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West Virginia Markers
1156 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 906
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Battle of Laurel HillTempest on the Turnpike
Union and Confederate forces clashed along the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike (the narrow paved road in the foreground) on July 7-11, 1861. Union General Morris was ordered to "amuse" General Garnett at Laurel Hill - to make him believe the main attack would come here. Meanwhile, Major General George McClellan flanked the Confederates 20 miles south at Rich Mountain. Spirited skirmishing took place among these hills. Union General Morris found it hard to restrain his troops. The Confederates fought . . . — Map (db m34439) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Camp Belington
Union troops under Brigadier General T.A. Morris, advanced from Philippi on July 7, 1861 and established a fortified camp near this site. Battle of Belington took place July 7-11. Confederates were two miles to east at Laurel Hill. — Map (db m34424) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Camp Laurel HillA Key to Victory — The First Campaign
On the nearby heights, Confederate General Robert Garnett's Army of Northwestern Virginia built fortifications to defend the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike in June 1861. Many received their baptism of fire here as Garnett's 4,000 Confederates skirmished with an equal force under General Thomas A. Morris on July 7-11, 1861. While Moris feigned attack, Federal troops under Major General George McClellan defeated Confederates at Rich Mountain, 15 miles south. With the enemy now threatening his front . . . — Map (db m34423) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Camp Laurel Hill
Fortified camp occupied by Confederates under Brig. Gen. Robert S. Garnett. June 16 - July 12, 1861. The scene of sharp skirmishes July 7-11. Garnett retreated early in the morning of July 12 after the Rich Mountain defeat. — Map (db m34425) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — CannonsGrim Weapons of War
Confederate artillery was posted here. The cannons were placed behind protective earthworks, still faintly visible today. Their fire swept the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike below. Model 1841 6-pounder field guns were used at Camp Laurel Hill. Although nearly obsolete by 1861, they could fire a six-pound projectile more than 1,500 yards. The muzzle blast and concussion alone were demoralizing. Most Confederate earthworks here were filled in by Union troops in 1861. "Our position, on the . . . — Map (db m34440) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Civil War
To honor all who served North and South April 12, 1861 to April 9, 1865 donated by Laurel Mountain Post 410 Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States Belington, West Virginia March 1, 1999 — Map (db m34447) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Civil War on the Beverly & Fairmont Turnpike
"A few dozen of us who had been swapping shots with the enemy's skirmishers, grew tired of the result less battle and by a common impulse - and I think without orders or officers, ran forward into the woods and attacked the Confederate works. We did well enough considering the hopeless folly of the movement, but we came out of the woods faster than we went in a good deal. Our camp is now a racetrack." Ambrose Bierce 1904 Map (db m34456) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Confederate CemeteryFallen Heroes of Laurel Hill
Within this fenced burial ground lie Confederate soldiers who died at Laurel Hill. Their number is unknown. Inscribed headboards once marked the graves. During the Civil War, disease killed more men than bullets. One soldier reported 14 graves in two separate cemeteries. Fewer than a dozen Confederates were killed in battle at Laurel Hill. The graves of some Confederates were later removed. John B. Pendleton of the 23rd Virginia Infantry was killed in action and buried here. After the war, . . . — Map (db m34441) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Forced FlightConfederates Abandon Laurel Hill
By July 10, 1861, Federal cannons bombarded the interior of Camp Laurel Hill. Confederates may have sought shelter among the boulders nearby. On July 11, General Garnett learned of defeat at Rich Mountain. Fearful of being trapped, Garnett ordered a midnight retreat. Tents were left standing and campfires burning to deceive the Federals. The Confederate army and its large wagon train slipped away. On July 13th, Federals caught up to the fleeing Confederates at Corricks Ford, twenty-five miles . . . — Map (db m34445) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Laurel Hill
Battle of Laurel Hill, July 8, 1861, between Confederates and McClellan's army, followed by actions at Rich Mountain and Corrick's Ford, gave Federals control of State and established communication lines to the West. Fine view from peak. — Map (db m34426) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Laurel HillConfederate Encampment, 1861
Soldiers of the Confederate Army of the Northwest occupied this ground from June 16 to July 11, 1861. Led by General Robert S. Garnett, a West Point instructor of tactics, they dug fortifications on the Mustoe farm to block the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike, an important north-south road. General Garnett's headquarters tent stood in a maple grove nearby. Here raw volunteers went through rigorous drill and instruction. These Confederates consisted of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, mostly from . . . — Map (db m34437) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Meadowville
Meadowville, on the site of an Indian fort built in 1784, is a few miles north. New Jersey colonists settled there before 1800, and tavern, mills, and stores made it a trading center of the Tygarts Valley for a hundred years. — Map (db m34448) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Welcome to Camp Laurel HillGateway to the Northwest
Confederate forces retreated from this area after the "Philippi Races" (June 3, 1861), first land battle of the Civil War. At Huttonsville, 26 miles south, Confederate General Robert S. Garnett took command of the Army of the Northwest. His goal was to reclaim "Western" Virginia. General Garnett identified two mountain passes as the "gates to the northwestern country." The first was at Rich Mountain, 20 miles south. The second was here, on the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike, at Laurel Hill. Leaving . . . — Map (db m34455) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Junior — Barbour County / Randolph County
(South Facing Side): Barbour CountyFormed from Harrison, Lewis, and Randolph in 1843. It is named for a distinguished Virginia jurist, Philip Pendleton Barbour. Scene of opening hostilities on land between the armies of the North and South in 1861. (North Facing Side):Randolph CountyFormed from Harrison in 1787. Named for Edmund Jennings Randolph, Virginia statesman and soldier. Largest county in the State. Federal dominance of the Tygarts Valley in War between the . . . — Map (db m33928) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Barbour County Korean War Memorial
Barbour County Post 44 Dedicated to all Barbour County Veterans who served in the Korean War. July 29, 1989 — Map (db m33701) WM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Barbour County Vietnam Era Veterans Memorial
This monument and park are dedicated in sincere appreciation of all Barbour County Vietnam era Veterans who served this great nation - United States of America 1961 - 1973 Dedicated on May 25, 1987 by United States Senator John D. Rockefeller IV All gave some - These gave all Viet Nam War William Lee Car • Larry Joseph Lowther Rex A. Bowyer • Lesley Wayne Reed Garry L. Burgess • Donald F. Schnably Roger L. Carpenter • Roger Lee Simpson James R. Hickman • John Charnpolsky Isaac C. Huffman • Wm. . . . — Map (db m33758) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Barbour County War Memorial
(Front):1917 - 1919 In Memory of Oscar Granville Alexander Clayton Bosworth Brandon Jesse Gordon Cole Quincy C. Dadisman Okey E. Duckworth James Blaine Hovatter Everett Earl Ice David Oren Jones Fred E. Jones John Irvin Kramer Andrew L. Matthew Lawrence L. Mayle Charles Wayne Moore Wilbur Simpson Moore William Hobart McDaniel William Myers Nelson Newman Carl Frederick Nitz Lloyd F. Reed Lawson D. Regester Robert J. Ritter Carl Simmons Walter Ray Smith Loring Carr Thorpe Thomas . . . — Map (db m33708) WM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Battle of PhilippiTalbott's Hill — The First Campaign
(Preface):In the spring of 1861, Union forces rushed into northwestern Virginia to secure the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, protect important turnpikes, and support Unionists against Confederates. The two sides fought numerous engagements between June and December. They included Philippi (the war's first land battle), Rich Mountain, Corricks Ford, Cheat Summit Fort, Carnifex Ferry, and Camp Allegheny. The many Union victories made Gen. George B. McClellan's reputation and . . . — Map (db m58700) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Birthplace - W.D. Zinn
One mile east is Woodbine Farm, birthplace of W.D. Zinn, noted farmer, writer and lecturer. He contributed much to scientific farming in this and adjoining states. "The Story of Woodbine Farm" is an autobiography of his work. — Map (db m33776) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — First Land Battle
First land battle between the North and South here, June 3, 1861. Confederates under Col. Porterfield were dislodged by Federal troops from Gen. McClellan's army under Col. Kelley. The old covered bridge here was used by both armies. — Map (db m33777) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Historic Campbell School
(Front): After the Civil War, Barbour County residents built this one-room school house near Volga, 8 miles SW. As one of the county's first free schools, it was the center of education for hundreds of children, providing instruction for primary through eighth grade, until it closed in 1963. In 1992, the restored school was moved to Alderson-Broaddus College campus to ensure its preservation. (Back): Noted alumni, Arch Hall, M.D., who performed 1st open-heart surgery in U.S. & . . . — Map (db m33815) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Confederate Retreat — The First Campaign
Col. George A. Porterfield moved his newly recruited Confederates from Grafton on May 28, 1861, after receiving word of a Federal advance on the B&O Railroad. Porterfield's force a Philippi totaled no more than 775 volunteers. Few were fully trained and all were poorly equipped. Although the little town was "friendly country," upon learning of the Federal advance,Porterfield advised his officers to be ready to retreat south to Beverly on the morning of June 3 for there would be no advance in . . . — Map (db m33672) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Philippi
Originally called Anglin's Ford for William Anglin but later named Booth's Ferry for Daniel Booth. Near by in 1780, Richard, Cottrill, and Charity Talbott settled. Philippi was named for Judge Philip Pendleton Barbour. — Map (db m33702) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Commands — The First Campaign
Col. Benjamin F. Kelley Kelley, a railroad agent in Philadelphia and former resident of Wheeling, was called back to command the First Virginia (Union) Infantry - the first Union regiment raised in the South. He planned and led the attack on Philippi. Severely wounded there, he recovered and was awarded a Brigadier General's Star. Federal Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, Commanding, U.S. Army, Department of the Ohio. Brig. Gen. Thomas A. Morris, Commanding, U.S. Army, Western Virginia . . . — Map (db m33760) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Federal Attack — The First Campaign
On June 2, 1861, Federal troops advanced on Philippi from the Baltimore & Ohio rail hub at Grafton in two columns of about 1500 men each. The left column, under Col. Benjamin Kelley, took the train six miles east to Thornton, and then marched south over poor roads on the east side of the Tygart Valley River toward Philippi. The right column, uncer Col. Ebenezer Dumont, rode the train south to Webster and followed the Fairmount-Beverly Turnpike to Talbott Hill (College Hill) where they placed . . . — Map (db m33816) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Casualties
As Col Benjamin Kelley’s Federals pursued the Confederates through Philippi, he was shot in the upper right chest by Col. George A. Porterfield’s quartermaster. A surgeon declared it a mortal wound but Kelley recovered. In a show of respect, his men awarded him a horse they bought locally. He named the horse “Philippi” and rode it through most of the war. Eighteen-year old Confederate James E. Hanger, a member of the Churchville Cavalry, was struck in the left leg by a . . . — Map (db m63852) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — The Covered Bridge
The Philippi Covered Bridge across Tygart Valley River was built in 1852 by Lemuel Chenoweth of Beverly. Made of wood, with the exception of the iron bolts used to hold the segments together, it is an example of the best in covered bridge architecture and design. It was used by armies of the North and South in the Civil War. In 1934 the bridge was strengthened to permit modern traffic and is today a part of U.S. 250. — Map (db m33665) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — The Philippi Covered BridgePhilippi, WV — Scene of the First Land Battle of the Civil War
Constructed in 1852 by Lemuel Chenoweth; masonry by Emanuel J. O'Brien, cost $12,151.24. The covered bridge, erected in 1852, is the only two-lane bridge in the federal highway system. During the Civil War the bridge served both North and South in passage of troops and supplies across the mountains into Virginia. Several times the bridge narrowly missed the fate of many other wooden structures along the Staunton and Parkersburg Turnpike that were burned. The dual-lane structure was made of . . . — Map (db m33762) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Valley Furnace — Valley Furnace
