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West Virginia Markers
964 markers matched your search criteria. The first 250 markers are listed. Next 714
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Battle of Laurel HillTempest on the Turnpike
Union and Confederate forces clashed along the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike (the narrow paved road in the foreground) on July 7-11, 1861. Union General Morris was ordered to "amuse" General Garnett at Laurel Hill - to make him believe the main attack would come here. Meanwhile, Major General George McClellan flanked the Confederates 20 miles south at Rich Mountain. Spirited skirmishing took place among these hills. Union General Morris found it hard to restrain his troops. The Confederates fought . . . — Map (db m34439) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Camp Belington
Union troops under Brigadier General T.A. Morris, advanced from Philippi on July 7, 1861 and established a fortified camp near this site. Battle of Belington took place July 7-11. Confederates were two miles to east at Laurel Hill. — Map (db m34424) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Camp Laurel HillA Key to Victory — The First Campaign
On the nearby heights, Confederate General Robert Garnett's Army of Northwestern Virginia built fortifications to defend the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike in June 1861. Many received their baptism of fire here as Garnett's 4,000 Confederates skirmished with an equal force under General Thomas A. Morris on July 7-11, 1861. While Moris feigned attack, Federal troops under Major General George McClellan defeated Confederates at Rich Mountain, 15 miles south. With the enemy now threatening his front . . . — Map (db m34423) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Camp Laurel Hill
Fortified camp occupied by Confederates under Brig. Gen. Robert S. Garnett. June 16 - July 12, 1861. The scene of sharp skirmishes July 7-11. Garnett retreated early in the morning of July 12 after the Rich Mountain defeat. — Map (db m34425) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — CannonsGrim Weapons of War
Confederate artillery was posted here. The cannons were placed behind protective earthworks, still faintly visible today. Their fire swept the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike below. Model 1841 6-pounder field guns were used at Camp Laurel Hill. Although nearly obsolete by 1861, they could fire a six-pound projectile more than 1,500 yards. The muzzle blast and concussion alone were demoralizing. Most Confederate earthworks here were filled in by Union troops in 1861. "Our position, on the . . . — Map (db m34440) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Civil War
To honor all who served North and South April 12, 1861 to April 9, 1865 donated by Laurel Mountain Post 410 Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States Belington, West Virginia March 1, 1999 — Map (db m34447) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Civil War on the Beverly & Fairmont Turnpike
"A few dozen of us who had been swapping shots with the enemy's skirmishers, grew tired of the result less battle and by a common impulse - and I think without orders or officers, ran forward into the woods and attacked the Confederate works. We did well enough considering the hopeless folly of the movement, but we came out of the woods faster than we went in a good deal. Our camp is now a racetrack." Ambrose Bierce 1904 Map (db m34456) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Confederate CemeteryFallen Heroes of Laurel Hill
Within this fenced burial ground lie Confederate soldiers who died at Laurel Hill. Their number is unknown. Inscribed headboards once marked the graves. During the Civil War, disease killed more men than bullets. One soldier reported 14 graves in two separate cemeteries. Fewer than a dozen Confederates were killed in battle at Laurel Hill. The graves of some Confederates were later removed. John B. Pendleton of the 23rd Virginia Infantry was killed in action and buried here. After the war, . . . — Map (db m34441) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Forced FlightConfederates Abandon Laurel Hill
By July 10, 1861, Federal cannons bombarded the interior of Camp Laurel Hill. Confederates may have sought shelter among the boulders nearby. On July 11, General Garnett learned of defeat at Rich Mountain. Fearful of being trapped, Garnett ordered a midnight retreat. Tents were left standing and campfires burning to deceive the Federals. The Confederate army and its large wagon train slipped away. On July 13th, Federals caught up to the fleeing Confederates at Corricks Ford, twenty-five miles . . . — Map (db m34445) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Laurel Hill
Battle of Laurel Hill, July 8, 1861, between Confederates and McClellan's army, followed by actions at Rich Mountain and Corrick's Ford, gave Federals control of State and established communication lines to the West. Fine view from peak. — Map (db m34426) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Laurel HillConfederate Encampment, 1861
Soldiers of the Confederate Army of the Northwest occupied this ground from June 16 to July 11, 1861. Led by General Robert S. Garnett, a West Point instructor of tactics, they dug fortifications on the Mustoe farm to block the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike, an important north-south road. General Garnett's headquarters tent stood in a maple grove nearby. Here raw volunteers went through rigorous drill and instruction. These Confederates consisted of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, mostly from . . . — Map (db m34437) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Meadowville
Meadowville, on the site of an Indian fort built in 1784, is a few miles north. New Jersey colonists settled there before 1800, and tavern, mills, and stores made it a trading center of the Tygarts Valley for a hundred years. — Map (db m34448) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Belington — Welcome to Camp Laurel HillGateway to the Northwest
Confederate forces retreated from this area after the "Philippi Races" (June 3, 1861), first land battle of the Civil War. At Huttonsville, 26 miles south, Confederate General Robert S. Garnett took command of the Army of the Northwest. His goal was to reclaim "Western" Virginia. General Garnett identified two mountain passes as the "gates to the northwestern country." The first was at Rich Mountain, 20 miles south. The second was here, on the Beverly-Fairmont Turnpike, at Laurel Hill. Leaving . . . — Map (db m34455) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Junior — Barbour County / Randolph County
(South Facing Side): Barbour CountyFormed from Harrison, Lewis, and Randolph in 1843. It is named for a distinguished Virginia jurist, Philip Pendleton Barbour. Scene of opening hostilities on land between the armies of the North and South in 1861. (North Facing Side):Randolph CountyFormed from Harrison in 1787. Named for Edmund Jennings Randolph, Virginia statesman and soldier. Largest county in the State. Federal dominance of the Tygarts Valley in War between the . . . — Map (db m33928) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Barbour County Korean War Memorial
Barbour County Post 44 Dedicated to all Barbour County Veterans who served in the Korean War. July 29, 1989 — Map (db m33701) WM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Barbour County Vietnam Era Veterans Memorial
This monument and park are dedicated in sincere appreciation of all Barbour County Vietnam era Veterans who served this great nation - United States of America 1961 - 1973 Dedicated on May 25, 1987 by United States Senator John D. Rockefeller IV All gave some - These gave all Viet Nam War William Lee Car • Larry Joseph Lowther Rex A. Bowyer • Lesley Wayne Reed Garry L. Burgess • Donald F. Schnably Roger L. Carpenter • Roger Lee Simpson James R. Hickman • John Charnpolsky Isaac C. Huffman • Wm. . . . — Map (db m33758) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Barbour County War Memorial
(Front):1917 - 1919 In Memory of Oscar Granville Alexander Clayton Bosworth Brandon Jesse Gordon Cole Quincy C. Dadisman Okey E. Duckworth James Blaine Hovatter Everett Earl Ice David Oren Jones Fred E. Jones John Irvin Kramer Andrew L. Matthew Lawrence L. Mayle Charles Wayne Moore Wilbur Simpson Moore William Hobart McDaniel William Myers Nelson Newman Carl Frederick Nitz Lloyd F. Reed Lawson D. Regester Robert J. Ritter Carl Simmons Walter Ray Smith Loring Carr Thorpe Thomas . . . — Map (db m33708) WM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Battle of PhilippiTalbott's Hill — The First Campaign
(Preface):In the spring of 1861, Union forces rushed into northwestern Virginia to secure the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, protect important turnpikes, and support Unionists against Confederates. The two sides fought numerous engagements between June and December. They included Philippi (the war's first land battle), Rich Mountain, Corricks Ford, Cheat Summit Fort, Carnifex Ferry, and Camp Allegheny. The many Union victories made Gen. George B. McClellan's reputation and . . . — Map (db m58700) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Birthplace - W.D. Zinn
One mile east is Woodbine Farm, birthplace of W.D. Zinn, noted farmer, writer and lecturer. He contributed much to scientific farming in this and adjoining states. "The Story of Woodbine Farm" is an autobiography of his work. — Map (db m33776) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — First Land Battle
First land battle between the North and South here, June 3, 1861. Confederates under Col. Porterfield were dislodged by Federal troops from Gen. McClellan's army under Col. Kelley. The old covered bridge here was used by both armies. — Map (db m33777) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Historic Campbell School
(Front): After the Civil War, Barbour County residents built this one-room school house near Volga, 8 miles SW. As one of the county's first free schools, it was the center of education for hundreds of children, providing instruction for primary through eighth grade, until it closed in 1963. In 1992, the restored school was moved to Alderson-Broaddus College campus to ensure its preservation. (Back): Noted alumni, Arch Hall, M.D., who performed 1st open-heart surgery in U.S. & . . . — Map (db m33815) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Confederate Retreat — The First Campaign
Col. George A. Porterfield moved his newly recruited Confederates from Grafton on May 28, 1861, after receiving word of a Federal advance on the B&O Railroad. Porterfield's force a Philippi totaled no more than 775 volunteers. Few were fully trained and all were poorly equipped. Although the little town was "friendly country," upon learning of the Federal advance,Porterfield advised his officers to be ready to retreat south to Beverly on the morning of June 3 for there would be no advance in . . . — Map (db m33672) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — Philippi
Originally called Anglin's Ford for William Anglin but later named Booth's Ferry for Daniel Booth. Near by in 1780, Richard, Cottrill, and Charity Talbott settled. Philippi was named for Judge Philip Pendleton Barbour. — Map (db m33702) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Commands — The First Campaign
Col. Benjamin F. Kelley Kelley, a railroad agent in Philadelphia and former resident of Wheeling, was called back to command the First Virginia (Union) Infantry - the first Union regiment raised in the South. He planned and led the attack on Philippi. Severely wounded there, he recovered and was awarded a Brigadier General's Star. Federal Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, Commanding, U.S. Army, Department of the Ohio. Brig. Gen. Thomas A. Morris, Commanding, U.S. Army, Western Virginia . . . — Map (db m33760) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Federal Attack — The First Campaign
On June 2, 1861, Federal troops advanced on Philippi from the Baltimore & Ohio rail hub at Grafton in two columns of about 1500 men each. The left column, under Col. Benjamin Kelley, took the train six miles east to Thornton, and then marched south over poor roads on the east side of the Tygart Valley River toward Philippi. The right column, uncer Col. Ebenezer Dumont, rode the train south to Webster and followed the Fairmount-Beverly Turnpike to Talbott Hill (College Hill) where they placed . . . — Map (db m33816) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — PhilippiThe Casualties
As Col Benjamin Kelley’s Federals pursued the Confederates through Philippi, he was shot in the upper right chest by Col. George A. Porterfield’s quartermaster. A surgeon declared it a mortal wound but Kelley recovered. In a show of respect, his men awarded him a horse they bought locally. He named the horse “Philippi” and rode it through most of the war. Eighteen-year old Confederate James E. Hanger, a member of the Churchville Cavalry, was struck in the left leg by a . . . — Map (db m63852) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — The Covered Bridge
The Philippi Covered Bridge across Tygart Valley River was built in 1852 by Lemuel Chenoweth of Beverly. Made of wood, with the exception of the iron bolts used to hold the segments together, it is an example of the best in covered bridge architecture and design. It was used by armies of the North and South in the Civil War. In 1934 the bridge was strengthened to permit modern traffic and is today a part of U.S. 250. — Map (db m33665) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Philippi — The Philippi Covered BridgePhilippi, WV — Scene of the First Land Battle of the Civil War
Constructed in 1852 by Lemuel Chenoweth; masonry by Emanuel J. O'Brien, cost $12,151.24. The covered bridge, erected in 1852, is the only two-lane bridge in the federal highway system. During the Civil War the bridge served both North and South in passage of troops and supplies across the mountains into Virginia. Several times the bridge narrowly missed the fate of many other wooden structures along the Staunton and Parkersburg Turnpike that were burned. The dual-lane structure was made of . . . — Map (db m33762) HM
West Virginia (Barbour County), Valley Furnace — Valley Furnace
Iron ore was discovered here, 1835, by John Johnson. The Old Iron Furnace, built, 1848, was operated for six years by C.W. Bryant and Isaac Marsh. In 1850, a steam engine replaced the water power used to run fan air blast. Charcoal was fuel used. About 9,000 pounds of iron were produced daily. The iron was hauled by mule team 50 miles to the Monogahela River near Fairmont for shipment by boat to down-river markets. — Map (db m33929) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — "Morgan Acres"
Two miles west is the site of the first house in present West Virginia. It was built by Col. Morgan Morgan who came from Delaware in 1726. It was destroyed and the one now there was built in 1800 by another Morgan. — Map (db m57717) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Christ Church
First Episcopal Church in West Virginia Established 1740 by Col. Morgan Morgan known as Morgan's Chapel Present building 1851 — Map (db m12848) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Col. Morgan Morgan
