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From Robert H. Moore, II
Alabama (Marion County), Hamilton — Confederate Veterans Bicentennial MemorialHamilton - Marion County, Alabama
In Memory of Re-Union 6th and 7th August 1904 Managers: Probate Judge Wm. R. White and Hon. Mack Pearce Guest Speakers Ex-rept. Wm. C. Davis, Hamilton - later Lieut. Gov. Ala. Ex-Rept. Wm. W. Brandon, Tuscaloosa - later Governor, Ala. Miss. Lillie Pearce, Hamilton Captain J.P. (Jem) Pearce, commandant, Marion County Unit Confederate Veterans Barnes, James Sr. • Boyette, W.J. • Brown, W.A. • Britton, G.A. • Byrd, J.J. • Campbell, J. • Carnes, William R. • Cantrell, Huse • . . . — Map (db m80883) HM WM
Alabama (Marion County), Hamilton — The First Alabama CavalryU.S. Army
The First Alabama Cavalry U.S. Army Organized July 12, 1862 - Deactivated October 20, 1865 Huntsville, Alabama Colonel George E. Spenser, Commander Organized by special order No. 100 by Major General Don Carlos Buell of U.S. Army. Over 2000 enlisted during the existence from Blount, Fayette, Franklin, Marion, Walker, Winston, and others. Over 600 did not give home counties. The only regiment from Alabama. Other U.S. Army regiments were Arkansas 10, Florida 2, Louisiana 10, Mississippi . . . — Map (db m80884) HM WM
Alabama (Winston County), Arley — Arley, AlabamaDeep in the heart of The Free State of Winston
On January 11, 1861 the State of Alabama seceded from the Union. Deeply perturbed, the people of Winston County held a political convention on July 4, 1861 at Looney’s Tavern, near Addison. A resolution was adopted to the effect that Alabama had no right to secede from the Union; but if she did have such right, then Winston County had the same right to secede from Alabama. Uncle Dick Payne, a Confederate sympathizer, remarked, “Oh, oh, Winston secedes! The Free State of Winston!’ Winston . . . — Map (db m42859) HM
Kentucky (Clark County), Winchester — 1068 — Old Providence Church
Daniel Boone attended, Squire, Jr., Samuel, and Mary Boone baptized here. Church name changed, 1790, from Howard's Creek to Providence. William Bush, a member of Boone's second Ky. expedition, built the present stone structure of native limestone. United Baptists formed here, 1801. Building was passed to Negro Baptists, 1870. Restored after slight fire damage, 1949. — Map (db m30831) HM
Kentucky (Hardin County), Bardstown — 2175 — Skirmish at Rolling Fork
(Side One): Advancing Federals fired on Confederate troops led by Gen. John Hunt Morgan on Dec. 29, 1862, during a rear-guard action. Acquaintances Col. John Harlan and Col. Basil Duke fought on opposing sides. Wounded during the clash, Duke recuperated at Bardstown. Over. (Side Two): After the Civil War, Col. Harlan became a U.S. Supreme Court Justice & was known as the “Great Dissenter” for his persistent judicial opposition, including that against the . . . — Map (db m25152) HM
Kentucky (Hardin County), Elizabethtown — "Make a Street Fight Out of It"Christmas Raid, December 27, 1862
In December 1862, Gen. John Hunt Morgan was sent by the Confederate command to shut down the L&N Railroad, thereby cutting off one of the Union's major supply lines. Morgan's target was one of the railroad's most vulnerable points, the trestles at Muldraugh Hill, five miles northeast of Elizabethtown. On December 27, 1862, Morgan's cavalry attacked Elizabethtown, which was defended by some 600 men of the 91st Illinois under the command of Lieut. Col. H.S. Smith. Because Morgan outnumbered . . . — Map (db m25156) HM
Kentucky (Hardin County), Elizabethtown — 1116 — Elizabethtown Battle
Confederate Gen. John Hunt Morgan on his second raid into Kentucky, with 3,900 men, was met by 652 Union troops under Lt. Col. H.S. Smith, Dec. 27, 1862. Object of raid was destruction of L & N R.R. main artery for U.S.A. troop movement south. Morgan surrounded town and placed artillery on the cemetery hill. Elizabethtown garrison was destroyed. Federals surrendered. — Map (db m25136) HM
Kentucky (Hardin County), Elizabethtown — 606 — General Custer Here
Cavalry and infantry battalions under Gen. George Custer, assigned here, 1871-1873, to suppress Ku Klux Klan and carpetbaggers, to break up illicit distilleries. Those gangs becoming inactive, he was sent to Chicago to maintain order after big fire. Returning, he led an active social life. In 1873, ordered to Dakota, ending in "Custer's Last Stand", June, 1876. — Map (db m25138) HM
Kentucky (Hardin County), Elizabethtown — 932 — Lincoln-Haycraft Memorial Bridge
Here along Severn's Valley Creek, Samuel Haycraft, Sr. built mill, raceway in 1796. Thomas Lincoln, father of Pres. Lincoln, employed in building it, received his first monetary wages when about 21 years of age. Abraham Lincoln, age 7, with his family on way to Indiana in 1816, crossed this creek about here and went through Elizabethtown. — Map (db m25137) HM
Kentucky (Hardin County), Elizabethtown — 525 — Morgan's Second Raid
North of here, Morgan's Raiders destroyed two of the most important L & N R.R. trestles Dec. 28, 1862, rendering line impassable for two months. Circling this area, they returned to Tenn. on Jan, 2, 1863. In eleven days they destroyed $2,000,000 in U.S. property, wrecked L & N line from Munfordville to Shepherdsville, and captured, then paroled, 1,877 prisoners. — Map (db m25131) HM
Kentucky (Hardin County), Elizabethtown — The CannonballChristmas Raid, December 27, 1862
Gen. John Hunt Morgan's Raiders arrived in Elizabethtown on December 27, 1862, appearing on the brow of the hill that is now the City Cemetery. The main objective of the Christmas Raid was to burn two huge Louisville and Nashville Railroad trestles at Muldraugh Hill north of the town. By destroying the trestles, Morgan hoped to relive pressure on Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg's Army in Tennessee by cutting the flow of supplies to Union Gen. William S. Rosecrans' army. Before moving on . . . — Map (db m25159) HM
Kentucky (Hardin County), Elizabethtown — 1651 — Three Forts
Elizabethtown began in 1780, when three forts were built by Samuel Haycraft, Sr., Col. Andrew Hynes and Capt. Thomas Helm for common defense against Indians. The forts were one mile apart, the only settlements between falls of Ohio and Green River. Hynes laid out 30 acres for public buildings, 1793. In 1797, County Court established the town named for Hynes' wife. — Map (db m25135) HM
Kentucky (Nelson County), Bardstown — 506 — Camp Charity
Named by Lexington Rifles, under John Hunt Morgan, who camped here, Sept. 1861. Friendly people took no pay for food. With additional recruits, horses and supplies they joined Confederates at Green River Sept. 30. The Rifles were mustered in as Second Cavalry Regiment, Ky. Volunteers, CSA, renowned as "Morgan's Raiders." — Map (db m25145) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Big Pool — Four Locks
Here the Potomac River makes a meandering four-mile loop around Prather’s Neck. To avoid the bend in the river, the canal engineers cut the canal one-half mile across the neck. Because of the rapid elevation change, these four locks were necessary to lift the canal boats a total of 33 feet. [Sidebar): A small but busy community grew up here. Children dallied on their way to the one-room schoolhouse still standing just down the road. In the barn just ahead mules rested after long canal . . . — Map (db m15285) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Big Pool — Mule Power
“Here at Four Locks mule barn, mules rested during the winter months. Boat captains left their mules here, paying a mule tended to care for them. Often the mules grew thin because the keeper did not feed the mules as well as their owners did. Mules were the ‘engines’ for the canal boats. Normally, a boat captain had four. Two worked while two rested in their stall in the front of the boat. Captains usually cared for mules as if they were part of the family. In the canal’s peak years, the . . . — Map (db m15278) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Big Spring — Four Locks
Four Locks – locks 47 through 50 – were built between 1836 and 1838, all within a half-mile stretch of the canal. Nestled amongst these four locks, a close-knit community thrived while the canal was in operation. Businesses prospered, meeting the needs of locals and boatmen. In its heyday the busy town of Four Locks included two general stores, two warehouses, a dry dock, mule barn, post office, school, farms, and many houses. Families like the Hassetts, the Myers, and the . . . — Map (db m36716) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — Capt. Samuel G. Prather
(North face): In memory of Capt. Samuel G. Prather. Who raised and commanded the 2nd Co. of the Potomac Home Brigade Maryland (Vols.) in Great Rebellion of 1861 against the only Free Government on the earth and died at his post of duty October 15, 1861 in the 29th year of his age. (South face): To transmit to latest time the memory of this true man and exalted Patriot and to regard the affection for their late Commander: this shaft is erected by the officers and men of Co. F 1st Md. Regt. — Map (db m25140) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — Clear Spring
The spring from which the Town of Clear Spring acquired its name. — Map (db m693) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — Gen. J. E. B. Stuart’s Cavalry
Gen. J.E.B. Stuart's cavalry on his raid around the Federal army, Oct. 19, 1862, crossed the National Road here after crossing the Potomac River at McCoy’s Ferry three miles south of this point. — Map (db m682) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — McCoy's Ferry
On May 23, 1861 Confederates attempting to capture the ferry boat at McCoy's Landing were driven off by the Clear Spring Guard. Here on October 10, 1862, Gen. J.E.B. Stuart crossed the Potomac on his second ride around McClellan's army. — Map (db m3914) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — Protecting Cultural Resources
Floods occur at regular intervals in the Potomac Valley. Between 1829 and 1998 there have been 144 recorded floods or high water occurrences. repairing flood damage was a continuing battle for the C&O Canal Company and is still a problem for the National Park Service. During periods of low water, the remains of the original crib and rubble dam, destroyed by floods can be seen downstream from the present dam built in 1857. In 1998, the guard lock and flume were filled with soil to halt the . . . — Map (db m25142) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — Stonewall Jackson at Dam 5
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Maryland became a border between the Confederacy and the Union. The Confederacy knew that the canal and railroad were important Union supply lines. Stonewall Jackson’s Brigade made several attempts to destroy Dam 5 and cripple the canal. On December 7, 1861, Confederate artillery “commenced throwing shells and shot at the dam and houses on the Maryland shore.” Jackson’s troops then tried digging a ditch to undermine the dam; Union troops fended off . . . — Map (db m23561) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Clear Spring — Vital CrossroadsClear Springs in the Civil War
This was a lively Unionist community on the important National Road during the war. In nearby Four Locks on January 31, 1861, local residents raised a 113-foot-high “Union Pole” with a streamer proclaiming the “Union Forever.” Many local men enlisted in the Federal 1st Potomac Home Brigade Cavalry and Co. B, Cole’s Cavalry, but several joined the Confederate units. A Federal detachment occupied Clear Spring and maintained a signal station on nearby Fairview Mountain. . . . — Map (db m60553) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Sharpsburg — 5th Md. Vet. Vol. Infy.
