“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Virginia Civil War Trails Historical Markers

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Alexandria in the Civil War Marker image, Click for more information
By Craig Swain, March 1, 2008
Alexandria in the Civil War Marker
Virginia, Alexandria — AlexandriaAlexandria in the Civil War
“Alexandria is ours,” declared Col. Orlando Wilcox of the 1st Michigan Vol. Inf. as his regiment captured the city on the morning of May 24, 1861. When Virginia's vote of secession became effective, Union forces immediately crossed the . . . — Map (db m159) HM
Virginia, Alexandria — Fort Ward1861-1865
This stairway leads up the west wall of Fort Ward between the Northwest Bastion (to the left) and the Southwest Bastion (to the right). Fort Ward had 14 cannon emplacements along this area of the wall that created overlapping fields of fire. . . . — Map (db m7709) HM
Virginia, Charlottesville — CharlottesvilleConfederate Heroes Remembered
Lee and Jackson Parks contain two of Charlottesville's fine examples of public sculpture, gifts of benefactor Paul Goodloe McIntire (1860-1952). The Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson statue was dedicated in 1921,the Robert E. Lee statue in 1924. . . . — Map (db m497) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Dismal Swamp CanalThe Battle of South Mills
Before you is the Dismal Swamp Canal, a much sought after prize of war during the Civil War. The Confederates made good use of the canal facilities during the initial stages of the conflict. A large volume of supplies passed through in both . . . — Map (db m37765) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Glencoe"He was brave, gentle and polished"
“Glencoe,” the plantation home of Capt. William Wallace of the Jackson Grays, was located approximately one-half mile northeast of this site. William C. Wallace was born at Wallaceton, Norfolk County, Virginia, on March 23, 1842, and . . . — Map (db m22446) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Pleasant Grove Baptist Church CemeteryHome of the Jackson Greys
This is the former site of the Pleasant Grove Baptist Church. The monument to the "Jackson Greys" honors the regiment that was formed on the grounds of Pleasant Grove Baptist Church by Capt. (later Lieutenant Colonel) William H. Stewart who lived . . . — Map (db m45788) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Seven Patriot HeroesHomes and Last Resting Places
Nearby were the homes of three Afro-Virginians who served in the United States Colored Troops (USCT) during the Civil War. Sgt. March Corprew, Co. I, 2nd USCT Cavalry, and his brother Pvt. Daniel Corprew, Co. D, 1st USCT Cavalry, lived on a . . . — Map (db m48918) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — The Cuffeytown ThirteenPatriot Heroes
Thirteen African American veterans of the Civil War are interred nearby at the Cuffeytown Historic Cemetery. They served in the 5th, 10th, and 36th United States Colored Troops infantry regiments organized in 1863 and 1864, after the Emancipation . . . — Map (db m48917) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Village of Deep CreekThe Dismal Swamp Rangers
Before you is the Deep Creek Lock of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The canal was an important thoroughfare, connecting the North Carolina Sounds with Hampton Roads and the Chesapeake Bay. The Dismal Swamp Canal is the oldest operating artificial . . . — Map (db m4773) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Village of Great BridgeA Vital Link
The village of Great Bridge was located at a strategic crossing of the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal. This canal, along with the Dismal Swamp Canal, was recognized as being a strategically important corridor by both the Union and Confederate . . . — Map (db m48919) HM
Virginia, Colonial Heights — Dunlop Station"...burning cartridges like shooting stars"
Dunlop Station on the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad was located here on the southern boundary of David Dunlop's Ellerslie estate. During the siege of Petersburg, June 1864-April 1865, a military rail spur was completed in March 1865 that extended . . . — Map (db m14636) HM
Virginia, Colonial Heights — EllerslieBeauregard’s Headquarters
In 1864, Ellerslie stood in the middle of the Confederate defense line along Swift Creek. On May 9-10, Confederate Gens. Johnson Hagood and Bushrod Johnson, with 4,200 men, contested the advance of a much larger Federal force, composed of elements . . . — Map (db m48440) HM
Virginia, Danville — Danville CemeteriesNational Cemetery
The remains of 1,323 Federal soldiers, 148 of them unknown, who died in Danville’s Civil War prisons are interred here. Many died from smallpox which ravaged the six prisons during the winter of 1863-1864. The names of the dead were recorded by . . . — Map (db m66010) HM
Virginia, Danville — Danville FortificationsCivil War Earthworks Constructed for Danville's Protection
Danville residents, feeling vulnerable to enemy attack because of the vast amount of commissary and quartermaster supplies stored in their town and the presence of the Confederate arsenal, petitioned the town council in February 1863 to build . . . — Map (db m66004) HM
Virginia, Danville — Prison Number 6Confederate Prison 1863-1865
Built for use as a tobacco factory and leased to the Confederate government, this building housed many Federal soldiers captured in the Battle of the Crater at Petersburg in July 1864. It was one of six buildings used in tobacco manufacturing, . . . — Map (db m66005) HM
Virginia, Danville — Richmond & Danville RailroadReconstruction Period
When Confederate President Jefferson Davis was informed April 2, 1865, that Petersburg had fallen and Federal armies were approaching, he used the Richmond & Danville Railroad to evacuate his government to Danville. Ten days later, after Davis’ . . . — Map (db m66007) HM
Virginia, Danville — Richmond & Danville RailroadDuring the Civil War
At the outbreak of the Civil War, the Richmond & Danville Railroad was already part of a rail network that would sustain the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. The Richmond & Danville extension to Greensboro, North Carolina, known as the . . . — Map (db m66008) HM
Virginia, Danville — Richmond & Danville RailroadDevelopment of the Railroad
By the outbreak of the Civil War, the Virginia General Assembly had chartered only eight railroads totaling 638 miles. The North, in contrast, had developed an immense network of railroads and canals. This transportation network reached into the . . . — Map (db m66009) HM
Virginia, Danville — Sutherlin MansionDanville Museum of Fine Arts and History
This Italian villa mansion was the home of Maj. William T. Sutherlin, wartime quartermaster for Danville and one of its most prominent citizens. For one week, April 3-10, 1865, Sutherlin and his wife opened their home to Jefferson Davis and the . . . — Map (db m66011) HM
Virginia, Fairfax — Blenheim (Willcoxon Farm)Civil War Soldier Art
Blenheim, built for Albert and Mary Willcoxon about 1859, contains some of the nation’s best-preserved Civil War soldier writings. More than 110 identified Union soldiers, representing units from New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, West . . . — Map (db m21077) HM
Virginia, Fairfax — FairfaxSpies, Mosby and Marr
On June 1. 1861, the first major skirmish of the Civil War occurred on the main street of Fairfax Court House. In the pre-dawn hours 50 men of Co. B, Second U.S. Cavalry, led by Lt. Charles H. Tomkins, rode into town firing their weapons. As Capt. . . . — Map (db m626) HM
Virginia, Fairfax — Fairfax County CourthouseWar on the Courthouse Grounds
At different times, Union and Confederate forces occupied the Fairfax County Courthouse at this important crossroads. The flag of each side flew from its cupola during the war, and the building suffered damage. On April 25, 1861, the Fairfax . . . — Map (db m43134) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Falls ChurchBetween the Armies
In 1861, Falls Church was a farm village located on the Alexandria-Leesburg Turnpike. On May 24, when Virginia's vote of secession became effective, Union troops crossed the Potomac and occupied Arlington Heights and Alexandria. On June 1, the 2nd . . . — Map (db m2825) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Falls Church Home FrontCherry Hill Farm in the Civil War
Although soldiers repeatedly overran and raided Cherry Hill Farm during the Civil War, this ca. 1845 farmhouse and the ca. 1856 barn behind it survived almost intact. William Blaisdell, of Massachusetts paid $4,000 for the 66-acre property in 1856. . . . — Map (db m65407) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Galloway Methodist ChurchHistoric African American Cemetery
