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Leesburg Markers
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 15th Massachusetts Infantry
The 15th Massachusetts Infantry provided an initial scouting patrol on the night of October 20 and the troops for the raiding party the next morning. Five companies, roughly 300 men, were to attack a Confederate camp. Devens positioned his men several hundred yards west of here and sent a messenger to inform General Stone that there was no camp to raid. While waiting for new orders, a small portion of his force engaged Company K of the 17th Mississippi in the battle’s opening skirmish. The . . . — Map (db m2223) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 17th Mississippi Infantry
The 17th Mississippi Infantry was the last Confederate unit to arrive on the field. These 600-700 fresh troops showed up late in the afternoon and tipped the balance of what had been a hard but evenly fought contest up to that point. The Mississippians had double-timed much of the way from their positions near Leesburg and were, according to Pvt. Robert Moore, “very near run down when we got there.” To let them catch their breath and to protect them from still heavy Union fire, . . . — Map (db m2234) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from the victory at the Second Battle of Manassas General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 1-6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harper's Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South . . . — Map (db m1110) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 1862 Antietam CampaignLee Invades Maryland
Fresh from victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River on September 4–6, 1862, to bring the Civil War to Northern soil and to recruit sympathetic Marylanders. Union Gen. George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac pursued Lee, who had detached Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s force to capture the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry. After the Federals pushed the remaining Confederates out of the South . . . — Map (db m1220) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 18th Mississippi Infantry
The 18th Mississippi Infantry was sent from nearby Edward's Ferry and arrived near here around 3:00 p.m. Colonel Erasmus Burt ordered his men forward across the then open field unknowingly into a deadly crossfire between the two winds of the Union formation. This was the single major tactical error made by the Confederates during the battle. About half of the 18th Mississippi’s 85 casualties that day came during this brief encounter. Among the wounded was Colonel Burt who was shot through the . . . — Map (db m2233) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 1st California Regiment
The 1st California was one of four regiments that made up the “California Brigade” commanded by Colonel Edward D. Baker, U.S. Senator from Oregon and close friend of President Lincoln. In April, 1861, Baker helped to organize what was intended to be a single regiment to represent California in the Union Army. The response was so large, however that four regiments were created and numbered 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 5th California (there was no 4th). As most of the recruiting was done around . . . — Map (db m2230) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 20th Massachusetts Infantry
Companies D and I of the 20th Massachusetts (the “Harvard Regiment”) followed the 15th Massachusetts across the Potomac with orders to serve as a rear guard and cover the withdrawal of the 15th Massachusetts following what was hoped would be a successful raid. Those two companies, led by regimental commander Colonel William R. Lee, deployed along the bluff here and waited. They spent much of the day in the area immediately beyond this sign. While waiting, Colonel Lee sent out . . . — Map (db m2229) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 42nd New York Infantry
The 42nd New York (“Tammany Regiment”) was commanded by Col. Milton Cogswell, the only West Point-trained officer among the senior Union commanders at Ball’s Bluff. Five companies of the 42nd participated in the battle. With the death of Colonel Baker between 4:30-5:00, Colonel Cogswell assumed command of the Federal force. He attempted to organize a breakout and move downriver toward the other Union troops at Edward’s Ferry. The attempt fell apart almost before it started. . . . — Map (db m2231) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 8th Virginia Infantry
The 8th Virginia Infantry was a local unit made up of six companies from Loudoun, two from Fauquier, and one each from Fairfax and Prince William counties. Commanded by Colonel Eppa Hunton, the Regiment arrived on the field about 12:30 p.m. initially deploying west of the ridge near the Jackson house. With the withdrawal of the 15th Massachusetts from that area, the 8th Virginia moved cautiously forward and deployed on the battlefield. Shortly thereafter, the right wing of the unit clashed . . . — Map (db m2211) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — 8th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment
This monument is dedicated to the brave men of the 8th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment The 8th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment was organized into State Service May 8th, 1861 in Leesburg under the command of Colonel Eppa Hunton. These companies, 1272 men, formed the 8th Virginia Infantry Regiment: Loudoun County - Company A • Hillborough Border Guards; Comapny D • Champe Rifles; Company E • Hampton's Company; Company F • Blue Mountain Boys; Company H • Potomac Grays; Company I • . . . — Map (db m85501) WM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — A Divided America, A Divided Loudoun County
