Camp Averell, named after Union cavalry gen. William Woods Averell. Elements of six cavalry and "mounted infantry" regiments from New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia all camped here from September 1864 to March 1865. Shallow pits from winter huts can still be found, remnants of the sprawling camp. This "camp" was hardly settled, however. The units stationed here conducted active operations in the Shenandoah . . . — Map (db m3196) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester The Union Rear
The First Woods saw little combat, but areas near the front lines were bustling with activity. Here, men of Grover's, Dwight's, and Thoburn's Union divisions formed for their attacks across the Middle Field. Union Generals rallied the broken Nineteenth Corps, and field hospitals were established here to care for the wounded. More than 5,000 men were wounded in the Third Battle of Winchester. Before they could be moved to proper hospitals in and around Winchester, men limped, crawled, or were . . . — Map (db m3198) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Union Victories in the Valley
After the successful attack of the Union Eighth Corps, it was only a matter of time before the Confederates lost the battle. As Confederate Gen. Early consolidated his lines closer and closer to Winchester, his men faced coordinated infantry attacks. Worse still, powerful Union cavalry forces fought their way along the Valley Pike, threatening to surround Early's forces. Although the Southerners offered stubborn resistance at Fort Collier, Star Fort, and from every fenceline and barricade they . . . — Map (db m3199) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Shawnee Springs Hospital
Clearing and Evacuation Facility Valley Campaigns Federal medical authorities established the largest temporary hospital of the Civil War in the aftermath of the Third Battle of Winchester on September 19, 1864. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan's medical director, Surgeon James T. Ghiselin, on September 22, ordered Surgeon John H. Brinton to lay out a 4,000-bed facility. Brinton in turn ordered 500 tents and medical supplies for 5,000 patients that had been positioned at Northern rail yards, . . . — Map (db m3200) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Heater House
Probably built around 1800, this clapboard-covered log house was once the center of a prosperous 600 acre farm owned by Solomon and Caroline Wunder Heater. Although two of her sons died in Confederate service, Mrs. Heater, a native of Pennsylvania, was a Unionist and frequently provided shelter and supplies to the federals. Her loyalty was ultimately repaid by a 1901 federal grant for some wartime damages. Donated to the People of the United States by Candice and John Richards of Pennsylvania — Map (db m3334) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Battlefield Center
From this position (Belle Grove Mansion is west of here) most of the VI and XIX U.S. Corps camps were visible on 19 October 1864. The XIX Corps camped close to their earthworks along the ridge to the south. VI Corps units were placed along the ridges west of Belle Grove. The tents of Sheridan's headquarters covered the ground around Belle Grove while the army supply trains deployed in the fields adjacent to the Valley Pike. Colonel Howard Kitching's Provisional Division of the VIII U.S. Corps . . . — Map (db m3363) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Ramseur Monument
Esse Quam Videri Northwest of this tablet, 800 yards, is the Belle Grove House in which died, October 20, 1864, of wounds received at Cedar Creek October 19, 1864, Maj.-Gen. Stephen Dodson Ramseur, C.S.A. A native of North Carolina, he resigned from the United States Army in 1861, and entering the Confederate Sates Army as a Lieutenant rose to rank of Major-General at the age of 27. — Map (db m18684) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — The Battle of Cedar Creek
Fought on these hills and fields, Oct 19, 1864. Gen. Jubal A. Early's 22,000 Confederates attacked Gen. Philip H. Sheridan's 60,000 Federals. The first assault a surprise flank movement by Gen. John B. Gordon, was a Confederate success. This advantage not being followed up, enabled Gen. Sheridan to rally and win the victory. — Map (db m3380) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — 128th New York Volunteer Regiment
Dedicated on 15 October 1907, this monument is adjacent to the original Valley Pike right of way. It marks the eastern limit of the XIX U.S. Corps positions occupied on 19 October 1864 and is at the approximate point where U.S. Generals Horatio G. Wright and William H. Emory conferred at the opening of the Confederate assault. The 128th New York, from Dutchess and Columbia Counties, lost nearly half its strength at the Battle of Cedar Creek. Its veterans placed the monument here as a memorial . . . — Map (db m3397) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Union Trenches
The main portion of the XIX U.S. Corps earthworks began here and extended one mile westward. Colonel Daniel Macaulay's 3rd Brigade, a part of Brigadier General Cuvier Grover's 2nd Division, occupied them with the 128th New York and 38th Massachusetts Regiments. The 176th and 156th New York Regiments left these trenches to form a line parallel to the Valley Pike north of this point to halt the Confederate attack. C.S. Major General Joseph B. Kershaw's main attack, coming from the southeast, hit . . . — Map (db m3399) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — 1st Maine Battery