Iron ore was discovered here, 1835, by John Johnson. The Old Iron Furnace, built, 1848, was operated for six years by C.W. Bryant and Isaac Marsh. In 1850, a steam engine replaced the water power used to run fan air blast. Charcoal was fuel used. About 9,000 pounds of iron were produced daily. The iron was hauled by mule team 50 miles to the Monogahela River near Fairmont for shipment by boat to down-river markets. — Map (db m33929) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — "Morgan Acres"
Two miles west is the site of the first house in present West Virginia. It was built by Col. Morgan Morgan who came from Delaware in 1726. It was destroyed and the one now there was built in 1800 by another Morgan. — Map (db m57717) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Christ Church
First Episcopal Church in West Virginia Established 1740 by Col. Morgan Morgan known as Morgan's Chapel Present building 1851 — Map (db m12848) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Col. Morgan Morgan
Nov. 1, 1688 — Nov. 17, 1766. Erected by the State of West Virginia. In commemoration of the first settlement within the present boundaries of said State, which was made by Col. Morgan Morgan, a native of Wales, and Catherine Garretson, his wife, in the year 1726 on a tract of 1000 acres about 2 miles west of here. Granted to him by colonial Virginia patent, and in recognition of the sterling character of the said Morgan and family who by their efforts and example, were largely . . . — Map (db m1169) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — James Johnston Pettigrew Monument
Due west of this tablet, 650 feet, is the Boyd House in which died, July 17, 1863, Brig.-Gen. James Johnston Pettigrew, of North Carolina, C. S. A. At Gettysburg he commanded and led Heth’s Division in the assault on Cemetery Ridge, July 3; and in the retreat was mortally wounded at Falling Water, July 14, 1863. “He was a brave and accomplished officer and gentleman, and his loss will be deeply felt by the country and the Army.” R. E. Lee. — Map (db m2615) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Jefferson County / Berkeley County
Jefferson County. Formed, 1801, from Berkeley. Named for Thomas Jefferson. Home of Gens. Gates, Darke, and Charles Lee. Here four companies of Washington’s men organized. Shepherdstown was strongly urged as the seat of the National Capitol. Berkeley County. Formed from Frederick in 1772. Named for Norborne Berkeley, Baron Botetourt, governor of Virginia, 1768–1770. Home of many leaders in the Revolution. As early as 1774, George Washington had orchards planted here. — Map (db m3449) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Morgan Cabin
Originally built 1731-34 as second home of Morgan Morgan-first white settler in West Virginia. Rebuilt with some of original logs in 1976 as a State and County Bicentennial project. It was here during the Revolution that James Morgan, the grandson of Col. Morgan Morgan was shot and killed by a group of Tories. Since then, this area has been known as Torytown. — Map (db m12798) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Morgan Morgan
Morgan Morgan, a native of Wales, established his home at Bunker Hill before 1732, and was leader in Eastern Panhandle’s early development. His sons gave name to Morgantown, and fought in Indian and Revolutionary Wars. — Map (db m1176) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Darkesville — Darkesville
Named for Gen. William Darke, veteran of the Revolution and the Indian wars. He saves the remnants of St. Clair’s army from massacre in 1791 when badly defeated by the Miami Indians. His son Capt. Joseph Darke, lost his life. — Map (db m1979) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South Mountain . . . — Map (db m60605) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersStuart’s Surprise
Here at Stumpy’s Hollow on the morning of July 2, 1861, Confederate Lieutenant Colonel J.E.B. Stuart captured a Union infantry company almost single-handedly. The Federals – Company I, fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers – were acting as skirmishers in advance of General Robert Patterson’s army as it marched toward Martinsburg. Arriving at this fork in the road from the north and uncertain as to which way to go, the captain left a lieutenant in charge and ordered the company to rest . . . — Map (db m45596) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersCrockett-Porterfield House
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of town, to block them. General Joseph E. Johnston had directed Jackson to determine whether the Federals were in force and to retire if they were. Outnumbered, Jackson fought a brief delaying action and then fell back toward Martinsburg. Patterson . . . — Map (db m45605) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersHarper’s 5th Virginia Infantry
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of town, to block them. General Joseph E. Johnston had directed Jackson to determine whether the Federals were in force and to retire if they were. Outnumbered, Jackson fought a brief delaying action and then fell back toward Martinsburg. Patterson . . . — Map (db m58078) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersFour Apostles of the 1st Rockbridge Artillery
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of town, to block them. General Joseph E. Johnston had directed Jackson to determine whether the Federals were in force and to retire if they were. Outnumbered, Jackson fought a brief delaying action and then fell back toward Martinsburg. Patterson . . . — Map (db m58080) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battles of Falling Waters“A splendid falls”
During the Civil War, the strategically important Valley Turnpike crossed the stream just above the small waterfall here. Two battles were fought nearby. The first occurred on July 2, 1861, half a mile south on the Porterfield Farm. On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched south toward Martinsburg. Colonel Thomas J. Jackson (soon to be nicknamed “Stonewall”) ordered his command northward from . . . — Map (db m58083) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Stumpy’s HollowJuly 2, 1861
Site of JEB Stuart’s capture of Union Soldiers Falling Waters Battlefield Association — Map (db m45769) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Gerrardstown — Gerard House
Built by John Hays, 1743. Became home of Reverend David Gerard, who founded Gerrardstown in 1787. His father was Reverend John Gerard, the first Baptist Minister west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. — Map (db m12793) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Gerrardstown — Gerrardstown
Established as a town, 1787. Named for John Gerrard, first pastor of Mill Creek Baptist Church, which was organized by early settlers about 1743. The congregation reorganized after Indian hostilities during the French and Indian War. — Map (db m12791) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Gerrardstown — Mill Creek Baptist Church
Site of Mill Creek Baptist Church Organized prior to 1742 Grand-parent of First Baptist Church Martinsburg, West Va. — Map (db m14596) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Hedgesville — Camp HopkinsMemorial to a Friend
In December 1862, Union Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley stationed detachments of the 54th Pennsylvania and 1st West Virginia Infantry regiments here to guard and repair the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, a main supply route between the Ohio River and the national capital region. On March 6, 1863, Col. Edward James and his 106th New York Volunteer Infantry and a section of Capt. Thomas A. Maulsby’s Battery F, West Virginia Light Artillery (US), marched from Martinsburg and relieved the units. They first . . . — Map (db m58628) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Hedgesville — Hedgesville
Site of stockade fort built during the early Indian wars. Mt. Zion Episcopal Church was built soon after. A mile west is the tavern, built, 1740–1750, by Robert Snodgrass on land patented in 1732 by William Snodgrass, pioneer settler. — Map (db m990) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Holton — Site of the Snyders Evangelical Church
Site of the Snyders Evangelical Church founded by Jacob Albright in 1850. Merged with United Brethren Church in 1952. Razed in 1957. — Map (db m1111) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — “Oh Shenandoah, I Long to See You!”
“Big Apple Time Capsule” • Dedicated: Oct 19, 1990 – Re-open in year of 2040 • Sponsor: Martinsburg Jaycees. This “community pride project” is an attempt to preserve the Apple Capital city and surrounding areas of our Southern and Shenandoah Valley heritage. May God bless our endeavors. — Map (db m1212) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Avenue of Flags Monument
The colonial village of Martinsburg was established by law enacted by the General Assemply of the Commonwealth of Virginia on October 21, 1778. Martinsburg’s founder was General Adam Stephen, a noted soldier of the American Revolutionary War. General Stephen named Martinsburg in honor of his close friend, Colonel Thomas B. Martin, the nephew of Lord Thomas Fairfax. Martinsburg has grown and prospered for two hundred years because of the hopes, prayers, andhard work of its citizenry. This . . . — Map (db m1978) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Shop Complex
The roundhouse is the sole surviving cast-iron framed roundhouse and is an important example of mid-19th century industrial building design. Designed by Albert Fink, in collaboration with Benjamin H. Latrobe, it represents an early use of standardized, prefabricated iron structural elements to create an efficient and fire-resistant building. Constructed 1866-1867 • National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark — Map (db m1199) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Baltimore and Ohio Roundhouse and Shop Complex
National Civil Engineering Landmark. The re-construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Roundhouse and Shop Complex commenced soon after the end of the American Civil War in 1865. This complex included two roundhouses and two significant shop buildings. The centerpiece of the railroad complex was the West Roundhouse, which can be seen in the immediate foreground. Roundhouse construction started in 1965 and was completed in 1966. The shop buildings, Bridge and Machine Shop and Frog and . . . — Map (db m17373) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Battle of Falling WatersJackson’s Coolness Under Fire
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under Gen. Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched south toward Martinsburg. Colonel Thomas J. Jackson sent his men north from their camp north of town to block them and to determine whether they approached in force, as General Joseph E. Johnston had directed him. Jackson was to retire if the Federal troops outnumbered his own. After he discovered that he was outnumbered, Jackson fought a brief delaying action near . . . — Map (db m41631) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Belle Boyd House126 E. Race Street — Built 1853
Built in 1853 by Benjamin Reed Boyd, a merchant, Confederate soldier and the father of Belle Boyd. Belle Boyd was a famous Confederate spy author and actress. — Map (db m45854) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Belle Boyd HouseHome of a Spy — Antietam Campaign
Isabelle “Belle” Boyd, the Confederate spy, lived here during part of her childhood. The ten-year-old and her family moved here in 1853 and left in 1858 for a dwelling (no longer standing) on South Queen Street. According to Boyd, when Union Gen. Robert Patterson’s army occupied Martinsburg in July 1861, she escaped prosecution after she shot dead a soldier who invaded the Queen Street house and insulted her mother, Mary Glen Boyd. In the spring of 1862, Belle Boyd paid a . . . — Map (db m63496) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Berkeley HotelRailroad Raids Survivor
This is one of the last surviving antebellum buildings in the area. It was constructed shortly after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842. The adjacent railroad yards twice were Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s target. The possession of Martinsburg, a strategic railroad center, was hotly contested during the early years of the war. On May 24, 1861, Gen. Joseph E. Johnson ordered Jackson to destroy the rolling stock here. Beginning in June, . . . — Map (db m58629) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Boydville
Built, 1812, by Elisha Boyd, general in the War of 1812, on land bought from Gen. Adam Stephen. Mansion noted for its fine workmanship. Home of his son-in-law, Charles J. Faulkner, Minister to France, and his grandson, U.S. Senator Faulkner. — Map (db m983) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Civil War MartinsburgFocus of Contention
Martinsburg, strategically located on the Valley Turnpike, (present day U.S. Route 11) and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was a major transportation center and the northern gateway to the Shenandoah Valley. Both sides contested for it frequently during the war, and it changed hands many times. In 1861, from late in May through June, Col. Thomas J. Jackson and his volunteers shut down the railroad, burning bridges and rolling stock. Jackson was here again in October 1862, and on his orders . . . — Map (db m58630) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Fort Neally
During the French and Indian War, Fort Neally was captured and its garrison massacred, Sept. 17, 1756. Many settlers in the vicinity also were killed. Among captives was Isabella Stockton, later wife of William McCleery, Morgantown. — Map (db m12790) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Gen. Adam Stephen
Here was home of General Adam Stephen, founder of Martinsburg and county's first sheriff. Was famous as fighter in French and Indian Wars, and as major general in the American Revolutionary War. — Map (db m12786) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — General “Stonewall” Jackson
In Memory of General “Stonewall” Jackson This tablet is erected by the Berkeley County Chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy to commemorate an instance of General Jackson’s remarkable bravery at all times in the face of the gravest danger. On this site July 2, 1861, General Jackson was seated under an oak tree giving orders when fired upon by Federal troops. A cannon ball cut off a limb of the tree, but Jackson, unhurt, rode calmly away. — Map (db m41626) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — General Adam Stephen House and Triple Brick Museum