On April 12, 1861, with the firing on Fort Sumter, America went to war with itself. Just as the country was divided, so were Virginia and Loudoun County. The western portion of Virginia became the separate state of West Virginia in 1863. Here in Loudoun County, the division was based largely on the original settlement patterns, with the northwestern part of the county in opposition to the secessionist majority. The Potomac River formed a dividing line and to most Southerners, Maryland was . . . — Map (db m2251) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Additional Area Civil War Sites
1. Sugarloaf Mountain - This was the site of a Union Signal Corps station that remained in operation throughout much of the war. 2. White's Ferry - Originally called Conrad's Ferry, this crossing was established in 1817 about four miles north of Leesburg. After the war, the ferry was bought by Confederate veteran Elijah White and became known as White's Ferry. It is the only operational ferry on the Potomac. 3. Harrison's Island - About two miles long and four hundred yards wide, . . . — Map (db m27839) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Aftermath of Ball’s Bluff
Ball’s Bluff is the only battlefield where on which a United States senator was killed in combat. Edward Dickinson Baker, senator from Oregon, was also a colonel and one of Brig. Gen. Charles Stone’s three brigade commanders. Baker was a long-time friend of President Lincoln and was known as a brilliant orator. His canvassing efforts during the 1860 election campaign helped win both California and Oregon for Lincoln. Baker’s death here and three Union defeats in 1861 resulted in the creation . . . — Map (db m2203) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ball’s Bluff Battlefield and National Cemetery
Has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America 1984 National Park Service United States Department of the Interior — Map (db m2236) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — T 51 — Ball’s Bluff Masked Battery
Nearby is the likely site of the Confederate “masked battery” (concealed artillery) that was an object of Federal concern early in the Civil War. On 21 Oct. 1861, elements of the 13th Mississippi infantry near there engaged 35 horsemen of the 3rd New York Cavalry sent to draw attention from the Union force upriver at Ball’s Bluff and to reconnoiter Confederate positions in the direction of Leesburg. After a brief firefight, the New Yorkers withdrew to Edward’s Ferry. The Confederate . . . — Map (db m1491) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ball’s Bluff Masked Battery...held to the bluff without room to retire.
Two hundred yards to your right are the remains of a small earthwork that may have been part of a masked (concealed) battery which played an important role in the Battle of Ball’s Bluff on October 21, 1861. The battery commanded the road from Edwards Ferry on the Potomac River to the town of Leesburg. Union Gen. Charles P. Stone, seeking to reconnoiter Confederate defenses near Leesburg, sent forces commanded by Col. Edward D. Baker across the Potomac about a mile north at Ball’s Bluff. Baker, . . . — Map (db m1517) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ball’s Bluff National Cemetery
The twenty-five graves here in one of America’s smallest national cemeteries contain the partial remains of 54 Union soldiers killed at the Battle of Ball’s Bluff, October 21, 1861. All are unidentified except Pvt. James Allen of Northbridge, Massachusetts, who served with the 15th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. The majority of Confederate dead were removed to Leesburg. Most of the fallen Union soldiers found on or near the battlefield were temporarily buried in shallow mass graves between . . . — Map (db m2235) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ball’s Bluff Overlook
Ball's Bluff is a 600 yard long shale and sandstone cliff. It rises up a shallow bell curve from two ravines approximately 300 yards north and south of where you are standing. At this point, it is about 100 feet high, though just to the north (left) of this spot, it reaches its highest elevation of 110 feet above the river. Note that the Potomac flows due south here. Thus, as you look across the river into Maryland, you are not looking northward as you might expect, but to the east. Directly . . . — Map (db m2829) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-1 — Battle of Ball’s Bluff
One mile east occurred the Battle of Ball’s Bluff, October 21, 1861. A Union force, which had crossed the river at this point, was driven back over it by the Confederates. — Map (db m985) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Battle of Ball’s Bluff, October 21, 1861
The Battle of Ball’s Bluff was the result of a mistake. The previous evening, Capt. Chase Philbrick, Co. H, 15th Massachusetts, led a small reconnaissance patrol across the river to determine the results of some earlier Confederate troop movements. Philbrick soon spotted what he thought was an enemy camp and reported this news. The “camp,” in fact was a row of trees mistaken for tents. On orders from Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone, Col. Charles Devens’ crossed a 300-man force to raid . . . — Map (db m2252) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Battle of Balls BluffOctober 21, 1861