Captain Eben D. Haley's 1st Maine Light Artillery occupied a knoll behind the contact point of Colonel Daniel Macaulay's 3rd Brigade and Brigadier General Henry W. Birge's 1st Brigade. The battery quickly came under Confederate artillery fire and lost 27 men and 46 horses before withdrawing. Under pressure from Connor's South Carolina Brigade of C.S. Major General Joseph B. Kershaw's Division, Birge's infantrymen began moving westward down the trench line. Donated to the People of the United . . . — Map (db m3427) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Molineux's 2nd Brigade
The westernmost brigade of U.S. Brigadier General Cuvier Grover's 2nd Division, XIX U.S. Corps, the 2nd Brigade first came under pressure when C.S. Major General Joseph B. Kershaw's Division attacked its front and left. Then C.S. Major General John B. Gordon's men, charging from the east, ran into the federal camps in the brigade's rear. Corps commander Major General William H. Emory ordered the brigade commander Colonel Edward L. Molineux to turn his trenches so his men faced what seemed the . . . — Map (db m3428) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Union Withdrawal
Elements of Brigadier General James W. MacMillan's 1st Division, XIX U.S. Corps, left their part of the earthworks to fight C.S. Major General John B. Gordon's men closer to the Valley Pike. When Colonel Edward L. Molineux's and Brigadier General Henry W. Birge's Brigades of the 2nd Division reached this area, corps commander William H. Emory detached the 11th Connecticut Regiment from Molineux and sent it toward Belle Grove. The remainder of the XIX Corps units in the trenches continued . . . — Map (db m3429) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — War in the Backyard
At the beginning of the Civil War, the third generation of the Scots-Irish Glass family lived at Rose Hill. The household consisted of Thomas Glass (age 67), and his wife Margaret (age 51), his son William (age 25) and fifteen slaves, most of them children. The following year Thomas passed away. His son, William, recently married, took over the management of the farm. A Southern supporter, William was commissioned Lt. Col. of the 51st Regiment Virginia Militia serving under Gen. Thomas J. . . . — Map (db m3495) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — How To See the Battlefield
On March 23, 1862, the opening conflict of the famous Valley Campaign began on the adjoining Glass and Pritchard farms. You are visiting the Glass Farm called Rose Hill. The neighboring Pritchard Farm is 1½ miles to the southeast (right) of where you are standing. The conflict began early in the morning on the Pritchard Farm and concluded on the Glass Farm with the loss of sunlight at the end of the day. Acting on faulty intelligence that his small army outnumbered the Northern forces at . . . — Map (db m3496) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Fight for the High Ground
The Shenandoah Valley's strategic location and rich farmland caused it to be the scene of two major Civil War campaigns that comprised hundreds of battles and skirmishes. Many Valley farms, like Rose Hill, became battlefields or campgrounds unexpectedly and often repeatedly. By far the most significant event to occur here was the 1st Battle of Kernstown, March 23, 1862. Here soldiers fought the first Civil War battle in the Sheanandoah Valley. Here Southern Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson suffered . . . — Map (db m3498) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Advance of Tyler’s Brigade
Northern Colonel Nathan Kimball saw the position of his troops on nearby Pritchard's Hill (1.5 miles left and in front of you) becoming indefensible. Southern artillery recently placed on the higher elevation of Sandy Ridge (just in front of you) seriously threatened them. In an effort to capture these guns, Kimball dispatched Colonel Erastus B. Tyler (Ohio) with a brigade of infantry from Winchester. He hoped Tyler's troops would conduct a surprise attack on the Southern left and rear. . . . — Map (db m3501) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Defense of the Stone Wall
Southern General Thomas Jackson was already going by the nickname "Stonewall" when he directed his troops to this location to support the Southern artillery on Sandy Ridge. Ironically, his troops' retreat from this stone wall led to Jackson's only tactical defeat of the war. The stone wall here at 1st Kernstown was originally waist-high. It was a farm fence, made of stones picked up from the farm fields full of limestone outcroppings common to the northern Shenandoah Valley. The wall began . . . — Map (db m3502) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Order for Retreat
Northern commander Colonel Nathan Kimball 1.5 miles away (over the hill on your right) on Prichard's Hill faced the threat of defeat. He decided to seize the initiative and order a second assault against the Southern artillery atop Sandy Ridge. At approximately 5:00 p.m., the first of these troops arrived, causing some of the Southern artillery to withdraw and threatening the Southern right flank behind the stone wall. The troops behind the stone wall were now under Southern Brigadier General . . . — Map (db m3504) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Northern Victory, Southern Defeat
