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Take a Virtual Tour by Markers of the CWPT's Third Winchester Battlefield. Use the “First >>” button above to see these markers in sequence.
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on a wide front north from Winchester. Sheridan planned to use his army of 39,000 men to attack the portion of Early's force near Winchester. Early, however, learned of the impending attack and raced to concentrate his army at Winchester. The Third . . . — Map (db m3194) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — Camp Averell
In the months after the Third Battle of Winchester, this area became home to Camp Averell, named after Union cavalry gen. William Woods Averell. Elements of six cavalry and "mounted infantry" regiments from New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia all camped here from September 1864 to March 1865. Shallow pits from winter huts can still be found, remnants of the sprawling camp. This "camp" was hardly settled, however. The units stationed here conducted active operations in the Shenandoah . . . — Map (db m3196) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — The Union Rear
The First Woods saw little combat, but areas near the front lines were bustling with activity. Here, men of Grover's, Dwight's, and Thoburn's Union divisions formed for their attacks across the Middle Field. Union Generals rallied the broken Nineteenth Corps, and field hospitals were established here to care for the wounded. More than 5,000 men were wounded in the Third Battle of Winchester. Before they could be moved to proper hospitals in and around Winchester, men limped, crawled, or were . . . — Map (db m3198) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — Thoburn's Attack
As the Nineteenth Corps tried to reorganize its lines, Union Col. Joseph Thoburn's division of the Eighth Army Corps came up from reserve and took position at the edge of the First Woods behind you. Union Gen. Philip Sheridan soon arrived and directed Thoburn to move forward as soon as the other division of the Eighth Corps (on the other side of Red Bud Run) was ready. About 3 p.m. "a mighty battle yell," from the other side of Red Bud Run announced the arrival of those troops and the . . . — Map (db m6314) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — Union Victories in the Valley
After the successful attack of the Union Eighth Corps, it was only a matter of time before the Confederates lost the battle. As Confederate Gen. Early consolidated his lines closer and closer to Winchester, his men faced coordinated infantry attacks. Worse still, powerful Union cavalry forces fought their way along the Valley Pike, threatening to surround Early's forces. Although the Southerners offered stubborn resistance at Fort Collier, Star Fort, and from every fenceline and barricade they . . . — Map (db m3199) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — The First Woods - A Perfect Slaughterhouse
As Confederates drove Union Gen. Grover's 2nd Division back across the fields in front of you, the 1st Division of the Nineteenth Army Corps was moving up to the edge of the First Woods behind you, (the tree line was then some 400 yards further east). Union Gen. William Dwight recalled that his men were barely in position when the 2nd Division "came back ... flying over the open ground between the two woods in the grandest disorder." Union Gen. William H. Emory, commander of the . . . — Map (db m3192) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — The Middle Field - Bloodiest Encounter in the Shenandoah Valley
You are standing in the Middle Field - perhaps the bloodiest place in the Shenandoah Valley. After hours of preparation, Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah was ready to advance against the Confederate position east of Winchester at 11:40 a.m. Emerging from the woods behind you Union Gen. Cuvier Grover's 2nd Division, Nineteenth Corps was to move across the field in two lines of battle, advancing with the Sixth Corps to its left. Unfortunately, the Sixth Corps was ordered to follow the Berryville . . . — Map (db m3189) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — The West Woods
You are standing near the center of General Early's infantry line at what has come to be called the West Woods. Although these particular trees were not here during the Battle of Third Winchester, some are in the same location as those that stood on that day. At 11:40 a.m., the Union Sixth and Nineteenth Corps marched toward you to confront Early's troops positioned to your left and right. As Union Gen. Horatio Wright's Sixth Corps advanced along the Berryville Pike, it veered southward . . . — Map (db m3188) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — The Confederates Reform
"Unless this force were driven back, the day was lost." General Jubal A. Early, C.S.A. Standing here about noon during the battle, you would have seen Union troops under Gen. Henry Birge pursuing Gen. Clement Evans' Georgians from right to left. The Confederates took shelter behind a rocky ledge and began to regroup. "The position was most critical," remembered Confederate commander Jubal Early, "for it was apparent that unless this force were driven back, the day was . . . — Map (db m3187) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — The Second Woods
You are standing at the site of what is known as the Second Woods. The fighting in and around the Second Woods was so rapid and chaotic that many participants disagreed on the details and order of the events. But this is much clear: at 11:40 a.m., Gen. Cuvier Grover's Union Division attacked with fixed bayonets across the Middle Field before you. The rapid and impetuous charge caught the Confederates unprepared - apparently only Gen. Clement Evans' Brigade of Georgians was positioned in and . . . — Map (db m3175) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — Confederate Defense
In the mid-morning of September 19, Confederate Gen. John B. Gordon's infantry, veteran troops from Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia, took position to your right on the other side of Hackwood Lane. At 11:40 a.m., at the sound of artillery fire, infantry of the Union Nineteenth Corps advanced upon the Confederates. During the assault, Confederate Col. Carter M. Braxton brought seven guns to the hill on which you are standing. Braxton positioned his guns wheel to wheel, loaded with double . . . — Map (db m3174) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — Hackwood House
Prominent Virginian John Smith was charged with guarding prisoners of war held in Winchester during the Revolutionary War. He purportedly had this stately home (in front of you) built by Hessian and British prisoners around 1777. During the fighting at the Third Battle of Winchester, Gordon's Confederate troops formed around the Hackwood House and its outbuildings. At 3 p.m. the Union Eighth, Sixth, and Nineteenth Corps attacked. Col. Thoburn of the Eighth Corps described what happened next: . . . — Map (db m3164) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — Fording Red Bud Run
"To stop was death. To go on was probably the same; but on we started again." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. Red Bud Run is as wide and boggy today as it was in 1864. During their attack, the men of the Eighth Corps sank into the marshy flood plain on the north bank, then trudged through the waistdeep water. The men forged on amid enemy fire and some reportedly fell wounded and drowned in the crossing. Hayes reported that "the rear and front lines and different regiments of . . . — Map (db m3159) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — The Attack of the Eighth Corps
"The order was to walk fast, keep silent, until within about one hundred yards of the guns, and then with a yell to charge at full speed." Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, U.S.A. At noon on September 19, Union General Sheridan's Sixth and Nineteenth Corps met Early's Confederate force in attacks on the south side of Red Bud Run. Union Gen. George Crook's Army of West Virginia, the Eighth Corps, waited in reserve two miles east of here as the battle raged. When it became clear that the . . . — Map (db m3092) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester — Confederate Horse Artillery
"A more murderous fire I never witnessed..."Col. Thomas Munford, C.S.A. In an effort to protect the Confederate left flank, Gen. Fitzhugh Lee placed a detachment of cavalry and six pieces of horse artillery, lighter cannons made specifically for horse soldiers, along this rise. These guns, under the command of Major James Breathed, poured a devastating fire into the ranks of the Union Nineteenth Army Corps as it advanced and retreated across the fields on the other side of Red Bud . . . — Map (db m3091) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Winchester — The Third Battle of Winchester
(Left Side): The Third Battle of Winchester - September 19, 1864 Bloodiest Battle of the Shenandoah Valley Gen. Jubal Early assuming that Gen. Phil Sheridan was yet another cautious Union commander, divided his roughly 14,000 troops on a wide front north from Winchester. Sheridan planned to use his army of 39,000 men to attack the portion of Early's force near Winchester. Early, however, learned of the impending attack and raced to concentrate his army at Winchester. The Third . . . — Map (db m3090) HM
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