6 AM - After crossing the river, the 15 MA (Colonel Devens) advanced to the area near the Jackson house, leaving the 20 MA (Colonel Lee) on the bluff to guard the exit path to the river. 8 AM - Captain Duff's (17 MS) Company ran into Devens (15 MA) and fighting began around the Jackson House. 9A M - 10 AM - General Stone ordered Col. (Senator) Baker to take command of all forces on Ball's Bluff and either advance more troops or withdraw, as he deemed appropriate. Baker arrived on . . . — Map (db m27590) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-1 — Battle of Ball's Bluff
Just to the east, 1,700 Union troops crossed the Potomac River and clashed with 1,700 Confederates on 21 Oct. 1861. The previous evening, a Union reconnaissance patrol had mistaken a row of trees for Confederate tents. Brig. Gen. Charles Stone ordered an early-morning raid on this "camp." Confederates under Col. Nathan Evans confronted the Federals, who were then reinforced. Col. and Sen. Edward D. Baker took command and became the only sitting U.S. senator ever killed in combat. The Federals . . . — Map (db m93420) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Battlefield Historic Restoration Project
In 2004, Ball's Bluff Battlefield Regional Park began a restoration project on the battlefield where you stand today. The objective of the effort is to return about 12 acres of the battlefield to its approximate appearance in 1861. First hand accounts from soldiers like Lt. Colonel Isaac Wister of the 1st California describe the battlefield as "an open field of oblong shaped...entirely surrounded by woods". The photograph below was taken in 1886 of the Veterans from the 15th . . . — Map (db m19329) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Carriage House
The carriage house was used for storage of house drawn carriages and other equipment. This building was constructed in the 1880s and was in use until the 1930s. After horse drawn carriages were no longer commonly used, the building was used as a storage area for farm equipment. — Map (db m7831) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Carriage House
The Carriage House, built in 1903 during the Eustis period, illustrates the era when the horse drawn carriage was the primary mode of transportation. Today, the Carriage House is the Oatlands Museum Gift Shop and Visitor center. The Chauffeur's House, also built during the Eustis period, reflects the change in transportation from horse to auto. The house saw service as an administrative building. — Map (db m60112) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — T-24 — Charles Fenton Mercer
Charles Fenton Mercer (1778–1858) is buried near here in Union Cemetery. After serving as an officer in the U.S. Army, he was recalled to service as an aid to Virginia Governor James Barbour of Virginia in the War of 1812 and rose to the rank of brigadier general while commanding militia forces in Norfolk. A prominent attorney in Loudoun and Fauquier counties, he served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1810–1817) and in the U.S. Congress (1817–1839), where he was among the . . . — Map (db m893) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Clarkes Gap
At 582 feet, Clarkes Gap, up the hill to your left, was the highest point on the Washington & Old Dominion Railroad. The stone bridge dates from the 1870s, when the tracks were completed to Clarkes Gap. The station stood on the site where you are now located. Newspaper ads from the 1880s promote stagecoach service from Clarkes Gap to Waterford. After passing beneath the bridge the tracks originally continued north-northwest to Paeonian Springs. The switchback portion of the trail that you see . . . — Map (db m2031) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Clinton Hatcher
Clinton Hatcher, 1840 - 1861 Co. F. 8th Va. Regt. C.S.A. fell Bravely Defending his native state. — Map (db m85502) WM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Dairy Barn
This dairy barn hails from the legendary Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Built in 1900 in the town of Edinburg, it now sits at Market Station. The barn symbolizes the dairy farming that blossomed in the region, providing both county and town with milk and butter. This "bank barn" was originally nestled on the side of a hill or "bank." The farmer drove his wagon onto the upper level of the barn from the top of the bank and deposited hay for storage. The dairy herd stayed sheltered below in an . . . — Map (db m5128) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Diesel Trains on the W&OD
The Washington & Old Dominion Railroad switched from electric to diesel power during World War II. In 1941-42 the railroad bought its first three diesel-electric engines. Each General Electric engine had 380 horsepower and weighed 44 tons. Later engines weighing between 65 and 75 tons operated at about 660 horsepower. The railroad was phasing out passenger service in favor of more profitable freight hauling. Diesel power allowed the W&OD to participate in Northern Virginia’s growth boom in the . . . — Map (db m2111) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-31 — Dodona Manor
Home of Gen. George C. Marshall. This early-19th-century house and its surrounding four acres were purchased in 1941 by Gen. Marshall (1880–1959) and his wife, Katherine Tupper Marshall (1882–1978). A student of the classics, Marshall called the house, in its grove of oaks, “Dodoan Manor” after the ancient Greek oracle that spoke through oak leaves. This was their home during the years of Marshall’s great achievements as military chief of staff during World War . . . — Map (db m892) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F 35 — Douglass Community School