Nov. 1, 1688 — Nov. 17, 1766. Erected by the State of West Virginia. In commemoration of the first settlement within the present boundaries of said State, which was made by Col. Morgan Morgan, a native of Wales, and Catherine Garretson, his wife, in the year 1726 on a tract of 1000 acres about 2 miles west of here. Granted to him by colonial Virginia patent, and in recognition of the sterling character of the said Morgan and family who by their efforts and example, were largely . . . — Map (db m1169) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — James Johnston Pettigrew Monument
Due west of this tablet, 650 feet, is the Boyd House in which died, July 17, 1863, Brig.-Gen. James Johnston Pettigrew, of North Carolina, C. S. A. At Gettysburg he commanded and led Heth’s Division in the assault on Cemetery Ridge, July 3; and in the retreat was mortally wounded at Falling Water, July 14, 1863. “He was a brave and accomplished officer and gentleman, and his loss will be deeply felt by the country and the Army.” R. E. Lee. — Map (db m2615) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Jefferson County / Berkeley County
Jefferson County. Formed, 1801, from Berkeley. Named for Thomas Jefferson. Home of Gens. Gates, Darke, and Charles Lee. Here four companies of Washington’s men organized. Shepherdstown was strongly urged as the seat of the National Capitol. Berkeley County. Formed from Frederick in 1772. Named for Norborne Berkeley, Baron Botetourt, governor of Virginia, 1768–1770. Home of many leaders in the Revolution. As early as 1774, George Washington had orchards planted here. — Map (db m3449) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Morgan Cabin
Originally built 1731-34 as second home of Morgan Morgan-first white settler in West Virginia. Rebuilt with some of original logs in 1976 as a State and County Bicentennial project. It was here during the Revolution that James Morgan, the grandson of Col. Morgan Morgan was shot and killed by a group of Tories. Since then, this area has been known as Torytown. — Map (db m12798) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Bunker Hill — Morgan Morgan
Morgan Morgan, a native of Wales, established his home at Bunker Hill before 1732, and was leader in Eastern Panhandle’s early development. His sons gave name to Morgantown, and fought in Indian and Revolutionary Wars. — Map (db m1176) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Darkesville — Darkesville
Named for Gen. William Darke, veteran of the Revolution and the Indian wars. He saves the remnants of St. Clair’s army from massacre in 1791 when badly defeated by the Miami Indians. His son Capt. Joseph Darke, lost his life. — Map (db m1979) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South Mountain . . . — Map (db m60605) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersStuart’s Surprise
Here at Stumpy’s Hollow on the morning of July 2, 1861, Confederate Lieutenant Colonel J.E.B. Stuart captured a Union infantry company almost single-handedly. The Federals – Company I, fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers – were acting as skirmishers in advance of General Robert Patterson’s army as it marched toward Martinsburg. Arriving at this fork in the road from the north and uncertain as to which way to go, the captain left a lieutenant in charge and ordered the company to rest . . . — Map (db m45596) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersCrockett-Porterfield House
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of town, to block them. General Joseph E. Johnston had directed Jackson to determine whether the Federals were in force and to retire if they were. Outnumbered, Jackson fought a brief delaying action and then fell back toward Martinsburg. Patterson . . . — Map (db m45605) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersHarper’s 5th Virginia Infantry
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of town, to block them. General Joseph E. Johnston had directed Jackson to determine whether the Federals were in force and to retire if they were. Outnumbered, Jackson fought a brief delaying action and then fell back toward Martinsburg. Patterson . . . — Map (db m58078) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battle of Falling WatersFour Apostles of the 1st Rockbridge Artillery
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched toward Martinsburg. Confederate Colonel Thomas J. Jackson’s command marched from Camp Stephens, four miles north of town, to block them. General Joseph E. Johnston had directed Jackson to determine whether the Federals were in force and to retire if they were. Outnumbered, Jackson fought a brief delaying action and then fell back toward Martinsburg. Patterson . . . — Map (db m58080) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Battles of Falling Waters“A splendid falls”
During the Civil War, the strategically important Valley Turnpike crossed the stream just above the small waterfall here. Two battles were fought nearby. The first occurred on July 2, 1861, half a mile south on the Porterfield Farm. On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under General Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched south toward Martinsburg. Colonel Thomas J. Jackson (soon to be nicknamed “Stonewall”) ordered his command northward from . . . — Map (db m58083) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Falling Waters — Stumpy’s HollowJuly 2, 1861
Site of JEB Stuart’s capture of Union Soldiers Falling Waters Battlefield Association — Map (db m45769) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Gerrardstown — Gerard House
Built by John Hays, 1743. Became home of Reverend David Gerard, who founded Gerrardstown in 1787. His father was Reverend John Gerard, the first Baptist Minister west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. — Map (db m12793) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Gerrardstown — Gerrardstown
Established as a town, 1787. Named for John Gerrard, first pastor of Mill Creek Baptist Church, which was organized by early settlers about 1743. The congregation reorganized after Indian hostilities during the French and Indian War. — Map (db m12791) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Gerrardstown — Mill Creek Baptist Church
Site of Mill Creek Baptist Church Organized prior to 1742 Grand-parent of First Baptist Church Martinsburg, West Va. — Map (db m14596) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Hedgesville — Camp HopkinsMemorial to a Friend
In December 1862, Union Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley stationed detachments of the 54th Pennsylvania and 1st West Virginia Infantry regiments here to guard and repair the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, a main supply route between the Ohio River and the national capital region. On March 6, 1863, Col. Edward James and his 106th New York Volunteer Infantry and a section of Capt. Thomas A. Maulsby’s Battery F, West Virginia Light Artillery (US), marched from Martinsburg and relieved the units. They first . . . — Map (db m58628) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Hedgesville — Hedgesville
Site of stockade fort built during the early Indian wars. Mt. Zion Episcopal Church was built soon after. A mile west is the tavern, built, 1740–1750, by Robert Snodgrass on land patented in 1732 by William Snodgrass, pioneer settler. — Map (db m990) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Holton — Site of the Snyders Evangelical Church
Site of the Snyders Evangelical Church founded by Jacob Albright in 1850. Merged with United Brethren Church in 1952. Razed in 1957. — Map (db m1111) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — “Oh Shenandoah, I Long to See You!”
“Big Apple Time Capsule” • Dedicated: Oct 19, 1990 – Re-open in year of 2040 • Sponsor: Martinsburg Jaycees. This “community pride project” is an attempt to preserve the Apple Capital city and surrounding areas of our Southern and Shenandoah Valley heritage. May God bless our endeavors. — Map (db m1212) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Avenue of Flags Monument
The colonial village of Martinsburg was established by law enacted by the General Assemply of the Commonwealth of Virginia on October 21, 1778. Martinsburg’s founder was General Adam Stephen, a noted soldier of the American Revolutionary War. General Stephen named Martinsburg in honor of his close friend, Colonel Thomas B. Martin, the nephew of Lord Thomas Fairfax. Martinsburg has grown and prospered for two hundred years because of the hopes, prayers, andhard work of its citizenry. This . . . — Map (db m1978) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Shop Complex
The roundhouse is the sole surviving cast-iron framed roundhouse and is an important example of mid-19th century industrial building design. Designed by Albert Fink, in collaboration with Benjamin H. Latrobe, it represents an early use of standardized, prefabricated iron structural elements to create an efficient and fire-resistant building. Constructed 1866-1867 • National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark — Map (db m1199) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Baltimore and Ohio Roundhouse and Shop Complex
National Civil Engineering Landmark. The re-construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Roundhouse and Shop Complex commenced soon after the end of the American Civil War in 1865. This complex included two roundhouses and two significant shop buildings. The centerpiece of the railroad complex was the West Roundhouse, which can be seen in the immediate foreground. Roundhouse construction started in 1965 and was completed in 1966. The shop buildings, Bridge and Machine Shop and Frog and . . . — Map (db m17373) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Battle of Falling WatersJackson’s Coolness Under Fire
On the morning of July 2, 1861, Federal troops under Gen. Robert Patterson crossed the Potomac River from Maryland and marched south toward Martinsburg. Colonel Thomas J. Jackson sent his men north from their camp north of town to block them and to determine whether they approached in force, as General Joseph E. Johnston had directed him. Jackson was to retire if the Federal troops outnumbered his own. After he discovered that he was outnumbered, Jackson fought a brief delaying action near . . . — Map (db m41631) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Belle Boyd House126 E. Race Street — Built 1853
Built in 1853 by Benjamin Reed Boyd, a merchant, Confederate soldier and the father of Belle Boyd. Belle Boyd was a famous Confederate spy author and actress. — Map (db m45854) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Belle Boyd HouseHome of a Spy — Antietam Campaign
Isabelle “Belle” Boyd, the Confederate spy, lived here during part of her childhood. The ten-year-old and her family moved here in 1853 and left in 1858 for a dwelling (no longer standing) on South Queen Street. According to Boyd, when Union Gen. Robert Patterson’s army occupied Martinsburg in July 1861, she escaped prosecution after she shot dead a soldier who invaded the Queen Street house and insulted her mother, Mary Glen Boyd. In the spring of 1862, Belle Boyd paid a . . . — Map (db m63496) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Berkeley HotelRailroad Raids Survivor
This is one of the last surviving antebellum buildings in the area. It was constructed shortly after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842. The adjacent railroad yards twice were Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s target. The possession of Martinsburg, a strategic railroad center, was hotly contested during the early years of the war. On May 24, 1861, Gen. Joseph E. Johnson ordered Jackson to destroy the rolling stock here. Beginning in June, . . . — Map (db m58629) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Boydville
Built, 1812, by Elisha Boyd, general in the War of 1812, on land bought from Gen. Adam Stephen. Mansion noted for its fine workmanship. Home of his son-in-law, Charles J. Faulkner, Minister to France, and his grandson, U.S. Senator Faulkner. — Map (db m983) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Civil War MartinsburgFocus of Contention
Martinsburg, strategically located on the Valley Turnpike, (present day U.S. Route 11) and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was a major transportation center and the northern gateway to the Shenandoah Valley. Both sides contested for it frequently during the war, and it changed hands many times. In 1861, from late in May through June, Col. Thomas J. Jackson and his volunteers shut down the railroad, burning bridges and rolling stock. Jackson was here again in October 1862, and on his orders . . . — Map (db m58630) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Fort Neally
During the French and Indian War, Fort Neally was captured and its garrison massacred, Sept. 17, 1756. Many settlers in the vicinity also were killed. Among captives was Isabella Stockton, later wife of William McCleery, Morgantown. — Map (db m12790) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Gen. Adam Stephen
Here was home of General Adam Stephen, founder of Martinsburg and county's first sheriff. Was famous as fighter in French and Indian Wars, and as major general in the American Revolutionary War. — Map (db m12786) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — General “Stonewall” Jackson
In Memory of General “Stonewall” Jackson This tablet is erected by the Berkeley County Chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy to commemorate an instance of General Jackson’s remarkable bravery at all times in the face of the gravest danger. On this site July 2, 1861, General Jackson was seated under an oak tree giving orders when fired upon by Federal troops. A cannon ball cut off a limb of the tree, but Jackson, unhurt, rode calmly away. — Map (db m41626) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — General Adam Stephen House and Triple Brick Museum
Founder of Martinsburg, First Sheriff of Berkeley County, Statesman, Soldier, Surgeon National Register of Historic Places Oct. 15, 1970 — Map (db m12788) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Gettysburg CampaignInvasion & Retreat
After stunning victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, Virginia, early in May 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee carried the war through Maryland, across the Mason and Dixon Line and into Pennsylvania. His infantry marched north through the Shenandoah Valley and western Maryland as his cavalry, led by Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, harassed Union supply lines to the east. Union Gen. Joseph Hooker, replaced on June 28 by Gen. George G. Meade, led the Army of the Potomac from the Washington . . . — Map (db m1975) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Hammond HouseHeadquarters and Hospital
Dr. Allen C. Hammond constructed this Greek Revival-style house about 1838. During the Civil War, both sides used it periodically for a headquarters or a hospital. The war ruined Hammond, a strong Southern sympathizer. In October 1859, Hammond’s son George Newkirk “Kirk” Hammond (1833-1864), a Virginia Military Institute graduate, rushed to Martinsburg to join the county militia when he learned of John Brown’s Raid at Harpers Ferry. Capt E.G. Alburtis led his company to the . . . — Map (db m72164) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — J. R. Clifford