Erected by the survivors of Company A & I to the memory of our fallen comrads who fell on this spot September 17, 1862. ———— This stone marks the extreme advance of Weber's Brigade French's Div. 2nd Army Corps ———— Can their glory ever fade! — Map (db m17622) HM
Maryland (Washington County), Williamsport — Shielding the ArmyWhere are the Confederates? — Gettysburg Campaign
The mountains provided Gen. Robert E. Lee with cover. As his army of 75,000 men and 272 pieces of artillery rumbled north through Washington County, the U.S. Army commander did not know his whereabouts because South Mountain, to the east, shielded the Confederates from observation. Many in Lee’s army were well into Pennsylvania while the Federal army was still crossing the Potomac nearly fifty miles to the east. “We have outmaneuvered [Gen. Joseph] Hooker," exclaimed an optimistic Lee . . . — Map (db m39310) HM
Missouri (Jackson County), Kansas City — Pioneer Mother Monument
People Of Kansas City By Howard Vanderslice To Commemorate The Pioneer Mother Who With Unfaltering Trust In God Suffered The Hardship Of The Unknown West To Prepare For Us A Homeland Of Peace And Plenty Alexander Phimister Proctor – Sculptor - MCMXXVII Wither thou goest, I will go Where thou lodgest, I will lodge Thy people shall be my people and thou God my God — Map (db m35749) HM
Missouri (Jackson County), Kansas City — Spanish-American War/Philippine Insurrection/China Relief Expedition Monument
To Commemorate the Valor and Patriotism of the Men Who Served in the War with Spain Philippine Insurrection and China Relief Expedition 1898-1902 — Map (db m61146) HM
Pennsylvania (Adams County), Gettysburg — Macon's Battery - Dearing's BattalionPickett's Division - Longstreet's Corps — Army of Northern Virginia
Army of Northern Virginia Longstreet's Corps Pickett's Division Dearing's Battalion Macon's Battery The Richmond Fayette Artillery Two Napoleons and Two 10 pounder Parrotts July 3 Advanced to the front about daybreak. Later in the morning took position on the ridge west of the Emmitsburg road and near the Rogers House but remained inactive until the signal guns were fired some time after noon. Moved forward then to the crest of the hill and took a prominent part in the cannonade. Ammunition . . . — Map (db m12049) HM
Pennsylvania (Cumberland County), Shippensburg — Fort Morris
Named for Gov. R.H. Morris, and built by local settlers under the supervision of James Burd after Braddock’s defeat in July, 1755. Later garrisoned by provincial troops commanded by Hugh Mercer. The fort site, long marked by the soldiers’ well, lies a block to the north on Burd Street. — Map (db m18627) HM
Pennsylvania (Cumberland County), Shippensburg — Middle Spring Presbyterian Church Commemorative Marker
In commemoration of the sacrifice and service of the men of Middle Spring Patriots-Pioneers Builders Site of First Log Church 1738 — Map (db m18529) HM
Pennsylvania (Cumberland County), Shippensburg — Old Court House
“Widow Piper’s Tavern,” used for Cumberland County court-sessions, 1750-1751, until a court house was erected at Carlisle, the county seat. The house is now the home of the Shippensburg Civil Club. — Map (db m18628) HM
Pennsylvania (Cumberland County), Shippensburg — One-Room Schoolhouse
The Mount Jackson or Potato Point School, originally built in 1865, is an authentically reconstructed one-room schoolhouse. It was relocated here in 1969 by alumni and friends of Shippensburg State College to preserve part of America's educational heritage. — Map (db m18530) HM
Pennsylvania (Cumberland County), Shippensburg — Our Fallen Patriots
East Face:Our Fallen Patriots The Price of Liberty 1st Lieut. Andrew A. Pomeroy Co. I, 198th Reg. P.V. Killed March 30, 1865 Corp. David W. McKinney Co. F, 13th Reg. Pa. Cav. Died May 7, 1863 J. Anderson Kelso Co. F. 13th Reg. Pa. Cav. Cap. July 1863 Died on Bell Island Va. Nov. 15, 1863 South Face: Erected by Friends and Patriots 1st. Lieut. Thomas B. Mains. 2nd Reg. U.S. Col. Cav. Killed May 12, 1864 Robert Laughlin Co. I, 9th . . . — Map (db m18646) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — Abolitionist John Brown Boards in Chambersburg
Preparing for the raid on Harpers Ferry arsenal, John Brown came to Chambersburg in the summer of 1859 wearing a beard as a disguise and using the alias of Isaac Smith. He took up residence at Mary Ritner’s boarding house on East King Street, professing to be a developer of iron mines in Maryland and Virginia. Mining implements consigned to Smith and Sons soon arrived at warehouses in town. They were actually firearms, ammunition, and pikes with which Brown wished to arm the many Blacks who he . . . — Map (db m18531) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — Burning of Chambersburg
Occupied the morning of July 30, 1864, by cavalry of Confederate Gen. John McCausland. Failing to obtain ransom, he burned the town in reprisal for ruin in the Shenandoah Valley by Gen. David Hunter. — Map (db m2140) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — Confederate Conference
On June 26, 1863, Gen. Robert E. Lee, and staff, entered this square. After conferring with Gen. A.P. Hill, near the middle of the 'Diamond', Lee turned eastward and made headquarters at the edge of town. — Map (db m8099) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — Fort Chambers
Erected in 1756 by Col. Benjamin Chambers, pioneer land-owner and founder of the town, who fortified his house and mill with stockade and cannon against Indians. — Map (db m8114) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — Fort Chambers
Southwest 150 Feet Erected 1755-56 by Colonel Benjamin Chambers Founder of Chambersburg A two story stone structure surrounded By a moat A stockade manned by two swivel guns Enclosed the fort, flour mill, sawmill, And dwelling. 1984 Kittochtinny Historical Society Franklin County Chapter D.A.R. — Map (db m18645) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — Founding Family Memorial Statue"The Homecoming"
On March 30, 1734, Benjamin Chambers, a Scots-Irish immigrant and millwright was granted a Blunston License by the Penn family to develop a 400-acre plantation and gristmill for the first Franklin County settlement, named the Falling Spring Settlement. In the early days of the settlement, Benjamin Chambers maintained good relations with the Native Americans. But, as time progressed, relations were strained as more settlers migrated to the frontier. In 1755, at the outset of twenty years of . . . — Map (db m18630) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — Frederick Douglass and John Brown
The two abolitionists met at a stone quarry here, Aug. 19-21, 1859, and discussed Browns plans to raid the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. He urged Douglass to join an armed demonstration against slavery. Douglass refused, warning the raid would fail; the Oct. 16, 1859 attack conformed his fears. Brown was captured with his surviving followers and was executed Dec. 2, 1859. — Map (db m18625) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — Memorial Fountain and Union Soldier Statue
Erected at center of Memorial Square to honor over 5,000 Franklin County soldiers who served in Civil War, 1861-65. Secured through gifts of Franklin County citizens and dedicated July 17, 1878. Entered in National Register of Historic Places, May 19, 1978. Rebuilt through gifts of Franklin County citizens and rededicated October 5, 1979. Tablets surrounding fountain honor Franklin County citizens who served in all U.S. wars. One plaque commemorates the meeting of General R. E. Lee and A. P. . . . — Map (db m8095) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — The Burning of Chambersburg
During the Gettysburg campaign, Confederate troops were restrained, under orders, from destroying non-government property. By the time of the Rebels’ next raid into the North, however, the policy had changed. On July 30, 1864, Brigadier General John McCausland and 2,800 Confederate cavalrymen entered Chambersburg and demanded $100,000 in gold or $500,000 in greenbacks. The residents of Chambersburg failed to raise the ransom, and McCausland ordered his men to burn the town. Flames destroyed . . . — Map (db m18532) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — The Greatest Sacrifice / Prelude to Gettysburg
The price of war is devastation. Franklin County paid the price when its county seat, Chambersburg, was burned to the ground in 1864. Invaded in 1862, 1863, and 1864 by Confederate forces, Franklin County has the distinction of suffering more Southern incursions than any other area north of the mason-Dixon line. The first Union soldier to fall in Pennsylvania died in Greencastle. John Brown planned his raid on Harpers Ferry in Chambersburg, and twelve year old Hetty Zeilinger guided four . . . — Map (db m18629) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Chambersburg — Underground Railroad Activity in Chambersburg
Throughout the pre-Civil War period, there were a number of Underground Railroad "stations" in this area, temporary places of refuge for former slaves escaping through the mountainous terrain to freedom in the North. One local Underground Railroad agent was a free black barber, Henry Watson, who assisted fugitive slaves as they passed through Chambersburg, helping to keep them safe and undetected by the slave-catchers and bounty hunters searching for them. — Map (db m8096) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Mercersburg — Ambush at Mercersburg
On July 3, 1863, three Confederate riders in Mercersburg’s town square were ambushed by two Union stragglers. Bullets passed through Private J.W. Alban, killing him and also the horse of the rider beside him. The third man quickly galloped out of town. The Horseless Confederate fled from the square and into an alley beside Judge Carson’s property (Buchanan house) but was quickly captured by townsfolk. Panic then set in as the townspeople feared reprisals for the ambush. In haste the dead man . . . — Map (db m18533) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Mercersburg — Steiger House at Mercersburg
Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart, during the first Chambersburg Raid (October 1862), stopped in Mercersburg at Bridgeside, the home of Mr. and Mrs. George Steiger. He intended to use the house as his headquarters while his troops rounded up supplies and civilian hostages from the town. However, Mrs. Steiger informed Stuart that her husband was away on business and that her children had measles. She suggested it might not be safe to enter her home. Stuart complied and settled for having lunch . . . — Map (db m18534) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Mercersburg — Stuart's Headquarters