Before the construction of this high school, there were no schools beyond 7th grade for black students in Loudoun County. Late in the 1930s, the parent-teacher associations of various black schools formed the County-Wide League to raise money to build a high school. The league hired well-known civil rights attorney Charles H. Houston to help persuade county officials to allocate funds for the new school. In 1941 the league succeeded in obtaining a loan of $30,000 from the State Literary Fund. . . . — Map (db m5096) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Douglass High School
has been registered as a Virginia Historic Landmark by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Historic Resources Throughout much of Virginia in the early 1900s, black parents were pressing the then system of racial segregation for improved educational opportunity for their children. Following the calling and achievements of abolitionist Frederick Douglass in the years after the Civil War and the efforts of other black educators in Virginia seeking to improve schools for black . . . — Map (db m5100) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ealry Methodism in Leesburg
Early Methodism in Leesburg. On this site, deeded in 1766, stood the old Methodist meeting house completed about 1770. Here in 1778 was held the sixth conference of American Methodism and the first in Virginia. In this cemetery in 1786 was buried Richard Owings, first native Methodist preacher in America. The Old Stone Church was dismantled in 1901. — Map (db m1580) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — T-22 — Early’s Washington Campaign
Jubal A. Early passed over this road on his return to the Shenandoah Valley, July 16, 1864. After leaving Lee before Richmond, June 13, Early traveled 450 miles, defeating Hunter at Lynchburg and Wallace on the Monocacy River in Maryland, and threatening the city of Washington. On the approach of large Union forces, he withdrew this way. — Map (db m1003) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Edward D. Baker
Colonel Baker is buried at the Presidio in San Francisco, California. This memorial stone was placed here to mark what was believed to be the location of Baker’s death and to honor the memory of the only U.S. Senator to have died on the field of battle. Prior to the placement of the stone, a simple wooden fence rail, supported by a pile of rocks and a small sign, was the only monument to Baker. The stone was placed where that fence rail once stood. — Map (db m2237) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Edwards FerryAn Eighty-Mile-Long Column — Gettysburg Campaign
After Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's stunning victory at Chancellorsville in May 1863, he led the Army of Northern Virginia west to the Shenandoah Valley, then north through central Maryland and across the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania. Union Gen. George G. Meade, who replaced Gen. Joseph Hooker on June 28, led the Army of the Potomac in pursuit. Confederate cavalry commander Gen. J.E.B. Stuart cut Federal communications and rail lines and captured supplies. The armies collided at . . . — Map (db m63737) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Electric Trains on the W&OD
Electrification arrived in 1912, after the Great Falls & Old Dominion Railroad and the Southern Railway’s Bluemont Branch were consolidated into the Washington & Old Dominion Railway. The new owners brought modern interurban trolley cars. Wire strung above the tracks carried electricity from the railroad’s own power plant in Rosslyn, Virginia. In 1917 service switched to the local utility company. By 1939, the year this man was photographed departing a trolley near Bluemont, Virginia, the . . . — Map (db m2107) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Elizabeth Mills Riverfront ParkPotomac Connections
This riverfront park will transport you back in time. It will enable you to look beyond the modern developments that dominate the landscape here today. It will take you back centuries, when American Indians lived here, harvesting the bounty of the river and fertile floodplain. It will lead you to Goose Creek where the ruins of Elizabeth Mills rest. Mill owner Samuel Clapham built the mill in 1807 and named it after his daughter. Along the way you'll discover an 1850s canal that connected with . . . — Map (db m40211) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Fighting for FreedomMount Zion Community Cemetery
Four African American Civil War veterans are buried in this cemetery: James Gaskins (39th U.S. Colored Infantry), Joseph Waters (5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry), William Taylor (1st U.S. Colored Infantry), and John W. Langford (U.S. Navy). The first three were among the nearly 200,000 African Americans who served in the U.S. Colored Troops during the Civil War - a number representing 10 percent of the total number of Federal troops. Langford, who served aboard the USS Fuschia and the . . . — Map (db m76587) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — George Catlett Marshall
(Left Side Plaque): George Catlett Marshall (1880-1959) Born Union Town, Pennsylvania, educated at Virginia Military Institute, class of 1901, serving in the United States Army thereafter, resident of Leesburg, Virginia, 1941 to 1959. During this time he served his country as U.S. Army Chief of Staff with rank of General of the Armies, Secretary of State, President of the American Red Cross, and Secretary of Defense. Recipient of the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize. He was a member of the . . . — Map (db m4962) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-7 — Goose Creek Chapel