As Southern units retreated and resistance fell apart, Northern victory was assured. Jackson found himself surrounded by a disorderly retreat of his soldiers. In the growing dark, a few fresh Southern units made gallant attempts to cover the Southern retreat from Northern pursuit. One group formed a defensive square until they were completely surrounded and had to surrender. In the fields where you now stand, Northern horsemen gathered up approximately 250 wounded and retreating Southern . . . — Map (db m3507) HM
Virginia, Winchester — 3rd Battle of WinchesterSeptember 19, 1864
In the late summer of 1864 General Philip H. Sheridan with 41,000 Federals was ordered to take the vital Shenandoah Valley.Opposing this force was a Confederate army of 18,000 under General Jubal A. Early stationed north and east of Winchester. On September 19, Sheridan moved on Winchester from the east employing Generals H.G.Wright's and W.H. Emery's Corps. The Confederates under Generals R.E. Rodes and J.B. Gordon counterattacked but were driven back by overwhelming numbers. Sheridan the sent . . . — Map (db m4789) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Catherine B. Conrad
1836–1902. This house was built for Kate Conrad in 1889. Member of a prominent Winchester family, she devoted her life to educational and religious activities. She was an administrator for the Slater Trust of Boston, which sought to educate former slaves during the reconstruction. She established the “Training School for Colored Cooks,” a free Winchester Institution. She was a founding member of the Confederate Memorial Association. Kate never married. According to one . . . — Map (db m5599) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester Thoburn's Attack
As the Nineteenth Corps tried to reorganize its lines, Union Col. Joseph Thoburn's division of the Eighth Army Corps came up from reserve and took position at the edge of the First Woods behind you. Union Gen. Philip Sheridan soon arrived and directed Thoburn to move forward as soon as the other division of the Eighth Corps (on the other side of Red Bud Run) was ready. About 3 p.m. "a mighty battle yell," from the other side of Red Bud Run announced the arrival of those troops and the . . . — Map (db m6314) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Gen. Russell Hastings
23rd Ohio Inf Wounded 19 Sept. 1864 — Map (db m6316) HM
Virginia, Winchester — A-7 — First Battle of Winchester
Here Stonewall Jackson, in the early morning of May 25, 1862, halted his advance guard and observed the union position. — Map (db m7341) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Braddock Street Methodist Church
"To Serve the Present Age" - Charles Wesley From Court House to Church Thirty-two charter members met July 24, 1858, in the Frederick County Court House and were organized as a congregation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Virginia Conference. The first church building was erected 1858-59 on this site near the corner of Braddock and Wolfe. The first service was the celebrating of Christmas, 1858, in the basement at the partially completed church. The church building was . . . — Map (db m7342) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Star FortGuardian of Winchester
Three times during the Civil War, Star Fort played a major role in the defense of Winchester. Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy’s troops began constructing the fort in January 1863 on the site of artillery emplacements Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s men had built in 1861. Milroy, a fervent abolitionist, used stone from the nearby home of U.S. Senator James Mason, author of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act. Star Fort commanded the Martinsville Turnpike and the Pughtown Road. . . . — Map (db m12055) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A 38 — Hackwood Park
One mile east is the site of Hackwood Estate House, built in 1777 by General John Smith. Documents reveal that the Hackwood House caught fire during the Third Battle of Winchester. Union troops used the buildings on the site for a hospital, September 19, 1864. — Map (db m12090) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — A 2 — Action of Rutherford’s Farm
Near here, the Confederate General Stephen D. Ramseur was attacked by General William W. Averell and pushed back toward Winchester, July 20, 1864. — Map (db m12091) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Battle of Rutherford's FarmUnion Victory
Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early attacked the defenses of Washington, D.C., in July 1864, then retreated to the Shenandoah Valley. Union Gen. Horatio G. Wright pursued him, and after a sharp fight and Confederate victory at Cool Spring on July 18, the two forces clashed again two days later here at John Rutherford’s farm. As Union Gen. William W. Averell’s Union cavalry and infantry division advanced south from Martinsburg, W.Va., pursuing Early, the Confederate general ordered Gen. Stephen . . . — Map (db m13988) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — Rutherford's FarmIn the Path of Battle
In addition to the action of July 20, 1864, known as the Battle of Rutherford’s Farm, two other significant events occurred on or near John Rutherford’s property here. The first took place on June 14-15, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign, as Union Gen. Robert H. Milroy’s army evacuated Winchester and fled north. Milroy had constructed fortifications around Winchester, but Confederate Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s corps, the vanguard of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, captured one . . . — Map (db m14026) HM
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