Founder of Martinsburg, First Sheriff of Berkeley County, Statesman, Soldier, Surgeon National Register of Historic Places Oct. 15, 1970 — Map (db m12788) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Gettysburg CampaignInvasion & Retreat
After stunning victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, Virginia, early in May 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee carried the war through Maryland, across the Mason and Dixon Line and into Pennsylvania. His infantry marched north through the Shenandoah Valley and western Maryland as his cavalry, led by Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, harassed Union supply lines to the east. Union Gen. Joseph Hooker, replaced on June 28 by Gen. George G. Meade, led the Army of the Potomac from the Washington . . . — Map (db m1975) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Hammond HouseHeadquarters and Hospital
Dr. Allen C. Hammond constructed this Greek Revival-style house about 1838. During the Civil War, both sides used it periodically for a headquarters or a hospital. The war ruined Hammond, a strong Southern sympathizer. In October 1859, Hammond’s son George Newkirk “Kirk” Hammond (1833-1864), a Virginia Military Institute graduate, rushed to Martinsburg to join the county militia when he learned of John Brown’s Raid at Harpers Ferry. Capt E.G. Alburtis led his company to the . . . — Map (db m72164) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — J. R. Clifford
Born 1848 in Hardy Co. A Civil War vet., Storer College graduate, teacher and principal at local Sumner School. Published Pioneer Press (1882), first African American paper in state. First of race to pass state bar exam (1887); argued two race discrimination cases before Supreme Court. A founder of Niagra Movement, a predecessor of NAAC_, and its 1906 Harpers Ferry meeting. Died Martinsburg, 1933. — Map (db m1210) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Martinsburg
Founded, 1778, by Gen. Adam Stephen. Named for Thomas Martin, nephew of Lord Fairfax. Home of Admirals Charles Boarman and C.K. Stribling. Locomotives seized here, 1861, in Jackson’s raid were drawn by horses to Winchester, Va. — Map (db m1973) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Martinsburg / Berkeley Riflemen
Martinsburg. Established, 1778, by Gen. Adam Stephen. Named for Col. Thomas Martin, nephew of Lord Fairfax. Home of Admiral C.K. Stribling and Admiral Charles Boarman. In Jackson’s raid, 1861, captured B&O locomotives were drawn by horses to Winchester, Va. Berkeley Riflemen. The Berkeley Riflemen from Eastern Panhandle counties, under Capt. Hugh Stephenson, were first southern troops to join Washington in 1775 at Boston. In a “bee line” from Morgan’s Spring, they marched 600 miles in 26 days. — Map (db m1976) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Martinsburg RoundhouseJackson and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad — Antietam Campaign
In April 1861, as the Civil War erupted, Confederate forces seized the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Harpers Ferry west. On May 24, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston ordered Col. Thomas J. (later “Stonewall”) Jackson to destroy the rolling stock here at Martinsburg, a Unionist stronghold. Jackson began his task on June 13, soon burning 300 cars and destroying 42 locomotives. “It was sad work,” Jackson wrote his wife Anna, “but I had my orders and my duty was to . . . — Map (db m1200) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Old Federal Building
125 S. Maple Avenue. Completed 1895. Constructed using the Richardson-Romanesque Style of architecture, this building served as a Post Office and United States Courthouse. — Map (db m1977) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Roundhouses and Shops / Railroad Strike of 1877
Roundhouses and Shops. The B&O Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842, and by 1849, a roundhouse and shops were built. These first buildings were burned by Confederate troops in 1862. The present west roundhouse and the two shops were built in 1866. The east roundhouse was built in 1872. These buildings represent one of the last remaining examples of American industrial railroad architecture still intact and in use. These structures serve as important reminders of the status of the . . . — Map (db m1197) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Site of Belle Boyd Home
Famous Confederate Spy. Here on July 4, 1861, Belle Boyd, at the age of 17, shot and killed a Union soldier. She was imprisoned on several occasions as a result of her later spying activities. — Map (db m982) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Sumner-Ramer Memorial School515 West Martin Street
The present building was completed in 1917 under the leadership of Fred R. Ramer. He was the first principal in Berkeley County to have a school named after him. Ramer school served the black community until 1964. — Map (db m1211) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Van Metre Ford Bridge
Named for the property owners this stone bridge built in 1832 across Opequon Creek was major improvement for travellers on Warm Springs Road connecting Alexandria and Bath, Va., site of famous mineral waters. The Berkeley County Court established a commission to study and contract for construction of bridge. Silas Harry erected at local expense 165 foot bridge at reported cost of $3,700. — Map (db m12849) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Veterans Administration Center
Established as the Newton D. Baker General Hospital, U.S. Army. Named for Newton D. Baker, native of Martinsburg and Secretary of War, World War I. Opened for patients in 1944. It became Veterans Administration Center in 1946. — Map (db m12784) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — World War Memorial
1917-1918. This memorial is dedicated as an enduring tribute to the patriotism of the citizens of Berkeley County who rendered loyal service to our country in the great World War, and to honor the memory of those who made the supreme sacrifice in the cause of humanity. • Sponsored by the American Legion Auxiliary. • Erected 1925 by the Berkeley County Memorial Association, with voluntary contributions made by the people of the county. Honor Roll “Lest We Forget” . . . — Map (db m1256) WM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Bulltown — Bulltown / Bulltown Battle
Bulltown Important point in plan of Washington to establish water transportation to West. Salt was made here as early as 1792. Attack of whites in 1772 upon Captain Bull's Indian village here was among the causes of Dunmore's War. Bulltown Battle On October 13, 1863, a force of 400 Union troops under Captain W. H. Mattingly, entrenched on the hills to the northeast, repulsed attack of Confederate forces under Colonel W. L. Jackson. Jackson retreated after some loss into Pocahontas County. — Map (db m37050) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Burnsville — Braxton County/Gilmore County
Braxton County Formed in 1836 from Lewis, Kanawha, and Nicholas. Named for Carter Braxton, signer of the Declaration of Independence. Washington planned to establish important point in project for western communication in this county. Gilmore County Formed in 1845 from Kanawha and Lewis. Named for Thomas Walker Gilmer, Secretary of the Navy in Tyler's cabinet, who was killed in an accident on a war vessel. Farming is important, particularly sheep and cattle raising. — Map (db m73419) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Burnsville — Town of Burnsville
Area first settled in 1798; Payton Byrnes came in 1830. First known as Lumberport in 1866, when Capt. John Burns established first saw mill in area. Incorporated by county in 1902 and named for Burns. — Map (db m50025) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Frametown — America's Guard of Honor
Dedicated to the memory of all Paratroopers and Gliderman who spearheaded all major invasions by dropping behind enemy lines to secure military objectives. "Lest We Forget" whose courage, dedication and traditions make them America's finest. — Map (db m70903) WM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Napier — Battle of Bulltown"Come and take us"
On the hill in front of you are two fortifications that Union Gen. George B. McClellan ordered constructed late in1861. They guarded the wooden covered bridge located here on the Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike. In October 1863, Capt. William H. Mattingly, of Parkersburg, occupied the works with several companies---350-400 men---of the 6th and 11th West Virginia Infantry. On October 13, Confederate Col. William L. “Mudwall” Jackson attacked the fortifications at 4:30 A.M. with . . . — Map (db m58727) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Sutton — The Burning of SuttonvillePartisan Attack
In 1861, Col. Erastus B. Tyler’s 7th Ohio Infantry constructed earthworks near Suttonville to protect the suspension bridge across the Elk River. Later in the year, Capt. Weston Rowand’s Co. K, 1st Virginia Cavalry (US), about a hundred men, occupied the fort. At 10 A.M. on Wednesday, December 29, approximately eighty Confederate partisans known locally as the Moccasin Rangers attacked the Federals. Rowand and his second-in-command, 1st Lt. Charles D. Lawson were absent at the time, so 2nd . . . — Map (db m58728) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Sutton — The War and SuttonvilleChanging Occupations — Jones-Imboden Raid
(Preface): On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later reported that they marched 1,100 miles, fought several engagements, captured 100 Federals, seized about 1,200 horses and 4,000 cattle, and burned 4 turnpike bridges, more than 20 railroad bridges, 2 trains, and 150,000 barrels of oil. Most . . . — Map (db m58729) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Beech Bottom — Beech Bottom Fort
Near here stood Beech Bottom Fort, which was with Fort Pitt and Fort Henry in the group of posts guarding the western borders during the Revolution and its attendant Indian wars. Troops from Fort Pitt helped garrison this important fort. — Map (db m54915) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Alexander Campbell
Here lived the leading influence in America's largest indigenous religious movement, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and founder of Bethany College. Built in four periods: the John Brown Mansion, completed in 1793; Buffalo Seminary, in 1819; brick dining wing, in 1836; and “Stranger's Hall”, in 1840. Among famous Americans who were guests were Calhoun, Clay, Webster, Davis, Garfield. — Map (db m20826) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Archibald McLean
. . . — Map (db m20836) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Bethany Church of Christ
Bethany Church of Christ, the oldest church building in Bethany, was built in 1852 according to plans drawn by Alexander Campbell, founder of Bethany College and leader in the Disciples Movement. Its foundation is built of stone from the original church erected on this site in 1832. Bethany Church was organized as a separate congregation in 1829. Campbell was pastor for many years, while serving as president of Bethany College. — Map (db m20830) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Campbell Cemetery
Here are buried the Campbell family; the first missionaries, other prominent leaders in the Disciples Movement, presidents and distinguished teachers of Bethany College. The seven foot hand hewed stonewall is a unique feature of Cemetery. — Map (db m20963) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Delta Tau Delta Birthplace
In this house, 8 Bethany College Students - William Cunningham, John Johnson, Alexander Earle, Richard Alfred, Eugene Tarr, Henry Bell, John Hunt and Jacob Lowe - Met in 1858 and founded Delta Tau Delta. This social fraternity soon spread across the American Continent. In 1977, plans were completed for the restoration of this structure to its original condition. — Map (db m20849) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Thomas CampbellFather of Alexander & Archibald W. Campbell
Born in County Down, Ireland, Feb. 1, 1763, and died at the residence of his son Alexander, Jan. 4, 1851, aged 91 years, 11 mthns, five days. Many years a minister of the Secession Presbyterian Church in Ireland and Scotland. In the United States upon arrival of his family in America 1802 he withdrew from the Presbyterian Communion and advocated a platform of primitive Christianity. In conjunction with his son, Alexander, he laboured in this with much success. More than forty years in Christian . . . — Map (db m20835) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Follansbee — Fort Decker
John Decker built a fort of logs and stone on a site just north of State St. near Ohio River, 1774. Leaden bullets and arrowheads found here on the river bank signify Native American attack on the fort from Mingo Island. — Map (db m21605) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — 1788 Wells Log House
Constructed by Alexander Wells at 65 Washington St., Buffaloe, Virginia (present day Third St., Wellsburg, West Virginia) The Wells Log House was, and is, in the “National Register of Historic Places” District of Wellsburg (registered 1981) The four room/two floor log house has a “turkey breast” design fireplace in each room. Gratitude to Riverview Baptist Chapel whose foresight permitted the Wells Log House to be preserved for . . . — Map (db m21634) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Bethany Turnpike Tunnels
First highway tunnels constructed west of Alleghenies. They were built in 1831 by Richard Waugh at personal expense to ease transportation to his flour mills. The tunnels, a mile apart, were removed by the State in 1957. — Map (db m21614) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Brooke County Veterans Memorial
Dedicated to the men and women from Brooke County who have honorably served in the armed forces of our country in time of war and peace — Map (db m21616) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Drovers Inn
Constructed by John Fowler, 1848-51 with bricks fired on the property. First known as Fowler's Inn, the house provided food and lodging for drovers herding livestock over the Wellsburg-Washington Turnpike to eastern markets. Other services provided at the Inn included a post office, general store and livestock yards. Fowler also operated a steam powered grist mill in the area. — Map (db m42167) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — George Washington Crossing, 1770