A short distance West is the site of the “Chapel Above Goose Creek”, built by the vestry of Truro Parish in 1736. Augustine Washington, father of George Washington, was a member of the vestry at the time. This was the first church on the soil of Loudoun County, erected as a chapel of ease for the benefit of early settlers. — Map (db m1213) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Ice House
In winter this building was filled with ice cut from the Potomac River. The tick stone walls and many layers of straw provided sufficient insulation to preserve a supply of ice for summer use. When the family needed ice, large chucks were retrieved from under the straw and taken to the house. The ice house was probably built sometime between 1876 and 1889. It remained in use until the mid-1930s and was restored by the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority in 1983. — Map (db m7836) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — In Memory of Richard Owings
First native born Methodist local preacher, born November 13, 1738, Baltimore County, Maryland. Died October 7, 1786, Leesburg, Virginia and was buried on this spot. He was converted under the ministry of Robert Strawbridge and Received on Trialin 1775. He served Baltimore Circuit, 1775 and was a local preacher in Maryland 1776–1786. As a local preacher he travelled extensively in the fall of 1783. He was the first Methodist preacher to cross the entire range of the Allegheny . . . — Map (db m1581) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Jenifer’s Cavalry
Lieutenant Colonel Walter H. Jenifer commanded the 300-man cavalry force in Colonel Nathan “Shanks” Evan’s Confederate brigade. Jenifer had some 70 troopers with him at Ball’s Bluff, including portions of the Chesterfield Light Dragoons, the Loudoun Cavalry, and the Wise Dragoons. After breaking the Union line near the Jackson house, a portion of the cavalry dismounted because of the rough and wooded terrain. An estimated one-third of these men joined several companies of . . . — Map (db m2213) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Lee Comes to LeesburgConference at Harrison Hall
On the afternoon of September 4, 1862, five days after the Confederate victory at the Second Battle of Manassas, throngs of well-wishers lined Leesburg's streets, including King Street behind you, to welcome the threadbare but jubilant Army of Northern Virginia as it marched through the town. Among its 55,000 men was a horse-drawn ambulance carrying the army's injured commander, Gen. Robert E. Lee. Here, before the grand entrance to Harrison Hall, home of a distant relative of the Lees, the . . . — Map (db m42333) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — LeesburgFrom Paradise to Peril — Antietam and Gettysburg Campaigns
“Leesburg! Paradise of the youthful warrior! Land of excellent edibles and beautiful maidens!” — so wrote a Confederate artilleryman in late 1861. A year later, a northern correspondent found Leesburg a weary town full of battle-scarred buildings and wary inhabitants. A prosperous Southern town of about 2000 at the outbreak of the Civil War, Leesburg was strategically located on the border between the Union and Confederacy. By war’s end, the town had endured bombardment, . . . — Map (db m1544) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Leesburg Freight Station
Leesburg’s first railroad depot opened here in 1860 to accommodate passengers, mail, express packages, and freight. All but the freight operations were moved west to King Street in 1887 when the new passenger station opened. An industrial area known as “the Wharf”—mills, warehouses, a farm implement factory, and a stockyard—grew up around this station. Passenger service along the Washington & Old Dominion barely made money. Freight appeared to be the railroad’s . . . — Map (db m2109) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Leesburg Passenger Station
When the Alexandria, Loudoun, & Hampshire Railroad (later W&OD) arrived on May 17, 1860, Leesburg realized a dream. A local newspaper praised the railroad, which “throws us within an hour or two’s ride of the cities of the seaboard, and opens up a new avenue of commerce and trade.” At first a single depot, located 0.2 mile east of here, served passengers and freight. In 1887 the railroad opened a separate passenger station here at King Street. It remained in use until passenger . . . — Map (db m2110) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Log House
Market Station's Log House, built in 1840 in Rectorstown, Maryland, is made entirely of native American chestnut. Upon its completion, the German builders covered the logs with clapboard and plaster. These protective refinements, usually reserved as additions for the later, more prosperous years, have helped preserve the condition of the logs over the past century and a half. The owners eventually added a stone wing and a frame wing as the farm around the house grew to include corn sheds, hay . . . — Map (db m5125) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Loudoun County Court SquareWartime in Leesburg