Born 1848 in Hardy Co. A Civil War vet., Storer College graduate, teacher and principal at local Sumner School. Published Pioneer Press (1882), first African American paper in state. First of race to pass state bar exam (1887); argued two race discrimination cases before Supreme Court. A founder of Niagra Movement, a predecessor of NAAC_, and its 1906 Harpers Ferry meeting. Died Martinsburg, 1933. — Map (db m1210) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Martinsburg
Founded, 1778, by Gen. Adam Stephen. Named for Thomas Martin, nephew of Lord Fairfax. Home of Admirals Charles Boarman and C.K. Stribling. Locomotives seized here, 1861, in Jackson’s raid were drawn by horses to Winchester, Va. — Map (db m1973) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Martinsburg / Berkeley Riflemen
Martinsburg. Established, 1778, by Gen. Adam Stephen. Named for Col. Thomas Martin, nephew of Lord Fairfax. Home of Admiral C.K. Stribling and Admiral Charles Boarman. In Jackson’s raid, 1861, captured B&O locomotives were drawn by horses to Winchester, Va. Berkeley Riflemen. The Berkeley Riflemen from Eastern Panhandle counties, under Capt. Hugh Stephenson, were first southern troops to join Washington in 1775 at Boston. In a “bee line” from Morgan’s Spring, they marched 600 miles in 26 days. — Map (db m1976) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Martinsburg RoundhouseJackson and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad — Antietam Campaign
In April 1861, as the Civil War erupted, Confederate forces seized the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Harpers Ferry west. On May 24, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston ordered Col. Thomas J. (later “Stonewall”) Jackson to destroy the rolling stock here at Martinsburg, a Unionist stronghold. Jackson began his task on June 13, soon burning 300 cars and destroying 42 locomotives. “It was sad work,” Jackson wrote his wife Anna, “but I had my orders and my duty was to . . . — Map (db m1200) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Old Federal Building
125 S. Maple Avenue. Completed 1895. Constructed using the Richardson-Romanesque Style of architecture, this building served as a Post Office and United States Courthouse. — Map (db m1977) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Roundhouses and Shops / Railroad Strike of 1877
Roundhouses and Shops. The B&O Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842, and by 1849, a roundhouse and shops were built. These first buildings were burned by Confederate troops in 1862. The present west roundhouse and the two shops were built in 1866. The east roundhouse was built in 1872. These buildings represent one of the last remaining examples of American industrial railroad architecture still intact and in use. These structures serve as important reminders of the status of the . . . — Map (db m1197) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Site of Belle Boyd Home
Famous Confederate Spy. Here on July 4, 1861, Belle Boyd, at the age of 17, shot and killed a Union soldier. She was imprisoned on several occasions as a result of her later spying activities. — Map (db m982) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Sumner-Ramer Memorial School515 West Martin Street
The present building was completed in 1917 under the leadership of Fred R. Ramer. He was the first principal in Berkeley County to have a school named after him. Ramer school served the black community until 1964. — Map (db m1211) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Van Metre Ford Bridge
Named for the property owners this stone bridge built in 1832 across Opequon Creek was major improvement for travellers on Warm Springs Road connecting Alexandria and Bath, Va., site of famous mineral waters. The Berkeley County Court established a commission to study and contract for construction of bridge. Silas Harry erected at local expense 165 foot bridge at reported cost of $3,700. — Map (db m12849) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Veterans Administration Center
Established as the Newton D. Baker General Hospital, U.S. Army. Named for Newton D. Baker, native of Martinsburg and Secretary of War, World War I. Opened for patients in 1944. It became Veterans Administration Center in 1946. — Map (db m12784) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — World War Memorial
1917-1918. This memorial is dedicated as an enduring tribute to the patriotism of the citizens of Berkeley County who rendered loyal service to our country in the great World War, and to honor the memory of those who made the supreme sacrifice in the cause of humanity. • Sponsored by the American Legion Auxiliary. • Erected 1925 by the Berkeley County Memorial Association, with voluntary contributions made by the people of the county. Honor Roll “Lest We Forget” . . . — Map (db m1256) WM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Bulltown — Bulltown / Bulltown Battle
Bulltown Important point in plan of Washington to establish water transportation to West. Salt was made here as early as 1792. Attack of whites in 1772 upon Captain Bull's Indian village here was among the causes of Dunmore's War. Bulltown Battle On October 13, 1863, a force of 400 Union troops under Captain W. H. Mattingly, entrenched on the hills to the northeast, repulsed attack of Confederate forces under Colonel W. L. Jackson. Jackson retreated after some loss into Pocahontas County. — Map (db m37050) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Burnsville — Town of Burnsville
Area first settled in 1798; Payton Byrnes came in 1830. First known as Lumberport in 1866, when Capt. John Burns established first saw mill in area. Incorporated by county in 1902 and named for Burns. — Map (db m50025) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Frametown — America's Guard of Honor
Dedicated to the memory of all Paratroopers and Gliderman who spearheaded all major invasions by dropping behind enemy lines to secure military objectives. "Lest We Forget" whose courage, dedication and traditions make them America's finest. — Map (db m70903) WM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Napier — Battle of Bulltown"Come and take us"
On the hill in front of you are two fortifications that Union Gen. George B. McClellan ordered constructed late in1861. They guarded the wooden covered bridge located here on the Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike. In October 1863, Capt. William H. Mattingly, of Parkersburg, occupied the works with several companies---350-400 men---of the 6th and 11th West Virginia Infantry. On October 13, Confederate Col. William L. “Mudwall” Jackson attacked the fortifications at 4:30 A.M. with . . . — Map (db m58727) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Sutton — The Burning of SuttonvillePartisan Attack
In 1861, Col. Erastus B. Tyler’s 7th Ohio Infantry constructed earthworks near Suttonville to protect the suspension bridge across the Elk River. Later in the year, Capt. Weston Rowand’s Co. K, 1st Virginia Cavalry (US), about a hundred men, occupied the fort. At 10 A.M. on Wednesday, December 29, approximately eighty Confederate partisans known locally as the Moccasin Rangers attacked the Federals. Rowand and his second-in-command, 1st Lt. Charles D. Lawson were absent at the time, so 2nd . . . — Map (db m58728) HM
West Virginia (Braxton County), Sutton — The War and SuttonvilleChanging Occupations — Jones-Imboden Raid
(Preface): On April 20, 1863, Confederate Gens. William E. “Grumble” Jones and John D. Imboden began a raid from Virginia through present-day West Virginia against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Taking separate routes, they later reported that they marched 1,100 miles, fought several engagements, captured 100 Federals, seized about 1,200 horses and 4,000 cattle, and burned 4 turnpike bridges, more than 20 railroad bridges, 2 trains, and 150,000 barrels of oil. Most . . . — Map (db m58729) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Beech Bottom — Beech Bottom Fort
Near here stood Beech Bottom Fort, which was with Fort Pitt and Fort Henry in the group of posts guarding the western borders during the Revolution and its attendant Indian wars. Troops from Fort Pitt helped garrison this important fort. — Map (db m54915) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Alexander Campbell
Here lived the leading influence in America's largest indigenous religious movement, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and founder of Bethany College. Built in four periods: the John Brown Mansion, completed in 1793; Buffalo Seminary, in 1819; brick dining wing, in 1836; and “Stranger's Hall”, in 1840. Among famous Americans who were guests were Calhoun, Clay, Webster, Davis, Garfield. — Map (db m20826) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Archibald McLean
. . . — Map (db m20836) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Bethany Church of Christ
Bethany Church of Christ, the oldest church building in Bethany, was built in 1852 according to plans drawn by Alexander Campbell, founder of Bethany College and leader in the Disciples Movement. Its foundation is built of stone from the original church erected on this site in 1832. Bethany Church was organized as a separate congregation in 1829. Campbell was pastor for many years, while serving as president of Bethany College. — Map (db m20830) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Campbell Cemetery
Here are buried the Campbell family; the first missionaries, other prominent leaders in the Disciples Movement, presidents and distinguished teachers of Bethany College. The seven foot hand hewed stonewall is a unique feature of Cemetery. — Map (db m20963) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Delta Tau Delta Birthplace
In this house, 8 Bethany College Students - William Cunningham, John Johnson, Alexander Earle, Richard Alfred, Eugene Tarr, Henry Bell, John Hunt and Jacob Lowe - Met in 1858 and founded Delta Tau Delta. This social fraternity soon spread across the American Continent. In 1977, plans were completed for the restoration of this structure to its original condition. — Map (db m20849) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Bethany — Thomas CampbellFather of Alexander & Archibald W. Campbell
Born in County Down, Ireland, Feb. 1, 1763, and died at the residence of his son Alexander, Jan. 4, 1851, aged 91 years, 11 mthns, five days. Many years a minister of the Secession Presbyterian Church in Ireland and Scotland. In the United States upon arrival of his family in America 1802 he withdrew from the Presbyterian Communion and advocated a platform of primitive Christianity. In conjunction with his son, Alexander, he laboured in this with much success. More than forty years in Christian . . . — Map (db m20835) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Follansbee — Fort Decker
John Decker built a fort of logs and stone on a site just north of State St. near Ohio River, 1774. Leaden bullets and arrowheads found here on the river bank signify Native American attack on the fort from Mingo Island. — Map (db m21605) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — 1788 Wells Log House
Constructed by Alexander Wells at 65 Washington St., Buffaloe, Virginia (present day Third St., Wellsburg, West Virginia) The Wells Log House was, and is, in the “National Register of Historic Places” District of Wellsburg (registered 1981) The four room/two floor log house has a “turkey breast” design fireplace in each room. Gratitude to Riverview Baptist Chapel whose foresight permitted the Wells Log House to be preserved for . . . — Map (db m21634) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Bethany Turnpike Tunnels
First highway tunnels constructed west of Alleghenies. They were built in 1831 by Richard Waugh at personal expense to ease transportation to his flour mills. The tunnels, a mile apart, were removed by the State in 1957. — Map (db m21614) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Brooke County Veterans Memorial
Dedicated to the men and women from Brooke County who have honorably served in the armed forces of our country in time of war and peace — Map (db m21616) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Drovers Inn
Constructed by John Fowler, 1848-51 with bricks fired on the property. First known as Fowler's Inn, the house provided food and lodging for drovers herding livestock over the Wellsburg-Washington Turnpike to eastern markets. Other services provided at the Inn included a post office, general store and livestock yards. Fowler also operated a steam powered grist mill in the area. — Map (db m42167) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — George Washington Crossing, 1770
George Washington began a journey on October 5, 1770 to the Ohio Country to see lands he had fought to win and now hoped to own. After a trip, on November 3, up the Kanawha River, the party headed back up the Ohio River. On November 17, they reached Mingo Town. Three days later their horses arrived. The party then crossed the river here and traveled on across West Virginia's northern panhandle to Fort Pitt. — Map (db m33913) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Grimes Golden Apple
Watering trough marks location of first Grimes Golden Apple tree, discovered by owner of land, Thomas Grimes, in 1802. Memorial Trough sponsored by the Franklin Country Women's Club in 1922. — Map (db m70931) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Isaac Duvall and Company
The first glass house in Western Virginia was built at Charlestown, now Wellsburg, in 1813, by Isaac Taylor Duvall and Company. It was located on the southeast corner of Fifth and Yankee Streets. Cobalt blue, green and clear flint glass wares were made here. Isaac Duvall died in 1828, and company was sold in 1838 to Samuel Lowther, Joseph Miller and George Cotts for $2100. — Map (db m39642) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Miller's Tavern
Built by John Henderson prior to 1798 in Federal style, the building was leased by William Miller and operated as a tavern for 50 years. Since 1974 building has housed the Brooke County Museum. — Map (db m21628) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Patrick Gass1771-1870
Sergeant on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, he published the first account of that exploration in 1807 Veteran of the War of 1812, he fought in the Battle of Lundy's Lane and at Fort Erie Citizen of Wellsburg for more than half a century, he married and raised his family on Grog Run and Pierce's Run. He is now buried in Brooke County Cemetery. The bust of Patrick Gass as a young man on the Lewis and Clark Expedition was sculpted by Agnes Vincen Talbot of . . . — Map (db m21629) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Patrick Gass
Born 12 June 1771, Gass served as carpenter for Lewis and Clark. The expedition explored and studied the land, waterways, animal life, natural features and resources of the West. Gass's journal of trip was published in 1807. Soldier in the War of 1812. Settled in Wellsburg and purchased land on Pierce's Run. Last survivor of expedition, he died 2 April 1870. Buried in nearby Brooke Cemetery. — Map (db m39731) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Patrick M. Gass1771 - 1870