In 1867, African Americans built Galloway United Methodist Church and established the historic cemetery you are facing. According to local tradition, before and during the Civil War enslaved people on the Dulany plantation secretly worshiped in the . . . — Map (db m72029) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Harriet and George BriceSeizing Freedom and Facing Challenges
You are standing across the street from land that Harriet Brice, a “free woman of color,” purchased in 1864. Together with her husband, George Brice, she struggled to farm the property during the Civil War. Although we had gained her . . . — Map (db m72112) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Living in FearMosby's Falls Church Raid
Confederate Col. John Singleton Mosby's Partisan Rangers (43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry) conducted raids on Falls Church through the summer and fall of 1864. On the night of October 17, a detachment of Mosby's command rode through the village down . . . — Map (db m69552) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — Taylor’s TavernProfessor Lowe's Balloons
At the beginning of the war, Union commanders were uncertain of Confederate intentions and military capabilities. On June 22, 1861, civilian balloonist Thaddeus S.C. Lowe inflated his racing balloon Enterprise at the Washington Gas Company to . . . — Map (db m41495) HM
Virginia, Falls Church — The Falls ChurchVandalism and Renewal
The Civil War dramatically affected this 1769 Anglican/Episcopal church that stands before you. The congregation disbanded as the war broke out, with some families fleeing the village. Confederate forces occupied the church in August and September . . . — Map (db m72085) HM
Virginia, Franklin — Battle of Franklin“Jumping out of bed”
The war seemed far from Franklin when Union forces captured Roanoke Island and the North Carolina Sounds in February 1862. In May, however, when they occupied Norfolk and Suffolk to control both coastal Virginia and North Carolina, suddenly the war . . . — Map (db m18135) HM
Virginia, Franklin — Confederate Commissary CenterSwimming in Bacon
Before the Civil War erupted, Franklin became a regional transportation and commercial center for the Blackwater-Chowan River basin because the seaboard and Roanoke Railroad connected with steamship lines here. When the war began, the town . . . — Map (db m18133) HM
Virginia, Franklin — The Blackwater Line“That little stream has ... saved us”
To protect Richmond from a Union attack from Suffolk, Confederate authorities fortified the Blackwater River in 1862. You are standing on the Blackwater Line. The intermittent earthworks stretched fifty miles from north of Zuni to the North Carolina . . . — Map (db m18134) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — FredericksburgCivil War Sites
For 18 months Fredericksburg was at the heart of the Civil War. Union and Confederate soldiers camped here, fought here and died here. Today there are many sites within the city. Civil War walking tour information is available free at the . . . — Map (db m9093) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — FredericksburgWhere 100,000 Fell
Because of the immense amount of fighting that occurred here, the Fredericksburg area has been called the vortex of the Civil War. Four major battles - Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House - resulting in . . . — Map (db m9096) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg City DockBridges and Biscuits
Why was Fredericksburg important to the Union war effort? The answer lies in logistics. The Union army, numbering more than 100,000 troops, required tons of food, clothing and other supplies to operate, Wagon trains could supply the army for short . . . — Map (db m1131) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg City DockContesting the Crossing
Confederate troops under the command of Gen. William Barksdale were awake and alert hereon the morning of December 11,1862, waiting anxiously for the sun to rise. On the river, unseen in the inky blackness but clearly audible in the night’s . . . — Map (db m1132) HM
Virginia, Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg City DockUnion Artillery on Stafford Heights
Directly ahead of you, across the river, stood George Washington’s boyhood home, Ferry Farm. According to legend, the future president cut down his father’s cherry tree there and threw a coin across the river. The property took its name from a ferry . . . — Map (db m1133) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Camp HamiltonOn Sacred Soil
Here stood the U.S. Army’s first camp on Virginia soil after secession, built in May 1861. Only the Veteran’s Cemetery on County Street remains of this entrenched camp. The influx of soldiers at Fort Monroe prompted the commander, Lt. Col. Justin . . . — Map (db m10479) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Emancipation Oak“Thirst for Knowledge”
Here, under an oak tree, newly freed African American students listened in January 1863 as the Emancipation Proclamation was read aloud. Union Gen. Benjamin F. Butler’s “contraband of war” decision at Fort Monroe in 1861 anticipated that . . . — Map (db m33817) HM
Virginia, Hampton — HamptonA Sacrifice to the Grim God of War — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
The control of Hampton had been disputed during the war’s first months. Brig. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler sought to expand Union control over the lower Peninsula. Despite his defeat during the June 10, 1861, Battle of Big Bethel, his troops occupied . . . — Map (db m33838) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Hampton Courthouse“Roofless and Thoroughly Gutted”
“The courthouse, roofless and thoroughly gutted. … [Its] chimney served oar cooks well in getting supper. The Telegraph tent was soon up and the operator at work on the newly strung wire to Fort Monroe.” – Pvt. Robert Knox . . . — Map (db m33853) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Hampton Is Burned"… a bright light over by the bay."
When Capt. Jefferson C. Phillips’s Confederate troops set the town of Hampton on fire on the evening of August 7, 1861, a house that stood on this King Street site was one of the many structures destroyed. Archaeology tells the story of its demise. . . . — Map (db m33845) HM
Virginia, Hampton — St. John’s ChurchThe Venerable Survivor
When Confederate Gen. John B. Magruder learned that the Federals intended to house troops and escaped slaves in Hampton, he burned down the town. Local soldiers, led by Capt. Jefferson C. Phillips, completed this “loathsome yet patriotic . . . — Map (db m33847) HM
Virginia, Hampton — Stalemate in Hampton RoadsIn a “big glass case” — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
After the March 8-9, 1862, Battle of Hampton Roads, CSS Virginia went into drydock for refitting. USS Monitor guarded Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s transport vessels in the York River near Fort Monroe, and the Federals reinforced . . . — Map (db m10351) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Chestnut RidgeDeath of Ashby — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 6, 1862, the vanguard of Union Gen. John C. Frémont’s force, pursuing Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s army south up the Shenandoah Valley, reached this point near Harrisonburg. Jackson’s rear guard, led by Gen. . . . — Map (db m15752) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Confederate General HospitalHarrisonburg Female Academy
Harrisonburg was Rockingham County’s seat of government and largest town, and it was an ideal site for a hospital. When the Civil War began in 1861, although the railroad had not yet extended to Harrisonburg, the town sat at the intersection of four . . . — Map (db m39330) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Court Square & SpringhouseTemporary Prison Camp
During the Civil War, a road (Market Street) ran east and west through the courthouse square, dividing it roughly in half. The courthouse occupied the northern portion while the jail, clerk’s office, and springhouse were in the southern section. . . . — Map (db m16482) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Hardesty-Higgins HouseBanks's Headquarters
This was the home of Harrisonburg’s first mayor, Isaac Hardesty, an apothecary. Elected in 1849, Hardesty served until 1860. His Unionist sympathies compelled him to leave for Maryland after the Civil War began. Early in the first week of May 1862, . . . — Map (db m41496) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — McNeill’s Rangers“Hurah for McNeal”
Harrisonburg is associated with the exploits of McNeill’s Rangers, a famous Confederate partisan unit. In 1862, John Hanson McNeill, a native of Hardy County in present-day West Virginia, recruited men for Co. E, 18th Virginia Cavalry. With McNeill . . . — Map (db m39331) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Warren-Sipe HouseHome and Hospital