Before the war, the courthouse square was the location of slave auctions and militia recruiting activities. On October 21, 1861, after the Battle of Ball's Bluff, more than 500 Union prisoners, including Col. Milton Cogswell, 42nd New York Infantry, were brought here, taunted, and marched off to Richmond. The Confederates evacuated Leesburg on March 7, 1862. The next morning, Union Gen. John W. Geary and his men marched in from Waterford as the townspeople glared. Northern reporter Henry . . . — Map (db m63738) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-28 — Loudoun County Courthouse
The Loudoun County Courthouse, first occupied in 1895, is the third on this site, which was designated for that use on the 1759 plat of Leesburg. On 12 Aug. 1776, the Declaration of Independence was read from the doorway of the first courthouse. The second was built of brick in the Federal style about 1811. The Marquis de Lafayette, on his grand tour of the United States, was entertained here on 9 Aug. 1825. President John Quincy Adams and former president James Monroe, who then lived near . . . — Map (db m876) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — McKimmey's Mill
In 1898 a fire devastated a Leesburg grain mill, along with several surrounding buildings. The mill that replaced the burned structure is now known as McKimmey's Mill and sits proudly at market Station. This massive multi-level grain mill contains attractive gable roofs. Farmers brought their grain to the mill, grinding it either for local use or for shipment to distant markets. The large wooden towers held the grain in storage. Relocated from its original site just 300 feet south of Market . . . — Map (db m5121) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Mile HillCavalry Clash
On September 1, 1862, Col. Thomas Munford, commander of the Confederate 2nd Virginia Cavalry (163 men), was ordered to Leesburg to destroy a body of Union Cavalry—the locally raised Independent Loudoun Virginia Rangers—who were harassing southern sympathizers in the vicinity. On September 2, 1862, 35 men of the Loudoun Rangers and 125 troopers of Cole’s Maryland Cavalry occupied Leesburg, posting pickets on all roads into town. Arriving undetected, Munford ascertained that the . . . — Map (db m1219) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F 29 — Morven Park
Morven Park was the home of Westmoreland Davis, who as governor of Virginia (1918-1922) created the executive budget system that concentrated state budgeting authority in the governor's hands. Davis bought Morven Park in 1903 and transformed it into a progressive dairy farm. The first owner, Wilson Cary Selden, built a small fieldstone farmhouse in the 1780s. A mid-19th-century owner, Thomas Swann Jr. served as governor of Maryland and United States congressman. In the 1840s, the Baltimore . . . — Map (db m1214) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Norman-Harding Barn(The "Wharf")
"The Wharf" refers not only to the entire two-block area, but also to the Norman-Harding Barn, itself the original "Wharf." This building is on its original site. Since its construction around 1890, the two-story barn served as a storage warehouse in the heart of the old railroad industrial district. The warehouse held incoming and outgoing merchandise that moved via the Washington and Old Dominion Railroad. Salted herrings, a seasonal specialty from Tidewater, Virginia, came by the barrel for . . . — Map (db m5127) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — OatlandsCivil War Comes to Oatlands
The Civil War arrived in Loudoun County on October 21, 1861, with the Battle of Ball’s Bluff. As Confederate forces gathered to protect Leesburg, Elizabeth Grayson Carter, the widowed mistress of Oatlands, wrote in her journal on October 17, “Our troops falling back on Centerville - Mississippi Regt’s encamped at the Mill – Solders here all day.” Elizabeth’s son Benjamin served with the 8th Virginia Infantry Regiment, while her son George acted as a courier. On the day . . . — Map (db m1164) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F 33 — Oatlands
George Carter, a great-grandson of Robert “King” Carter, began this monumental mansion on his 3,408-acre estate in 1804 and embellished it over two decades. In 1827, he graced the façade with fluted Corinthian columns, endowing the Federal-style house with lightness and elegance. He also built terraced gardens, slave quarters, barns, and smokehouses, as well as a greenhouse and gristmill. In 1903, Mr. and Mrs. William Corcoran Eustis purchased Oatlands. They restored the mansion and . . . — Map (db m1165) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — T 23 — Old Stone Church Site
One block north on Cornwall Street is the site of the first Methodist-owned property in America. Lot 50 was deeded to the Methodist Society in Leesburg on May 11, 1766. In 1778, the Sixth American Conference of Methodists met there, the first such gathering in Virginia. At least two church buildings occupied the site before 1902, when the “Old Stone Church” was demolished. The churchyard is maintained as a national historic shrine of the United Methodist Church. — Map (db m1537) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Osterburg Mill
William Oster built this water-powered grist mill in the late 1800's to serve the residents of Osterburg, the village he founded in Three Springs Valley, between the Allegheny and Cove Mountains of Southwestern Pennsylvania. A large wooden water wheel powered the mill as it diligently ground wheat into flour, producing a residue that could be used as stock feed. As his fee, the miller kept a portion of the milled flour for his own purposes. In 1984, the old mill left Pennsylvania and headed . . . — Map (db m5130) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F 2 — Potomac Crossings