The grave of Patrick M. Gass, a sergeant on the Lewis and Clark Expedition and a soldier of the War of 1812 is located in this cemetery. His wife Maria is buried beside him. Placed by the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, assisted by the National Park Service, Challenge Cost Share Program to commemorate the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 2003-2006 Map (db m54977) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — The Lewis and Clark Connection
The Corps of Discovery, under the command of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, was the first official expedition through the interior of the North American Continent sponsored by the United States. Captain Meriwether Lewis passed Charles Town in Virginia (later renamed Wellsburg) on September 7, 1803. Lewis brought the expedition's keelboat down the Ohio River to rendezvous with William Clark near Louisville, Kentucky. The expedition spent the winter of 1803-04 at a camp located . . . — Map (db m21639) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — The Wellsburg United Methodist ChurchA Fellowship of Believers For More Than Two Centuries
Methodism in Wellsburg dates back to 1787 with the establishment of the “Ohio Circuit.” Early services were held in “The Academy” on High Street. Bishop Asbury preached at the courthouse on September 6, 1803. On April 19, 1816, John Prather, son of the founder of Wellsburg, deeded this site to the trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church for the erection of a meeting house, to be used as a Methodist house of worship “forever.” The first church on this . . . — Map (db m21635) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Wellsburg
Established in 1791. Brooke Academy, started, 1778, incorporated in 1799. Here lived Joseph Doddridge, the author of "Frontier Notes," and Patrick Gass, member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and author of its "Journal." — Map (db m39699) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Wellsburg Wharf
In the 1790's, flatboats left here with their cargoes for southern markets. To accommodate and store products, warehouses and wharfs were built along our river banks. This wharf, which was established in the 1800's, extended twenty feet out in the river. To the north and south of this wharf are the foundations of two warehouses which were built in the 1790's and the early 1800's. — Map (db m21637) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Wellsburg — Wellsburg's Giant Sycamore
This giant Sycamore tree stands at the top of the Wellsburg Wharf it was planted in the early years of the 19th century by Dr. Albert Wheeler who practiced medicine in Wellsburg until his death in 1864. It was under this tree that militiamen gathered in 1863 when the Confederate General Morgan led his cavalrymen on a sweep into the state of Ohio. Many of the deeds of Wellsburg property are measured from this tree. — Map (db m21641) HM
West Virginia (Brooke County), Windsor Heights — Brooke County/Ohio County
Brooke County (South Face) Formed in 1797 from Ohio County. Named for Robert Brooke, Virginia governor, 1794-1796. Here Alexander Campbell founded the Christian Church and established a college. First Grimes Golden apple tree in this county. Ohio County (North Face) Formed in 1776 from West Augusta. Named for the river which bears an Indian name meaning "Beautiful River". Scene of the last battle of the Revolution, 1782. Visited by Washington, LaSalle, Celoron, Gist and later explorers. — Map (db m57260) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Barboursville — Old Toll House
This old toll house, built in 1837, stood below town of Barboursville on Guyan River bank; tolls collected on James River - Kanawha Turnpike from those using the ferry. Restored in 1950 by the D.A.R., Barboursville — Map (db m64095) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Chesapeake & Ohio 1308
The 1308,built in 1949, was one of the last working steam locomotives built by Baldwin Locomotive Works for a Class 1 railroad in the USA. It primarily hauled coal from Logan Co. Retired from C&O Railway service in 1956. Moved in September 1962 to its present location. The 1308 was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 31, 2003. — Map (db m60349) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — Elk River Coal & Lumber Company #10 Steam Locomotive
Built by American Locomotive Company in 1924, the #10 was used to haul mine waste from Rich Run Mine in Widen, WV. Retired from Elk River Coal and Lumber in 1959 and moved to its present location on May 27, 1977. Placed on National Register of Historic Places on September 28, 2006. — Map (db m62334) HM
West Virginia (Cabell County), Huntington — One Room School Museum
Union School, nicknamed "Punkin Center School," was located on Guyan Creek Road near Glenwood, Cabell County. Served grades 1 thru 8 from 1899 to 1955. Schoolhouse donated by Mrs. Bill (Tina) Bryan; relocation and renovation funded by Phil Cline. On 22 Oct. 1995, dedicated as museum by project developer, Marshall alumnus, Prof. of History, Dr. Paul F. Lutz. — Map (db m23026) HM
West Virginia (Calhoun County), Arnoldsburg — Arnoldsburg Skirmish
Site of Camp McDonald, set up, 1862, occupied by the 11th W. Va. Inf., U.S.V. Scene of engagement, May 6, 1862, when Federals under Maj. George C. Trimble beat off an attack by Confederate Moccasin Rangers under Capt. Geo. Downs. — Map (db m14153) HM
West Virginia (Clay County), Clay — Clay
Both county and county seat are named for Henry Clay. The Golden Delicious apple, once called "Mullins' Yellow Seedling," was developed on Porters Creek. The State also produced the Grimes Golden, the other great yellow apple. — Map (db m64096) HM
West Virginia (Doddridge County), West Union — Beehive Inn1828 until flood in late 1800's — Possibly an Underground Railroad Site
Ephraim Bee and his wife Catherine's inn served stages from the Northwest Turnpike. J.H. Diss Debar, W.V. State Seal designer said seeing all the children playing about, he had never dined in a Bee Hive before. Thereafter it was the Bee Hive Inn. In 1845 Ephraim founded the Ancient and Honorable Order of E Clampsus Vitus here. As founder he took the title of Noble Grand Gyascutis. E Clampsus Vitus spread through out the U.S.A. especially the booming California Gold Rush area. It . . . — Map (db m31748) HM
West Virginia (Doddridge County), West Union — Ephraim Bee1802 - 1888
Blacksmith, innkeeper, an operator of the "Underground Railroad". A Captain of the Doddridge County Militia, a member of the first West Virginia State Legislature in 1863, serving 3 terms. The Founder and Grand Royal Gyascutis of the Most Ancient and Honorable Order of E Clampsus Vitus, Ephraim was known throughout the country as a garrulous story-teller and practical joker. Legend has it that around 1845, 1st U.S. Ambassador Caleb Cushing returned from negotiating a treaty with . . . — Map (db m31822) HM
West Virginia (Doddridge County), West Union — West Union
West Union, incorporated in 1881, was formerly called Lewisport in honor of Lewis Maxwell. It is the county seat of Doddridge, named for Philip Doddridge. In it lived J. H. Diss Debar and Sen. and Gov M. M. Neely. — Map (db m42429) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — "Contentment"
Built, 1830, on the old James River and Kanawha Turnpike. Restored antebellum home of Colonel George W. Imboden, on General Lee's staff, C.S.A. Property and headquarters of the Fayette County Historical Society, organized in 1926. — Map (db m50392) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — "Halfway House"
Regular stop on the James River and Kanawha Turnpike. The original building, dating from before the Revolution, was rebuilt by William Tyree, 1810. During the winter of 1861-62, it was headquarters for Chicago Gray Dragoons. — Map (db m67013) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — ContentmentHome of George W. Imboden
After the Civil War, George W. Imboden lived here with his wife, Mary Tyree, the daughter of William Tyree of Tyree Tavern. When the war began, Imboden enlisted in the Staunton Artillery in Augusta County, Virginia, where he then resided. He subsequently became colonel of the 18th Virginia Cavalry when it was organized in December 1862. The regiment was assigned to the brigade of his better-known brother, Gen. John D. Imboden, and served in West Virginia, on the Gettysburg Campaign, and in the . . . — Map (db m34371) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Hawk’s Nest
Once called Marshall’s Pillar for Chief Justice John Marshall, who came here, 1812. U.S. engineers declare the New River Canyon, 585 feet deep, surpasses the famed Royal Gorge. Tunnel for river makes vast water power here. — Map (db m20675) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — FA 1 — Hawk's Nest Tunnel Disaster
Construction of nearby tunnel, diverting waters of New R. through Gauley Mt. for hydroelectric power, resulted in state’s worst industrial disaster. Silica rock dust caused 109 admitted deaths in mostly black, migrant underground work force of 3,000 . Congressional hearing placed toil at 476 for 1930-35. Tragedy brought recognition of acute silicosis as occupational lung disease and compensation legislation to protect workers. — Map (db m34417) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Jackson's Mother
In Westlake Cemetery is the grave of the mother of General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. The monument at the grave was placed by Captain Thomas Ranson, who had fought in Jackson's old brigade in the War between the States. — Map (db m34376) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — New Haven Veterans' MemorialVFW Post 7695
Proudly and humbly dedicated this Memorial to all who served our country; especially those who gave the ultimate sacrifice — Map (db m34499) WM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Salt Sand
The sheer cliffs of Nuttall sandstones forming the walls of the New River Gorge are the "Salt Sands" of the driller. These sands produce oil and natural gas in West Virginia and commercial brines on the Kanawha and Ohio Rivers. Sponsored by the W. Va. Centennial Committee of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Map (db m34420) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Tyree TavernConfederate and Union Headquarters
During his and Gen. Henry Alexander Wise’s unsuccessful Kanawha Valley campaign, Confederate Gen. John B. Floyd made his headquarters here, August 17-18, 1861, while Wise camped on the top of Big Sewell Mountain. In 1862, according to an inscription carved over the front door, the tavern was “Headquarters of the Chicago Gray Dragoons". The original Chicago Dragoons enlisted in April 1861 for three months and were sent to West Virginia in June. Most of the men returned to Chicago when . . . — Map (db m59937) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Ansted — Westlake CemeteryBurial Place of Julia Jackson
This is one of the earliest identified cemeteries west of the Allegheny Mountains. William Tyree, owner of nearby Tyree Tavern, and Confederate Col. George W. Imboden, brother of Gen. John D. Imboden, are buried here. The cemetery is best known, however, for the grave of Julia Beckwith Neale Jackson Woodson, the mother of Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. She was born on February 28, 1798, in Loudoun County, Virginia, and moved with her family two years later to the Parkersburg . . . — Map (db m59193) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Boomer — Ancient Works
On a ridge between Armstrong and Loop creeks across the river are extensive prehistoric stone ruins whose walls are several miles long, and enclose a large area. Many of these stones are from the valley below the old wall. — Map (db m20820) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Abraham Vandal
Plaque One Abraham Vandal 1758-1848 * Born in Dutchess, NY * Soldier in the American Revolutionary War 1776-1781 * Married Mary Dillon 1780 * Father of Eight Children * Early Fayetteville Settler * In 1812 Abraham purchased 200 acres, including the present site of Fayetteville Plaque Two New York native Abraham Vandal settled Fayetteville or Vandalia around 1812. Historians believe his cabin was located on the present site of the Fayette County National . . . — Map (db m55816) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Battle of FayettevilleDefense and Retreat
During the Civil War, Fort Scammon stood in front of you on the hill behind the courthouse. There, on September 10, 1862, Union Col. Edward Siber and the 1,500 men of his 37th Ohio Infantry defended Fayetteville against Confederate Gen. William Loring’s 5,000-man army. Loring planned to occupy this area after learning in August that Federal troops were being transferred to eastern Virginia. The Kanawha River Valley north of here was strategically important to each side for defending southern . . . — Map (db m59214) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Fayetteville
In the attack on Federal forces here, 1863. Milton W. Humphreys, the educator and soldier, gunner of Bryan's Battery, 13th Virginia Light Artillery, C.S.A., first used “indirect firing,” now in universal military use. — Map (db m55815) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Indirect Firing
Nearby on May 19-20, 1863, Corp. Milton W. Humphreys, gunner in Bryan's Battery, 13th Virginia Light Artillery, C.S.A., made first use of indirect artillery fire in warfare. Target was Union fort in Fayetteville. — Map (db m55814) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Fayetteville — Marquis de Lafayette — (1757-1834)
Front Plaque French Statesman Friend of the American Revolution “...The new County so to be formed be called Lafayette or Fayette County to perpetuate a remembrance of his virtues and philanthropy through future ages of our political existence...” Petition to the General Assembly of Virginia 1830 Rear Plaque Presented to the Citizens of Fayette County September 25, 2004 by the Fayette County Historic Landmark Commission Daniel E. Wright, Chairman . . . — Map (db m55817) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Gauley Bridge — Battles For The BridgesGauley Bridge - A Town in Between
When the war began, most residents of this part of present-day West Virginia were Confederate in their sympathies. Both Confederate and Union forces considered the wooden covered bridge here strategically important because the James River and Kanawha Turnpike linked the Ohio River with the James River. The original bridge piers are in the river to the right of the railroad bridge. In the summer of 1861, Confederate Gen. Henry A. Wise, the former governor of Virginia, and his troops . . . — Map (db m34373) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Gauley Bridge — Gauley Bridge
Here New and Gauley rivers unite to form Great Kanawha River. Piers still stand of old bridge destroyed by the Confederate troops in 1861. Here Thomas Dunn English, author of the ballad, "Ben Bolt," wrote "Gauley River". — Map (db m20818) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Gauley Bridge — Hawk's Nest Tunnel