This was the home of Edward T.H. Warren, a Harrisonburg attorney. As a lieutenant in the Valley Guards, a Rockingham County militia company, Warren attended the trial and execution of John Brown in Charles Town (in present-day West Virginia) in . . . — Map (db m41497) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Woodbine CemeteryThe Soldiers’ Section
During the Civil War, Woodbine Cemetery was Harrisonburg’s principal burial ground. Chartered in March 1850, it opened later that year after the city’s first mayor, Isaac Hardesty, sold 2.5 acres of his property to the cemetery company. The need for . . . — Map (db m39333) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — Baylor’s FarmPrelude to Petersburg — Lee vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign
Ordered to take Petersburg, Gen. William F. “Baldy” Smith directed Gen. Edward W. Hinks’ division of African American soldiers to move from City Point toward the Cockade City. Hinks encountered unexpected Confederate resistance at . . . — Map (db m86247) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — City PointOne of the World's Busiest Seaports
City Point had been a port for more than 250 years before the Union army arrived. On June 15, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant established his headquarters at City Point just eight miles behind the front lines at Petersburg. Located at the . . . — Map (db m19622) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — City Point DefensesSecuring the Union Position
The fort behind you is all that remains of the inner defense line built by the Union army in 1864 to protect its base headquarters at City point. With a powerful fleet of ironclads and gunboats controlling the James River and a numerically superior . . . — Map (db m3791) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — City Point, Virginia
8000 — B.C. Indian occupancy. 1613 Sir Thomas Dale establishes area as “Bermuda Cittie.” 1619 — Name changes to Charles City Point. 1621 — Rev. Patrick Copeland plans to build free public school, financed by the . . . — Map (db m19605) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — City Point’s Rails And WaterwaysTools of War for General Grant
City Point...tells more about how war is conducted than many battlefields. It demonstrates how Union forces used rivers and railroads to deliver the tools of war directly to the troops in the field. – Robert Black, The Harrisburg PA . . . — Map (db m19612) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — City Point’s Wiseman Family
The Yankee Soldier met Miss Wiseman at the town well – and married her after the war. The Wiseman family had settled in City Point many years before Mary Catherine Wiseman married Frederick Belch in 1865. He was a Yankee soldier . . . — Map (db m41498) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — Depot Field HospitalUnion Medical Care at its Best
“I think this is a very good place with the exception of too many lice.” - Stephen P. Chase, 86th New York Volunteers. Lice may have been the only problem the staff of the Depot Field Hospital could not handle. The largest of . . . — Map (db m14597) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — Dr. Peter Eppes House
"At first we lived in tents, but later, when my husband became commander of the post, I lived most comfortably in a house...." - Septima M. Collis The house Septima Collis lived "most comfortably" in during the last months of the Civil . . . — Map (db m19607) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — Housing Several Thousand Federal Troops
“To a civilian, a camp is always a sad-looking sight – men living on the ground like animals, in the mud, under the rain which penetrates the tents, surrounded by thick and acrid smoke of burning wood. Army camps are wild and . . . — Map (db m19623) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — One Soldier, One Family, One WarThe Homespun Letters of James Nugent
"Oh! father, it would make your blood run cold to see the fights...War is awful." - James Nugent, City Point, April 27, 1865 In the closing months of the Civil War, a young Wisconsin college student was drafted and soon saw combat in the . . . — Map (db m19609) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — Porter House
“I’ve noticed that that band always begins its noise just about the time I am sitting down to dinner and want to talk.” – General U.S. Grant, City Point, Virginia Earthworks had been thrown across the neck of land upon . . . — Map (db m19610) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — Quartermaster Repair Shops
The Quartermaster Department was responsible for the transportation of the Army, storage and transportation of supplies, clothing, camp and garrison equipage, horses, forage, fuel, maintenance of buildings and repair of equipment. Captain . . . — Map (db m19611) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — St. John’s Episcopal Church
During the Civil War this church served as a signal station for both the Confederacy and the Union. On May 5, 1864 Col. Samuel A. Duncan’s brigade of United States Colored Troops (4th, 5th, and 6th U.S.C.T.) occupied City Point and the signal . . . — Map (db m19604) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — Taverns
The structure before you was one of three taverns which existed in City Point at the time of the Civil War. It was probably constructed in the eighteenth century. On June 15, 1864 the United States Christian Commission established its offices in . . . — Map (db m19624) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — The Bull Ring At City PointA Dreaded Provost Prison
“It was a pen of filth and vermin.” – William Howell Reed, a Sanitary Commission agent The Bull Ring was the Union provost Marshal’s prison at City Point used for the confinement of Union soldiers convicted or charged . . . — Map (db m19602) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — The Peacemaker
“Let them surrender and go home, they will not take up arms again. Let them all go, officers and all, let them have their horses to plow with, and, if you like, their guns to shoot crows. Treat them liberally . . . I say, give them the most . . . — Map (db m19658) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — U.S. Government Bakery
“After breakfast I mounted and look at the Bake House just completed. It will turn out 100,000 rations in 24 hours. Every thing is on a grand scale and of the most convenient & Economical character. They make most excellent . . . — Map (db m19613) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — Weston ManorWeston Plantation
“… a very pretty, large white house situated on a hill that sloped to the river; with pretty fruit and shade trees scattered over the lawn.” - Emma Wood Richardson Weston Manor provided a safe haven for young Emma Wood and her . . . — Map (db m14586) HM
Virginia, Hopewell — Women At City Point
“It was a nervous place for a woman; but I endured it, rahter feeling a kind of enthusiasm in the nearness to danger and death.” - Sarah Palmer, Ninth Corps Hospital Nurse Women decided to come to City Point for as many . . . — Map (db m19618) HM
Virginia, Lexington — Jordan’s PointA day I will never forget . . . ” Margaret Junkin Preston diary, June 12, 1864
On this spot, in the early morning hours of Saturday, June 11, 1864, Confederate General John McCausland and about 1,500 gray-clad soldiers lined the riverbank between a cedar thicket and the warehouses that cluttered the canal landing. They . . . — Map (db m58589) HM
Virginia, Lexington — Lexington”Shells went through the houses”
Hunter's Raid (Preface):On May 26, 1864, Union Gen. David Hunter marched south from Cedar Creek near Winchester to drive out Confederate forces, lay waste to the Shenandoah Valley, and destroy transportation facilities at Lynchburg. His . . . — Map (db m4809) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Civil War in LynchburgPrisoner-of-War Camp
This was the site of a Confederate training camp and Union prisoner-of-war camp during the Civil War. Before Virginia seceded from the Union in April 1861, the population of Lynchburg doubled with the influx of soldiers from other parts of the . . . — Map (db m58361) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Civil War LynchburgSupplying Lee’s Army — Battle of Lynchburg
Established in 1786, Lynchburg was a thriving commercial center famous for its tobacco and manufacturing industries when Fort Sumter, South Carolina was bombarded in April 1861 and the Civil War began. Lynchburg’s Fair Grounds and Camp Davis . . . — Map (db m3935) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Fort EarlyThe Confederate Center — Battle of Lynchburg