On Oct. 10, 1862, 1800 picked Confederate cavalry commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and Brig. Gen. Wade Hampton with four cannon under Maj. John Pelham occupied Mercersburg on their way to destroy the railroad bridge at Chambersburg used to supply McClellan’s army of the Potomac. While his troops seized horses and supplies, Stuart established his HQ here on the side porch of “Bridgeside”, home of George C. Steiger, a livestock dealer on business in nearby Markes. As Stuart’s . . . — Map (db m18536) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Mercersburg — The 54th Mass. Infantry Regiment, US Colored Troops
In 1863, the 54th Massachusetts Regiment was among the first Civil War combat units open to African Americans. Troops from Pennsylvania made up more than 20 percent of the acclaimed unit. Mercersburg was second only to Philadelphia in mustering volunteers from the Commonwealth. The valor shown by the regiment improved regard for Black soldiers and helped spur recruiting. Of 38 USCT Civil War veterans buried here, 13 served in the 54th Mass. — Map (db m44651) HM
Pennsylvania (Franklin County), Mercersburg — Zion Union Cemetery
Eighty-eight African Americans from Mercersburg volunteered to defend the Union during the Civil War. At least 36 of those veterans lie in Mercersburg Zion Union Cemetery, established in 1876 by local Black citizens. By 1850 Mercersburg had 26 freedman households. Many former slaves worked in skilled trades as carpenters, carriage builders, blacksmiths, and quarrymen. A smaller squatter community west of town was known as Africa. An active Underground Railroad functioned throughout the . . . — Map (db m44650) HM
South Carolina (Greenwood County), Ninety Six — The Attack
By June 17, the Ninety Six garrison was low on food and ammunition. Cruger had expected a relief expedition from Charleston, but hope was turning into despair. Suddenly, a farmer, casually riding near the American lines, spurred his gorse and dashed into the fort through heavy Patriot fire. He brought word to the beleaguered garrison that Lord Rawdon, with 2000 reinforcements was only two or three days away. Greene learned of Rawdon's approach from his scouts the same day. Greene . . . — Map (db m11249) HM
Virginia, Chesapeake — Liberty to Slaves
“…to reduce this colony to a proper sense of their duty…to His Majesty’s crown and dignity…” On November 15, 1775, the day after his success in routing the rebels at Kemp’s Landing, Lord Dunmore issued a proclamation declaring martial law and offering freedom to any indentured servant or slave willing and able to bear arms for “His Majesty’s Troops.” This new unit of soldiers for the Crown would be called “Lord Dunmore’s Ethiopian Regiment.” To unify . . . — Map (db m54942) HM
Virginia, Fairfax — Ford Building
Built c.1835 Old Town Fairfax This was the home of Antonia Ford, imprisoned as a spy following Ranger Mosby's night capture of the local Union commander, Brig. Gen. Edwin H. Stoughton, March 9, 1863. A search of the house had revealed an honorary aide-de-camp commission to Antonia from Gen. Jeb Stuart. — Map (db m6366) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Chestnut RidgeDeath of Ashby — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 6, 1862, the vanguard of Union Gen. John C. Frémont’s force, pursuing Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s army south up the Shenandoah Valley, reached this point near Harrisonburg. Jackson’s rear guard, led by Gen. Turner Ashby, engaged Federal cavalry here and captured Col. Sir Percy Wyndham, the English commander of the 1st New Jersey Cavalry who had earlier boasted that he would “bag Ashby.” The 1st Maryland Inf. And 58th Virginia Inf. set an . . . — Map (db m15752) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Confederate Monument
(North face):This Monument is erected by the Ladies Memorial Association in grateful remembrance of the gallant Confederate Soldiers, who lie here. They died in defense of the rights of the South, in the war between the States, from 1861 to 1865. (West face):1876. In memory of men who with their lives vindicated the principles of 1776. (South face): Battles of the Valley of the Shenandoah. McDowell, Piedmont, Cross Keys, Port Republic, New Market, Cedar Creek, Kernstown, . . . — Map (db m16487) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Court Square & SpringhouseTemporary Prison Camp
During the Civil War, a road (Market Street) ran east and west through the courthouse square, dividing it roughly in half. The courthouse occupied the northern portion while the jail, clerk’s office, and springhouse were in the southern section. Plank fences surrounded both yards. These enclosures occasionally were used as holding pens for prisoners during the conflict. After the First Battle of Winchester on May 25, 1862, Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson confined about 2,000 . . . — Map (db m16482) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Hardesty-Higgins HouseBanks's Headquarters
This was the home of Harrisonburg’s first mayor, Isaac Hardesty, an apothecary. Elected in 1849, Hardesty served until 1860. His Unionist sympathies compelled him to leave for Maryland after the Civil War began. Early in the first week of May 1862, Union Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks established his headquarters here while attempting to locate Confederate forces under Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson and Gen. Richard S. Ewell. Banks telegraphed Washington several times during his stay . . . — Map (db m41496) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — A-33 — Harrisonburg
Here Thomas Harrison and wife deeded land for the Rockingham County public buildings, August 5, 1779. The same act established both Louisville, Ky., and Harrisonburg, May, 1780. Named for its founder, the town was also known as Rocktown. It was incorporated in 1849. In its vicinity battles were fought in 1862 and 1864. The present courthouse was built in 1897. Harrisonburg became a city in 1916. — Map (db m16484) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Rockingham County World War I Memorial
They Tasted Death In Youth That Liberty Might Grow Old To commemorate those who, at the call of country, left all, endured hardships, faced danger, and finally passed out of sight of men by the path of duty, giving up their lives that others might live in freedom. A list of 49 names of men from Harrisonburg and Rockingham County who died in service during World War I. Map (db m86489) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — The Woodbine Cemetery
The Woodbine Cemetery Company, Incorporated March 19, 1850 1877 These gates are erected in memory of the officers and members of the Woodbine Society, who gave generously of their time and means to beautify this cemetery, where they now rest from their labors. 1915 — Map (db m16486) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — Warren-Sipe HouseHome and Hospital
This was the home of Edward T.H. Warren, a Harrisonburg attorney. As a lieutenant in the Valley Guards, a Rockingham County militia company, Warren attended the trial and execution of John Brown in Charles Town (in present-day West Virginia) in 1859. Warren was elected a town councilman in 1860, but soon left for the war. His former militia unit became Co. G in the 10th Virginia Infantry, which he helped form. He was commissioned lieutenant colonel on July 1, 1861, and commanded the regiment . . . — Map (db m41497) HM
Virginia, Harrisonburg — 30A — Where Ashby Fell
A mile and a half east of this point, Turner Ashby, Stonewall Jackson’s cavalry commander, was killed, June 6, 1862, while opposing Fremont’s advance. — Map (db m16488) HM
Virginia, Lexington — Jackson's Garden
This backyard kitchen garden provided the household with a variety of flowers, fruit and vegetables. Major Jackson reported in an 1860 letter that the garden included, “lima beans, snap beans, carrots, parsnips, salsify, onions, cabbage, turnips, beets, potatoes, and some inferior muskmelons.” By using a cold frame or hotbed to protect tender plants from frost, Major Jackson could extend the growing season. This practice helped insure a diet of fresh produce for much of the year. . . . — Map (db m15640) HM
Virginia, Lexington — Lt. Gen. Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson 1824-1863
Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson is best known for his leadership of Confederate troops during the American Civil War, and especially for his celebrated Valley Campaign of 1862. Thomas Jackson was a country boy from (West) Virginia who became a graduate of the United States Military Academy and a hero of the Mexican War. In 1851 Major Jackson came to Lexington to teach Natural Philosophy at the Virginia Military Institute. Jackson left Lexington in April 1861, at the outbreak of war, . . . — Map (db m15637) HM
Virginia, Lexington — Rockaway
A rockaway is a low, four wheeled pleasure carriage with a standing top, open at the sides. It is named for the town of Rockaway, New jersey, where they were originally made. Jackson probably bought his rockaway in 1859, possibly from the local carriage dealer in Lexington. His wife wrote in her memoirs, “Upon a visit from my mother to us, he went out and, unexpected to me, bought a rockaway, saying she was not strong enough to walk all over town, and he wanted her to see and enjoy . . . — Map (db m15641) HM
Virginia, Lexington — The Stonewall Jackson House
This typical Federal-style town house, with a later stone addition, was the home of Thomas Jonathan Jackson and his wife, Mary Anna. They lived here with five of their six slaves before the Civil War. After her husband’s death in 1863, Mrs. Jackson kept the house as a rental property until 1906. She sold it to the United Daughters of the Confederacy for use as a community hospital. The house served as Stonewall Jackson Memorial Hospital for nearly fifty years and underwent many changes . . . — Map (db m15638) HM
Virginia, Lynchburg — Spring Hill CemeteryConfederate Generals Rest — Battle of Lynchburg
During the Battle of Lynchburg on June 17-18, 1864, Confederate Gen. Jubal A. Early moved his reserves into the cemetery to reinforce his lines across the Lynchburg-Salem Turnpike (Fort Ave.) at Fort Early. Before dawn on Sunday, June 19, these troops marched forward into the lines to the right of Fort Early, but by then the Union army had retreated. Organized in 1852, Spring Hill Cemetery was designed by John Notman of Philadelphia, noted for Laurel Hill Cemetery in that city and Richmond’s . . . — Map (db m3936) HM
Virginia, Staunton — Augusta County Confederates Plaque