Here Lee turned east to the Potomac, crossing at White's Ford, September 6, 1862, in his invasion of Maryland. Jubal A. Early, returning from his Washington raid, crossed the river at White’s Ford, July 14, 1864. — Map (db m1609) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Red Rock Wilderness Overlook Regional Park
Red Rock Wilderness Overlook Regional Park is a 67-acre mostly wooded area situated along the Potomac River on the outskirts of Leesburg. Frances Speek donated a portion of the property to the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority in 1978. The park was also supported by the Land and Water Conservation Fund - helping states and communities provide for outdoor recreation and open space for all Americans. However the history of the ruins dates back much further. In 1869, a wealthy . . . — Map (db m7820) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — T 56 — Saving the Declaration of Independence / The War of 1812
(Front): Saving the Declaration of Independence On 22 Aug. 1814, two days before British forces entered Washington, Sec. of State James Monroe ordered government records, including the Declaration of Independence, removed to Virginia for safekeeping. They were first deposited in an abandoned mill just across the Potomac River. State Department clerk Stephen Pleasonton, believing the documents still in danger of discovery, sent them 35 miles west to Leesburg. They were secured south . . . — Map (db m90422) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — F-6 — Sharpsburg (Antietam) Campaign
Near here Stonewall Jackson bivouaced on the march into Maryland, September 4, 1862. — Map (db m986) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Stationmaster's House
This building of duplex design housed the Stationmaster in one section and other railroad employees in another. The railroad traditionally provided such housing close to switching yards and depots for its always-on-call employees. The Stationmaster's responsibilities included collecting freight duty and overseeing the area. Dating from 1915, the structure now sits at Market Station, only two blocks from its original location beside the tracks of the Washington & Old Dominion Railroad. — Map (db m5123) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Swann's CastleMorven Park in the Civil War
You are standing in the midst of the drilling and review grounds for Confederate soldiers between the summer of 1861 and March 1862. Former Baltimore mayor and future Maryland governor Thomas Swann, Jr. owned the 1,200-acre plantation but was absent. Confederate forces fortified nearby Leesburg, located close to the Potomac River and its many fords, to keep the Union army from crossing the river. Morven Park became an encampment and training site for Confederate forces until they abandoned . . . — Map (db m13676) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Temple Hall
Temple Hall was the home of William Temple Thomson Mason, son of Thomson Mason of Raspberry Plain and nephew of George Mason, author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights. The house was constructed about 1810 and was the centerpiece for the farm Mason established on property inherited from his father's vast estate. Mason and his wife, Ann Eliza Carroll of Maryland, raised ten children at Temple Hall. In addition to the Mason family, about twenty enslaved African-Americans resided on the . . . — Map (db m12954) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Temple Hall Farm Regional Park's Role in PreservingHeritage Livestock Breeds
What are Heritage livestock breeds and why are they important? Heritage livestock breeds are old breeds that were created before the onset of industrial agriculture. Industrialization of agriculture has greatly reduced the number of variety of livestock breeds that remain today. Since 1993, at least 190 different breeds of farm animals have gone extinct. Since 2003 alone, at least 60 breeds of cattle, goats, poultry, horses and pigs have become extinct. Today there are only a few main . . . — Map (db m12956) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Battle at Ball’s Bluff
On the night of October 20, 1861, a small Federal scouting party crossed the Potomac River from Maryland to determine whether recent troop movements indicated a Confederate withdrawal from Leesburg. Advancing inland from Ball’s Bluff, the Federals moved past this point, crested a low ridge near the Jackson house, and saw in the dim moonlight what appeared to be a Confederate Camp. Upon learning of this, the Federal commander, Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone, saw a target of opportunity and quickly . . . — Map (db m2205) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Creation of Temple Hall Farm Regional Park
In 1940, after a succession of owners, the property was purchased by Mr. and Mrs. James H. Symington. The Symingtons set about restoring the house and making improvements to the farm. The Symingtons succeed in restoring the mansion house, making extensive renovations and modernizing the home by adding indoor plumbing and electricity. They planted a variety of crops, eventually specializing in popcorn and becomeing for a time one of the largest suppliers in the eastern United States. When the . . . — Map (db m12955) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Depot