Following the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg in July 1863, Lynchburg’s citizens became concerned about the lack of defenses around the city. Gen. Francis Nicholls, post commander, prepared a series of earthen redoubts and trenches at strategic . . . — Map (db m41499) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Fort McCauslandThe Confederate Right Flank — Battle of Lynchburg
To your right, Confederates built an earthen redoubt in 1864 to defend the strategic Virginia & Tennessee Railroad trestle over Ivy Creek. The six-gun battery of the Botetourt Artillery manned the redoubt and a position on the other side of Forest . . . — Map (db m3924) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — LynchburgEarly and Hunter
In early May 1864, while Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee confronted the Union Army of the Potomac west of Fredericksburg, Union Gen. U.S. Grant sent Gen. Franz Sigel’s army to destroy Lee’s supplies in the Shenandoah Valley. After the Union defeat at . . . — Map (db m3942) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Lynchburg Civil War HospitalsKnight and Miller Tobacco Factories — Battle of Lynchburg
These tobacco factories, built in 1845, were typical of the nineteen in Lynchburg converted into hospitals during the Civil War. Surgeon J.K. Page supervised Knight’s and Miller’s as divisions of General Hospital No. 2. The Thirty-two hospitals . . . — Map (db m41500) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Old City CemeteryLynchburg, Virginia — Civil War Sites
“With a graveyard on one side, quartermaster’s glanders stable on the other, and smallpox hospital in the middle, one (is) reminded of the mortality of man.” “A Confederate Surgeon’s Story,” Confederate Veteran, 1931, John . . . — Map (db m41502) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Quaker Meeting HouseThe Battle Begins — Battle of Lynchburg
From here in June 1864, Confederate cavalrymen watched Gen. David Hunter’s Union army advance toward them on the Lynchburg-Salem Turnpike (Fort Ave). Hunter departed Lexington on June 14 and crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains near Peaks of Otter. . . . — Map (db m3928) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — SanduskyHunter's Headquarters — Battle of Lynchburg
Union Gen. David Hunter’s army reached the outskirts of Lynchburg on June 17, 1864, despite being delayed by engagements with Gen. John McCausland’s Confederate cavalry. That evening, Hunter made his headquarters here at Sandusky, aware that . . . — Map (db m3923) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Spring Hill CemeteryConfederate Generals Rest — Battle of Lynchburg
During the Battle of Lynchburg on June 17-18, 1864, Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early moved his reserves into the cemetery to reinforce his lines across the Lynchburg-Salem Turnpike (Fort Ave.) at Fort Early. Before dawn on Sunday, June 19, these . . . — Map (db m3936) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Battle of Bull Run BridgeLiberia — Second Manassas Campaign
In Aug. 1862, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee ordered Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson from the Rappahannock River to keep Gen. John Pope’s and Gen. George B. McClellan’s armies from uniting. Jackson marched on Aug. 25, and Lee followed . . . — Map (db m13286) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Mayfield Civil War FortA Civil War Redoubt — The Manassas Museum System
This 11-acre historic park, part of the Manassas Museum System, contains one of only two surviving Civil War fortifications in the City of Manassas. The earthwork was built by Confederate troops in the Spring of 1861 as part of the Manassas Junction . . . — Map (db m2366) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Mayfield Civil War FortThe People and the Land — The Manassas Museum System
American Indians lived on the land long before white settlers and slaves came to this area. Living in nomadic hunter-gatherer groups, people called the Dogues and the Mannahoacs roamed the Northern Virginia Piedmont region. Archaeological evidence . . . — Map (db m2386) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Mayfield Civil War FortUnearthing the Past — The Manassas Museum System
Archeology is the detective work of history. Evidence recovered from the soil often provides valuable clues for learning how people lived, worked, and died, especially when documentary sources are scarce. Excavations were conducted at the Hooe . . . — Map (db m2393) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Mayfield Civil War FortMonster Manassas - How Strong a Stronghold? — The Manassas Museum System
The Mayfield earthwork, known in military engineering terms as a redoubt, was a circle of raised earth some 200 feet in diameter. It may have included a retaining wall of timbers and brush, and planks to support artillery. While capable of . . . — Map (db m2396) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Mayfield Civil War FortFirepower — The Manassas Museum System
Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, commander of the troops defending Manassas, had been one of the pre-war U.S. Army's outstanding artillerists. Fearing an imminent Union attack, he worked feverishly to obtain cannons for the fortifications and experienced . . . — Map (db m2405) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Mayfield Civil War FortQuaker Guns — The Manassas Museum System
Some of the Confederate cannons placed at Manassas and nearby Centreville were for show only. These non-functioning cannon were intended to deceive Union soldiers who might turn their telescopes on the earthworks: “This was nothing other . . . — Map (db m2408) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Mayfield Civil War FortFortifying the Junction — The Manassas Museum System
Following Virginia’s decision to secede from the Union in in April 1861, Southern troops began arriving here at the small village of Tudor Hall, which soon came to be known as Manassas Junction. This place, where the Orange & Alexandria and Manassas . . . — Map (db m41503) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Mayfield Civil War FortThe Changing Fortunes of War — The Manassas Museum System
After the First Battle of Manassas on June 21, 1861, Confederate forces continued to hold Manassas Junction until March 1862. They evacuated Manassas and moved south in order to counter Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s plans to attack Richmond. . . . — Map (db m41504) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Mayfield Civil War FortManning the Fort — The Manassas Museum System
The life of Civil War soldiers in camp was one of boredom, fear, mischief, disease and even death. Thousands of young men, many of whom had never before left their family farms or urban neighborhoods, were crowded into the makeshift camps. Disease . . . — Map (db m41505) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Peace JubileeFriendship and Reconciliation
In July, 1911, an amazing event took place here at Manassas, Virginia. The Manassas National Jubilee of Peace brought together Union and Confederate veterans fifty years after the first major battle of the Civil War. For the first time, veterans of . . . — Map (db m2469) HM
Virginia, Manassas — The Manassas MuseumDefending the Junction — First and Second Manassas Campaigns
During the 1850s two railroad lines, the Orange & Alexandria and the Manassas Gap, intersected at a small Prince William County village that became known as Manassas Junction. In 1861 more than 20,000 Confederate troops from across the South . . . — Map (db m41506) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Wartime ManassasPrelude to First Manassas
(Preface): During the Civil War, two railroads—the Manassas Gap and the Orange and Alexandria—intersected here. Manassas Junction was strategically important to both the Union and the Confederacy as a supply depot and for military . . . — Map (db m2453) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Wartime ManassasWorld’s First Military Railroad
(Preface): During the Civil War, two railroads—the Manassas Gap and the Orange and Alexandria—intersected here. Manassas Junction was strategically important to both the Union and Confederacy as a supply depot and for military . . . — Map (db m2459) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Wartime ManassasWalking and Driving Tours
The Manassas Museum System invites you to take walking and driving tours of the city’s historic Civil War sites. This map shows the locations of the sites featured on both tours. Copies of the map may be obtained inside the museum to take with you. . . . — Map (db m2462) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Wartime Manassas“On to Richmond!”