George Washington began a journey on October 5, 1770 to the Ohio Country to see lands he had fought to win and now hoped to own. After a trip, on November 3, up the Kanawha River, the party headed back up the Ohio River. On November 17, they reached Mingo Town. Three days later their horses arrived. The party then crossed the river here and traveled on across West Virginia's northern panhandle to Fort Pitt. — Map (db m33913) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Grimes Golden Apple
Watering trough marks location of first Grimes Golden Apple tree, discovered by owner of land, Thomas Grimes, in 1802. Memorial Trough sponsored by the Franklin Country Women's Club in 1922. — Map (db m70931) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Isaac Duvall and Company
The first glass house in Western Virginia was built at Charlestown, now Wellsburg, in 1813, by Isaac Taylor Duvall and Company. It was located on the southeast corner of Fifth and Yankee Streets. Cobalt blue, green and clear flint glass wares were made here. Isaac Duvall died in 1828, and company was sold in 1838 to Samuel Lowther, Joseph Miller and George Cotts for $2100. — Map (db m39642) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Miller's Tavern
Built by John Henderson prior to 1798 in Federal style, the building was leased by William Miller and operated as a tavern for 50 years. Since 1974 building has housed the Brooke County Museum. — Map (db m21628) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Patrick Gass1771-1870
Sergeant on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, he published the first account of that exploration in 1807 Veteran of the War of 1812, he fought in the Battle of Lundy's Lane and at Fort Erie Citizen of Wellsburg for more than half a century, he married and raised his family on Grog Run and Pierce's Run. He is now buried in Brooke County Cemetery. The bust of Patrick Gass as a young man on the Lewis and Clark Expedition was sculpted by Agnes Vincen Talbot of . . . — Map (db m21629) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Patrick Gass
Born 12 June 1771, Gass served as carpenter for Lewis and Clark. The expedition explored and studied the land, waterways, animal life, natural features and resources of the West. Gass's journal of trip was published in 1807. Soldier in the War of 1812. Settled in Wellsburg and purchased land on Pierce's Run. Last survivor of expedition, he died 2 April 1870. Buried in nearby Brooke Cemetery. — Map (db m39731) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Patrick M. Gass1771 - 1870
The grave of Patrick M. Gass, a sergeant on the Lewis and Clark Expedition and a soldier of the War of 1812 is located in this cemetery. His wife Maria is buried beside him. Placed by the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, assisted by the National Park Service, Challenge Cost Share Program to commemorate the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 2003-2006 Map (db m54977) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — The Lewis and Clark Connection
The Corps of Discovery, under the command of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, was the first official expedition through the interior of the North American Continent sponsored by the United States. Captain Meriwether Lewis passed Charles Town in Virginia (later renamed Wellsburg) on September 7, 1803. Lewis brought the expedition's keelboat down the Ohio River to rendezvous with William Clark near Louisville, Kentucky. The expedition spent the winter of 1803-04 at a camp located . . . — Map (db m21639) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — The Wellsburg United Methodist ChurchA Fellowship of Believers For More Than Two Centuries
Methodism in Wellsburg dates back to 1787 with the establishment of the “Ohio Circuit.” Early services were held in “The Academy” on High Street. Bishop Asbury preached at the courthouse on September 6, 1803. On April 19, 1816, John Prather, son of the founder of Wellsburg, deeded this site to the trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church for the erection of a meeting house, to be used as a Methodist house of worship “forever.” The first church on this . . . — Map (db m21635) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Wellsburg
Established in 1791. Brooke Academy, started, 1778, incorporated in 1799. Here lived Joseph Doddridge, the author of "Frontier Notes," and Patrick Gass, member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and author of its "Journal." — Map (db m39699) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Wellsburg Wharf
In the 1790's, flatboats left here with their cargoes for southern markets. To accommodate and store products, warehouses and wharfs were built along our river banks. This wharf, which was established in the 1800's, extended twenty feet out in the river. To the north and south of this wharf are the foundations of two warehouses which were built in the 1790's and the early 1800's. — Map (db m21637) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Wellsburg's Giant Sycamore
This giant Sycamore tree stands at the top of the Wellsburg Wharf it was planted in the early years of the 19th century by Dr. Albert Wheeler who practiced medicine in Wellsburg until his death in 1864. It was under this tree that militiamen gathered in 1863 when the Confederate General Morgan led his cavalrymen on a sweep into the state of Ohio. Many of the deeds of Wellsburg property are measured from this tree. — Map (db m21641) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Windsor Heights — Brooke County/Ohio County
Brooke County (South Face) Formed in 1797 from Ohio County. Named for Robert Brooke, Virginia governor, 1794-1796. Here Alexander Campbell founded the Christian Church and established a college. First Grimes Golden apple tree in this county. Ohio County (North Face) Formed in 1776 from West Augusta. Named for the river which bears an Indian name meaning "Beautiful River". Scene of the last battle of the Revolution, 1782. Visited by Washington, LaSalle, Celoron, Gist and later explorers. — Map (db m57260) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Barboursville — Barboursville
Established, 1813. County seat moved here from Guyandotte and remained until taken to Huntington in 1887. Before the Guyandotte courthouse was chosen,court met at the home of William Merritt, 1809-1810, on Mud River near here. — Map (db m73691) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Barboursville — Barboursville EngagementFighting for the Kanawha Valley
Confederate Gen. Henry A. Wise’s army occupied the Lower Kanawha Valley in June 1861. Union Gen. George B. McClellan assigned the task of driving them out to Gen. Jacob D. Cox, who massed his troops in Gallipolis, Ohio. Cox planned to cross the Ohio River, occupy Point Pleasant, and push up the Kanawha River to Charleston. He launched a three-prong drive on July 11, and the first clash of consequence occurred here at Barboursville on July 14. Union Lt. Col George Neff, leading the column . . . — Map (db m73692) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Barboursville — Old Toll House
This old toll house, built in 1837, stood below town of Barboursville on Guyan River bank; tolls collected on James River - Kanawha Turnpike from those using the ferry. Restored in 1950 by the D.A.R., Barboursville — Map (db m64095) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Barboursville — Woody Williams Bridge
Bridge named for Hershel "Woody" Williams, who as a corporal in 3rd Marine Div. during World War II won Congressional Medal of Honor for heroism against the Japanese at Iwo Jima, 23 February 1945. — Map (db m73686) WM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Battle of GuyandotteFederal Retaliation
After capturing Guyandotte on November 10, 1861, and rounding up civilian Unionists and Federal recruits, Confederate forces under Col. John Clarkson and Col. Albert G. Jenkins began the next day to leave the town with their prisoners. At the same time the steamboat Boston arrived—too late—with Union reinforcements, about 200 soldiers of the 5th (West) Virginia Infantry. Boston fired a few shots from her bow gun at the departing Confederates and then docked. Earlier, . . . — Map (db m73715) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Battle of Guyandotte"Massacre of the 9th Infantry"
When the Civil War began, few of Guyandotte’s residents were slaveholders, buy many townspeople resented any infringement on their right as Virginians to own slaves. Guyandotte was reportedly the only town on the Ohio River that voted in favor of secession. Union sympathizers were ill treated, and some fled to Ohio. A local resident, Albert G. Jenkins, recruited a Confederate force and took it to Camp Tompkins in the Kanawha Valley. In October 1861, Col. Kelliana V. Whaley, 9th (West) . . . — Map (db m73717) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Blues & Gospel Singer"Diamond Teeth" Mary McClain — August 28, 1902--April 4, 2000
Born and raised in Huntington, WV, Mary hopped a train and left town at age 13 to become a singer and dancer. She spent the 1920’s and 30’s performing in medicine and minstrel shows. During the 1940’s, Mary had diamonds removed from a bracelet and set into her front teeth, creating a dazzling stage effect which earned her the nickname, “Diamond Teeth Mary.” Night spots from Chicago to Miami billed her as “Queen of the Blues,” and “Walking Mary.” She performed . . . — Map (db m73736) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Carter Godwin Woodson
Historian, author, educator. Founder of the Assoc. for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1915. Began Journal of Negro History, 1916. In 1926 began Negro History Week, later Black History Month. A graduate and later principal, Douglass H.S., Huntington. Dean at West Virginia State College. Second African American to earn a Harvard Ph. D., 1912. Born, Dec. 19, 1875; Woodson died, April 3, 1950. — Map (db m73733) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Chesapeake & Ohio 1308
The 1308,built in 1949, was one of the last working steam locomotives built by Baldwin Locomotive Works for a Class 1 railroad in the USA. It primarily hauled coal from Logan Co. Retired from C&O Railway service in 1956. Moved in September 1962 to its present location. The 1308 was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 31, 2003. — Map (db m60349) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Elk River Coal & Lumber Company #10 Steam Locomotive
Built by American Locomotive Company in 1924, the #10 was used to haul mine waste from Rich Run Mine in Widen, WV. Retired from Elk River Coal and Lumber in 1959 and moved to its present location on May 27, 1977. Placed on National Register of Historic Places on September 28, 2006. — Map (db m62334) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Guyandotte
Indian name. Founded in 1810. Site chosen as county seat, 1809, and court first met here, October, 1810. Important point in river traffic, connecting with the James River and Kanawha Turnpike. Burned during the War between the States. — Map (db m73705) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Heritage Village
Opened in 1977, historic structures are adapted to modern retail uses based on theme of railroad heritage. Includes B&O Depot, and 1875 Bank and Gutzon Borglum statue of Collis Huntington. — Map (db m73740) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Madie Carroll HouseSaved from Destruction
During the Civil War, this was the home of Mary Carroll, who narrowly managed to save it from destruction when much of Guyandotte was burned on November 11, 1861. After capturing the town on November 10, 1861, and rounding up civilian Unionists and Federal recruits, Confederates forces under Col. John Clarkson and Col. Albert G. Jenkins left Guyandotte with their prisoners the next day. As they departed, the steamboat Boston arrived with the 5th (West) Virginia Infantry. When the . . . — Map (db m73708) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Marshall Memorial
In lasting remembrance of the members of the Marshall University Football team, the coaches, staff, and devoted fans who died in the plane crash November 14, 1970. — Map (db m73731) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Marshall Memorial Boulevard (Charleston Ave)
On November 14, 1970, a chartered jet crashed on approach to Tri-State Airport near Huntington, claiming the lives of seventy-five members of the Marshall University football team, coaches, fans, pilots & crew. This boulevard, named in honor of those fallen members of the university family, leads visitors from the Spring Hill Cemetery to the heart of the Marshall community. — Map (db m73729) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — One Room School Museum
Union School, nicknamed "Punkin Center School," was located on Guyan Creek Road near Glenwood, Cabell County. Served grades 1 thru 8 from 1899 to 1955. Schoolhouse donated by Mrs. Bill (Tina) Bryan; relocation and renovation funded by Phil Cline. On 22 Oct. 1995, dedicated as museum by project developer, Marshall alumnus, Prof. of History, Dr. Paul F. Lutz. — Map (db m23026) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — The Virginia Road1787-1939
Authorized by an act of 1786 was extended in December 1787 from Richmond VA. past this point to the mouth of the Big Sandy River entering the city over Norway Avenue. By 1832 this road became the James River and Kanawha Turnpike opening west to Lexington Kentucky. Here traveled Indians, Pioneers, Wagoners, Soldiers and Statesmen, Daniel Boone, Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay. — Map (db m73741) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — War Between the States Generals
Two of seven War Between the States generals buried in W. Va. interred here: Albert Gallatin Jenkins, C.S.A., in Confederate plot; John Hunt Oley, Union, and over 200 soldiers. Confederate Monument dedicated in 1900. — Map (db m73730) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Welcome to West Virginia
Airborne Dedicated to the Paratroopers and Glidermen who have served our country in war and peace. This memorial donated by members of the 82nd all Airborne and Special Forces chapters of WV — Map (db m74417) HM WM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — West Virginia Colored Children's Home
Rev. Charles McGee chartered WV Normal Industrial School for Colored Orphans, 1899. Opened, Central City, 1900, moved to 190-acre farm near Huntington & Guyandotte R. Served African-American orphans and indigent. Bought, 1911, operated until 1956 and integration. Brick building dates to 1922; listed in National Reg., 1997. — Map (db m73742) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Milton — Harshbarger Corner