This Bronze Commemorates, To Generations Which Knew Then Not, The Virginia Volunteers From Augusta In The Army Of The Confederate States. Twenty-Two Companies From Here Followed By Jackson And Stuart, With Many In Other Commands. No Rebels They, But Worthy Sons Of Patriotic Sites, Who Took Arms In The Hour Of Their State’s Extremity, When Argument For Peace Was Ended, To Defend The Soil, The Homes And The Consti- Tutional Rights Won By Their Fathers. The World Has Seen . . . — Map (db m16790) HM
Virginia, Staunton — Augusta County World War I Memorial Tablet
In Honor Of The Men And Women Of Staunton And Augusta County Who Served Their Country In The World War 1914-1918 The Unreturning Brave… They Give New Splendor to The Dead [Roll of the Dead follows] The Right Is More Precious Than Peace Erected November 11, 1921 Beverley Manor Chapter D.A.R. — Map (db m35752) HM
Virginia, Staunton — A-61 — Birthplace of Woodrow WilsonU.S. President 1913–21
Three and one half miles south, on Coalter Street in Staunton, is the birthplace of Thomas Woodrow Wilson, 8th Virginia-born President. New Jersey Governor, 28th President (World War I). He was chief author and sponsor of the League of Nations. Born Dec 28, 1856, died in Washington, Feb 3, 1924. The birthplace is maintained as an historic shrine. — Map (db m12363) HM
Virginia, Staunton — Confederate Dead Monument - Thornrose Cemetery
West Panel: Honor to the Brave 870 Lie Here Recorded by Name, Company & Regiment: From Virginia 385, N. Carolina 176, S. Carolina 59, Georgia 208, Alabama 49, Florida 8, Mississippi 11, Louisiana 19, Tennessee 12, Arkansas 20, Texas 3, And 207 Recorded by Name Only Confederate Dead South Panel: “There is True Glory and a True Honor The Glory of Duty Done, The Honor of the Integrity of Principle” Robert E. Lee North Panel: Weigh Not . . . — Map (db m53666) HM
Virginia, Staunton — I-17 — Mary Baldwin College
The oldest college for women related to the Presbyterian Church, U. S. Founded 1842 by Rufus W. Bailey as Augusta Female Seminary; renamed in 1895 to honor Mary Julia Baldwin, pioneer woman educator and Principal, 1863–1897. — Map (db m12366) HM
Virginia, Staunton — StauntonVital Link — 1864 Valley Campaigns
Near this site on April 17, 1861, approximately one hundred local citizens, many of whom had just enlisted in The Staunton Artillery, met to board trains for Harpers Ferry. They were led by prominent local citizen John D. Imboden, who would remain an active figure throughout the war during which he served as a Confederate General. This neighborhood was the commercial heart of Staunton, with numerous warehouses and factories located close to the railroad station of the Virginia Central . . . — Map (db m16436) HM
Virginia, Staunton — I-21 — Stuart Hall
Chartered on 13 January 1744 as the Virginia Female Institute, Stuart Hall is Virginia’s oldest college preparatory school for girls. The Rev. Dr. Richard H. Phillips headed the school from 1848 until 1880. Flora Cooke Stuart, “Mrs. General” J.E.B. Stuart, for whom the school was renamed in 1807, was principal from 1880 until 1899. Two of General Robert E. Lee’s daughters attended Stuart Hall, and Lee served as president of the school’s board of visitors from 1865 until 1870. — Map (db m12372) HM
Virginia, Staunton — The Barger HouseThe War's Lasting Effects
Relocated from its original site approximately fifty miles to the south on Little Patterson’s Creek in Botetourt County, Virginia, the Barger home, immediately in front of you, is an operational pre-Civil War farmstead from the Valley of Virginia. It is representative of the average agricultural livelihoods of common soldiers and noncombatant farmers in this region. Because of his age, John Barger did not serve in the war, but two of his sons and a brother did fight for the Confederacy. His . . . — Map (db m16653) HM
Virginia, Staunton — I-16 — The Virginia School for the Deaf and the BlindFounded 1839
A state residential school created by an act of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia on March 31, 1838 for the purpose of educating the deaf and the blind children of the state. — Map (db m11797) HM
Virginia, Staunton — The Wesleyan Female Institute
The Wesleyan Female Institute stood on this site from 1850–1870. — Map (db m11803) HM
Virginia, Staunton — United States National Military Cemetery - Staunton
United States National Military Cemetery Staunton. Established 1867. Internments 753. Known 232. Unknown 521. — Map (db m16786) HM
Virginia, Waynesboro — Plumb HouseThe Valley is Lost — 1864 Campaigns
The Plumb House was built between 1802 and 1806 on what was then the western edge of Waynesboro. While fighting did not occur here until late in the war, the community felt its impact early on. Henry Plumb, who lived here, was mortally wounded at the First Battle of Manassas and died in July 1861. Stonewall Jackson’s army passed through Waynesboro by train on its way to the Battle of McDowell early in his famous Valley Campaign of 1862. Confederate successes during that year left Waynesboro . . . — Map (db m16649) HM
Virginia, Waynesboro — William H. Harman Monument
William H. Harman Colonel, C.S.A. Born Feb. 17, 1828 Killed in action at Waynesboro Mar 2, 1865. He was a lieutenant of a com- pany from Augusta County in the Mexican War; after- wards Brig. General in the Virginia Militia; appointed Lieut Col. 5th Virginia Inft. C.S.A. May 7, 1861; Col. and A.D.C. on staff of Maj. Gen- eral Edward Johnson. May 17, 1862. A Gallant Soldier. — Map (db m16645) HM
Virginia, Winchester — Loyal Quaker and Brave SlaveRebecca Wright and Thomas Laws
In September 1864, U.S. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan heard rumors that Confederate forces had left the Shenandoah Valley to rejoin Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army at Petersburg. Wanting to confirm this information before attacking Gen. Jubal A. Early’s army, Sheridan concocted a dangerous and intriguing scheme. He had learned that a loyal Quaker named Rebecca Wright lived in Winchester on this site. Also, a slave named Thomas Laws often passed through Confederate lines to sell vegetables in town. On . . . — Map (db m46960) HM
Virginia (Albemarle County), Charlottesville — Albemarle Barracks Burial Site
"In 1779 4,000 prisoners, British and their German auxiliaries, captured at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, marched over 600 miles to quarters, called 'The Barracks', situated a half mile north of this site. Traditionally, some of these prisoners who died were buried near this memorial marker, which was placed here by the Albemarle County Historical Society in 1983 to mark the presence of the British and 'Hessian' prisoners during our American War of Independence." — Map (db m37586) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Churchville — W-156 — James Edward Hanger
Born near Churchville on 25 Feb. 1843, Hanger joined the Churchville Cavalry at Phillipi, W.Va., on 2 June 1861, where the next morning he was wounded. The resulting amputation of his leg was probably the first of the Civil War. He convalesced at his parents' house, which stood nearby. Within three months he had invented the first artificial limb modeled on the human leg and hinged at the knee. Hanger constructed factories in Staunton and France and England. On 15 June 1919 he died and was buried in Washington, D.C., his home since 1906. — Map (db m15905) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Dooms — JD-14 — Jarman's Gap
Five miles east, formerly known as Woods’ Gap. Michael Woods, his three sons and three Wallace sons-in-law (Andrew, Peter, William), coming from Pennsylvania via Shenandoah Valley, crossed through this pass into Albemarle County in 1734 – pioneers in settling this section. In 1780-81 British prisoners taken at Saratoga went through this gap en route to Winchester. In June 1862 part of Jackson’s army, moving to join Lee at Richmond, used this passage — Map (db m16644) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Fishersville — W-155 — Tinkling Spring Church
This was first the Southern Branch of the “Triple Forks of Shenandoah” Congregation, which called John Craig as pastor in 1741. A church was completed here about 1748; two other buildings have succeeded it. Beginning with 1777, James Waddel, the noted blind preacher, was supply for some years. R.L. Dabney, of Stonewall Jackson’s staff, was the minister here, 1847-1852. — Map (db m16437) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Mount Solon — D 40 — Mossy Creek
Colonists first settled Mossy Creek in the 1740s. Mossy Creek Iron Works was founded by 1775, when partners Henry Miller and Mark Bird began operating an iron furnace, forge, and mills here. The ironworks became an important industrial enterprise and produced pig iron and finished pieces that were sold throughout western Virginia. Bird sold his interest in the ironworks to Miller in 1779. A community grew up around the ironworks, which likely ceased operation during the Civil War. By 1852 the . . . — Map (db m1841) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), Swoope — West ViewConfederate Camps — 1862 Valley Campaign
In 1862, West View was a village of about 15 buildings including a flour mill, post office, store, wagon shop and saw mills. About 3,000 soldiers camped in the surrounding fields from April 20 to May 6. Confederates under Gen. Edward “Alleghany” Johnson withdrew to this area in April 1862, after they abandoned Camp Allegheny, 58 miles west of here at the present-day West Virginia border. Federals under Gen. Robert Milroy followed Johnson on the Staunton-to-Parkersburg Turnpike, . . . — Map (db m15788) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “… to go wee did not know where”
On April 20, 1862, the Confederate garrison left Fort Johnson to protect Staunton, and to avoid being cut off from the rear by another advancing Union Army. Lt. Pryor describes the retreat from the mountain. Camp at Westview, 7 mil N, Of Staunton My Dear Penelope, I take the opportunity this morning to let you know what weev been doing since I last wrote you. Wee were lying quietly at Camp Shenandoah. Gen. Jackson dispatched to Gen. Johnson to meet him at Harrisonburg. Johnson went in 6 . . . — Map (db m16783) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “It was cold business”
February 23, 1862 My Dear Penelope, I write a few lines this morning to let you know that I am well & doing as well as I have since Iv been in the service. Well, Dear, wee had an alarm Friday knight about two oclock, and the way wee got around quick untwill we were all way ready was a site. The regiment formed & was ready in ten minutes. March up to the intrenchments, got in the ditches and they were hald full of snow. It was cold business, sure. I marked time for three hours to keep my . . . — Map (db m16776) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “We had a hardscrabble up…”