Mouth of the great Hawk's Nest Tunnel, three miles long, which diverts water of New River from its five-mile long gorge. The tunnel, a mile of which is through solid rock, and a 50-foot dam give waterfall of 160 feet for electric power. — Map (db m34421) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Glen Ferris — Camp Reynolds
Located across Kanawha River from this point was Civil War camp for Union Army, 1862-64. Site had 56 cabins and parade grounds for 23rd Ohio Vol. Inf. commanded by Col. Rutherford B. Hayes and Lt. William McKinley, future United States presidents. — Map (db m50397) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Hilton Village — Andrew & Charles Lewis March
The nearby highway is part of route traversing W.Va. from Lewisburg to Point Pleasant memorialized by the state to commemorate the march of the American Colonial army of 1,200 men led by Andrew & Charles Lewis. After a month's march this army defeated a Shawnee Indian force led by Cornstalk at the Battle of Point Pleasant on the banks of the Ohio & Kanawha rivers, October 10, 1774. — Map (db m33809) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Lookout — Spy Rock
Sandstone formation at 2510 feet is landmark known for view of Sewell Mt. range to SE. Known as "Rock of Eyes" by Native Americans and dubbed "Spy Rock" by Civil War soldiers. Sept. 1861, Gen. J.D. Cox and 5,000 Union soldiers camped here to oppose Gen. Robert E. Lee at Sewell Mt. Site of Col. Geo. Alderson farm and tollgate on James River and Kanawha Turnpike, 1834-73. Source for name of Lookout. — Map (db m34430) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Montgomery — Christopher H. Payne
Born in slavery in Monroe Co., Sept. 7, 1848, he worked as servant in the Confederate army. Served as teacher and ordained Baptist minister; estab. West Virginia Enterprise, Pioneer, & Mountain Eagle papers; later a lawyer. First African American elected to WV legislature, 1896; delegate to Repub. Nat. Conventions and Consul General to Danish West Indies, 1903-17. Died, Dec. 5, 1925, St. Thomas. WV Celebration 2000 Map (db m34413) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Mossy — Coal Camp History
With railroads came thousands of workers looking to make a new life in the coalfields. In the late 1800’s and well into the mid-1900’s, many Appalachian miners lived in company towns called “Coal Camps”. Mine operators built company-owned towns along railroad lines to support the huge numbers of workers arriving daily. A large percentage of the coal miner’s wages was returned to the coal company in exchange for housing, tools, food and other basic expenses. These towns . . . — Map (db m34443) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Mossy — MossyPaint Creek Scenic Trail — Raleigh, Fayette, & Kanawha Counties, WV
1913-Union organizer Mary "Mother" Jones imprisoned in Pratt. 1913-Approximate location of the striking miners tent colony that was fired on by mine guards wielding a machine gun mounted on the "Bull Moose" special train 1919-7 miners are killed in an explosion of the Weirwood Coal Mine. 1920-Striking miners terrorize Willis Branch with gunfire and destroy the mining complex with dynamite. 1989-Striking miners bombed the coal mine at Milburn, WV. 1990's-The last company . . . — Map (db m34438) HM
West Virginia (Fayette County), Mossy — The Rebirth of Paint Creek
Soon after settlers arrived in Paint Creek, the landscape and population changed forever with the discovery of coal. Within just a few years, mines began operating at Paint Creek under the ownership of New York businessman William Henry Greene. Greene opened the first mines on Paint Creek in 1852. This coal boom transformed Paint Creek, and railroads connected the area to valuable national markets. The coal boom did not come without consequences, however. Acid mine drainage from the mines . . . — Map (db m34436) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Duck Run Cable Suspension Bridge
1922-1992. Funds raised and labor provided by Duck Run and Bear Run citizens Wilford, Keith, Bush, Hess, Wright, Summers, Landford, Cloves,Divers, Hardman,Simmons & Floyd. Engineers: Fred Lewis & Wm Moss. Roebling Co. and Bethlehem Steel supplied wire cables and steel; deck lumber & concrete for towers, local. Span 350 ft, 7 in; width 11ft., 6in . Placed on National Register in 1997. — Map (db m50026) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Glenville
Here was written “The West Virginia Hills,” State song. This was the home of William Perry Brown, author of three score books for children, and for many years one of the most popular writer for the old “Youth’s Companion.” — Map (db m14154) HM
West Virginia (Gilmer County), Glenville — Samuel Lewis Hays
Built this home in 1837 on a 1000-acre tract, and laid out the town of Glenville in 1845. As a member of the Virginia Assembly, he urged the building of the Parkersburg-Staunton Turnpike. As a Congressman, in 1842, Hays appointed Thomas Jonathan (Stonewall) Jackson as a cadet to West Point. President Buchanan named Hays as Receiver of Public Moneys, 1857–60, Sauk Rapids, Minn. Died, 1871, and was buried there. — Map (db m17557) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Cabins — Camp North Fork
CCC Memorial Camp North Fork 519-F11 1933 - 1942 United States of America Civilian Conservation Corp Memorial In honor of the preservation of our most valuable resource the youth of America — Map (db m23229) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Gormania — Grant County / State of Maryland
Grant County. Formed in 1866 from Hardy, Named for General Grant, later President. At the northwestern corner is the Fairfax Stone, which established the limits of the lands of Lord Fairfax. The county has many mountain peaks and beautiful scenery. State of Maryland. Named for Queen Henrietta Maria, the wife of Charles I, who gave a royal charter to Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, in 1632. First settlement at Saint Mary’s City in 1634. It was one of the 13 original colonies. — Map (db m32915) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Maysville — Greenland Gap
Cliffs 800 feet high lining great cleft in the New Creek and Knobley mountains, which rival the famed Franconia Notch of New England. Scene of skirmish in 1863 between General Jones' cavalry and Federal troops from New Creek. — Map (db m36835) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — A Strategic Location
The strategic importance of Fort Mulligan becomes evident as you observe the surrounding terrain. Roads leading north to New Creek, west to Beverly, Buckhannon and Grafton, south to Franklin and Staunton and east to Moorefield, Winchester and Harrisonburg all meet here. The height of Fort Mulligan dominated them all. Tents would have dominated the view here during several periods of the Civil War. Nearly 20,000 Federal troops under Major General John C. Fremont camped in the surrounding . . . — Map (db m14585) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Civil War Cannons
This is one of at least seven known gun positions at Fort Mulligan (note the depression in the angle), which would have dominated the crossroads at Petersburg and its ford on the South Branch of the Potomac River. Confederate General Early indicated that these works were very impressive and that a small force with artillery could have held the Fort against his larger force. Before you is a full-scale replica of a Napoleon 12-pounder cannon. The Napoleon was originally developed in . . . — Map (db m14579) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Defending the Fort
Clearly one of the Fort’s entrances, this “sally port” was probably needed here to rush men and perhaps cannons out to defend against an assault up the ravine behind you. This was the only place a body of hostile infantry could gather for a close-quarters assault without first being subjected to heavy cannon fire. The ravine below this site was a natural path to the South Branch of the Potomac River. (Several miles west of the Fort, the North Fork and the South Branch rivers . . . — Map (db m14577) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Fort Bingamon
Near this fort, established as defense against Indians, stood Samuel Bingamon's cabin. His home attacked and his wife wounded, Bingamon single-handed shot and clubbed to death all but one of a party of seven Indians. — Map (db m50399) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Fort MulliganPortecting Looney's Creek (Petersburg)
Union Col. James A. Mulligan, 23rd Illinois Infantry, supervised the construction of Fort Mulligan between August and December 1863. Known locally as Fort Hill, the work protected the South Branch Valley and its Unionist residents and also served as an auxiliary depot for Federal camps occupied in October 1861 and May-June 1862. Federal troops manned the fort until 1864. An earthen fortification, Fort Mullgan’s walls were lined with timber for additional strength. Abatis---trees felled so . . . — Map (db m58679) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Maple Hill CemeteryBrief Peace in the Midst of War
The brick church formerly on this site was named Mount Zion Presbyterian Church. The congregation stopped meeting here after Federal forces occupied Petersburg in May 1862, took over the church building, and began using it as a commissary. The commanding general ordered that “this fence around the church and the graveyard and everything within this inclosure remain undisturbed…It is to be hoped that no soldier or citizen will be so far lost to every principle of civilization and feeling . . . — Map (db m58681) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Petersburg
Settled about 1745. Near by was Fort George, Indian fort. Federal trenches overlooked the town in 1863 and 1864. Here is grave of Rev. W. N. Scott, pioneer preacher, who built churches at Old Fields, Morefield, and Petersburg. — Map (db m9260) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Protecting Supplies
As you stand here, near the middle of Fort Mulligan, its sheer size becomes apparent. It is approximately 700 feet east to west and 400 feet north to south at its widest point. Surrounding you are the Fort’s intricate inner works called bombproofs, which likely housed men, ammunition and some foodstuffs. You are standing between two bombproofs and directly in front of you is a third, much larger. The remains of a fourth exists to the left. These structures were covered with logs and a . . . — Map (db m14529) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — The Impregnable Fortress
You are now at the western end of Fort Mulligan. The acute angles at this end of the works were clearly designed to be occupied by several artillery pieces to fend off attacks from the Seneca Road and the ravine to the southwest. Fort Mulligan was built to be an impregnable fortress. The inner walls of the Fort were lined with timber and a defensive barrier of cut trees, known as an abatis, protruded from the outer entrenchment walls to prevent a major assault. There are indications of . . . — Map (db m14536) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — The Irish Brigade & the McNeill Rangers / The Civil War Comes to Hardy CountyMilitary Events near Petersburg, WV
The Irish Brigade & the McNeill Rangers General James A. Mulligan, USA Born June 25, 1830 in Utica, NY, James Adelbert Mulligan was a spirited Irish-American who wore a green scarf in combat. At the outbreak of the Civil War he recruited, and was made Colonel of the 23rd Illinois Volunteer Infantry, known as the Irish Brigade. He served with great gallantry, first in the West and later in the East, being twice captured and severely wounded. After his . . . — Map (db m14750) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — The Last Days of Fort Mulligan
In December of 1863, Colonel James Mulligan returned to New Creek and Colonel Joseph Thoburn took command of the 1,785 Union soldiers at Petersburg. Confederate Major General Fitzhugh Lee’s forces began to move on Petersburg on January 3rd, with intentions of capturing Colonel Thoburn’s forces and destroying the fortification. Unable to move their artillery and supply wagons forward due to poor road conditions, Confederate forces fell back towards General Early in the Shenandoah Valley on . . . — Map (db m14519) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — War in Grant CountyEngagement at Johnson Run
During the Civil War, loyal Unionist Home Guard companies patrolled Hardy County (now Grant County) to defend it against Confederate incursions. Near here on Johnson Run on June 19, 1864, a mixed command that included men from several companies clashed with a detachment of Confederate Capt. John H. McNeill’s Rangers under Lt. Bernard J. Dolan. The Union Home Guard unit was returning with supplies from New Creek Station (present day Keyser) on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad about 35 miles . . . — Map (db m58680) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Welcome to Fort Mulligan Civil War Site
Exploring Fort Mulligan. A trail system with interpretive exhibits describe the Fort’s construction, usage and strategic importance during the Civil War. Most of the site is wheelchair accessible, however several areas are inaccessible because of steep terrain. Visitors should also beware of poison ivy, ticks and snakes during the spring and summer months. Help us to preserve Fort Mulligan Civil War Site by observing the following rules: Please stay off of the earthworks • No . . . — Map (db m14518) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Welton Park
The Petersburg Gap is a natural wonder exposing Helderberg limestone and Oriskany sandstone cliffs towering more than 800 feet above the South Branch of the Potomac River. The renowned writer and artist, David Hunter Strother whose pen name was Porte Crayon, first visited the gap in 1851. He was the first person to describe the image of a fox and the face of an ox on the rocks to the readers of Harper’s Monthly magazine. During the Civil War, Federal troops commanded by Colonel James A . . . — Map (db m58677) HM
West Virginia (Grant County), Petersburg — Winter Quarters Huts
In 1863, your view from here would have been of a barren, muddy landscape, with crude, smoking huts half buried in the hillsides. The area surrounding the Fort was most likely stripped of timber as the need for open fields of fire, fuel and construction materials would have quickly destroyed available resources. The remains of several winter quarters hut sites are on a terrace below you. This group of hut emplacements was much smaller and more isolated than the other infantry camps. Log . . . — Map (db m14538) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Alta — Andrew & Charles Lewis March
The nearby highway is part of route traversing W.Va. From Lewisburg to Point Pleasant memorialized by the state to commemorate the march of the American Colonial army of 1,200 men led by Andrew & Charles Lewis. After a month's march this army defeated a Shawnee Indian force led by Cornstalk at the Battle of Point Pleasant on the banks of the Ohio & Kanawha Rivers, October 10, 1774. — Map (db m55819) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Alta — Fort Donnally/Border Heroes
Fort Donnally Built by Andrew Donnally a few miles north about 1771. Attack on this fort by 200 Indians in 1778 was second most important frontier engagement in the State. The fort was relieved by force under Colonel John Stuart.