(During the Civil War, two railroads—the Manassas Gap and the Orange and Alexandria—intersected here. Manassas Junction was strategically important to both the Union and the Confederacy as a supply depot and for military transportation. . . . — Map (db m2464) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Wartime ManassasJackson’s Daring Raid
(During the Civil War, two railroads—the Manassas Gap and the Orange and Alexandria—intersected here. Manassas Junction was strategically important to both the Union and the Confederacy as a supply depot and for military transportation. . . . — Map (db m2465) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Wartime ManassasThe Curious Descend on Manassas for Curios
(During the Civil War, two railroads—the Manassas Gap and the Orange and Alexandria—intersected here. Manassas Junction was strategically important to both the Union and the Confederacy as a supply depot and for military transportation. . . . — Map (db m2466) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Wartime Manassas“The Sickness is Upon Us”
(During the Civil War, two railroads—the Manassas Gap and the Orange and Alexandria—intersected here. Manassas Junction was strategically important to both the Union and the Confederacy as a supply depot and for military transportation. . . . — Map (db m2467) HM
Virginia, Manassas — Wartime ManassasConfederates Withdraw to Richmond
During the Civil War, two railroads—the Manassas Gap and the Orange and Alexandria—intersected here. Manassas Junction was strategically important to both the Union and the Confederacy as a supply depot and for military transportation. . . . — Map (db m2468) HM
Virginia, Manassas Park — Conner HouseHeadquarters and Refuge
Built of locally quarried sandstone about 1820 and later expanded, the Conner House was used during the Civil War by the Confederacy and then by the United States. After the First Battle of Manassas on July 21, 1861, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who . . . — Map (db m738) HM
Virginia, Manassas Park — Signal Hill“Look out for your left, you are turned”
This elevation behind the Confederate right flank at Manassas in July 1861 was one of four Confederate signal stations established by Capt. Edward Porter Alexander; Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard’s signal officer. Because the hilltop was devoid of trees, . . . — Map (db m28376) HM
Virginia, Martinsville — Near War's EndHenry Court House Engagement — Stoneman's Raid
(overview) On March 24, 1865, Union Gen. George Stoneman led 6,000 cavalrymen from Tennessee into southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina to disrupt the Confederate supply line by destroying sections of the Virginia and Tennessee . . . — Map (db m66013) HM
Virginia, Newport News — “Every Kind of Obstruction was Skillfully Used”1862 Peninsula Campaign
The Battle of Dam No. 1 proved a lost opportunity for the Union Army to break the Warwick-Yorktown line and force a Confederate withdrawal toward Richmond. Instead, Major General George McClellan spent another 17 days completing his heavy artillery . . . — Map (db m11241) HM
Virginia, Newport News — “Just Like Sap – Boiling, in the Stream”1862 Peninsula Campaign
The Vermont troops waited in vain for reinforcements; Corporal Alonzo Hutchinson was mortally wounded while crossing the Warwick River and died without signaling for support. The Union leaders also failed to exploit the break in the Confederate . . . — Map (db m11215) HM
Virginia, Newport News — “The Bullets Would Whistle Around my Head”1862 Peninsula Campaign
After the 15th North Carolina’s repulse, Brigadier General Howell Cobb (a former governor of Georgia and secretary of treasury) rallied the Confederates and prepared to drive the Vermonters into the water. Cobb commanded a brigade in Brigadier . . . — Map (db m11218) HM
Virginia, Newport News — “Their Conduct was Worthy of Veterans”1862 Peninsula Campaign
Brigadier General William Smith massed 18 cannons in an open field within 500 yards of the opposite shore. In addition, General Smith deployed Brigadier General William T.H. Brooks’s Vermont Brigade along the Warwick River with two brigades in . . . — Map (db m11202) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Battle of Dam No. 1The Water Boiled with Bullets — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
You are presently standing at the site of Dam No. 1, one of three dams constructed by Confederate commander John Bankhead Magruder to make the sluggish Warwick River into a defensive barrier. Dam No. 1 was the mid-point between two prewar tide mills . . . — Map (db m10355) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Battle of Lee’s MillFlames Appeared on all Sides — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
The fortifications that appear before you are all that remain of the extensive Confederate fortifications defending the Warwick River crossing at Lee’s Mill. After an uneventful march up the Great Warwick Road through Young’s Mill on April 4, the . . . — Map (db m10362) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Berdan’s Sharpshooters1862 Peninsula Campaign
From this rifle pit, Colonel Hiram Berdan’s 1st U.S. Sharpshooters targeted Confederate troops on the opposite bank of the Warwick River. Hiram Berdan, considered the nation’s best marksman, organized the regiment from hand-picked volunteers who . . . — Map (db m11270) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Congress – CumberlandGive Them a Broadside Boys, as She Goes — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
In this section of the James River directly in front of you lies the remains of the USS Cumberland. At this location and along the shore to your left were the Union batteries that protected Camp Butler. On March 8, 1862, the Confederate . . . — Map (db m41507) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Custer’s Covered Way1862 Peninsula Campaign
George Armstrong Custer had the dubious honor of graduating last in the 1861 class at West Point. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 5th U.S. Cavalry and fought with the Army of the Potomac in almost every major battle from Bull Run to . . . — Map (db m11267) HM
Virginia, Newport News — EndviewHome of the Warwick Beauregards — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
The white two-and-a-half story frame building in front of you in the distance is Endview. Endview was built circa 1760 by Col. William Harwood, Jr., who was a member of the House of Burgesses, a signer of the Virginia Resolves, and a Warwick County . . . — Map (db m10381) HM
Virginia, Newport News — James A. Fields HouseUp from Slavery
James Apostles Fields was born into slavery in Hanover County, Virginia, in 1844. During the Civil War, Fields and his brother George escaped to Hampton, where in 1862 they found refuge as “contrabands of war” at Fort Monroe. . . . — Map (db m10611) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Lebanon ChurchIn the Line of March — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Historic Lebanon Church, located behind you at the intersection of two strategic highways, served both the Confederate and the Union armies during the Civil War. Soon after Confederate Col. John Bankhead Magruder began organizing the Peninsula’s . . . — Map (db m10389) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Lee HallSiege Headquarters — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
The small redoubt in front of you is the only visual evidence of Lee Hall’s military occupation by the Confederate army from May 1861 to May 1862. The antebellum mansion to your right served as a headquarters building for both Maj. Gen. John . . . — Map (db m10376) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Monitor – MerrimackThe Battle of the Ironclads — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Lincoln viewed the March 8, 1862, sinking of the USS Congress and USS Cumberland as the greatest Union calamity since Bull Run. Union Secretary of War Edwin W. Stanton feared that “the CSS Virginia (Merrimack) would soon come . . . — Map (db m10347) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Mott’s Battery1862 Peninsula Campaign
On April 4, 1862, Major General George B. McClellan launched his offensive on the Virginia Peninsula against the Confederate capital at Richmond. Major General John B. Magruder’s 13,000 troops halted the Union advance along the Warwick-Yorktown line . . . — Map (db m11254) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Newport News POW CampWhere Valor Proudly Sleeps
The monument that stands before you was erected in June 1900 by the members of the Magruder Camp No. 36, United Confederate Veterans, to honor the 163 Confederate soldiers reinterred at this site who had died in the POW Camp next to Camp Butler on . . . — Map (db m10446) HM
Virginia, Newport News — One-Gun Battery1862 Peninsula Campaign
The twelve miles of Confederate defenses followed the course of the Warwick River one mile from Yorktown to Mulberry Island. Dam No. 1, the mid-point, was protected by this one-gun battery mounting a 12-pound howitzer. In addition, a 6-pound . . . — Map (db m11201) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Skiffes CreekThe Defense of Mulberry Island — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
The redoubt before you is one of five earthworks built by the Confederates to help defend the Mulberry Island/James River flank of Maj. Gen. John Bankhead Magruder’s 2nd Peninsula Defensive Line. This series of redoubts (of which only two remain) . . . — Map (db m10363) HM