Union forces now occupied Fort Johnson and were moving to capture Staunton. “Stonewall” Jackson, moving with speed and secrecy, had arrived at the foot of Shenandoah Mountain and moved west to defeat Union Generals John C. Fremont and R.H. Milroy at the Battle of McDowell two days later on May 9, 1862. Major Jedediah Hotchkiss, Jackson’s mapmaker, tells how he led an attack on Fort Johnson up the steep slopes below it: Wednesday, May 7th. The General and part of the staff . . . — Map (db m16784) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “Wee are faring badly…”
Camp Shenandoah April 9th, 1862 My Dear Penelope, I take the opportunity this morning to write you a few lines to let you know that I am yet in the land of the living and enjoying good health. I thought last week that it was done snowing up here, but wee are now having an awful time certain. The citazens say this is about the last snow that will be here this spring. It is sleeting now fast & sleet is about 4 inches deep now. Wee are faring badly now in tents, I assure you. Cant stay by the . . . — Map (db m16777) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — “Wee are now looking out for a fight…”
Camp Shenandoah April 18th, 1862 My Dear Penelope, I take the opportunity this evening to write you a few lines to let you know that I am yet in the land of the living &, thank God, enjoying good health. Wee are now looking out for a fight here; wee had yesterday morning an alarm. Wee had to march up to the top of the mountain about ten oclock – it was quite warm – it is four miles, I think. I never suffered so much with heat before in my life. They on the top have a signal when . . . — Map (db m16781) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — W 149 — Fort Edward Johnson
Confederate troops, the remnant of the Army of the Northwest commanded by Brig. Gen. Edward “Allegheny” Johnson, constructed this fortification about 1 Apr. 1862 to protect the Shenandoah Valley, the “Breadbasket of the Confederacy.” Federal troops briefly occupied the fort after he withdrew to West View near Staunton later that month. With Maj. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s Army of the Shenandoah, Johnson’s command confronted Union forces under Brig. . . . — Map (db m15791) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — Healing the Wounds
After surviving the Battle of McDowell, in which he lost many comrades, Lt. “Shep” Pryor was later wounded in battle near Culpepper, Virginia. He survived the war, returned to his beloved Penelope, and became Sheriff of Sumter County, Georgia. Lt. Pryor died on May 2, 1911 at the age of 82. The 12th Georgia Volunteer Infantry fought with honor in Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign and then moved on to fight with the Army of Northern Virginia, General Early’s Shenandoah Valley . . . — Map (db m16785) HM
Virginia (Augusta County), West Augusta — Mountain HouseJackson's March — 1862 Valley Campaign
The Battle of McDowell began three miles to the southeast (near the intersection of Routes 629 and 716) when Confederates were fired upon by Union cavalry on May 7, 1862. After skirmishing, Federals rushed to the base camp here, sounding the alarm as they rode through. A Northern cavalryman wrote, “Our company was the only company in the fight. They were the furthest company out – five miles beyond Shenandoah Mountain. They were cut off by Johnson’s force, and the only way they had . . . — Map (db m62920) HM
Virginia (Culpeper County), Culpeper — 28th Regiment New York State Volunteer Infantry
28th Regt. New York State Volunteer Infantry 1st Brig. 1st Div. 12th Corps Army of the Potomac Organized at Albany, N.Y., May 18, 1861 in response to the first call for volunteers. Mustered into the United States service for two years, May 22, 1861. Ordered at once to the field. Serving in the Shenandoah Valley and Army of the Potomac under Generals Patterson, Banks, Pope, McClellan, Burnside, and Hooker - Total number enrolled, 1010 - Total casualties 488 - Mustered out at Lockport, N.Y. June . . . — Map (db m13459) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Middletown — Heater House
Probably built around 1800, this clapboard-covered log house was once the center of a prosperous 600 acre farm owned by Solomon and Caroline Wunder Heater. Although two of her sons died in Confederate service, Mrs. Heater, a native of Pennsylvania, was a Unionist and frequently provided shelter and supplies to the federals. Her loyalty was ultimately repaid by a 1901 federal grant for some wartime damages. Donated to the People of the United States by Candice and John Richards of Pennsylvania — Map (db m3334) HM
Virginia (Frederick County), Stephens City — A-12 — Stephens City
General David Hunter ordered the burning of this town on May 30, 1864; but Major Joseph Streans of the First New York Cavalry prevented it. — Map (db m580) HM
Virginia (Highland County), McDowell — Battle of McDowellConfederates Hold the High Ground — 1862 Valley Campaign
Beyond the ridge you are facing is Sitlington’s Hill. On the afternoon of May 8, 1862, Gen. Edward “Allegheny” Johnson directed two brigades of Confederate infantry to take position on the hill facing the Federals across Bull Pasture Creek in front of the village of McDowell. As the afternoon grew late, the Federals commanded by Gen. Robert H. Milroy, crossed the swollen Bull Pasture Creek using the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike bridge and advanced against the right of Johnson’s . . . — Map (db m62904) HM
Virginia (Highland County), McDowell — Commemorating The Battle Of McDowellMay 8, 1862
Federals in action 4000, killed and wounded 256. Confederates in action 2500, killed and wounded 498. Confederate Officers Killed Captains                     Lieutentants Samuel Dawson           John K. Goldwire William L. Furlow           William A. Massey John McMillan           William H. Turpin James W. Patterson           James T. Woodward All of the 12th Georgia Regiment Colonel S.P. Gibbons...           10th Virginia Regiment Captain J. Whitmore ...         . . . — Map (db m4283) HM
Virginia (Highland County), McDowell — W151 — Felix Hull House
This stately brick house was built about 1855 for Felix hull (ca. 1823-1861) in the Greek Revival style popular in the late antebellum period. During the Civil War, his widow, Eliza Mathews Hull, was living here on 7-8 May 1862 when the house was commandeered for headquarters by Union Brig. Gen. Robert H. Milroy and his superior, Brig. Gen. Robert C. Schenck. On 9 May, after the Battle of McDowell on Sitlington’s Hill just to the east, the victorious Maj. Gen. Thomas J’ “Stonewall” . . . — Map (db m16665) HM
Virginia (Highland County), McDowell — The Battle of McDowellMay 8, 1862
In the spring of 1862 Confederate fortunes seemed to have gone from bad to worse. Union forces had won several key battles in the West, while the U.S. Navy was establishing its coastal blockade and Major General George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac threatened Richmond. General Robert E. Lee, military advisor to President Jefferson Davis, ordered a diversion to prevent additional Union reinforcements from being sent against the Confederate capital. Lee ordered Major General Thomas J/. . . . — Map (db m16680) HM
Virginia (Highland County), McDowell — The Battle of McDowellConfederates Climb Sitlington's Hill
“… (The 31st Virginia] came close to the 3rd and saluted them, and called them by name, and proceeded with the slaughter.” Andrew Price, 3rd Virginia Most of Stonewall Jackson’s Confederates climbed Sitlington’s Hill through a ravine off to your left. During the battle, the 31st Virginia Infantry may have reached the crest using the trail you just climbed. These Confederates had been guarding the road leading to McDowell when they exchanged fire with the union 3rd Virginia . . . — Map (db m16683) HM
Virginia (Highland County), McDowell — The Battle of McDowellUnion Troops Attack Jackson
Major General Edward Johnson commanded the Confederates on the crest overlooking the town of McDowell. Johnson spread his line along the hilltop, anchoring his right flank on the knoll to your right. Stonewall Jackson remained in the valley below, directing troops to Johnson’s aid. The Union commanders, Brigadier Generals Robert S. Schenk and Robert H. Milroy, feared the Confederates would haul cannon to the crest and bombard their positions. On the afternoon of May 8, 1862, Milroy attacked the . . . — Map (db m16685) HM
Virginia (Highland County), McDowell — The Battle of McDowellHeart of the Battlefield — Elevation – 2,815 Feet
The Confederate 12th Georgia Infantry Regiment held this exposed crest overlooking McDowell. Milroy’s Union troops assaulted this hilltop from two directions – on the left and the right. The Confederates held their ground against repeated attacks and suffered heavy losses. The Confederates took position along the ridge behind you, making an exposed angle in the line. At 9 p.m., the Union troops abandoned the slopes below this point and retreated. Stonewall Jackson had won the first hard . . . — Map (db m16689) HM
Virginia (Highland County), McDowell — The Battle of McDowellMcDowell Battlefield Trail
“God blessed our arms with victory at McDowell yesterday...” The McDowell Battlefield Trail is a 1.5 -mile hike that will take you to the battleline on top of Sitlington’s Hill—the scene of heavy fighting on May 8, 1862. Sitlington’s Hill is a spur of Bull Pasture Mountain, so the climb is very steep and should be made with caution. The trail is marked by blue blazes on trees along the route. The hike takes approximately two hours for a round trip. — Map (db m62903) HM
Virginia (Highland County), McDowell — Village of McDowellBattle of McDowell — 1862 Valley Campaign
Union troops camped in the fields south of here between April 17, 1862, and the Battle of McDowell on May 8. They deployed artillery, including “two twelve pounders [that] were planted on the plateau in the read of [the church] so as to cover the bridge” over Bullpasture River. After the battle, wounded of both armies were cared for in the church. The dead were buried in its cemetery, across modern U.S. 250 (the old Staunton-to-Parkersburg Turnpike). The house of Confederate Capt. . . . — Map (db m62955) HM
Virginia (Highland County), Monterey — Highland County Confederate Monument
(Front):Erected by Highland Chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy 1918 (Back): To the Confederate Soldiers of Highland County A Loving Tribute to the Past, the Present, and the Future — Map (db m16663) HM
Virginia (Highland County), Monterey — Town of MontereyHeadquarters Town