Survey of Milton began here in 1872 and post office was established in 1873. Founder, David Harshbarger, later lived on this lot. Named for Milton Reece, first postmaster and large landholder in vicinity. Town incorporated in 1876 with Captain J.R. Burke as first mayor. Captain John Harshbarger occupied a log house 60 feet to north and operated a grist mill to the southwest on Mud River. — Map (db m73674) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Milton — Mud River Covered Bridge
Erected in 1875 by order of the Cabell Co. Court. The contract was awarded to R.H. Baker, the local postmaster. This design was developed by bridge engineer William Howe in 1840. Length is 112 feet. — Map (db m73675) HM
West Virginia (Calhoun County), Arnoldsburg — Arnoldsburg Skirmish
Site of Camp McDonald, set up, 1862, occupied by the 11th W. Va. Inf., U.S.V. Scene of engagement, May 6, 1862, when Federals under Maj. George C. Trimble beat off an attack by Confederate Moccasin Rangers under Capt. Geo. Downs. — Map (db m14153) HM
West Virginia (Calhoun County), Arnoldsburg — Engagement at ArnoldsburgDivided Loyalties
Early in 1862, the 11th West Virginia Infantry in Spencer established an outpost here in Arnoldsburg to suppress Confederate guerilla activity. Union Maj. George C. Trimble commanded four companies here at Camp McDonald, named for former county militia colonel Adonijah McDonald. Many of the soldiers were from Calhoun County. The Moccasin Rangers, Confederate guerillas, also recruited county residents. Peregrine Hays and George Silcott, both of Arnoldsburg, organized the Rangers, the 19th . . . — Map (db m73440) HM
West Virginia (Calhoun County), Arnoldsburg — Gilmer County/Calhoun County
Gilmer CountyFormed, 1845, from Kanawha and Lewis. Named for Thomas Walker Gilmer, Secretary of the Navy in President Tyler's Cabinet, who was killed by the explosion of a gun on board the United States battleship, Princeton, February 28, 1844. Calhoun County Formed in 1856 from Gilmer. Named for John C. Calhoun, eminent statesman from South Carolina. Is an important oil and gas-producing county. It is largely devoted to farming and has been prominent in livestock raising. — Map (db m73437) HM
West Virginia (Calhoun County), Big Bend — First County Court
Site of first Calhoun Co. Court which met at home of Joseph Burson, April 14, 1856. Justices were Wm. Brannon, Dan. Duskey, H.R. Ferrell, Geo. Lynch, Joshua Knight, Absalom Knotts and Hiram Ferrell. — Map (db m73462) HM
West Virginia (Clay County), Clay — Clay
Both county and county seat are named for Henry Clay. The Golden Delicious apple, once called "Mullins' Yellow Seedling," was developed on Porters Creek. The State also produced the Grimes Golden, the other great yellow apple. — Map (db m64096) HM
West Virginia (Doddridge County), West Union — Beehive Inn1828 until flood in late 1800's — Possibly an Underground Railroad Site
Ephraim Bee and his wife Catherine's inn served stages from the Northwest Turnpike. J.H. Diss Debar, W.V. State Seal designer said seeing all the children playing about, he had never dined in a Bee Hive before. Thereafter it was the Bee Hive Inn. In 1845 Ephraim founded the Ancient and Honorable Order of E Clampsus Vitus here. As founder he took the title of Noble Grand Gyascutis. E Clampsus Vitus spread through out the U.S.A. especially the booming California Gold Rush area. It . . . — Map (db m31748) HM
West Virginia (Doddridge County), West Union — Ephraim Bee1802 - 1888
Blacksmith, innkeeper, an operator of the "Underground Railroad". A Captain of the Doddridge County Militia, a member of the first West Virginia State Legislature in 1863, serving 3 terms. The Founder and Grand Royal Gyascutis of the Most Ancient and Honorable Order of E Clampsus Vitus, Ephraim was known throughout the country as a garrulous story-teller and practical joker. Legend has it that around 1845, 1st U.S. Ambassador Caleb Cushing returned from negotiating a treaty with . . . — Map (db m31822) HM
West Virginia (Doddridge County), West Union — West Union
West Union, incorporated in 1881, was formerly called Lewisport in honor of Lewis Maxwell. It is the county seat of Doddridge, named for Philip Doddridge. In it lived J. H. Diss Debar and Sen. and Gov M. M. Neely. — Map (db m42429) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — "Contentment"
Built, 1830, on the old James River and Kanawha Turnpike. Restored antebellum home of Colonel George W. Imboden, on General Lee's staff, C.S.A. Property and headquarters of the Fayette County Historical Society, organized in 1926. — Map (db m50392) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — "Halfway House"
Regular stop on the James River and Kanawha Turnpike. The original building, dating from before the Revolution, was rebuilt by William Tyree, 1810. During the winter of 1861-62, it was headquarters for Chicago Gray Dragoons. — Map (db m67013) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — ContentmentHome of George W. Imboden
After the Civil War, George W. Imboden lived here with his wife, Mary Tyree, the daughter of William Tyree of Tyree Tavern. When the war began, Imboden enlisted in the Staunton Artillery in Augusta County, Virginia, where he then resided. He subsequently became colonel of the 18th Virginia Cavalry when it was organized in December 1862. The regiment was assigned to the brigade of his better-known brother, Gen. John D. Imboden, and served in West Virginia, on the Gettysburg Campaign, and in the . . . — Map (db m34371) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Hawk’s Nest
Once called Marshall’s Pillar for Chief Justice John Marshall, who came here, 1812. U.S. engineers declare the New River Canyon, 585 feet deep, surpasses the famed Royal Gorge. Tunnel for river makes vast water power here. — Map (db m20675) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — FA 1 — Hawk's Nest Tunnel Disaster
Construction of nearby tunnel, diverting waters of New R. through Gauley Mt. for hydroelectric power, resulted in state’s worst industrial disaster. Silica rock dust caused 109 admitted deaths in mostly black, migrant underground work force of 3,000 . Congressional hearing placed toil at 476 for 1930-35. Tragedy brought recognition of acute silicosis as occupational lung disease and compensation legislation to protect workers. — Map (db m34417) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Jackson's Mother
In Westlake Cemetery is the grave of the mother of General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. The monument at the grave was placed by Captain Thomas Ranson, who had fought in Jackson's old brigade in the War between the States. — Map (db m34376) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — New Haven Veterans' MemorialVFW Post 7695
Proudly and humbly dedicated this Memorial to all who served our country; especially those who gave the ultimate sacrifice — Map (db m34499) WM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Salt Sand
The sheer cliffs of Nuttall sandstones forming the walls of the New River Gorge are the "Salt Sands" of the driller. These sands produce oil and natural gas in West Virginia and commercial brines on the Kanawha and Ohio Rivers. Sponsored by the W. Va. Centennial Committee of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Map (db m34420) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Tyree TavernConfederate and Union Headquarters
During his and Gen. Henry Alexander Wise’s unsuccessful Kanawha Valley campaign, Confederate Gen. John B. Floyd made his headquarters here, August 17-18, 1861, while Wise camped on the top of Big Sewell Mountain. In 1862, according to an inscription carved over the front door, the tavern was “Headquarters of the Chicago Gray Dragoons". The original Chicago Dragoons enlisted in April 1861 for three months and were sent to West Virginia in June. Most of the men returned to Chicago when . . . — Map (db m59937) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Westlake CemeteryBurial Place of Julia Jackson
This is one of the earliest identified cemeteries west of the Allegheny Mountains. William Tyree, owner of nearby Tyree Tavern, and Confederate Col. George W. Imboden, brother of Gen. John D. Imboden, are buried here. The cemetery is best known, however, for the grave of Julia Beckwith Neale Jackson Woodson, the mother of Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. She was born on February 28, 1798, in Loudoun County, Virginia, and moved with her family two years later to the Parkersburg . . . — Map (db m59193) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Boomer — Ancient Works
On a ridge between Armstrong and Loop creeks across the river are extensive prehistoric stone ruins whose walls are several miles long, and enclose a large area. Many of these stones are from the valley below the old wall. — Map (db m20820) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Abraham Vandal
Plaque One Abraham Vandal 1758-1848 * Born in Dutchess, NY * Soldier in the American Revolutionary War 1776-1781 * Married Mary Dillon 1780 * Father of Eight Children * Early Fayetteville Settler * In 1812 Abraham purchased 200 acres, including the present site of Fayetteville Plaque Two New York native Abraham Vandal settled Fayetteville or Vandalia around 1812. Historians believe his cabin was located on the present site of the Fayette County National . . . — Map (db m55816) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Battle of FayettevilleDefense and Retreat
During the Civil War, Fort Scammon stood in front of you on the hill behind the courthouse. There, on September 10, 1862, Union Col. Edward Siber and the 1,500 men of his 37th Ohio Infantry defended Fayetteville against Confederate Gen. William Loring’s 5,000-man army. Loring planned to occupy this area after learning in August that Federal troops were being transferred to eastern Virginia. The Kanawha River Valley north of here was strategically important to each side for defending southern . . . — Map (db m59214) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Fayetteville
In the attack on Federal forces here, 1863. Milton W. Humphreys, the educator and soldier, gunner of Bryan's Battery, 13th Virginia Light Artillery, C.S.A., first used “indirect firing,” now in universal military use. — Map (db m55815) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Fayetteville Town Park
Memorial Park was presented to citizens of Fayetteville to honor all veterans who served to defend their country. LaFayette Post No. 149, The American Legion, obtained lease for this property on August 4, 1958 from the New River Pocahontas Coal Co. On November 6, 1972, Berwind Land Co., a holding company, with LaFayette Post No. 149, deeded the 11.42 acres to the town of Fayetteville for a park. — Map (db m76724) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Indirect Firing
Nearby on May 19-20, 1863, Corp. Milton W. Humphreys, gunner in Bryan's Battery, 13th Virginia Light Artillery, C.S.A., made first use of indirect artillery fire in warfare. Target was Union fort in Fayetteville. — Map (db m55814) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Marquis de Lafayette — (1757-1834)
Front Plaque French Statesman Friend of the American Revolution “...The new County so to be formed be called Lafayette or Fayette County to perpetuate a remembrance of his virtues and philanthropy through future ages of our political existence...” Petition to the General Assembly of Virginia 1830 Rear Plaque Presented to the Citizens of Fayette County September 25, 2004 by the Fayette County Historic Landmark Commission Daniel E. Wright, Chairman . . . — Map (db m55817) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Vandalia Cemetery
Masonic group owned property in 1854. Baptists worshipped here prior to Civil War, but building destroyed during the conflict. Contains 29 marked graves, including town's early settlers and soldiers of the Civil War. A number of graves are marked only with stones. Listed on National Register as part of historic district. — Map (db m76708) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Gauley Bridge — Battles For The BridgesGauley Bridge - A Town in Between
When the war began, most residents of this part of present-day West Virginia were Confederate in their sympathies. Both Confederate and Union forces considered the wooden covered bridge here strategically important because the James River and Kanawha Turnpike linked the Ohio River with the James River. The original bridge piers are in the river to the right of the railroad bridge. In the summer of 1861, Confederate Gen. Henry A. Wise, the former governor of Virginia, and his troops . . . — Map (db m34373) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Gauley Bridge — Gauley Bridge
Here New and Gauley rivers unite to form Great Kanawha River. Piers still stand of old bridge destroyed by the Confederate troops in 1861. Here Thomas Dunn English, author of the ballad, "Ben Bolt," wrote "Gauley River". — Map (db m20818) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Gauley Bridge — Hawk's Nest Tunnel
Mouth of the great Hawk's Nest Tunnel, three miles long, which diverts water of New River from its five-mile long gorge. The tunnel, a mile of which is through solid rock, and a 50-foot dam give waterfall of 160 feet for electric power. — Map (db m34421) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Glen Ferris — Camp Reynolds
Located across Kanawha River from this point was Civil War camp for Union Army, 1862-64. Site had 56 cabins and parade grounds for 23rd Ohio Vol. Inf. commanded by Col. Rutherford B. Hayes and Lt. William McKinley, future United States presidents. — Map (db m50397) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Hilton Village — Andrew & Charles Lewis March
The nearby highway is part of route traversing W.Va. from Lewisburg to Point Pleasant memorialized by the state to commemorate the march of the American Colonial army of 1,200 men led by Andrew & Charles Lewis. After a month's march this army defeated a Shawnee Indian force led by Cornstalk at the Battle of Point Pleasant on the banks of the Ohio & Kanawha rivers, October 10, 1774. — Map (db m33809) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Lookout — Spy Rock