Virginia, Newport News — The Battle of Lee’s Mill1862 Peninsula Campaign
In March of 1862, Union Maj. Gen. George McClellan’s Army of the Potomac landed at Fort Monroe and Camp Butler. This large force contained 121,500 soldiers, 44 batteries of field artillery and 101 heavy siege cannons. Confederate Maj. Gen. John . . . — Map (db m11310) HM
Virginia, Newport News — The Warwick-Yorktown Line1862 Peninsula Campaign
On May 24, 1861, Confederate Col. John Magruder assumed command of the Peninsula’s defenses. The Confederate capital at Richmond was only 80 miles from Fort Monroe, and “Prince John” Magruder did not have enough artillery or men to . . . — Map (db m11306) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Warwick Court HouseCamp in the Wilderness — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
“The office was full of books and papers. Some very old ones that had been written long before the Revolution by King George’s officers. A guard was over them but I was lucky and got a handful of deeds …. I have one written 1669 …. Shortly . . . — Map (db m10387) HM
Virginia, Newport News — Young’s MillMagruder’s First Peninsula Defensive Line — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
The mill located behind you is one of the few remaining tide mills on the Peninsula. In the woods across the private road to your left are several redoubts and rifle pits. These fortifications are all that remain of the Confederate 1st Peninsula . . . — Map (db m10361) HM
Virginia, Norfolk — West Point MonumentNorfolk's Civil War African American Heritage
The memorial before you, the West Point Monument, was built in 1909 as a tribute to African American veterans of the Civil War and Spanish-American War. James A. Fuller, a former slave and veteran of the 1st U.S. Colored Cavalry, led the effort to . . . — Map (db m84001) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — Blandford ChurchIn Harm’s Way
This church, built circa 1737, was in ruins at the time of the Civil War. Nonetheless, located behind Gracie’s, Colquitt’s and Elliott’s Salients in the Confederate defense lines, the structure served as a temporary field hospital during the . . . — Map (db m6516) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — Campbell's BridgeVital Crossing — Lee's Retreat
When General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia began its retreat from Petersburg and Richmond on the evening of April 2, 1865, part of the army crossed the Appomattox River at Campbell's Bridge here. Other columns crossed the river on three . . . — Map (db m14593) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — First Battle of PetersburgKautz’s Effort Stopped Here — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign
In May 1864, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant launched attacks on Confederate armies across the South. He accompanied Gen. George G. Meade’s Army of the Potomac as it fought Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia from the Wilderness to Cold Harbor. . . . — Map (db m14569) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — Fort DavisUnion Stronghold
After four days of unsuccessful trying to capture Petersburg by direct assault on June 15-18, 1864, Gen. U.S. Grant’s Union army began siege operations against the city. Grant’s immediate objective was to cut one of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s supply . . . — Map (db m5824) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — Fort HaysA Silent Witness
The land on which Fort Hays is built was fought over on June 22, 1864, when the Union army first attempted to cut one of Lee’s vital rail supply lines, the Petersburg Railroad (usually called the Weldon Railroad) located about three miles west. . . . — Map (db m3765) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — Lincoln In PetersburgLast Meeting
After Union forces secured Petersburg on April 3, 1865, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant established his headquarters here at the Thomas Wallace House. He sent word to President Abraham Lincoln at City Point that Petersburg had fallen and invited Lincoln to . . . — Map (db m48442) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — Lincoln In PetersburgPresidential Visit to Centre Hill
At noon on April 7, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln and his party left City Point for Petersburg in a special train on the newly repaired City Point Railroad, arriving in the city half an hour later. His wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, and their young son, . . . — Map (db m48656) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — Lincoln In PetersburgTears at Fort Mahone
On the morning of April 3, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln awoke at City Point to the news that Petersburg had fallen just hours before. He immediately arranged to visit the city and meet with Gen. Ulysses S. Grant that morning. Lincoln and his . . . — Map (db m48662) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — South Side StationThe Retreat Begins
Begin the 26-stop auto driving tour of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Retreat from Petersburg to Appomattox at this point. The tour covers over 100 miles and takes approximately four to five hours to complete. A map can be obtained at the nearby Visitors . . . — Map (db m3592) HM
Virginia, Petersburg — South Side StationBeginning of the End — Lee vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign
This original South Side Railroad station, the oldest such building in the state, was built around 1854 when the line was completed from Petersburg westward to Lynchburg, a distance of 123 miles. An express train could run this distance in five . . . — Map (db m3593) HM
Virginia, Portsmouth — Gosport Navy YardBirthplace of the CSS Virginia — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Before you is the Gosport Navy Yard (Nor­folk Naval Ship­yard). Gosport is the old­est Navy ship­yard in the nation. Here is where the USS Mer­ri­mack was burned and then trans­formed by the Con­fed­er­ates into the pow­er­ful iron­clad ram, the CSS . . . — Map (db m21160) HM
Virginia, Portsmouth — Olde Towne PortsmouthSouthern Architectural Splendor
The one square block his­toric dis­trict before you is Portsmouth’s Olde Towne. The dis­trict dates to 1752 when Portsmouth was founded by William Craw­ford. Olde Towne con­tains one of the largest col­lec­tions of historic build­ings in Vir­ginia . . . — Map (db m21116) HM
Virginia, Portsmouth — Portsmouth Naval HospitalAdministering to Both the Union and Confederacy
This is the site of the Portsmouth Naval Hospital which served both the Union and the Confederacy during the Civil War. The Portsmouth Naval Hospital, the U.S. Navy’s first hospital, was founded in 1827 by Secretary of the Navy Samuel L. Southard. . . . — Map (db m21042) HM
Virginia, Radford — New River BridgeAttack on the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad
On May 10, 1864, the day after defeating Confederate forces in the bloody battle of Cloyd's Mountain, Union Gen. George Crook's Army of the Kanawha attacked and burned this railroad bridge over the New River. During the Civil War, the railroad was a . . . — Map (db m9514) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Gateway to the Civil WarDiscover more than 800 Civil War sites along ten breathtaking trails.
Welcome to our nation’s only multistate Civil War driving trail, which links hundreds of authentic sites in three states. Established in Virginia in 1995 as the Route of Lee’s Retreat trail, the program has grown to include more than 400 sites in . . . — Map (db m23652) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Oakwood CemeteryConfederate Section
Almost every Confederate soldier who died in a Richmond hospital during the war was buried in one of three local cemeteries: Hollywood, Oakwood, or Shockoe Hill. Although Hollywood Cemetery is the best known because of the many prominent men buried . . . — Map (db m61820) HM
Virginia, Richmond — President’s MansionWhite House of the Confederacy
This house was the executive mansion of Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his family from August 1861 until April 2, 1865. A West Point graduate, former U.S. senator from Mississippi, and former U.S. secretary of war, Davis was the . . . — Map (db m16271) HM
Virginia, Richmond — Rocketts LandingConfederate Navy Yard
For centuries the James River served as a thoroughfare for vessels connecting Richmond to other ports along the Atlantic coast, South America and Europe. Here at Rocketts Landing, ships loaded and unloaded their cargoes as it was impossible to . . . — Map (db m92033) HM
Virginia, Staunton — StauntonVital Link — 1864 Valley Campaigns
Near this site on April 17, 1861, approximately one hundred local citizens, many of whom had just enlisted in The Staunton Artillery, met to board trains for Harpers Ferry. They were led by prominent local citizen John D. Imboden, who would remain . . . — Map (db m16436) HM
Virginia, Staunton — The Barger HouseThe War's Lasting Effects
Relocated from its original site approximately fifty miles to the south on Little Patterson’s Creek in Botetourt County, Virginia, the Barger home, immediately in front of you, is an operational pre-Civil War farmstead from the Valley of Virginia. . . . — Map (db m16653) HM
Virginia, Suffolk — Riddick’s FollyAvant-Garde Greek Revival Masterpiece