Monterey was headquarters for Confederates during much of the 1861 Mountain Campaign and headquarters for Federals prior to the fighting at McDowell. In the winter of 1861-1862, skirmishing occurred across the county as the frontier between the armies shifted from Allegheny Mountain, on the modern state line, to West View in Augusta County. Union forces occupied Monterey on April 6, 1862. The town remained in Federal hands until after the Battle of McDowell, May 8, 1862. The Osborne . . . — Map (db m16660) HM
Virginia (Highland County), West Augusta — “... tolerable well fortified”
My Dear Penelope Wee are now tolerable well fortified; got 12 pieces of cannon and places all fixed for the men to shoot from; that is, fortifications for cannon with openings to shoot through so the men can man the cannon and not be exposed to the enemy while doing it. Wee also have ditches for our infantry to get in so the enemy can’t use their long ranged guns to any advantage over our short ranged guns, for they cant hurt us untill they get as close as wee want them. Give my love to all. I am yours, Shep — Map (db m86203) HM
Virginia (Highland County), West Augusta — “The Shenandoah Mountain Pass is grand indeed…”
As “Stonewall” Jackson’s Army passed through the gap on their way down to McDowell, Virginia one soldier wrote: Tuesday 13th May 1862 I have been struck with the wild & mountain scenery. The Shenandoah Mt. Pass is grand indeed, you asend to the very top of the mountain & from there you see as far as the eyes can reach, Mtn. after Mtn. in every variety of shape & grandeur whilst away down below a little valley & stream with winding road, winding around from Mt. to Mt. to descend . . . — Map (db m16771) HM
Virginia (Highland County), West Augusta — Confederate Breastworks Interpretive Trail
You are standing in the middle of what was once Fort Edward Johnson. Confederate soldiers built this fort in 1862 under the command of Brigadier general Edward Johnson, a career officer from Virginia. Look to your right, and then left across the highway for what remains of the mile of trench and breastworks. They were built by Confederate soldiers to defend the Shenandoah Valley from an invasion by Union Troops marching from the west. In the early spring of 1862, this fort was garrisoned by . . . — Map (db m16772) HM
Virginia (Highland County), West Augusta — Fort Edward Johnson
On April 19, 1862, General Johnson, with General Lee’s approval, moved our regiment from Allegheny Mountain to Shenandoah Mountain. To protect ourselves from Yankee bullets, we dug about a mile of trench in this rocky ground. We then opened our field of fire by cutting down trees on the western slopes – the direction the Union Army was coming from. We made breastworks by first piling logs laid on the downhill side of the trench, and then piling dirt on the outside of the logs. Our . . . — Map (db m16775) HM
Virginia (Highland County), West Augusta — Welcome to Fort Edward Johnson
My name is Shepherd Green Pryor, but my friends and family call me “Shep.” I was elected First Lieutenant of the Muckalee Guards, Company A, 12th Regiment, Georgia Volunteer Infantry. We’ve just survived a cold Virginia winter on the top of Allegheny Mountain – a long way from our warm homes in Sumter County, Georgia. Walk with me on this 0.5-mile trail while I share with you my experiences guarding Fort Johnson during the spring of 1862. Through my letters home to my dear . . . — Map (db m16773) HM
Virginia (Loudoun County), Hillsboro — T 25 — Loudoun Heights Clash
Union Maj. Henry A. Cole’s 1st Maryland Cavalry was camped here on Loudoun Heights on 10 Jan. 1864 when Confederate Maj. John S. Mosby and Capt. Benjamin Franklin “Frank” Stringfellow attacked before dawn with about 100 mounted Partisan Rangers. In the darkness, Mosby mistook Stringfellow’s detachment for Federals and they exchanged fire. Cole’s troopers rallied, shooting at the Rangers, the only men on horseback. After heavy fighting the Rangers retreated toward Hillsboro. Mosby’s . . . — Map (db m1998) HM
Virginia (Page County), Grove Hill — Somerville HeightsA "most terrific fire from the enemy" — 1862 Valley Campaign
Early in May 1862, Gen. Stonewall Jackson moved most of his army east over the Blue Ridge toward Charlottesville, leaving Gen. Richard S. Ewell's division at Conrad's Store (present day Elkton) to hold the Federals in the Shenandoah Valley. The Union commanders suspected that Jackson was en route to Richmond. They did not know, however, that he had turned back on May 3 and four days later was west of Staunton. On May 8, he defeated Federal forces at the Battle of McDowell. During the period of . . . — Map (db m12086) HM
Virginia (Page County), Grove Hill — The Burning of Red BridgeThe "Last Straw" Between Jackson and Ashby — 1862 Valley Campaign
Nearly a month after the battle of Kernstown, Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's command had worked its way south "up" the Valley to join Gen. Richard S. Ewell's division near Conrad's Store (Elkton). To secure this haven for reorganization, on April 19, 1862, Jackson dispatched his mapmaker Jedediah Hotchkiss, to burn the three bridges over the South Fork of the Shenandoah River in Page County. From the onset, Hotchkiss' chore was plagued with problems. In addition to heavy rains, a number . . . — Map (db m12085) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — Calendine
Calendine was built in the early 1850s by Townsend Young. The adjacent one story building served as a general store and stage stop on the Sperryville-New Market turnpike. The store was also a social gathering place for exchange of news and gossip. Calendine was one the home of sculptor Herbert Barbee (1848-1936) who used the store as a studio. Mr. Barbee may be best known for creating the Confederate Monument located on East main St., Luray. Purchased by Page County Heritage Association in . . . — Map (db m16642) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — C-3 — Cavalry Engagement
In mid-June 1862, after Maj. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley campaign, Brig. Gen. Beverly H. Robertson’s cavalry screened from Union observation Jackson’s movement east to join the Army of Northern Virginia near Richmond. Robertson posted two companies of cavalry here, half a mile north of Luray. On 29 June, a Federal reconnaissance force of Maine, Michigan, and Vermont cavalry rode south from Front Royal to locate Jackson. About 9:00 A.M. on 30 June, the . . . — Map (db m591) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — Confederate Heroes Monument
(Left Side):Would it not be a blame for us if their memories part from our land & heart and a wrong to them & a shame for us the glories they won shall not wane for us in legend & lay our heroes in gray shall forever live over again for us. Ryan (Back):To the heroes both private and chief of the Southern Confederacy is this tribute affectionately inscribed. (Right):Glory Crowned 1861 - 1865. — Map (db m16457) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — Fisher’s Hill and Yager’s Mill“We would have captured the entire rebel army.” — 1864 Valley Campaigns
In September 1864, Union Gen. Philip H. Sheridan detached two cavalry divisions under Gen. Alfred T. A. Torbert to move into the Page Valley. While the bulk of Sheridan’s army would strike Gen. Jubal A. Early’s Confederates at Fisher’s Hill, Torbert was to cross Massanutten Mountain and cut off Early’s avenue of retreat. This maneuver first met resistance from well-entrenched Confederate cavalry at Milford (present-day Overall) on September 22. Unsuccessful at breaking the line, Torbert . . . — Map (db m801) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — Mauck Meeting House
Built for religious purposes by the “Neighbors”, mainly Mennonites from Switzerland and southern Germany. The outside of the one log walls were covered in 1851 with white weatherboards and the structure was roofed with chestnut shingles. A central heating chimney and tin roof were installed later. Heat was provided by a large six-plate stove made at the local iron furnace and inscribed D. Pennebacker – 1799. Early Mennonite ministers were john Roads; Martin, David and . . . — Map (db m16643) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — Pass Run and Thornton GapBetween Campaigns — Gettysburg Campaign
Nearly three weeks after the Battle of Gettysburg, and in the wake of a sharp fight near Front Royal at Wapping Heights (Manassas Gap) on July 23, 1863, Confederate troops from Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s corps withdrew to the Page Valley. On July 25, Gen. Robert E. Rodes’ division camped near Bethlehem Lutheran Church (otherwise known as Brick Church) and along Pass Run. Gen. Edward “Allegheny” Johnson’s division camped near Rodes, while Gen. Jubal A. Early’s division spent the night . . . — Map (db m13111) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — The Chapman-Ruffner HouseBoyhood Home of the “Fighting Chapmans” — Mosby's Confederacy
Immigrant Peter Ruffner built this house about 1739. Before the Civil War, William A. Chapman bought it, and three sons reared here later fought for the Confederacy. For their exploits as members of Col. John S. Mosby’s Rangers, two of them, Lt. Col. William Henry Chapman and Capt. Samuel Chapman, became known as the “Fighting Chapmans.” After the war began, they and their brother Edmond Gaines Chapman served in the local Dixie Artillery. When it disbanded in October 1862, they . . . — Map (db m17210) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — White House BridgeCritical Crossing — 1862 Valley Campaign
On May 21, 1862. Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s Valley Army plodded north along this road to threaten Front Royal and out flank Union Gen. Nathaniel Bank’s position at Strasburg. With the addition of Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s division, Jackson’s command numbered nearly 17,000 men and 50 guns. Philip Kauffman, a young man at the time, remembered the Confederates as they crossed the Shenandoah River on the White House Bridge and: “...Stonewall himself . . . — Map (db m799) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — White House Ferry
Operated from 1870–1910 about ¼ mile north of U.S. 211 over the South Fork of the Shenandoah River with its approach road close to the existing White House. You can easily see the White House, on the east side of the river, as you drive to the west. A cable ferry 10 feet wide by 20 feet long pulled back and forth by four horse teams. Fares: “Man and horse, 25 cents. Man or a horse alone 12½ cents, except as to the present or any future post rider, who shall pay for . . . — Map (db m573) HM
Virginia (Page County), Luray — Willow Grove MillBurning the Bread Basket