Border Heroes Before the Fort Donnally attack, settlement had been warned by Phillip Hammond and John Pryor, scouts at Point Pleasant, who, made-up as Indians by Nonhelema, the sister of Cornstalk, passed and outran the Indians. — Map (db m55818) HM

West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Caldwell — Confederate Saltpeter WorksCivil War Industrial Center
Although saltpeter (potassium nitrate or nitre), an essential element in the manufacture of gunpowder, had been mined at Organ Cave since the eighteenth century, the need for the mineral increased dramatically during the Civil War. Several saltpeter mines were operated in West Virginia. Confederate soldiers were detailed to operate the mine here beginning in 1861 and ultimately produced a large percentage of the saltpeter used in the production of gunpowder for the Confederate army. Many of . . . — Map (db m59342) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Frankford — Frankford
Col. John Stuart, who came here in 1769 with McClanahan, the Renicks, and companions, bought out earlier claims of William Hamilton. "The Cliffs" to the east offer one of the celebrated beauty spots of Greenbrier Valley. — Map (db m50389) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Battle of Lewisburg23 May 1862
The 3rd Provisional Ohio Brigade's camp was on this hill. The Confederate artillery opened the battle at 5 a.m. with a bombardment of the Federal camp. — Map (db m21739) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Battle of LewisburgA Brief Fight
Early in May 1862, Union Col. George Crook, 36th Ohio Infantry, led his command from Charleston to raid the Virginia Central Railroad near Covington. After tearing up track and burning a bridge, he and his men arrived in Lewisburg on May 17, with Confederate Gen. Henry Heth’s forces pursuing at a distance. At about dawn on May 23, the sound of artillery and the rattle of small-arms fire awakened the inhabitants of Lewisburg. Crook’s forces were camped behind the grounds of the present-day . . . — Map (db m59344) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Big Lime
The Greenbrier Limestone in the quarry represent the "Big Lime" of the driller. Fish-egg like oölitic zones in the "Big Lime" produce oil and natural gas in West Virginia. — Map (db m21744) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall, built in 1902, by Lewisburg Female Institute and citizens of the Greenbrier Valley area. It is one of only three Halls in the U.S. named for Andrew Carnegie who gave $26,750. Local citizens gave $10,000 to complete the Hall. President: R. L. Telford Architect: Charles W. Barrett Style: Georgian Revival (Side Two) Cultural life of the area was enhanced by the events held at Carnegie Hall until Greenbrier College closed, 1972. The Hall was to be demolished, so the community . . . — Map (db m61464) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Col. John Stuart/Mathew Arbuckle
Col. John Stuart Col. John Stuart built Stuart Manor, 1789, near Fort Stuart. He was a military and civil leader and led a company in the Battle of Point Pleasant. As clerk of Greenbrier County, he left many historic records. His first office is standing.

Mathew Arbuckle Here lived Captain Mathew Arbuckle, who guided General Andrew Lewis and army from Lewisburg to Point Pleasant and took part in the battle which followed, 1774. For a time he was in command of Fort Randolph, later . . . — Map (db m50394) HM

West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Confederate Cemetery
Remains of 95 unknown Confederate soldiers who fought in the Battle of Lewisburg on 23 May 1862 lie in this cross shaped common grave. It has an upright 80 feet long and cross arms of 40 feet. After the Civil War the unclaimed dead were removed from the Lewisburg Cemetery and reburied in this common grave. The bronze marker which serves as a headstone was provided by the Federal Government on 13 November 1956. — Map (db m21740) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Confederate Cemetery / The Civil War
Side A On the hill, 400 yards west, in a common grave shaped like a cross, lie unclaimed bodies of ninety-five Confederate soldiers, casualties of the area, including those of the Battle of Droop Mountain and the Battle of Lewisburg. Side B The Greenbrier area was predominately Southern in its sympathies, and furnished some 3000 men for the army of the Confederacy. It was occupied repeatedly by one or the other of the opposing armies throughout the War. — Map (db m21748) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Dick Pointer
Enslaved African, noted for bravery in defense of Fort Donnally during Shawnee attack May 29, 1778. He was granted his freedom by James Rodgers in 1801. Land granted to other defenders; his 1795 pension petition, supported locally, denied. Reportedly citizens built cabin for Pointer, who died in 1827. Buried with military honors in the African-American cemetery on Church St. — Map (db m21737) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Greenbrier County Courthouse
Constructed 1837 by John W. Dunn, well known local brickmason. All brick was made locally. Building has been in constant use since its completion and is unchanged except for wings added in 1937 and 1963. — Map (db m50471) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Greenbrier Military School
First established at Lewisburg 1808-09 by Dr. John McElhenney and chartered as an academy in 1812. Used as barracks and hospital during War between the States. Present buildings on north side of town built 1921. — Map (db m19378) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Greenbrier Military School
First school was established 1808-09 by Dr. John McElhenney and chartered as an academy in 1812. Used as barracks and hospital during War between the States. The present buildings were erected in 1921. — Map (db m19382) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — LewisburgThe Battle of Lewisburg
The Battle of Lewisburg was fought on May 23, 1862, between the Southern forces of General Henry A. Heth and the Northern forces of Colonel George Crook, later famous as the captor of Geronimo. The inhabitants of Lewisburg, Virginia, a peaceful town were awakened by the sound of artillery and the rattle of musketry that morning. This deadly conflict was a part of a larger Federal effort to sever communications between Virginia and Tennessee. Although Colonel Crook won this half hour-long . . . — Map (db m21738) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — LewisburgOld Confederate Cemetery . A Civil War Burial Ground
The remains of 95 unknown Confederate soldiers from the Battle of Lewisburg, fought May 23, 1862, lie in this cross-shaped common grave. It has a vertical length 80 feet long and a cross arm of 40 feet long, with an overall width of 10 feet. Colonel George Crook would not permit the Southern sympathizers to bury their own dead, and thus they were originally laid out in the Old Stone Church and later placed in a trench along the south wall of the church without ceremony. It wasn't until after . . . — Map (db m21742) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Lewisburg
Side A Site of Fort Savannah, built in 1755. Here at Camp Union Gen. Andrew Lewis mustered troops which participated in the Battle of Point Pleasant 1774. Lewisburg was incorporated in October, 1782, by the Virginia Assembly. Side B Presbyterian Church established 1783. Stone building erected, 1796, still used for worship. Lewisburg Academy founded, 1812, was precursor of Greenbrier Military School and of Greenbrier College. Library-Museum built, 1834. — Map (db m21747) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Lewisburg Battle
Confederate troops under Gen. Henry Heth here, May 23, 1862, were repulsed in attach upon division of Col. Geo. Crook's brigade. The Old Stone Church was used as a hospital. In his retreat, Heth burned bridge over Greenbrier at Caldwell. — Map (db m19380) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Lewisburg — Pontiac's War/Welsh Cemetery
Pontiac's WarMassacre of white families of Muddy Creek and of the Clendenins near here by a band of Shawnee Indians led by Chief Cornstalk, in 1763, completed the destruction of the early settlements in the Greenbrier Valley.

Welsh Cemetery In this cemetery are buried pioneer settlers, including Ann (McSwain) Clendenin Rogers, the heroine of the Clendenin massacre by Shawnee Indians, July 13, 1763, and the siege of Fort Donnally in 1778, by over 200 Indians. — Map (db m50395) HM

West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Rainelle — Meadow River Lumber Company/United Methodist Church
Meadow River Lumber CompanyEstablished as Raine-Andrew Lumber Co. concern with purchase of 32,000 ac. (1906-08) by John & Tom Raine, namesake of Rainelle, founded 1908. Used logging railroad from woods to mill & Sewell Valley RR (NF&G) to C&O. 1909 mill burned 1924; 1925 triple-band mill had 30 million bf. annual capacity, 500 workers, & made finished lumber, furniture, flooring & shoe heels. Shut down 28 Dec. 1970.