The restored Greek Revival house before you is Riddick’s Folly. It was constructed in 1837 by Mills Riddick, a grandson of local Revolutionary War hero Willis Riddick. Mill’s contemporaries soon ridiculed the house and labeled the building . . . — Map (db m18122) HM
Virginia, Suffolk — Siege of SuffolkBacon for the Confederacy
The monument before you was erected in 1889 by Col. Thomas W. Smith in honor of his Confederate “comrades.” Smith had served as a 2nd Lt. in the local unit, “Marion Rangers,” which was assigned as Co. A, 16th Virginia . . . — Map (db m18123) HM
Virginia, Waynesboro — Plumb HouseThe Valley is Lost — 1864 Campaigns
The Plumb House was built between 1802 and 1806 on what was then the western edge of Waynesboro. While fighting did not occur here until late in the war, the community felt its impact early on. Henry Plumb, who lived here, was mortally wounded at . . . — Map (db m16649) HM
Virginia, Williamsburg — Battle of WilliamsburgThe Bloody Ravine — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
A critical part of the Battle of Williamsburg took place here on May 5, 1862. Union troops occupied the ridge to your right across present-day U.S. Route 60. The Confederate line of redoubts stood to your left on the ridge to the west. Felled timber . . . — Map (db m10368) HM
Virginia, Williamsburg — Battle of WilliamsburgEmory’s Failed Advance — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
As the May 5, 1862, Battle of Williamsburg raged along the Bloody Ravine and in front of Fort Magruder, the Union commander sought to turn the flank of the Confederate defenses. Gen. Joseph Hooker was convinced that the right flank was unoccupied . . . — Map (db m77991) HM
Virginia, Williamsburg — Defending the PeninsulaAvenue of Attack — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
When Virginia seceded on April 17, 1861, Union and Confederate leaders alike saw the Peninsula as an avenue of attack against Richmond. Federal ships on the James and York rivers could guard an army’s flanks and escort supply vessels upstream. Fort . . . — Map (db m77989) HM
Virginia, Williamsburg — Fort MagruderAn Ugly Place to Have to Attack — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Here are the remains of Fort Magruder, an earthen redoubt built in 1861 at the center of the Confederate defensive line. The “Williamsburg Line” stretched between the James and York rivers and consisted of fourteen forts, commonly called . . . — Map (db m10371) HM
Virginia, Williamsburg — Quarterpath RoadHistoric Avenue — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
On the other side of the parapet is Quarterpath Road, a historic roadbed that for centuries linked Williamsburg to Allen’s Wharf on the James River. It runs behind the Confederate fortifications here, gaining additional importance during the Battle . . . — Map (db m10532) HM
Virginia, Williamsburg — Redoubt 1Engineers Debate the Williamsburg Line — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Because Lt. Col. Benjamin S. Ewell had made little progress on the Williamsburg defenses by late June 1861, Gen. John B. Magruder, commanding the Army of the Peninsula, replaced him with Gen. Lafayette McLaws. Capt. Alfred L. Rives, acting chief of . . . — Map (db m77990) HM
Virginia, Williamsburg — Redoubt 12Hancock the Superb — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
You are near the northern end of the Confederate defensive line built in 1861 to protect the eastern approach to Richmond. The “Williamsburg Line” stretched between the James and York rivers and consisted of fourteen forts, commonly . . . — Map (db m10373) HM
Virginia, Williamsburg — Williamsburg in the Civil WarGateway to Richmond — 1862 Peninsula Campaign
Williamsburg, once the capital of Virginia, declined after the American Revolution. By 1861, although many colonial structures still lined the streets, the Governor’s Palace and former capitol building lay in ruins. The College of William and Mary . . . — Map (db m77872) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Abram’s Delight“Best wishes to all at your house”
The oldest dwelling in Winchester, Abram’s Delight experienced the passage of both Union and Confederate armies during the war. Although the property stood in the path of the First Battle of Winchester on May 25, 1862, it survived and now . . . — Map (db m2606) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Frederick County CourthouseWitness to War
During the Civil War, the Union and Confederate armies each used the Frederick County Courthouse as a hospital and a prison. Cornelia McDonald, a local citizen, nursed the wounded here after the First Battle of Kernstown on March 23, 1862. She . . . — Map (db m2659) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Glen Burnie"Winchester is a very pleasant place to stay in, sir."
This historic Shenandoah Valley home, known as Glen Burnie, is the homestead of Col. James Wood, who founded Winchester on a portion of his land in 1744. Wood’s son, Robert, began the present house in 1794, but the estate was home to the Wood-Glass . . . — Map (db m2665) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Jackson’s HeadquartersI am quite comfortable
Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, commanding the Shenandoah Valley military district, lived in this house from mid-November 1861 through early March 1862. Here he planned a winter campaign against Union forces at Romney and . . . — Map (db m2540) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Loyal Quaker and Brave SlaveRebecca Wright and Thomas Laws
In September 1864, U.S. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan heard rumors that Confederate forces had left the Shenandoah Valley to rejoin Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army at Petersburg. Wanting to confirm this information before attacking Gen. Jubal A. Early’s army, . . . — Map (db m46960) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Shawnee Springs Hospital
Clearing and Evacuation Facility Valley Campaigns Federal medical authorities established the largest temporary hospital of the Civil War in the aftermath of the Third Battle of Winchester on September 19, 1864. Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan's . . . — Map (db m3200) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Taylor Hotel“Packed with Confederate wounded”
The Taylor Hotel was a major stopping point for travelers because of its location on the Valley Turnpike and also was the center of town life. During the war, it was the headquarters for several commanders, including Confederate Gen. Thomas J. . . . — Map (db m92380) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Third Battle of Winchester“Whirling through Winchester:” The Confederate Retreat — 1864 Valley Campaign
About 5 P.M. on September 19, 1864, the final, chaotic stages of the Third Battle of Winchester engulfed this area. After a day of combat east and north of the city, Confederate Gen. Jubal Early’s outnumbered men were flanked, broken, and forced to . . . — Map (db m96107) HM
Virginia, Winchester — WinchesterThe Valley Campaigns — 1862 & 1864 Valley Campaigns
Winchester’s location at the north end of the Shenandoah Valley made it a place of strategic importance during the Civil War. From here, roads led north and east threatening Washington, D.C., and the Valley Turnpike led south and west endangering . . . — Map (db m2657) HM
Virginia (Albemarle County), Charlottesville — Rio HillArtifacts Found at Rio Hill
Civil War relic collectors found Stuart’s winter camp and skirmish site (shaded area of map) long before the Rio Hill Shopping Center opened in 1989. Metal detectors were used to search the area and artifacts—bullets, buttons, belt and . . . — Map (db m7692) HM
Virginia (Albemarle County), Charlottesville — Rio Hill 1864 SkirmishGeorge A. Custer Attacks a Confederate Winter Camp
In December 1863, Confederate troops established winter quarters here. The approximately 200 soldiers, under the command of Capt. Marcellus N. Moorman, were from Stuart’s Horse Artillery Battalion and were equipped with 16 cannons. The men built . . . — Map (db m7690) HM
Virginia (Albemarle County), Scottsville — ScottsvilleWhen War Came
At 3 p.m. on Monday, March 6, 1865, the first of Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan’s 10,000 cavalrymen under Gens. Wesley Merritt, Thomas Devin, and George A. Custer entered Scottsville unopposed. To accomplish their mission—destroy the James . . . — Map (db m17844) HM
Virginia (Amelia County), Jetersville — Hillsman HouseLee’s Retreat — April 6, 1865
Union forces assembled along this ridge while Confederate troops prepared on the opposite slope. Federal forces crossed Little Sailor’s Creek for a fierce battle which compelled many Southerners to surrender. The house served as a hospital for both . . . — Map (db m11795) HM
Virginia (Amelia County), Jetersville — Overton / Hillsman HouseWar's Horror Knocks at the Door
As night began to fall here on, April 6, 1865, the hard fought battles of Little Sailor's Creek and the crossroads near the Marshall Farm draw to a close. Federal surgeons work by the little natural light that's still available. They are inside the . . . — Map (db m10274) HM
Virginia (Amelia County), Mannboro — Namozine ChurchPursuit Cathces Up — Lee’s Retreat
When Gen. Robert E. Lee evacuated the Army of Northern Virginia from Petersburg and Richmond on April 2-3, 1865, he ordered the army’s wings to unite at Amelia Court House, where trains would meet them with food and other supplies. The army would . . . — Map (db m6049) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Battle of Appomattox StationFinal Blow — Lee's Retreat