Sandstone formation at 2510 feet is landmark known for view of Sewell Mt. range to SE. Known as "Rock of Eyes" by Native Americans and dubbed "Spy Rock" by Civil War soldiers. Sept. 1861, Gen. J.D. Cox and 5,000 Union soldiers camped here to oppose Gen. Robert E. Lee at Sewell Mt. Site of Col. Geo. Alderson farm and tollgate on James River and Kanawha Turnpike, 1834-73. Source for name of Lookout. — Map (db m34430) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Montgomery — Christopher H. Payne
Born in slavery in Monroe Co., Sept. 7, 1848, he worked as servant in the Confederate army. Served as teacher and ordained Baptist minister; estab. West Virginia Enterprise, Pioneer, & Mountain Eagle papers; later a lawyer. First African American elected to WV legislature, 1896; delegate to Repub. Nat. Conventions and Consul General to Danish West Indies, 1903-17. Died, Dec. 5, 1925, St. Thomas. WV Celebration 2000 Map (db m34413) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Montgomery — Fayette County / Kanawha County
Marker Front: Formed in 1831 from Nicholas, Greenbrier, Kanawha, Logan. Named for General Lafayette. On New River, 1671, Batts and Fallam officially claimed Mississippi Valley for Great Britain in opposition to the claim of France. Marker Reverse: Authorized, 1788; organized in 1789 from Greenbrier and Montgomery. Named for the Kanawha River, bearing name of Indian tribe. Salt making brought early settlers into the valley and from it grew vast modern chemical plants. — Map (db m76931) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Montgomery — West Virginia Institute of Technology
State institution established in 1895 as Preparatory Branch of West Virginia University. In 1931, name was changed to New River State College. Became a multipurpose college in 1941, known as West Virginia Institute of Technology. — Map (db m76933) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Mossy — Coal Camp History
With railroads came thousands of workers looking to make a new life in the coalfields. In the late 1800’s and well into the mid-1900’s, many Appalachian miners lived in company towns called “Coal Camps”. Mine operators built company-owned towns along railroad lines to support the huge numbers of workers arriving daily. A large percentage of the coal miner’s wages was returned to the coal company in exchange for housing, tools, food and other basic expenses. These towns . . . — Map (db m34443) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Mossy — MossyPaint Creek Scenic Trail — Raleigh, Fayette, & Kanawha Counties, WV
1913-Union organizer Mary "Mother" Jones imprisoned in Pratt. 1913-Approximate location of the striking miners tent colony that was fired on by mine guards wielding a machine gun mounted on the "Bull Moose" special train 1919-7 miners are killed in an explosion of the Weirwood Coal Mine. 1920-Striking miners terrorize Willis Branch with gunfire and destroy the mining complex with dynamite. 1989-Striking miners bombed the coal mine at Milburn, WV. 1990's-The last company . . . — Map (db m34438) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Mossy — The Rebirth of Paint Creek
Soon after settlers arrived in Paint Creek, the landscape and population changed forever with the discovery of coal. Within just a few years, mines began operating at Paint Creek under the ownership of New York businessman William Henry Greene. Greene opened the first mines on Paint Creek in 1852. This coal boom transformed Paint Creek, and railroads connected the area to valuable national markets. The coal boom did not come without consequences, however. Acid mine drainage from the mines . . . — Map (db m34436) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Oak Hill — Oakwood Mine Complex
White Oak Fuel Company built the Oakwood Mine Complex in 1902. In 1915, 21 miners died when gas in the mine exploded. A year later, the original wooden tipple was upgraded to a multi-story steel structure. New River Company ran the mine after absorbing White Oak Fuel, a subsidiary, in 1936. Peak output was 515,936 tons in 1940. The mine shut down in 1965. — Map (db m76691) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Attack on Glenville"...the birds had flown" — Jenkins's Raid
(sidebar) Confederate Gen. Albert G. Jenkins led 550 cavalrymen on a 500-mile raid from Salt Sulphur Springs, Aug. 22-Sept. 12, 1862, attacking Federal forces and destroying military stores. He captured and paroled 300 Union soldiers, killed or wounded 1,000 others, destroyed about 5,000 small arms, and seized funds from a U.S. paymaster. At Ravenwood, he forded the Ohio River and raised the Confederate flag in Ohio on Sept. 4. He captured Racine, recrossed the river, and ended the . . . — Map (db m73427) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Duck Run Cable Suspension Bridge
1922-1992. Funds raised and labor provided by Duck Run and Bear Run citizens Wilford, Keith, Bush, Hess, Wright, Summers, Landford, Cloves,Divers, Hardman,Simmons & Floyd. Engineers: Fred Lewis & Wm Moss. Roebling Co. and Bethlehem Steel supplied wire cables and steel; deck lumber & concrete for towers, local. Span 350 ft, 7 in; width 11ft., 6in . Placed on National Register in 1997. — Map (db m50026) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Fort Moore
At the top of the hill is the site of a log fort 30x30 feet in size, built in spring, 1864, for Capt. W.T. Wiant's Gilmer County Home Guards. Occupied until December, 1864. Burned days later by Confederates under Capt. Sida Campbell. — Map (db m73428) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Glenville
Here was written “The West Virginia Hills,” State song. This was the home of William Perry Brown, author of three score books for children, and for many years one of the most popular writer for the old “Youth’s Companion.” — Map (db m14154) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Glenville State College
A college that offers both professional and general education with emphasis on teacher education was established by the Legislature in 1872 as the Glenville Branch of the West Virginia Normal School. Became Glenville State Normal School in 1898. Became the Glenville State Teachers College in 1930 with four-year degree granting status. The present name was approved in 1943 by the Legislature. — Map (db m73429) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Glenville State Teachers College
A central West Virginia college maintained for the training of grade and high school teachers. Established as a normal school in 1872 by the Legislature. Given college status in 1930. — Map (db m73430) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Samuel Lewis Hays
Built this home in 1837 on a 1000-acre tract, and laid out the town of Glenville in 1845. As a member of the Virginia Assembly, he urged the building of the Parkersburg-Staunton Turnpike. As a Congressman, in 1842, Hays appointed Thomas Jonathan (Stonewall) Jackson as a cadet to West Point. President Buchanan named Hays as Receiver of Public Moneys, 1857–60, Sauk Rapids, Minn. Died, 1871, and was buried there. — Map (db m17557) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Cabins — Camp North Fork
CCC Memorial Camp North Fork 519-F11 1933 - 1942 United States of America Civilian Conservation Corp Memorial In honor of the preservation of our most valuable resource the youth of America — Map (db m23229) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Gormania — Grant County / State of Maryland
Grant County. Formed in 1866 from Hardy, Named for General Grant, later President. At the northwestern corner is the Fairfax Stone, which established the limits of the lands of Lord Fairfax. The county has many mountain peaks and beautiful scenery. State of Maryland. Named for Queen Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I, who gave a royal charter to Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, in 1632. First settlement at Saint Mary’s City in 1634. It was one of the 13 original colonies. — Map (db m32915) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Maysville — Greenland Gap
Cliffs 800 feet high lining great cleft in the New Creek and Knobley mountains, which rival the famed Franconia Notch of New England. Scene of skirmish in 1863 between General Jones' cavalry and Federal troops from New Creek. — Map (db m36835) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Mt. Storm — By King’s Command
The proclamation of George III, King of England, in 1763 ordered settlement west of these mountains to stop. The early treaties between the English and the Six Nations accepted this range as the dividing line between them. — Map (db m75184) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Mt. Storm — Fort Ogden
Frontier defense, including blockhouse, stockade, and cabins. Part of the chain of forts established by George Washington about 1755. Point of refuge for the Bowmans, Lees, Logsdons and many pioneer families. — Map (db m75185) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — A Strategic Location
The strategic importance of Fort Mulligan becomes evident as you observe the surrounding terrain. Roads leading north to New Creek, west to Beverly, Buckhannon and Grafton, south to Franklin and Staunton and east to Moorefield, Winchester and Harrisonburg all meet here. The height of Fort Mulligan dominated them all. Tents would have dominated the view here during several periods of the Civil War. Nearly 20,000 Federal troops under Major General John C. Fremont camped in the surrounding . . . — Map (db m14585) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Civil War Cannons
This is one of at least seven known gun positions at Fort Mulligan (note the depression in the angle), which would have dominated the crossroads at Petersburg and its ford on the South Branch of the Potomac River. Confederate General Early indicated that these works were very impressive and that a small force with artillery could have held the Fort against his larger force. Before you is a full-scale replica of a Napoleon 12-pounder cannon. The Napoleon was originally developed in . . . — Map (db m14579) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Defending the Fort
Clearly one of the Fort’s entrances, this “sally port” was probably needed here to rush men and perhaps cannons out to defend against an assault up the ravine behind you. This was the only place a body of hostile infantry could gather for a close-quarters assault without first being subjected to heavy cannon fire. The ravine below this site was a natural path to the South Branch of the Potomac River. (Several miles west of the Fort, the North Fork and the South Branch rivers . . . — Map (db m14577) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Fort Bingamon
Near this fort, established as defense against Indians, stood Samuel Bingamon's cabin. His home attacked and his wife wounded, Bingamon single-handed shot and clubbed to death all but one of a party of seven Indians. — Map (db m50399) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Fort MulliganPortecting Looney's Creek (Petersburg)
Union Col. James A. Mulligan, 23rd Illinois Infantry, supervised the construction of Fort Mulligan between August and December 1863. Known locally as Fort Hill, the work protected the South Branch Valley and its Unionist residents and also served as an auxiliary depot for Federal camps occupied in October 1861 and May-June 1862. Federal troops manned the fort until 1864. An earthen fortification, Fort Mullgan’s walls were lined with timber for additional strength. Abatis---trees felled so . . . — Map (db m58679) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Maple Hill CemeteryBrief Peace in the Midst of War
The brick church formerly on this site was named Mount Zion Presbyterian Church. The congregation stopped meeting here after Federal forces occupied Petersburg in May 1862, took over the church building, and began using it as a commissary. The commanding general ordered that “this fence around the church and the graveyard and everything within this inclosure remain undisturbed…It is to be hoped that no soldier or citizen will be so far lost to every principle of civilization and feeling . . . — Map (db m58681) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Petersburg
Settled about 1745. Near by was Fort George, Indian fort. Federal trenches overlooked the town in 1863 and 1864. Here is grave of Rev. W. N. Scott, pioneer preacher, who built churches at Old Fields, Morefield, and Petersburg. — Map (db m9260) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Protecting Supplies
As you stand here, near the middle of Fort Mulligan, its sheer size becomes apparent. It is approximately 700 feet east to west and 400 feet north to south at its widest point. Surrounding you are the Fort’s intricate inner works called bombproofs, which likely housed men, ammunition and some foodstuffs. You are standing between two bombproofs and directly in front of you is a third, much larger. The remains of a fourth exists to the left. These structures were covered with logs and a . . . — Map (db m14529) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — The Impregnable Fortress
You are now at the western end of Fort Mulligan. The acute angles at this end of the works were clearly designed to be occupied by several artillery pieces to fend off attacks from the Seneca Road and the ravine to the southwest. Fort Mulligan was built to be an impregnable fortress. The inner walls of the Fort were lined with timber and a defensive barrier of cut trees, known as an abatis, protruded from the outer entrenchment walls to prevent a major assault. There are indications of . . . — Map (db m14536) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — The Irish Brigade & the McNeill Rangers / The Civil War Comes to Hardy CountyMilitary Events near Petersburg, WV
The Irish Brigade & the McNeill Rangers General James A. Mulligan, USA Born June 25, 1830 in Utica, NY, James Adelbert Mulligan was a spirited Irish-American who wore a green scarf in combat. At the outbreak of the Civil War he recruited, and was made Colonel of the 23rd Illinois Volunteer Infantry, known as the Irish Brigade. He served with great gallantry, first in the West and later in the East, being twice captured and severely wounded. After his . . . — Map (db m14750) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — The Last Days of Fort Mulligan
In December of 1863, Colonel James Mulligan returned to New Creek and Colonel Joseph Thoburn took command of the 1,785 Union soldiers at Petersburg. Confederate Major General Fitzhugh Lee’s forces began to move on Petersburg on January 3rd, with intentions of capturing Colonel Thoburn’s forces and destroying the fortification. Unable to move their artillery and supply wagons forward due to poor road conditions, Confederate forces fell back towards General Early in the Shenandoah Valley on . . . — Map (db m14519) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — War in Grant CountyEngagement at Johnson Run