On October 2, 1864, elements of the 2nd U.S. Cavalry Division under Col. William H. Powell reached this area near Luray and quickly laid waste to the Willow Grove Mill. Amanda Moore, wife of the mill’s owner, later recalled, "We had the Mill, Saw Mill, barn ... and all the stabling, granary, corn crib, and everything burnt ... the barns were full of wheat and also there was a great deal in the Mill.” In addition to Willow Grove, several other flour mills, barns, sawmills, stables, . . . — Map (db m11034) HM
Virginia (Page County), Shenandoah — Catherine FurnaceUnderground Railroad for Union Soldiers
Built in 1846, Catherine Furnace was one of three Page County furnaces in operation during the Civil War. The 30-foot-tall main stack is nearly all that remains of the cold blast furnace and once-huge operation here, when 22,500 acres supplied wood for charcoal, iron ore, and limestone, and food. With labor scarce, local whites, free blacks and slaves worked here to furnish the Confederacy with pig iron. Wagons transported the pig iron to Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, the . . . — Map (db m15892) HM
Virginia (Page County), Shenandoah — J-95 — Execution of Summers and Koontz
On 22 May 1865, after the Civil War ended, Capt. George W. Summers, Sgt. I. Newton Koontz, and two other armed veterans of Co. D, 7th Virginia Cavalry, en route to obtain their paroles, robbed six Federal cavalrymen of their horses near Woodstock. The horses were returned the next day to the 192d Ohio Volunteer Infantry at Rude's Hill in Shenandoah County. Despite assurances that all was forgiven, Lt. Col. Cyrus Hussy, temporarily commanding the 192d, later ordered the men arrested at their . . . — Map (db m15902) HM
Virginia (Page County), Shenandoah — Shenandoah Iron WorksPage Valley Iron Industry
In 1836, brothers Daniel and Henry Forrer, in partnership with Samuel Gibbons, purchased land here for an ironworks and built a cold-blast furnace, called Furnace #1. Some 6,249 acres provided trees for charcoal, quarries and mines for limestone and ore, and crops to feed the workers. The Forrers later built Catherine Furnace near Newport and Pitt Springs and Furnace #2 on Naked Creek. Each furnace consumed an acre of wood per day for charcoal production to stay in blast. In September 1862, a . . . — Map (db m16641) HM
Virginia (Page County), Stanley — Graves’ ChapelJackson’s Last Glimpse of the Shenandoah Valley
On November 24, 1862, Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson moved through Page County toward Fisher’s Gap to rejoin the main body of the Army of Northern Virginia, then near Fredericksburg. Jackson was in command of the newly organized Second Corps, with more than 32,000 troops. Crossing the South Fork of the Shenandoah River at Columbia Bridge, the long columns of gray took nearly four days to move along the facing road (New Market-Gordonsville Turnpike) before exiting the Page . . . — Map (db m15896) HM
Virginia (Page County), Stanley — Jackson's Last Mountain Crossing
In November, 1862, Stonewall Jackson moved his 25,000 troops from Antietam to Fredericksburg. The army came through the deep notch (New Market Gap) in the first mountain range to the west (Massanutten Mountain). They followed the course of the Old Gordonsville Turnpike, which crossed the Shenandoah (Page) Valley, near the present town of Stanley, below here. They then struggled up and over the Blue Ridge, through Fishers Gap on your left and down the eastern slope to the Fredericksburg area. . . . — Map (db m13184) HM
Virginia (Page County), Stanley — Stonewall Jackson's Marches
The Shenandoah Valley below was the scene of much of Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's activity, during the first two years of the Civil War. His swift and secret marches earned his troops the name of "foot cavalry." Jackson's Valley Campaign supplied the lean Confederacy with captured materials of war. His victories resulted in many Union troops being withheld from the first sustained campaign against Richmond, for the defense of Washington, D.C. — Map (db m13183) HM
Virginia (Page County), Verbena — Shield's Advance & RetreatJackson Divides and Conquers — 1862 Valley Campaign
Having successfully driven Gen. Nathaniel Bank's Union army from the Shenadoah Valley in late May 1862, Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's "foot cavalry" had little time to reset. While one Union army under Gen. John C. Frémont was bearing down from the north, another under Gen. James Shields was passing toward the Page Valley. If Shields could move quickly enough to overtake Jackson's force in the main valley, he and Frémont could unite and attack with a superior force. Accordingly, Jackson . . . — Map (db m12079) HM
Virginia (Prince William County), Manassas — Honoring the Dead — First Battle of Manassas
Union Soldiers built Henry Hill Monument to commemorate those who died at First Bull Run (Manassas). For many Civil War veterans this had been their first battle. Intense memories drew both Union and Confederate soldiers back to this scene years after the war. — Map (db m33211) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Bridgewater — BridgewaterBridgewater During the War
The town of Bridgewater was a center of Confederate logistical activity during the Civil War. It also sent one company of infantry, the Bridgewater Grays, to the 10th Virginia Infantry Regiment, which fought in most of the major battles in Virginia as well as at Gettysburg. A Confederate remount station for cavalrymen from states other than Virginia was located a few blocks behind you. Confederate partisan ranger chief Capt. Charles Woodson of Missouri got mounts for his men here when they . . . — Map (db m16438) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Bridgewater — BridgewaterHistoric North River Crossing
After his victory at the Battle of McDowell on May 8, 1862, Gen. Stonewall Jackson made plans to attack another Federal force in the Shenandoah Valley. Earlier he had ordered Col. John D. Imboden to burn the bridges at Mount Crawford and Bridgewater to keep another union army from capturing Staunton while he fought in Highland County. When his army arrived here on Sunday, May 18, Capt. Claiborne Mason’s black pioneers were erecting a makeshift bridge using farm wagons parked in the river. . . . — Map (db m16439) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Bridgewater — Famous Travelers Along the Turnpike
In its 82 year history, the Warm Springs Turnpike was used by many noted travelers. Daniel Boone, when an old man, used the road when he visited the sons of his boyhood friend Henry Miller at Mossy Creek Ironworks to the south of Bridgewater. He spent about two weeks with younger Millers, hunting and recalling earlier times. Tradition says that Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay frequented Bridgewater inns on their travels between their homes in Tennessee and Kentucky, and Washington, D.C. . . . — Map (db m16485) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Broadway — Elder John Kline Monument
(Front of Monument):At This Place Eld John Kline Was Killed June 15, 1864 (Reverse of Monument):Erected in the Year 1914 In Memory of Elder John Kline A Peace Martyr This parcel of ground, 10 feet square, is se- cured by deed and is on record. — Map (db m15632) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysSlaughter of the 8th New York Infantry — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 8, 1862, during the Battle of Cross keys, Gen. Isaac R. Trimble’s Confederate brigade of a little more than 1,500 men occupied this line, a masked position behind a split-rail fence in what was then a wood line to your right and left. Shortly after noon, the 548-man-strong 8th New York Infantry of Gen. Julius Stahel’s brigade marched toward Trimble, but the regiment’s officers failed to put a skirmish line out front to locate the Southern position. Skirmishers from the 21st North . . . — Map (db m16191) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysImmigrant Soldiers — 1862 Valley Campaign
Many immigrants fought for the North and the South during the Civil War. Their numbers were especially high in Gen. Louis Blenker’s division of Gen. John C. Fremont’s union army at Cross Keys on June 8, 1862. Two Germans (Gen. Henry Bohlen and Col. John Koltes) and one Hungarian (Gen. Julius Stahel) commanded Blenker’s three brigades on this part of the field. Blenker and his lieutenants had been officers in European revolutions during the 1840s. German, Swiss, Irish, English, Italians, . . . — Map (db m16265) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysTrimble’s Ravine — 1862 Valley Campaign
On June 8, 1862, Confederate Gen. Isaac R, Trimble led part of the 15th Alabama Infantry Regiment through the then-swampy ravine in front of you to attack Union Gen. Louis Blenker’s division. Trimble intended to move around the 54th New York infantry Regiment on the rising ground beyond . he left the 21st Georgia Infantry, the 16th Mississippi Infantry, and the remaining portion of the 15th Alabama behind to make frontal assaults against the New Yorkers’ position. At about the same time, the . . . — Map (db m16267) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Battle of Cross KeysWalker’s Flank Attack — 1862 Valley Campaign
After repulsing the initial Union attack, Confederate Gen. Isaac R. Trimble’s brigade heavily engaged two brigades of Union Gen. Louis Blenker’s division near here on June 8, 1862. During the afternoon fighting, Col. James A. Walker’s demi-brigade consisting of the 13th and 25th Virginia infantry regiments reinforced Trimble. Walker marched his men along the Goods Mill Road on the Confederate rifght flank in an effort to move around the union forces facing Trimble. Walker’s first attempt to . . . — Map (db m16435) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — Mill Creek ChurchWar Strikes Peaceful Homes and Fields
This church, Mill Creek Church of the Brethren, stands on the site of an antebellum house of worship that, during the Battle of Cross Keys on June 8, 1862, was used as a hospital. Amputated arms and legs were dropped outside from a window and piled up until they finally reached the sill. Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson came here and asked a wounded staff officer about the progress of the battle. On September 30, 1864, this became the center of a wide area in which . . . — Map (db m16268) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Cross Keys — The Battle of Cross Keys“It was not in men to stand such fire as that.” — 1862 Valley Campaign