The Freight Depot was built at the turn of the century, replacing a depot gutted by the disastrous fire of 1898. The wooden building is a fine example of railroad station architecture, with its wide overhangs to protect dock workers and freight from the elements. The rail line was chartered in 1847 as the Alexandria and Harper's Ferry Railroad. It was reorganized in 1853 as the Alexandria, Loudoun and Hampshire, but by the outbreak of the Civil War in 1860 had been constructed only from . . . — Map (db m11324) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Great Falls Line
The Bluemont Branch of the Washington & Old Dominion was not the railroad’s only line. The Great Falls & Old Dominion Railroad arose in 1906 from the vision of two prominent men. Sen. Stephen B. Elkins of West Virginia had prospered through coal, lumber, and railroads in his home state. John R. McLean was involved in several businesses and owned The Washington Post. Elkins and McLean bought land on the Virginia side of the Potomac River at Great Falls. They turned it into a resort, . . . — Map (db m2106) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Leesburg Lime Company
The arrival of the railroad in the 1860s spawned new businesses. One such enterprise was the Leesburg Lime Company, which operated at the site where you are now located. In 1868 a local newspaper announced: New Lime Kiln— Messrs. Orr & Manning have in full blast, their new improved Lime Kiln, erected near the A.L.&H. Railroad Depot, Leesburg. It works beautifully, and is turning out a large quantity of Lime. Our farmers and builders can now be supplied with this article, at . . . — Map (db m2108) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The North: Union Leaders at Ball's Bluff
Brigadier General Charles Pomeroy Stone As the overall commander of Union forces at Ball’s Bluff, Stone was a rising star in the Union army at the time of the battle. He become the scapegoat for the defeat. Stone was born September 30, 1824, in Greenfield, Massachusetts. An 1845 West Point graduate, he won two brevets for gallantry in Mexico. Early in 1861, he organized the defenses of Washington and oversaw security arrangements for President-elect Lincoln’s inauguration. Arrested on . . . — Map (db m2238) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The South: Confederate Leaders at Ball’s Bluff
Colonel Nathan George “Shanks” Evans Nathan Evans was born in South Carolina in 1824. An 1848 West Point graduate, he was jokingly nicknamed “Shanks” by his classmates because he was knock-kneed. During the next decade he fought Indians with the 2nd U.S. Cavalry, eventually rising to the rank of captain. He resigned shortly after the secession of his native state. At First Manassas, Evans commanded the Confederate left and held the Federals in check long enough for . . . — Map (db m2241) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — The Tolbert Building
Dedicated December 10, 1990 In honor of former Vice Mayor John W. Tolbert, Jr. The Tolbert building was originally two dwellings located at 6 and 8 Loudoun Street; built prior to 1796 on a part of lot no. 14, which was sold by Nicolas Minor to John Gladdin in 1758. Purchased by the town in 1967, it served as the town's police headquarters in the late 1970's and was converted to retail/office use in the early 1980's. In a public/private partnership with the town of Leesburg, Peter and Diana . . . — Map (db m8868) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Thomas Clinton Lovett Hatcher
20 December, 1839 – 21 October, 1861 Standing over 6'4" and wearing a full red beard, Clinton Hatcher was a memorable figure. Despite his Quaker upbringing, he joined Company F of the 8th Virginia at the beginning of the war and became the regimental color bearer. This combined with his height and notable beard to make him quite a target and he was, in fact, killed during the battle. This memorial stone was placed here to honor his courage. Hatcher is not buried here but rests in the . . . — Map (db m2243) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Two-Chambered Granary
The two-chambered granary was used for storing threshed grain until it was either sold or consumed. The presence of two chambers indicates that the owner could grow two different crops and store them simultaneously. Grain was often transported across the Potomac River at Edwards Ferry, the southernmost river crossing in Loudoun County. The C & O Canal on the Maryland side of the river was also commonly used to transport Virginia grown crops throughout Maryland into Washington, D.C. — Map (db m7832) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Union Artillery
The Federals crossed three pieces of artillery to Ball’s Bluff. Two mountain howitzers from the 2nd New York State Militia, detached under Lt. Frank French of Battery I, 1st U.S. Artillery, occupied this area for much of the afternoon. A 12-pdr James rifled cannon from Battery B, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery, commanded by Lt. Walter Bramhall of the 6th New York Independent Battery, was near today's cemetery. Being in the open, many of the artillerists were shot down and replaced by . . . — Map (db m2224) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Leesburg — Well House
The well house was constructed of poured concrete and was used for storing water on the farm. One room housed a pump, which drew water from a shallow well outside. The second room housed a cistern that was used for storing water after it had been drawn from the well. This building was constructed in 1885, which is etched into the mortar on the side of the building. The use of poured concrete walls was highly unusual in the 1880's, making this structure very unique for its time. — Map (db m7834) HM
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