During the Civil War, loyal Unionist Home Guard companies patrolled Hardy County (now Grant County) to defend it against Confederate incursions. Near here on Johnson Run on June 19, 1864, a mixed command that included men from several companies clashed with a detachment of Confederate Capt. John H. McNeill’s Rangers under Lt. Bernard J. Dolan. The Union Home Guard unit was returning with supplies from New Creek Station (present day Keyser) on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad about 35 miles . . . — Map (db m58680) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Welcome to Fort Mulligan Civil War Site
Exploring Fort Mulligan. A trail system with interpretive exhibits describe the Fort’s construction, usage and strategic importance during the Civil War. Most of the site is wheelchair accessible, however several areas are inaccessible because of steep terrain. Visitors should also beware of poison ivy, ticks and snakes during the spring and summer months. Help us to preserve Fort Mulligan Civil War Site by observing the following rules: Please stay off of the earthworks • No . . . — Map (db m14518) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Welton Park
The Petersburg Gap is a natural wonder exposing Helderberg limestone and Oriskany sandstone cliffs towering more than 800 feet above the South Branch of the Potomac River. The renowned writer and artist, David Hunter Strother whose pen name was Porte Crayon, first visited the gap in 1851. He was the first person to describe the image of a fox and the face of an ox on the rocks to the readers of Harper’s Monthly magazine. During the Civil War, Federal troops commanded by Colonel James A . . . — Map (db m58677) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Winter Quarters Huts
In 1863, your view from here would have been of a barren, muddy landscape, with crude, smoking huts half buried in the hillsides. The area surrounding the Fort was most likely stripped of timber as the need for open fields of fire, fuel and construction materials would have quickly destroyed available resources. The remains of several winter quarters hut sites are on a terrace below you. This group of hut emplacements was much smaller and more isolated than the other infantry camps. Log . . . — Map (db m14538) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Alderson — Alderson
Settled in 1777 by “Elder” John Alderson, the frontier missionary. He organized the first Baptist church in the Greenbrier Valley. In 1763, the Muddy Creek settlements were destroyed by Shawnee Indians under Cornstalk. — Map (db m76515) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Alderson — Alderson Baptist Academy and Junior College
Alderson Academy opened September 18, 1901, a coeducational secondary school founded mainly through the efforts of Miss Emma C. Alderson. Closely associated with Greenbrier Baptist Church, after 1910 control was assumed by W. Va. Baptist Association. Designed as a home school it provided academic work in classics, sciences, and normal studies. Under Dr. M. F. Forbell the Academy grew in size and number and achieved Junior College status. After 31 years as the cultural light for large neglected . . . — Map (db m76519) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Alderson — Greenbrier County / Summers County
Marker Front: Formed, 1778, from Botetourt and Montgomery. Named for the river which drains it. This county had many pioneer forts and saw many bloody Indian battles. Here are the world-famed White Sulphur and other mineral springs. Marker Reverse: Formed, 1871, from Monroe, Fayette, Greenbrier, Mercer. Named for the distinguished jurist of Kanawha, George W. Summers. Dr. Thomas Walker and companions explored the Greenbrier Valley, 1750, for the Greenbrier Company. — Map (db m76636) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Alta — Andrew & Charles Lewis March
The nearby highway is part of route traversing W.Va. From Lewisburg to Point Pleasant memorialized by the state to commemorate the march of the American Colonial army of 1,200 men led by Andrew & Charles Lewis. After a month's march this army defeated a Shawnee Indian force led by Cornstalk at the Battle of Point Pleasant on the banks of the Ohio & Kanawha Rivers, October 10, 1774. — Map (db m55819) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Alta — Fort Donnally/Border Heroes
Fort Donnally Built by Andrew Donnally a few miles north about 1771. Attack on this fort by 200 Indians in 1778 was second most important frontier engagement in the State. The fort was relieved by force under Colonel John Stuart.

Border Heroes Before the Fort Donnally attack, settlement had been warned by Phillip Hammond and John Pryor, scouts at Point Pleasant, who, made-up as Indians by Nonhelema, the sister of Cornstalk, passed and outran the Indians. — Map (db m55818) HM

West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Caldwell — Berea Sand
The massive pebbly sandstone exposed in the cliff is the Berea of the driller and geologist. This sand produces large quantities of oil and natural gas in West Virginia. — Map (db m76501) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Caldwell — Confederate Saltpeter WorksCivil War Industrial Center
Although saltpeter (potassium nitrate or nitre), an essential element in the manufacture of gunpowder, had been mined at Organ Cave since the eighteenth century, the need for the mineral increased dramatically during the Civil War. Several saltpeter mines were operated in West Virginia. Confederate soldiers were detailed to operate the mine here beginning in 1861 and ultimately produced a large percentage of the saltpeter used in the production of gunpowder for the Confederate army. Many of . . . — Map (db m59342) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Frankford — Frankford
Col. John Stuart, who came here in 1769 with McClanahan, the Renicks, and companions, bought out earlier claims of William Hamilton. "The Cliffs" to the east offer one of the celebrated beauty spots of Greenbrier Valley. — Map (db m50389) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — A — Battle of Lewisburg23 May 1862
The 3rd Provisional Ohio Brigade's camp was on this hill. The Confederate artillery opened the battle at 5 a.m. with a bombardment of the Federal camp. — Map (db m21739) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Battle of LewisburgA Brief Fight
Early in May 1862, Union Col. George Crook, 36th Ohio Infantry, led his command from Charleston to raid the Virginia Central Railroad near Covington. After tearing up track and burning a bridge, he and his men arrived in Lewisburg on May 17, with Confederate Gen. Henry Heth’s forces pursuing at a distance. At about dawn on May 23, the sound of artillery and the rattle of small-arms fire awakened the inhabitants of Lewisburg. Crook’s forces were camped behind the grounds of the present-day . . . — Map (db m59344) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — K — Battle of Lewisburg23 May 1862
Confederate dead were laid out in the Old Stone Church & then buried in the churchyard without ceremony. After the war their remains were moved to the present Confederate Cemetery. — Map (db m75375) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Big Lime
The Greenbrier Limestone in the quarry represent the "Big Lime" of the driller. Fish-egg like oölitic zones in the "Big Lime" produce oil and natural gas in West Virginia. — Map (db m21744) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall, built in 1902, by Lewisburg Female Institute and citizens of the Greenbrier Valley area. It is one of only three Halls in the U.S. named for Andrew Carnegie who gave $26,750. Local citizens gave $10,000 to complete the Hall. President: R. L. Telford Architect: Charles W. Barrett Style: Georgian Revival (Side Two) Cultural life of the area was enhanced by the events held at Carnegie Hall until Greenbrier College closed, 1972. The Hall was to be demolished, so the community . . . — Map (db m61464) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Col. John Stuart/Mathew Arbuckle
Col. John Stuart Col. John Stuart built Stuart Manor, 1789, near Fort Stuart. He was a military and civil leader and led a company in the Battle of Point Pleasant. As clerk of Greenbrier County, he left many historic records. His first office is standing.

Mathew Arbuckle Here lived Captain Mathew Arbuckle, who guided General Andrew Lewis and army from Lewisburg to Point Pleasant and took part in the battle which followed, 1774. For a time he was in command of Fort Randolph, later . . . — Map (db m50394) HM

West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Colonial Army Rendezvous
Here at Fort Union, built in 1770, a frontier army of 1100 men assembled in 1774 under command of Gen. Andrew Lewis. On Sept. 12, the army began a march through 160 miles of trackless wilderness to the mouth of the Kanawha River and defeated Cornstalk, gallant Shawnee Chief, and his warriors in the bloody Battle of Point Pleasant Oct. 10, 1774. The cabin home of Matthew Arbuckle famous pioneer scout who led the army, stood nearby. — Map (db m75198) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Confederate Cemetery
Remains of 95 unknown Confederate soldiers who fought in the Battle of Lewisburg on 23 May 1862 lie in this cross shaped common grave. It has an upright 80 feet long and cross arms of 40 feet. After the Civil War the unclaimed dead were removed from the Lewisburg Cemetery and reburied in this common grave. The bronze marker which serves as a headstone was provided by the Federal Government on 13 November 1956. — Map (db m21740) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Confederate Cemetery / The Civil War
Side A On the hill, 400 yards west, in a common grave shaped like a cross, lie unclaimed bodies of ninety-five Confederate soldiers, casualties of the area, including those of the Battle of Droop Mountain and the Battle of Lewisburg. Side B The Greenbrier area was predominately Southern in its sympathies, and furnished some 3000 men for the army of the Confederacy. It was occupied repeatedly by one or the other of the opposing armies throughout the War. — Map (db m21748) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Dick Pointer
Enslaved African, noted for bravery in defense of Fort Donnally during Shawnee attack May 29, 1778. He was granted his freedom by James Rodgers in 1801. Land granted to other defenders; his 1795 pension petition, supported locally, denied. Reportedly citizens built cabin for Pointer, who died in 1827. Buried with military honors in the African-American cemetery on Church St. — Map (db m21737) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Greenbrier County Courthouse
Constructed 1837 by John W. Dunn, well known local brickmason. All brick was made locally. Building has been in constant use since its completion and is unchanged except for wings added in 1937 and 1963. — Map (db m50471) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Greenbrier County War Memorial
Dedicated to the Greenbrier Countians who were killed in the service of our country, to the former Prisoners of War, and to those who are still Missing in Action World War I • World War II Korean War • Vietnam War [Honor Rolls] — Map (db m75365) WM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Greenbrier Military School
First established at Lewisburg 1808-09 by Dr. John McElhenney and chartered as an academy in 1812. Used as barracks and hospital during War between the States. Present buildings on north side of town built 1921. — Map (db m19378) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Greenbrier Military School
First school was established 1808-09 by Dr. John McElhenney and chartered as an academy in 1812. Used as barracks and hospital during War between the States. The present buildings were erected in 1921. — Map (db m19382) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — LewisburgThe Battle of Lewisburg
The Battle of Lewisburg was fought on May 23, 1862, between the Southern forces of General Henry A. Heth and the Northern forces of Colonel George Crook, later famous as the captor of Geronimo. The inhabitants of Lewisburg, Virginia, a peaceful town were awakened by the sound of artillery and the rattle of musketry that morning. This deadly conflict was a part of a larger Federal effort to sever communications between Virginia and Tennessee. Although Colonel Crook won this half hour-long . . . — Map (db m21738) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — LewisburgOld Confederate Cemetery . A Civil War Burial Ground
The remains of 95 unknown Confederate soldiers from the Battle of Lewisburg, fought May 23, 1862, lie in this cross-shaped common grave. It has a vertical length 80 feet long and a cross arm of 40 feet long, with an overall width of 10 feet. Colonel George Crook would not permit the Southern sympathizers to bury their own dead, and thus they were originally laid out in the Old Stone Church and later placed in a trench along the south wall of the church without ceremony. It wasn't until after . . . — Map (db m21742) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Lewisburg
Side A Site of Fort Savannah, built in 1755. Here at Camp Union Gen. Andrew Lewis mustered troops which participated in the Battle of Point Pleasant 1774. Lewisburg was incorporated in October, 1782, by the Virginia Assembly. Side B Presbyterian Church established 1783. Stone building erected, 1796, still used for worship. Lewisburg Academy founded, 1812, was precursor of Greenbrier Military School and of Greenbrier College. Library-Museum built, 1834. — Map (db m21747) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Lewisburg Battle
Confederate troops under Gen. Henry Heth here, May 23, 1862, were repulsed in attach upon division of Col. Geo. Crook's brigade. The Old Stone Church was used as a hospital. In his retreat, Heth burned bridge over Greenbrier at Caldwell. — Map (db m19380) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Lewisburg Graded School Bell
This bell installed Lewisburg Graded School 1878 Given to park by George L. Lemon — Map (db m75176) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Pontiac's War/Welsh Cemetery
Pontiac's WarMassacre of white families of Muddy Creek and of the Clendenins near here by a band of Shawnee Indians led by Chief Cornstalk, in 1763, completed the destruction of the early settlements in the Greenbrier Valley.