Following Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s victory at Winchester, Union troops pursued the Confederates south, “up” the Shenandoah Valley. While Gen. John C. Fremont advanced on the Valley Turnpike, another Union force, led by Gen. James Shields, pursued Jackson through the Page (Luray) Valley father east. Jackson took position at Port Republic, four miles east of you, to engage Shields, leaving Gen. Richard Ewell here at Cross Keys to hold back Fremont. Ewell . . . — Map (db m16187) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Dayton — Daniel Bowman Mill at Silver LakeShenandoah Valley Mills
During the Civil War, the Daniel Bowman Mill occupied this site, grinding wheat brought here by Rockingham County farmers. The county was part of the prosperous agricultural region known as the “breadbasket of the Confederacy.” It was no accident that the reaper was perfected in the Shenandoah Valley or that the largest flourmills in the world were constructed in Richmond to process Valley wheat harvests. The Shenandoah Valley’s agricultural success brought devastation to the . . . — Map (db m46125) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Dayton — DaytonDark Days in the Burnt District
In the fall of 1864, attacks by Confederate raiders and bushwhackers angered Federal officers in the Shenandoah Valley. On September 22, Union soldiers captured a hapless man named Davy Getz near Woodstock who was wearing civilian clothes and carrying a squirrel rifle. When Union Gen. George A. Custer ordered his execution as a bushwhacker, town elders pleaded with Custer for leniency, claiming that Getz had only the mind of a six-year-old. Custer ignored their pleas, and on October 1 or 2, . . . — Map (db m16440) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Dayton — D1 — Fort Harrison
Daniel Harrison settled about 1745 at the headwaters of Cook’s Creek where it is believed he built the stone portion of the present house. During the decades 1750-1770, when this area was the frontier of the colony, the house served the settlers as a refuge from Indian attacks. Subsequent owners added the brick portion and enlarged the windows and doors. The Harrison family had large land holdings in present Augusta and Rockingham counties. — Map (db m16441) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Elkton — Jennings HouseConfederate Hospital
1862 & 1864 Valley Campaigns. This eight-room brick dwelling was built in 1840 for Dr. Simeon B. Jennings, a former resident of Port Republic. At the time of the Civil War, it was one of only half a dozen houses located in the Conrad’s Store (present-day Elkton) community. On the evening of April 19, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson’s 6,000-man army marched by here and into a bivouac that stretched to Swift Run. After Jackson’s men departed on April 30, . . . — Map (db m2916) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Elkton — Miller-Argabright-Cover-Kite HouseStonewall Jackson’s Headquarters, April 19-30, 1862 — 1862 Valley Campaign
Less than a month after his defeat at Kernstown, Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson retired to the Elk Run Valley to rest his troops and plan for the spring campaign. With his men camped all along Elk Run and into Swift Run Gap, Jackson made his headquarters here in Elkton (then Conrad’s Store). Jackson used this house, then the residence of the widow of John Argabright. According to staff member Henry Kyd Douglas, Jackson’s room was empty of furniture except for a thin mattress on . . . — Map (db m2835) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Linville — KB 65 — Lincoln's Virginia Ancestors
In 1768, John Lincoln moved here with his family from Pennsylvania. His eldest son, Abraham, grandfather of the president, might have remained a Virginian had his friend and distant relative, Daniel Boone not encouraged him to migrate to Kentucky by 1782. Abraham’s son, Thomas Lincoln, born in Virginia (ca. in 1778), met and married Nancy Hanks in Kentucky, where the future president was born on 12 February 1809. Nearby stands the Lincoln house built about 1800 by Captain Jacob Lincoln, the . . . — Map (db m15634) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Port Republic — North River BridgeCovered bridge instrumental in Valley Campaign
The road seen across the river was the original route into the village from the north and west. Early visitors crossed North River by means of a ford, later a ferry, and finally a bridge. After the Civil War, four more bridges were built on approximately the same site; two of them destroyed by floods, two dismantled. In June 1862, near the end of his Valley Campaign, Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was being pursued by two Union forces, those of Gen. John Fremont on the . . . — Map (db m15792) HM
Virginia (Rockingham County), Port Republic — The Frank Kemper HouseThriving river community was transportation hub
When Virginia Governor Alexander Spotswood’s 1716 expedition first laid claim to the Shenandoah Valley, the area had already been used for centuries by Native Americans. The town of port Republic was laid off into lots and chartered by an 1802 act of the Virginia Assembly. John Cathrae, Jr., son of a colonial landowner here, platted the village whose layout has changed little in the ensuing years. By 1832, Port Republic had become a thriving industrial town and shipping port. The millraces . . . — Map (db m16634) HM
Virginia (Shenandoah County), New Market — Jackson’s 2nd Corps EstablishedStonewall Dons a New Uniform
Having remained with his command in the vicinity of Winchester since the Battle of Sharpsburg/Antietam, by November 22, 1862, Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson was again on the march. With more than 32,000 soldiers, Jackson’s force made its way up the snow-covered Shenan doah Valley toward New Market and then toward Columbia Bridge by way of this gap. On reaching a point atop Massanutten Mountain, sometime late in the evening on November 23, Jackson took the rare . . . — Map (db m16453) HM
Virginia (Shenandoah County), New Market — A-69 — Post-Appomattox Tragedy
On 22 May 1865, after the Civil War ended. Capt. George W. Summers, Sgt. I. Newton Koontz, and two other armed veterans of Co. D, 7th Virginia Cavalry, robbed six Federal cavalrymen of their horses near Woodstock. The horses were returned the next day to the 192d Ohio Volunteer Infantry at Rude’s Hill. Despite assurances that all was forgiven, Lt. Col. Cyrus Hussy, temporarily commanding the 192nd, later ordered the men arrested. The others escaped, but Summers and Koontz were shot without . . . — Map (db m15903) HM
Virginia (Shenandoah County), New Market — Rude’s HillKnoll of Refuge and Attack — 1864 Valley Campaign
The spring of 1864 opened with United States forces pressing Confederate armies defending fronts scattered throughout the Confederacy. Union Gen. Franz Sigel was assigned the task of securing the Shenandoah Valley; always one of the Civil War’s most hotly contested areas. On the last day of April 1864, Sigel, with 9,000 men and 28 guns, marched south from Martinsburg. By May 11, Sigel’s advance ran into Confederates posted at Rude’s Hill under the command of a Maryland Confederate, Capt. T. . . . — Map (db m17327) HM
Virginia (Shenandoah County), Strasburg — Samuel Kercheval17-- - 1845
Author of History of The Valley of Virginia 1st Edition Printed in Winchester 1833 Born Frederick County now Clarke County He is buried here in the Bowman Graveyard Harmony Hall This Plaque erected to his memory by the Shenandoah County Bicentennial Committee 1973 — Map (db m36723) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — The Gallant Pelham
The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia had no braver officer than Major John Pelham. Although just 24 years old, the blonde-haired, blue-eyed Alabamian had already proven himself on more than half a dozen battlefields in Maryland and Virginia. Pelham commanded General J.E.B. Stuart’s horse artillery. On December 13, 1862, as Union troops deployed on the plain south of Fredericksburg, Pelham received permission from Stuart to bring a single cannon to this intersection. From here, he fired . . . — Map (db m3821) HM
West Virginia (Berkeley County), Martinsburg — Baltimore and Ohio Roundhouse and Shop Complex
National Civil Engineering Landmark. The re-construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Roundhouse and Shop Complex commenced soon after the end of the American Civil War in 1865. This complex included two roundhouses and two significant shop buildings. The centerpiece of the railroad complex was the West Roundhouse, which can be seen in the immediate foreground. Roundhouse construction started in 1965 and was completed in 1966. The shop buildings, Bridge and Machine Shop and Frog and . . . — Map (db m17373) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Harpers Ferry National Historical Park
(First Panel): Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is the story of... Industrial Development and the production of weapons at the Harpers Ferry armory. John Brown's Raid and his attempt to end slavery. The Civil War with Union and Confederate armies fighting over this border area for four years. Black History from slavery to Storer College - chartered to educate men and women of all races, it became one of the first institutions of higher learning for Black Americans. Explore . . . — Map (db m19008) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Hayward Shepherd
On the night of October 16, 1859, Heyward Shepherd, and industrious and respected Colored freeman, was mortally wounded by John Brown's raiders in pursuance of his duties as an employee of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. He became the first victim of this attempted insurrection. This boulder is erected by the Daughters of the Confederacy and the Sons of Confederate Veterans as a memorial to Heyward Shepherd, exemplifying the character and faithfulness of thousands of Negroes who, . . . — Map (db m10482) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Harpers Ferry — Sweets for Harpers Ferry
The enticing smell of bread, cakes, candies, and pies undoubtedly attracted many customers to Frederick Roeder's Confectionery, making it a prosperous business from 1845 to 1861. In addition to his store, it is reported that he carried small pies to the train station to sell to hungry passengers before the days of dining cars. By 1856, Roeder was so successful that he enlarged this structure by one and a half stories, creating much needed space for his business and family of 7 children. . . . — Map (db m25151) HM
West Virginia (Jefferson County), Kearneysville — “The Bower”
Three miles west, on Opequon Creek, lived General Adam Stephen, 1754–1772. Original tract, with hunting lodge, was bought in 1750. The present mansion was built by Adam Stephen Dandridge, his grandson, in 1805. — Map (db m1746) HM
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