United Methodist Church Built 1914 and said to be largest . . . — Map (db m50391) HM

West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Rupert — Rupert
A post office was established here in 1889 and the village was incorporated in 1945. Named for Dr. Cyrus A. Rupert (1812-1891), a prominent local physician. The first settler here was William McClung (1738-1833) who came in 1766. A soldier in the revolution, he donated two acres of land for the area's first church at Otter Creek. He is buried in the church cemetery. — Map (db m50390) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Sam Black Church — Sam Black Church
Built in 1901, church building was dedicated in memory of the Rev. Sam Black (1813-99). Born in Rupert & licensed in 1840. Black was a Methodist circuit rider for almost fifty years. Sam Black Church, a spiritual landmark, became a place name on highway maps without a post office by the same name. — Map (db m55766) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Smoot — Greenbrier Ghost
Interred in nearby cemetery is Zona Heaster Shue. Her death in 1897 was presumed natural until her spirit appeared to her mother to describe how she was killed by her husband Edward. Autopsy on the exhumed body verified the apparition's account. Edward, found guilty of murder, was sentenced to the state prison. Only known case in which testimony from ghost helped convict a murderer. — Map (db m50356) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — "Oakhurst" Golf Club
Site of the first organized golf club in United States. It was formed, 1884, on the "Oakhurst estate of owner, Russell W. Montague, a New Englander and Scotchmen" George Grant, Alexander m. and Roderick McLeod and Lionel Torrin. — Map (db m21752) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — Dry Creek Battle
A two-day encounter. Aug. 26-27, 1863, between Gen. Sam Jones' Confederates and Gen. W. W. Averell's Federals. Action is also known as Howard's Creek, White Sulphur Springs and Rocky Gap. Losses 350. — Map (db m21751) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — Kate's Mountain
Named for Kate Carpenter, whose husband, Nathan, was killed by the Indians. fine scenic view. Home of Kate's Mountain Clover and other rare plants, such as the Box Huckleberry, 6000 years old - the oldest living thing. — Map (db m19363) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — The Old White1858 - 1922
Here stood a famous hostelry affectionately known as The Old White Once the pride of the Old Dominion Whose gracious hospitality, beautiful surroundings and healing waters gained national renown and made it the object of many a pilgrimage. Here gathered from the north and south great generals, famous statesmen and philanthropists, lovely ladies and reigning bells "who left upon the silent shore of memory images and precious thoughts that shall not die, and cannot be destroyed". — Map (db m19360) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), White Sulphur Springs — White Sulphur
Side A Large Federal fish hatcheries are located here. A mile east on Howard's Creek the armies of North and South fought in 1863. At "Oakhurst" three miles north the first golf club in America was organized in 1884. Side B Twelve Presidents, from "Old Hickory" Jackson to Woodrow Wilson, have been among the noted guests at the mineral springs where for nearly tow centuries world society has made rendezvous. Shrine to General Robert E. Lee. — Map (db m19361) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Bloomery — “Caudy’s Castle”
Named for James Caudy, pioneer and Indian fighter, who took refuge from the Indians on a mass of rocks overlooking Cacapon River during the French and Indian War (1754–1763). From his position on the Castle of Rocks, he defended himself by pushing the Indians, one by one with the butt of his rifle, over the precipice as they came single file along the narrow crevice of rocks. They fell 450–500 ft. to the base along the edge of the Cacapon. — Map (db m20850) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Bloomery — Bloomery Iron Furnace / Bloomery Gap Skirmish
(North Facing Side):Bloomery Iron Furnace The furnace was built, 1833, by Thomas Pastly and later was owned by Lewis Passmor. He placed a Mr. Cornwell in charge who operated it until 1848 when it was sold to S. A. Pancost. He and his heirs operated it until 1875 when the furnace was closed down. It was operated for a short time in 1880-1881. Annual capacity was 8500 tons. The iron was carried on rafts and flatboats down the Cacapon River. (South Facing Side):Bloomery Gap . . . — Map (db m11019) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Bloomery — Fight at Bloomery GapA Futile Affair
Early in 1862, Confederate raids and attacks put Hampshire County and much of the surrounding area under nominal Southern control. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and nearby telegraph wires were severed, impeding Federal troop movements. A militia brigade under Col. Jacob Sencendiver, 67th Virginia Militia, occupied Bloomery Gap to threaten the railroad and Union-occupied territory near the Potomac River. To drive them out, Gen. Frederick W. Lander led a mixed force of infantry and cavalry . . . — Map (db m30455) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Capon Bridge — Fort Edwards
Troops from this fort under Captain Mercer were ambushed in 1756 and many were killed. The French and Indians later attacked the fort but the garrison, aided by Daniel Morgan and other frontiersmen, repulsed the assault. — Map (db m4556) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Capon Bridge — Northwestern Turnpike
In 1784, Washington proposed the Northwestern Turnpike as an all-Virginia route to the Ohio. Authorized in 1827 and started in 1831, it remains a monument to the skill of its engineers, Charles Shaw and Colonel Claudius Crozet. — Map (db m4623) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Capon Lake — Capon Springs
Capon Springs bears Indian name meaning the "Medicine Waters." Discovered in 1765. Famous resort of early days. President Franklin Pierce, Daniel Webster, and his guest, Sir Henry Bulwer, the British Minister, were among guests. — Map (db m50808) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Capon Lake — Historic Whipple Truss
Built in 1874 on U.S. Rt. 50 near Romney and re-erected at the present site in 1938 in use until 1991. And made an historic site by the WVDOT in 1992. It is the oldest of the few Whipple Trusses left in WV. — Map (db m50809) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Gore — The Guns Of Jacob SheetzHunting of a Different Sort
The shop of Jacob Sheetz, a Hampshire County gunsmith, once stood ahead of you in the yard to the right of the house. In 1861, Sheetz found himself unusually busy converting ancient flintlock rifles to the modern percussion type. The long rifle (Pennsylvania or Kentucky rifle) had been popular with frontiersmen since the mid-18th century. The rifleman rammed powder and a bullet down the barrel, poured priming powder in the pan on the side of the lock, and pulled the trigger. A hammer with a . . . — Map (db m58647) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Hanging Rock — Ice Mountain
Huge natural refrigerator, five miles north along North River, where ice is found for several hundred yards on the hottest summer days. Raven Rock, on North Mountain, overs one of the finest views in West Virginia. — Map (db m25085) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — Abandonment of Fort Mill Ridge
The Union troops at Fort Mill Ridge continued their duties until June 14, 1863. Then, in response to Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, Campbell's command was ordered to concentrate with the rest of their division at New Creek (Keyser). Confederate General Imboden's Northwestern Brigade had left the Shenandoah Valley on June 9th, occupied Romney on June 16th, and freely roamed through the countryside taking an unoccupied Cumberland on June 17th before moving east, destroying the railroad as they . . . — Map (db m25438) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — An Outpost in Enemy Territory
From the protection of the fort and their encampment along Mill Creek, Union soldiers were stationed at picket posts throughout adjacent valleys at key junctions, fords, and approaches. Patrols were sent through the country-side to feel for the enemy, investigate rumors of Confederate activity, and gather hay and other provisions for use at the camp. Eastern West Virginia was a hotly contested guerilla area during the Civil War, and Fort Mill Ridge was an isolated outpost. Surprise attack . . . — Map (db m25433) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — Construction of Fort Mill Ridge
On March 16, 1863, Col. Campbell ordered his command to move their encampment from Romney to the fields adjacent to Mill Creek immediately west of Mill Ridge. Sheltered between the mountain to the west and the ridge, the camp was less vulnerable to surprise attack, which could come from any direction at any time. The fort atop Mill Ridge was constructed by Campbell's troops between March and June, 1863 to protect the encampment and dominate the Valley and the Gap. Fort Mill Ridge consists of . . . — Map (db m25203) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — Control of the Mechanicsburg Gap
Federal Battery E, 1st (West) Virginia Volunteer Artillery was assigned to the command at Fort Mill Ridge. The Battery was armed with six 3-inch rifled cannons. It is believed that two of these cannons were positioned in the central redoubt. The 3-inch rifled cannon was an accurate field piece with a range of about a miles on level ground. This range was longer when the cannon was placed atop a ridge. From the elevation of the central redoubt, the cannon could fire into Mechanicsburg Gap to . . . — Map (db m25315) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — Engagement with McNeill's Rangers
In early April, 1863, a Confederate force led by Captain John H. McNeill's Rangers and four additional companies of Virginia cavalry left Rockingham County for West Virginia. At Moorefield, 20 miles south of Fort Mill Ridge, the force divided into several smaller units. On April 6th, McNeill's Rangers surprised a Union foraging train near Burlington, 10 miles west of Fort Mill Ridge, capturing 5 wagons and 11 soldiers. A contingent of 50 Union cavalrymen sent to assist the foraging party . . . — Map (db m25353) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — Fort Mill RidgeGeneral Information
Fort Mill Ridge is a Union fortification constructed between March and June, 1863, to defend the Mechanicsburg Gap and South Branch Potomac Valley. The remains of the fortification have been undisturbed over the past 135 years and are among the most intact and best preserved Civil War earthworks. The Fort Mill Ridge Foundation in partnership with the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources has undertaken the preservation and interpretation of Fort Mill Ridge. A trail system with . . . — Map (db m25084) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — Interior of the Central Redoubt
The central redoubt consists of a square earthen platform or rampart, and earthen walls, or parapets. Cuts in the parapets, or embrasures, provided openings through which cannons could fire. The remains of the embrasures can be seen on the southern and western parapets. Military earthworks were constructed to predetermined design standards that were adjusted to field conditions. During the course of the war, these design standards were refined through experience, as the . . . — Map (db m25300) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — Mechanicsburg Gap / Col. Claudius Crozet
Mechanicsburg Gap Scenic canyon cut through Mill Creek Mountain by Mill creek. Here an old Indian trail was the pathway from the Valley of Virginia to the Alleghenies, then the Northwestern Turnpike, now the George Washington Highway Col. Claudius Crozet Col. Crozet, born in France, 1790; came to America, 1816. He taught mathematics at West Point six years. named chief engineer of Virginia (1824); surveyed Northwestern Turnpike, 1825. died, 1864; buried in Shockee Hills, Richmond. — Map (db m19355) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — The Central Redoubt
The central redoubt house the fort's artillery. The square structure is approximately forty feet wide inside. The fort's entrance was located on the north, its least vulnerable side. Two artillery positions were constructed on each of the other three sides. There is no evidence of a magazine or any other structure having been located within the redoubt. A redoubt is a small enclosed earthwork used to fortify a position from attacks on all sides. The square is the most common form for a redoubt . . . — Map (db m25244) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — The Civil War in the South Branch Valley
At the time of the Civil War, the South Branch Valley was comprised of many small, independent farms. The mid-19th century was a golden age of agriculture in the eastern United States, and the valley was among the most agriculturally productive areas in Virginia. With the coming of war the valley found itself part of the newly created northern state of West Virginia. However sympathies of the people of the valley were mostly with Virginia and the South, and many of their husbands and sons . . . — Map (db m25186) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — The Ditch as a Second Line of Defense
Around the outside of the central redoubt is the ditch, a significant obstacle attackers would have to climb through to assault the redoubt. At Fort Mill Ridge, the ditch also appears to have been used as a trench from which defending infantry could fire. From the two southern corners of the redoubt, extensions, or covered ways, connect the ditch to the outer ring of entrenchments. The east-west line created by the covered ways and the ditch of the redoubt provided a second line . . . — Map (db m25324) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Mechanicsburg — The Great Raid
In late April 1863, the Confederates launched a major raid from Rockingham County into West Virginia. A primary goal of the raid was the destruction of the Cheat River Bridge of the B&O Railroad near the Northwestern Turnpike crossing the Cheat River, 50 miles west of Fort Mill Ridge. The Confederates divided into two forces of 3000 troops. One force under General William E. "Grumble" Jones which included McNeill's Rangers, reached Moorefield on April 24th. From Moorefield, the force marched . . . — Map (db m25436) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Pinoak — Pinoak Fountain
Built by State Road Comm. and local artisans in 1932; land given by H.R. Edeburn. Crystal quartz quarried from behind nearby Bloomery iron furnace, and stone from hillside behind the fountain. Spring water, gravity fed from hill above, supplied area residents and travelers. Fountain was popular site for picnics, dances, courting, & auctions. Restored in 1988 and maintained by Pinoak Extension Homemakers Club. — Map (db m391) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Captain George W. Stump"Stump's Battery"
This is Hickory Grove, the home of Adam and Mary Stump and their son Capt. George W. Stump, who led a company of the 18th Virginia Cavalry during the war. Capt. Stump was always heavily armed with a carbine and numerous revolvers; his men called him “Stump’s Battery.” Besides cooperating with McNeill’s Partisan Rangers, Stump also served under Gen. John D. Imboden. The general had such confidence in Stump that he employed him in October 1863 as a confidential messenger to Gen. . . . — Map (db m58649) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Engagement at RomneyLew Wallace Storms the Bridge
On the night of June 12, 1861, Col. Lewis Wallace led his 11th Indiana (Zouaves) Regiment from Cumberland, Maryland, by train across the Potomac River and into present-day West Virginia. He had learned that “several hundred” Confederate troops were in Romney, as he wrote in his official report, drilling and forcing Unionists into Confederate service. After detraining and marching across the mountains before dawn, Wallace and his men neared Romney about 8 A.M. on June 13 and . . . — Map (db m33450) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Fort Forman
