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Cross Keys Markers
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysSlaughter of the 8th New York Infantry — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 8, 1862, during the Battle of Cross keys, Gen. Isaac R. Trimble’s Confederate brigade of a little more than 1,500 men occupied this line, a masked position behind a split-rail fence in what was then a wood line to your right and left. Shortly after noon, the 548-man-strong 8th New York Infantry of Gen. Julius Stahel’s brigade marched toward Trimble, but the regiment’s officers failed to put a skirmish line out front to locate the Southern position. Skirmishers from the 21st North . . . — Map (db m16191) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysImmigrant Soldiers — 1862 Valley Campaign
Many immigrants fought for the North and the South during the Civil War. Their numbers were especially high in Gen. Louis Blenker’s division of Gen. John C. Fremont’s union army at Cross Keys on June 8, 1862. Two Germans (Gen. Henry Bohlen and Col. John Koltes) and one Hungarian (Gen. Julius Stahel) commanded Blenker’s three brigades on this part of the field. Blenker and his lieutenants had been officers in European revolutions during the 1840s. German, Swiss, Irish, English, Italians, . . . — Map (db m16265) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysTrimble’s Ravine — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 8, 1862, Confederate Gen. Isaac R, Trimble led part of the 15th Alabama Infantry Regiment through the then-swampy ravine in front of you to attack Union Gen. Louis Blenker’s division. Trimble intended to move around the 54th New York infantry Regiment on the rising ground beyond . he left the 21st Georgia Infantry, the 16th Mississippi Infantry, and the remaining portion of the 15th Alabama behind to make frontal assaults against the New Yorkers’ position. At about the same time, the . . . — Map (db m16267) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysWalker’s Flank Attack — 1862 Valley Campaign
After repulsing the initial Union attack, Confederate Gen. Isaac R. Trimble’s brigade heavily engaged two brigades of Union Gen. Louis Blenker’s division near here on June 8, 1862. During the afternoon fighting, Col. James A. Walker’s demi-brigade consisting of the 13th and 25th Virginia infantry regiments reinforced Trimble. Walker marched his men along the Goods Mill Road on the Confederate rifght flank in an effort to move around the union forces facing Trimble. Walker’s first attempt to . . . — Map (db m16435) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysDuel Attacks — 1862 Valley Campaign
Early on June 8, 1862, Union commander Gen. John C. Frémont viewed the field at Cross Keys and without proper reconnaissance assumed that Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s left flank was the strong side of the Confederate line. Frémont ordered his artillery to soften Ewell’s position. A duel ensued from 10 a.m. until noon, 20 Confederate guns against almost 50 Union cannons. Accurate Confederate fire caused a soldier from Ohio to remark that Stonewall Jackson himself must have paced off the range . . . — Map (db m25549) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysSouthern Artillery — 1862 Valley Campaign
Confederate Gen. Richard S. Ewell had five artillery batteries with him at Cross Keys. Four batteries and a 2-gun section (about 18 guns total) were massed on the ridgeline to your front. At the time of the battle on June 8, 1862, the ridge was mostly devoid of trees. Capt. Alfred Courtney’s Henrico Battery occupied the right of the Confederate position. Nineteen-year-old Lt. Joseph W. Latimer, who commanded a section of the battery, was later mentioned for his gallantry in Ewell’s report on . . . — Map (db m25550) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysThe Civilians of Cross Keys — 1862 Valley Campaign
During the Civil War, this battlefield contained some of the most productive farmland in the Shenandoah Valley and Virginia, as it does today. At the time of the battle, these fields were in stands of wheat, buckwheat, rye, corn, and clover. Almost all the farmers here were German Baptist Brethren, also called Dunkers or Dunkards because of their belief in adult baptism. Because they were pacifists who abhorred the taking of human life, many young Brethren men left the South or paid . . . — Map (db m25551) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysJune 8, 1862
General R.S. Ewell with 8,000 soldiers of General Stonewall Jackson's army repulsed a Federal attacking column of 10,500 under General John C. Frémont. After initial success the Federals were checked by the fire of Confederate artillery. Attacks by Union brigades led by General J. Stahel and Colonel G.P. Cluseret were turned back by Generals I.R. Trimble's and A. Elzey's Confederates. General Dick Taylor's and Colonel J.M. Patton's brigades were ordered to Ewell's support. Reinforced by the . . . — Map (db m46563) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Cross Keys Battlefield
Here, June 8, 1862, Gen. J. C. Fremont—pursuing Gen. T. J. “Stonewall” Jackson—was checked by Gen. R. S. Ewell with part of Jackson’s army, which lay towards Port Republic. Federals engaged: 12,750, killed and wounded: 684. Confederates engaged: 8,000, killed and wounded: 288. — Map (db m4056) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Mill Creek ChurchWar Strikes Peaceful Homes and Fields
This church, Mill Creek Church of the Brethren, stands on the site of an antebellum house of worship that, during the Battle of Cross Keys on June 8, 1862, was used as a hospital. Amputated arms and legs were dropped outside from a window and piled up until they finally reached the sill. Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson came here and asked a wounded staff officer about the progress of the battle. On September 30, 1864, this became the center of a wide area in which . . . — Map (db m16268) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — The Battle of Cross Keys“It was not in men to stand such fire as that.” — 1862 Valley Campaign
Following Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s victory at Winchester, Union troops pursued the Confederates south, “up” the Shenandoah Valley. While Gen. John C. Fremont advanced on the Valley Turnpike, another Union force, led by Gen. James Shields, pursued Jackson through the Page (Luray) Valley father east. Jackson took position at Port Republic, four miles east of you, to engage Shields, leaving Gen. Richard Ewell here at Cross Keys to hold back Fremont. Ewell . . . — Map (db m16187) HM
Virginia (Southampton County), Cross Keys — U 122 — Nat Turner's Insurrection
On the night of 21-22 August 1831, Nat Turner, a slave preacher, began an insurrection some seven miles west with a band that grew to about 70. They moved northeast toward the Southampton County seat, Jerusalem (now Courtland), killing about 60 Whites. After two days militiamen and armed civilians quelled the revolt. Turner was captured on 30 October, tried and convicted, and hanged 11 November; some 30 Blacks were hanged or expelled from Virginia. In response to the revolt, the General . . . — Map (db m22796) HM
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