Welsh Cemetery In this cemetery are buried pioneer settlers, including Ann (McSwain) Clendenin Rogers, the heroine of the Clendenin massacre by Shawnee Indians, July 13, 1763, and the siege of Fort Donnally in 1778, by over 200 Indians. — Map (db m50395) HM

West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Rev. John McElhenney, D.D.Born March 1781 • Died Jan. 2nd, 1871
For sixty two years, the Beloved Pastor of Lewisburg Church. A faithful servant of God and a Pioneer of Presbyterianism in a vast part of Virginia. — Map (db m75364) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Tribute to Men of the Mountains
"Leave me but a banner to plant upon the mountains of Augusta and I will rally around me the men who will lift our bleeding country from the dust, and set her free." ....Washington —————————— Gen. Andrew Lewis General Andrew Lewis surveyed in this valley in 1751 and promoted settlement. In September, 1774, he organized his army here at Camp Union, and marched to Point Pleasant, where he defeated the Indians under . . . — Map (db m75200) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Rainelle — Meadow River Lumber Company/United Methodist Church
Meadow River Lumber CompanyEstablished as Raine-Andrew Lumber Co. concern with purchase of 32,000 ac. (1906-08) by John & Tom Raine, namesake of Rainelle, founded 1908. Used logging railroad from woods to mill & Sewell Valley RR (NF&G) to C&O. 1909 mill burned 1924; 1925 triple-band mill had 30 million bf. annual capacity, 500 workers, & made finished lumber, furniture, flooring & shoe heels. Shut down 28 Dec. 1970.

United Methodist Church Built 1914 and said to be largest . . . — Map (db m50391) HM

West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Ronceverte — Organ Cave
In this cave, whose beautiful natural formations have long been known, salt petre was manufactured before 1835. When war broke out between the states in 1861, it was a source of powder supply for General Lee's army. — Map (db m76509) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Ronceverte — Ronceverte
From the French word meaning “Greenbrier”. Thomas Edgar settled in Greenbrier County before 1780. His son built first grist mill on Greenbrier River. Three successive mills were destroyed but the fourth plant operates today. — Map (db m76513) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Rupert — Rupert
A post office was established here in 1889 and the village was incorporated in 1945. Named for Dr. Cyrus A. Rupert (1812-1891), a prominent local physician. The first settler here was William McClung (1738-1833) who came in 1766. A soldier in the revolution, he donated two acres of land for the area's first church at Otter Creek. He is buried in the church cemetery. — Map (db m50390) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Sam Black Church — Sam Black Church
Built in 1901, church building was dedicated in memory of the Rev. Sam Black (1813-99). Born in Rupert & licensed in 1840. Black was a Methodist circuit rider for almost fifty years. Sam Black Church, a spiritual landmark, became a place name on highway maps without a post office by the same name. — Map (db m55766) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Smoot — Greenbrier Ghost
Interred in nearby cemetery is Zona Heaster Shue. Her death in 1897 was presumed natural until her spirit appeared to her mother to describe how she was killed by her husband Edward. Autopsy on the exhumed body verified the apparition's account. Edward, found guilty of murder, was sentenced to the state prison. Only known case in which testimony from ghost helped convict a murderer. — Map (db m50356) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — "Oakhurst" Golf Club
Site of the first organized golf club in United States. It was formed, 1884, on the "Oakhurst estate of owner, Russell W. Montague, a New Englander and Scotchmen" George Grant, Alexander m. and Roderick McLeod and Lionel Torrin. — Map (db m21752) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — Dry Creek Battle
A two-day encounter, Aug. 26-27, 1863, between Gen. Sam Jones' Confederates and Gen. W. W. Averell's Federals. Action is also known as Howard's Creek, White Sulphur Springs and Rocky Gap. Losses: 350. — Map (db m76721) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — Kate's Mountain
Named for Kate Carpenter, whose husband, Nathan, was killed by the Indians. fine scenic view. Home of Kate's Mountain Clover and other rare plants, such as the Box Huckleberry, 6000 years old - the oldest living thing. — Map (db m19363) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — Tennis and the Outdoor Swimming Pool
When the Golf Clubhouse was built in 1915 clay tennis courts were added in front of the building. The most famous tennis tournaments at The Greenbrier were the Mason and Dixon Championships held each April from 1921 to 1937. One of the final rounds in the Davis Cup selection, the matches received national attention. Winners included Bill Tilden, Francis Hunter, Donald Budge, Francis X. Shields, George Lott and Bryan "Bitsy" Grant. The Indoor Tennis center opened in 1975 and was the home . . . — Map (db m75435) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — The Battle of White Sulphur
Was fought on this site August 26th and 27th 1863. The Confederates, some of Major General Sam Jones' forces were commanded by Colonel George S. Patton and the Federal by Brigadier General William W. Averell. About 4000 troops were engaged. General Averell withdrew on the 27th towards the east. — Map (db m76728) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — The Old White1858 - 1922
Here stood a famous hostelry affectionately known as The Old White Once the pride of the Old Dominion Whose gracious hospitality, beautiful surroundings and healing waters gained national renown and made it the object of many a pilgrimage. Here gathered from the north and south great generals, famous statesmen and philanthropists, lovely ladies and reigning bells "who left upon the silent shore of memory images and precious thoughts that shall not die, and cannot be destroyed". — Map (db m19360) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — The Springhouse
- symbol of The Greenbrier since 1835 because it sits atop the White Sulphur Spring. "Taking the waters" - either by bathing or by drinking for medicinal purposes - was the foundation of this resort. Earliest recorded use of the mineral water was in 1778. Atop the dome is Hebe, the Greek Goddess of Youth. — Map (db m75421) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — The Springhouse
Early European settlers in this Allegheny Mountain valley learned from Shawnee Indian hunters about this sulphur water spring. Health-seekers soon started arriving to bathe in the waters to relieve the aches of rheumatism. By the 1830's the resort flourished when reliable stagecoach roads improved access. This Springhouse was built in that decade to honor the resort's central attraction and designed to reflect the Greek and Roman ancestry of "taking the waters" to restore health. Visitors . . . — Map (db m75422) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — White Sulphur
Side A Large Federal fish hatcheries are located here. A mile east on Howard's Creek the armies of North and South fought in 1863. At "Oakhurst" three miles north the first golf club in America was organized in 1884. Side B Twelve Presidents, from "Old Hickory" Jackson to Woodrow Wilson, have been among the noted guests at the mineral springs where for nearly tow centuries world society has made rendezvous. Shrine to General Robert E. Lee. — Map (db m19361) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Bloomery — “Caudy’s Castle”
Named for James Caudy, pioneer and Indian fighter, who took refuge from the Indians on a mass of rocks overlooking Cacapon River during the French and Indian War (1754–1763). From his position on the Castle of Rocks, he defended himself by pushing the Indians, one by one with the butt of his rifle, over the precipice as they came single file along the narrow crevice of rocks. They fell 450–500 ft. to the base along the edge of the Cacapon. — Map (db m20850) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Bloomery — Bloomery Iron Furnace / Bloomery Gap Skirmish
(North Facing Side):Bloomery Iron Furnace The furnace was built, 1833, by Thomas Pastly and later was owned by Lewis Passmor. He placed a Mr. Cornwell in charge who operated it until 1848 when it was sold to S. A. Pancost. He and his heirs operated it until 1875 when the furnace was closed down. It was operated for a short time in 1880-1881. Annual capacity was 8500 tons. The iron was carried on rafts and flatboats down the Cacapon River. (South Facing Side):Bloomery Gap . . . — Map (db m11019) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Bloomery — Fight at Bloomery GapA Futile Affair
Early in 1862, Confederate raids and attacks put Hampshire County and much of the surrounding area under nominal Southern control. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and nearby telegraph wires were severed, impeding Federal troop movements. A militia brigade under Col. Jacob Sencendiver, 67th Virginia Militia, occupied Bloomery Gap to threaten the railroad and Union-occupied territory near the Potomac River. To drive them out, Gen. Frederick W. Lander led a mixed force of infantry and cavalry . . . — Map (db m30455) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Capon Bridge — Fort Edwards
Troops from this fort under Captain Mercer were ambushed in 1756 and many were killed. The French and Indians later attacked the fort but the garrison, aided by Daniel Morgan and other frontiersmen, repulsed the assault. — Map (db m4556) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Capon Bridge — Northwestern Turnpike
In 1784, Washington proposed the Northwestern Turnpike as an all-Virginia route to the Ohio. Authorized in 1827 and started in 1831, it remains a monument to the skill of its engineers, Charles Shaw and Colonel Claudius Crozet. — Map (db m4623) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Capon Lake — Capon Springs
Capon Springs bears Indian name meaning the "Medicine Waters." Discovered in 1765. Famous resort of early days. President Franklin Pierce, Daniel Webster, and his guest, Sir Henry Bulwer, the British Minister, were among guests. — Map (db m50808) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Capon Lake — Historic Whipple Truss
Built in 1874 on U.S. Rt. 50 near Romney and re-erected at the present site in 1938 in use until 1991. And made an historic site by the WVDOT in 1992. It is the oldest of the few Whipple Trusses left in WV. — Map (db m50809) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Gore — The Guns Of Jacob SheetzHunting of a Different Sort
The shop of Jacob Sheetz, a Hampshire County gunsmith, once stood ahead of you in the yard to the right of the house. In 1861, Sheetz found himself unusually busy converting ancient flintlock rifles to the modern percussion type. The long rifle (Pennsylvania or Kentucky rifle) had been popular with frontiersmen since the mid-18th century. The rifleman rammed powder and a bullet down the barrel, poured priming powder in the pan on the side of the lock, and pulled the trigger. A hammer with a . . . — Map (db m58647) HM
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