Frontier outpost, Capt. William Forman (Foreman), in 1777, led a company from this county to the relief of Fort Henry at Wheeling. He, two sons, and others were killed in an ambush by Native Americans at the "Narrows" near Moundsville. — Map (db m19357) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Fort Pearsall 1754
“Fort Pearsall was on or in view of this site.” Job Pearsall built a fort as protection against the Indians in 1754 on Lot 16, granted by Fairfax in 1749 containing 323 acres, including part of Indian Mound Cemetery. On May 14, 1756, Gen. Washington assigned 45 men and 5 officers and later 94 soldiers to defend Pearsall’s fort during the French and Indian War. — Map (db m2101) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Grapeshot Among the Pines
"Somehow they found out we were in the woods east of town. They took two cannon up the pike to where the Toll House now stands and fired several rounds of grapeshot among the pines." John Starnes Memoir The road passing before you is the Old Northwestern Turnpike (US 50 today). On September 23rd, 1861 a large force under General B.F. Kelley pursued Confederate forces to near this point. Using artillery pieces of the 4th Ohio Volunteer Infantry they fired at Confederate Forces of the . . . — Map (db m67937) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Hampshire County CourthouseSecession and Occupation
On May 23, 1861, Virginians voted in a statewide referendum to approve or disapprove the Ordinance of Secession that the convention in Richmond had passed on April 17. Here at the Hampshire County Courthouse, 1,188 out of 2,635 eligible voters approved and 788 disapproved secession. Virginia seceded from the Union, and the Hampshire County Committee of Safety voted to raise $10,000 to support the Confederate war effort. Although Hampshire County became part of the new state of West . . . — Map (db m58656) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Hampshire County World War I Memorial
In honor of Hampshire's sons who gave their lives and their service in the World War "We are the dead, Short days ago we lived, Felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved." Lieut. Robert W. Gilkeson • Corp. James Cleveland Lee • Corp. Joshua Davis Slonaker • John Frederick Abe • Arthur C. Bean • Edward Leslie Brown • Thomas Franklin Ewers • Ferman Lee Fultz • Jesse Jones Haines • William Lee Horn • Harry Myron Jackson • Harry Guy Leith • Arthur Sylvester nelson • Ova Truman Parrill • . . . — Map (db m19345) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Indian Mound
The Indian Mound Cemetery which is 7 feet high and about 15 feet in diameter, is one of the largest remaining mounds in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. This mound has never been excavated but similar mounds of area dug by Smithsonian Institution suggest this mound might date between A.D. 500 and 1000, and have been constructed by Hopewellian peoples. — Map (db m19346) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Jackson's HeadquartersJohn B. White House — Jackson's Bath-Romney Campaign
(Preface): On January 1, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led four brigades west from Winchester, Va., to secure Romney in the fertile South Branch Valley on the North Western Turnpike. He attacked and occupied Bath on January 4 and shelled Hancock, Md.; he marched into Romney on January 14. Despite atrocious winter weather, Jackson's men destroyed telegraph lines and 100 miles of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad track. Leaving Gen. William W. Loring's brigades in Romney, . . . — Map (db m58650) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Old Literary Hall
Literary Society of Romney organized in 1819, oldest in the state and one of the first in America. A splendid Public Library was accumulated which by 1850 was the largest in West Virginia. Destroyed during the War Between the States in 1862. Cornerstone of original building dated 1825. Restored by Attorney Ralph W. Haines for law offices and historic museum. — Map (db m462) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Romney / Early Memorial
Romney. Incorporated as a town, 1762. Owned and laid off as a town by Lord Fairfax. Named for one of the five English Channel ports. Not far away was Fort Pearsall, built, 1756, as Indian defense. Town changed military control 56 times, 1861-1865. Early Memorial. In 1866, Confederate Memorial Association was formed here, which on September 26, 1867, dedicated a monument to Confederate soldiers, one of the first erected anywhere. This was site of Indian cemetery long before white men came. — Map (db m463) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Romney in 1861–1865 / “Stonewall” Jackson
Romney in 1861–1865. Sitting astride the natural invasion route from the Shenandoah Valley to the Potomac and the B&O Railroad, Romney was scourged by both armies. No great battles were fought here, but during the War the town changed hands 56 times. “Stonewall” Jackson. Jackson arrived here Jan. 13, 1862, after capturing Bath (Berkley Springs). Leaving Gen. Loring, he returned to Winchester. Loring's protest caused Jackson to resign but he reconsidered and his Valley Campaign followed. — Map (db m464) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — Romney In The Civil WarStrategic Location on the Turnpike
Romney experienced many troop movements and skirmishes during the course of the war because of its location on the vitally important North Western Turnpike The road linked Winchester, near the northern end of Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, with Parkersburg on the Ohio River. The earliest engagement fought here occurred on June 13, 1861, when a Federal force under Col. Lewis Wallace stormed the covered bridge and briefly occupied the town. Romney allegedly changed hands about sixty times during . . . — Map (db m58654) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Romney — W. Va School for the Deaf and Blind
Established, 1870. The Classical Institute was donated by the Romney Literary Society as the initial building unit. Co-educational school giving academic and vocational training to the State's deaf and blind youth. — Map (db m459) HM
West Virginia (Hampshire County), Three Churches — Mount Bethel Church
The Presbyterians established a church near here in 1792. At first called the Mountain Church in 1808, it became the nucleus of Presbyterian work in Hampshire County under the auspices of the Rev. John Lyle. The Rev. James Black reorganized the congregation in 1812 and the newly formed congregation was named Mount Bethel. The present church, built of logs in 1837, is the oldest house of worship in this county. — Map (db m19356) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), Chester — Rock Spring Park
Named for natural springs reputedly used by George Washington. Donated in 1857 for picnics and prize fights. Developed in 1897 as amusement park served by streetcar and boat attracting 15-20 thousand daily. Included dance pavilions, shooting gallerys, bowling, theatre and music hall, boating and bathing, and Scenic Railway. Automobile and changing social customs led to disuse and sale by 1970s. — Map (db m49697) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), Moscow — Early Mills
Site of Nesselroad's powder mill which operated from 1795 to 1801. To the south on King's Creek stood Hartford's grist mill which served local settlers in early 1800's. In 1823, Swearingen's grist mill and Eaton's saw mill were built near the same site. Nearby is the place where brothers Andrew and Adam Poe, border scouts, fought and killed Wyandott Chief Big Foot in 1781. — Map (db m39654) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), Moscow — On This Spot
On This Spot. On September 18, 1781, Adam Poe and Andrew Poe while freeing white captives, engaged in combat with a war party of the Wyandott tribe and killed the sons of the Wyandott Chief. — Map (db m39661) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — Brickyard Bend
Named by boat captains for many brick works shipping from area. John Gamble first mined clay in 1839; James Porter had first brick works in 1832. By 1844, five works produced 1.5 million bricks. Later, some 20 plants: including Captain John Porter, Clifton, Mack and Cresent, using local clay, gas and coal, and hundreds of workers, produced millions of bricks yearly. First shipped on the Ohio River after 1886 also by Pennsylvania Railroad. — Map (db m44118) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — Brickyard Bend
Named by boat captains for many brick works shipping from area. John Gamble first mined clay in 1830; James Porter had first brick works in 1832; five works in 1844 produced 1.5 million bricks. Later, over 20 plants, using local clay, gas and coal, including Captain John Porter's, Clifton, Mack, and Crescent, employed hundreds of workers and produced millions of bricks yearly. First shipped on the Ohio River; after 1886 also by Pennsylvania Railroad. — Map (db m44120) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — Captain John Porter / Chelsea China Company
Side A:Captain John Porter(August 7, 1838 - February 7, 1893) Early developer of New Cumberland, he operated line of steamboats and barges on Ohio River, Chelsea China Company and glass plants. Known as "brick king" he owned Sligo, Aetna, Eagle, Rockside and Union brick plants and is credited for laying 1st brick street in town, July 1882. Played key role in building Presbyterian Stone Church. Served term as sheriff and legislator. Side B: Chelsea China . . . — Map (db m44121) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — Contested County Seat
Hancock County, formed in 1848 in home of Sam C. Allison in Fairview, also known as Pughtown and New Manchester. In election for county seat, New Cumberland won by 13; refusal to move led to another vote and majority of 46 in 1850 to move. In May 1853 vote, New Manchester won seat with majority of 1 for next 31 years. Election in 1884 made New Cumberland permanent county seat. — Map (db m44124) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — Gravel Hill Academy
Located beside courthouse, original building of four rooms built in 1869, opened in 1870 with town hall on 2nd floor. In 1888 two wings were added. By 20 January 1939, when destroyed by fire, had 14 rooms with 500 students. Rebuilt on same site, it served as school until 1963 graduation. First formal graduation held in 1893. Now houses city government, community history displays and other businesses. — Map (db m44126) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — New Cumberland
Near New Cumberland, George Chapman settled, about 1783, and built an Indian fort. Here are graves of the Chapmans, Gregorys, Graftons, and other pioneer families. Pughtown, settled about 1810, was the first county seat. — Map (db m39685) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — New Cumberland
Near New Cumberland, George Chapman settled, about 1783, and built an Indian fort. Here are graves of the Chapmans, Gregorys, Graftons, and other pioneer families. Pughtown, settled about 1810, was the first county seat. — Map (db m44130) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — Ohio River / Ohio River
Side A:Ohio RiverThe river flowing past New Cumberland contributed significantly to the political, economic and social development of the town. Early settlers to New Cumberland came by river and then depended on the river as means of receiving supplies and services not produced locally. Side B: Ohio RiverNew Cumberland was for many years an important river town, not only because of the heavy freight shipments but also as a community which supplied pilots, deck . . . — Map (db m44133) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — Old Town
In 1839 John Cuppy laid out 42 lots on his farm between Ohio River and hill; added 50 lots in 1850. Named Vernon but called Cuppy Town. In 1840 John Chapman built the first house. Industry based on rich clay deposits, brick plants and river transportation saw population of 400 in 1850 expand to 1200 in 1870. Residential and commercial growth, incl. shops, stores, hotel, and churches, led to its claim as first and present county seat. — Map (db m39743) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Cumberland — Old Town
In 1839 John Cuppy laid out 42 lots on his farm between Ohio River and hill; added 50 lots in 1850. Named Vernon but called Cuppy Town. In 1840 John Chapman built the first house. Industry based on rich clay deposits, brick plants and river transportation saw population of 400 in 1850 expand to 1200 in 1870. Residential and commercial grouwth, inc. shops, stores, hotel and churches, led to its claim as first and present county seat. — Map (db m44135) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), New Manchester — Hartford's Mill
On Tomlinson Run, Nesselroad's powder mill began operation about 1795. Near by occurred the famous fight between Andrew and Adam Poe, border scouts, and Chief Big Foot and another Indian in 1782. The Poes won. Two Indians died. — Map (db m66535) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), Newell — Logan Massacre
One of the events which led up to Dunmore's War was the killing at this point of the family of Chief Logan, eloquent leader of the Mingo Indians, April, 1774, opposite their village at the mouth of Yellow Creek in Ohio. — Map (db m44727) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), Newell — Newell
Here is located the largest single pottery unit in the world. This county has been a large producer of pottery for more than a century and today West Virginia stands second among all of the states in its production. — Map (db m44730) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), Weirton — Hancock County / Brooke County
Side A:Hancock CountyFormed in 1848 from Brooke. Named for John Hancock, first signer of the Declaration of Independence. Iron furnaces established in this county as early as 1794 made the cannon balls that Commodore Perry used in Battle of Lake Erie. Side B: Brooke CountyFormed in 1797 from Ohio County, Named for Robert Brooke, Virginia governor, 1794-1796. Here Alexander Campbell founded the Christian Church and established a college. First Grimes Golden apple . . . — Map (db m44127) HM
West Virginia (Hancock County), Weirton — Peter Tarr Furnace
Two miles east is the site of first blast furnace west of the Alleghenies. Built in 1794, it was the forerunner of the steel industry which flourished in this area. Here Peter Tarr cast cannon balls used by Perry on Lake Erie. — Map (db m44138) HM
West Virginia (Hardy County), Baker — Frémont's CampEn Route to the Shenandoah Valley
For two nights beginning on May 28, 1862, Union Gen. John C. Frémont and his approximately 20,000-man army camped on the broad, rolling plateau before you. They had marched from Franklin (Pendleton Co.) three days earlier through the rain and mud, almost out of provisions, to reach this spot. In Washington, D.C., meanwhile, an exasperated President Abraham Lincoln sent telegrams to Frémont, urging him to press on to the Shenandoah Valley and give battle to Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" . . . — Map (db m33596) HM
West Virginia (Hardy County), Lost City — James Ward WoodFounder of Kappa Alpha Order
While a student at Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, Wood formed a society that he named Phi Kappa Chi. He authorized its ritual; created a seal; enlisted family friend, William Nelson Scott, and organized the group in the South Dorm room of William A. Walsh. In the Spring of 1866, several weeks after the group added Scott's youngest brother, Stanhope, Wood changed the society's name to Kappa Alpha. He established the great theme that is the spiritual cornerstone of the Order even . . . — Map (db m49514) HM
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