You are standing near the site of Appomattox Station Depot on the South Side Railroad. Here, on the afternoon of April 8, 1865, Union cavalrymen under Gen. George A. Custer dealt the Army of Northern Virginia a final blow. First, they captured . . . — Map (db m3837) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Confederate Artillery PositionBattle of Appomattox Station
Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Norther Virginia began the retreat west from Richmond and Petersburg on April 3, 1865, with about 250 cannon. Two days later, at Amelia Court House, about a hundred of the least effective pieces were culled . . . — Map (db m84749) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Custer's Third BrigadeBattle of Appomattox Station
Union Col. Henry Capehart commanded Gen. George A. Custer’s Third Cavalry Brigade on Custer’s left flank. On April 8, 1865, Capehart had only the 1st New York (Lincoln) an 1st and 2nd West Virginia regiments on hand, the 3rd West Virginia had . . . — Map (db m84751) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Appomattox — Walker's Last StandCuster's Charges
One of the last battles of the Civil War in Virginia took place here early in the evening of April 8, 1865. Confederate Gen. Reuben L. Walker, who commanded 100 guns of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s reserve artillery, made camp here late in the afternoon. . . . — Map (db m84750) HM
Virginia (Appomattox County), Vera — Lee’s Rear GuardFinal Blow — Lee’s Retreat
You are standing where Gen. James Longstreet’s corps entrenched early in the morning of April 9, 1865, to protect the rear of the Army of Northern Virginia. Gen. Robert E. Lee and most of the army bivouacked about four miles south, just short of . . . — Map (db m6051) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithDefending the Capital
Fort C.F. Smith was constructed in early 1863 as part of the expansion and strengthening of the capital’s defenses that continued throughout the Civil War. With Forts Strong, Morton and Woodbury, Fort C.F. Smith formed the outer perimeter of the . . . — Map (db m5099) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithMr. Lincoln’s Forts — Defenses of Washington, 1861-1865
Fort C.F. Smith was constructed in 1863 on farmland appropriated from William Jewell. The fort was named in honor of Gen. Charles Ferguson Smith, who was instrumental in the Union victory at Fort Donelson, Tennessee in 1862. The fortification was . . . — Map (db m5101) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort C.F. SmithProtecting the Capital
The ramps in front of you, now covered with grass, led to wooden platforms on which the various cannons were placed. When built in 1863, Fort C.F. Smith had platforms for twenty-two artillery pieces and four siege mortars. However, only sixteen . . . — Map (db m5102) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Fort Ethan AllenMr. Lincoln’s Forts — Defenses of Washington - 1861-1865
Fort Ethan Allen was constructed during the Civil War to provide one of the last lines of defense against possible Confederate attacks aimed at Washington. The fort commanded approaches to Chain Bridge (over the Potomac River) from the south of . . . — Map (db m2318) HM
Virginia (Arlington County), Arlington — Freedman’s VillageA New Home for African Americans
During the Civil War, many escaped and freed slaves traveled north seeking refuge in Union camps. Thousands crowded into the Federal City. The number of refugees quickly overwhelmed the area’s resources. Overcrowding and disease became prevalent. In . . . — Map (db m5293) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), New Hope — Battle of PiedmontFinal Action at New Hope
The Battle of Piedmont, fought on June 5, 1864 between Union Gen. David Hunter and Confederate Gen. William E. "Grumble" Jones. ended here. It began more than a mile northeast when the 12,000-man strong Federal army, whose mission was to scour the . . . — Map (db m8250) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Swoope — West ViewConfederate Camps — 1862 Valley Campaign
In 1862, West View was a village of about 15 buildings including a flour mill, post office, store, wagon shop and saw mills. About 3,000 soldiers camped in the surrounding fields from April 20 to May 6. Confederates under Gen. Edward . . . — Map (db m15788) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — Mountain HouseJackson's March — 1862 Valley Campaign
The Battle of McDowell began three miles to the southeast (near the intersection of Routes 629 and 716) when Confederates were fired upon by Union cavalry on May 7, 1862. After skirmishing, Federals rushed to the base camp here, sounding the alarm . . . — Map (db m62920) HM
Virginia (Bedford County), Bedford — AvenelIn the Eye of the Storm — Hunter’s Raid
(preface) On May 26, 1864, Union Gen. David Hunter marched south from Cedar Creek near Winchester to drive out Confederate forces, lay waste to the Shenandoah Valley, and destroy transportation facilities at Lynchburg. His raid was part of . . . — Map (db m42844) HM
Virginia (Bedford County), Bedford — BedfordHunter’s Raid — 1864 Valley Campaign
On the evening of June 15, 1864, the lead element of Union Gen. David Hunter’s 18,000-man army arrived here and cam near Avenel. The main force arrived the following morning and started destroying the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad tracks, burning . . . — Map (db m41408) HM
Virginia (Bedford County), Bedford — Peaks of Otter“A rougher road could not be imagined” — Hunter’s Raid
(preface) On May 26, 1864, Union Gen. David Hunter marched south from Cedar Creek near Winchester to drive out Confederate forces, lay waste to the Shenandoah Valley, and destroy transportation facilities at Lynchburg. His raid was part of . . . — Map (db m55780) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Alberta — DanieltownA Side Raid: 32 Troopers Captured — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m20168) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Dolphin — Smoky Ordinary“Rebel cavalry” — Wilson-Kautz Raid
In June 1864, to deny Gen. Robert E. Lee the use of the South Side R.R. and the Richmond and Danville R.R., Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Gen. James H. Wilson and Gen. August V. Kautz south of Petersburg on a cavalry raid to destroy track and rolling . . . — Map (db m20171) HM
Virginia (Brunswick County), Lawrenceville — Brunswick County Courthouse
Late in the afternoon of May 15, 1864, Union Gen. August V. Kautz and his cavalry division rode into Lawrenceville, the Brunswick County seat. They were on the second leg of a two-part, two-week-long expedition to destroy railroad bridges and depots . . . — Map (db m62400) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Bowling Green — Star HotelConspirator's Lair
Built approximately 1820, the Star Hotel was one of two taverns serving Bowling Green. During the Civil War, it was operated by the Henry Gouldman family, and became a notorious Confederate spy headquarters and safe haven to those who aided Lincoln . . . — Map (db m4527) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Carmel Church — Carmel ChurchGathering for North Anna — Lee vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign
The scattered corps of the Union army reunited here at Carmel Church (known during the war as Mount Carmel Church) on May 23 before attacking Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee across the North Anna River, approximately three miles ahead. Gen. Winfield . . . — Map (db m3693) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Guinea — Guinea StationGrant Maneuvers South
Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign General Winfield Hancock’s Union Second corps left Spotsylvania Court House after sunset on May 290, 1864. It trudged south along dark roads, headed toward Milford Station on the Richmond, . . . — Map (db m3308) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Milford — Milford StationLee Avoids A Trap — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign
Unable to crack Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s strongly fortified lines at Spotsylvania Court House, Union Gen. Grant ordered Gen. Winfield Hancock’s Second Corps to cross the Mattaponi River here at Milford Station and threaten the Confederate . . . — Map (db m19285) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Port Royal — Port RoyalUnion Supply Depot
Port Royal possessed the finest harbor on the middle reaches of the Rappahannock River. Although the town's permanent wharf had been destroyed by Union gunboats before the Battle of Fredericksburg, the excellent harbor made Port Royal an obvious . . . — Map (db m57537) HM
Virginia (Caroline County), Woodford — Bethel ChurchUnion Command Meets
Lee vs. Grant - The 1864 Campaign "At the church…the 9th Corps was marching past, and Burnside was sitting, like a comfortable abbot, in one of the pews, surrounded by his buckish staff whose appearance is the reverse of clerical.” . . . — Map (db m4760) HM
Virginia (Charles City County), Charles City — Piney GroveThe Front Line and the Home Front
In Virginia, the “Home Front” and the “Front Line” were often just miles apart during the Civil War. In places such as Charles City County families provided their men for troops and also lost the income from their . . . — Map (db m18589) HM

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