“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Frankfurt am Main in Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany

Frankfurt Romani Memorial

Frankfurt Romani Memorial Marker image. Click for full size.
By Andrew Ruppenstein, November 22, 2016
1. Frankfurt Romani Memorial Marker

Mehrere hunderttausend europäische Roma und Sinti wurden unter nationalsozialistischer Herrschaft ermordet. An über 20.000 deutschen Roma und Sinti wurden "rassenbiologische" Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Zwangssterilisation, Inhaftierung und Folter waren die Vorstufe des massenhaften Todes in den Konzentrations- und Vernichtungslagern der Nazis.

Von in Frankfurt am Main lebenden Roma und Sinti wurden: 172 Personen in "Zigeunerlagern" in der Diesel- und Kruppstrasse interniert,
8 Personen zwangssterilisiert,
174 Personen nach Auschwitz deportiert und
mindestens 89 Roma und Sinti dort ermordet.

Ab 1947 waren zwei maßgeblich an "rassenbiologischen Untersuchungen" beteiligte Personen, Robert Ritter und Eva Justin, im Stadtgesundheitsamt Frankfurt am Main in leitender Funktion beschäftigt. Sie wurden für ihre Verbrechen nicht zur Rechenschaft gezogen. Die beiden Namen stehen stellvertretend für diejenigen, die unter dem Deckmantel von Wissenschaft und Forschung oder durch Wegsehen und Schweigen den Völkermord an Roma und Sinti ermöglichten.

In Achtung vor den Opfern, als Erinnerung , Mahnung und Verpflichtung.

[English translation:]

Several hundred thousand European Roma and Sinti were murdered under National Socialist rule. More than 20,000 German
Frankfurt Romani Memorial Marker - Wide View, Looking West Along Braubachstrasse image. Click for full size.
By Andrew Ruppenstein, November 22, 2016
2. Frankfurt Romani Memorial Marker - Wide View, Looking West Along Braubachstrasse
Roma and Sinti were subjected to "racial biology" investigations. Forced sterilization, detention and torture were the precursors of mass death in the Nazi concentration and extermination camps.

Of the Roma and Sinti that were living in Frankfurt am Main, 172 persons were interned in "Gypsy camps" on the Dieselstrasse and Kruppstrasse, 8 persons were involuntarily sterilized, 174 persons were deported to Auschwitz, of which and at least 89 Roma and Sinti were murdered there.

From 1947, two persons involved in "racial biology", Robert Ritter and Eva Justin, were employed in the city health office in Frankfurt am Main. They were not held accountable for their crimes. The two names are representative of those who, under the cover of science and research, or who through averted gaze and silence, allowed the genocide of Roma and Sinti.

With respect for the victims, this is presented as a remembrance,as an admonition, and as an obligation.
Erected 2000.
Location. 50° 6.682′ N, 8° 40.992′ E. Marker is in Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, in Frankfurt. Marker is on Braubachstrasse just west of Kruggasse, on the right when traveling west. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: Braubachstrasse 22, Frankfurt am Main, Hessen 60311, Germany.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Joachim von Sandrart (1606 - 1688) (about 90 meters away, measured in a direct line); Friedrich Stoltze Geburtshaus / Birthplace (about 90 meters away); Johanna Kirchner (about 180 meters away); Staufermauer (approx. 0.4 kilometers away); Hauptwache / Main Guardhouse (approx. 0.4 kilometers away); Hotel Schwan (approx. half a kilometer away); Johann Wolfgang Textor (approx. half a kilometer away); Frankfurter Engel / Angel of Frankfurt (approx. 0.6 kilometers away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Frankfurt am Main.
More about this marker. The marker is located on the exterior of the building which formerly housed the Frankfurt health bureau.
Also see . . .
1. Porajmos (Wikipedia). The Romani genocide or Romani Holocaust, also known as the Porajmos...was the planned and attempted effort, often described as a genocide, during World War II by the government of Nazi Germany and its allies to exterminate the Romani (Gypsy) people of Europe. Under the rule of Adolf Hitler, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws was issued on 26 November 1935, defining Gypsies as "enemies of the race-based state", the same category as Jews. Thus, the fate of Roma in Europe in some ways paralleled that of the Jews. Historians estimate that 220,000 to 500,000 Romani were killed by the Nazis and their collaborators, or more than 25% of the slightly fewer than 1 million Roma in Europe at the time. Ian Hancock puts the death toll as high as 1.5 million. In 1982, West Germany formally recognized that genocide had been committed against the Romani.... (Submitted on December 7, 2016.) 

2. Gedenktafeln in Frankfurt am Main (Roma-Union Frankfurt). On a page detailing the Romani memorials in Frankfurt, the Roma-Union Frankfurt had this to say about the marker (in translation, follow the link for the original German): For more than ten years the Roma-Union Frankfurt fought against the resistance of Frankfurt authorities and political institutions for the installation of this marker at the city health office. This collective obstinacy was directed against a memorial plaque in the tourist center of the city: a plaque that would commemorate the victims and name the perpetrators of the National Socialist "gypsy" persecution and the institution where the so-called National Socialist "hereditary archives" were kept. In addition the plaque notes the continuity after 1945: the "racial biology" scientists of the Nazi persecution authorities, Robert Ritter and Eva Justin, found protection and employment at the Frankfurt health authority from 1947; their victims, the surviving Roma and Sinti, were to remain marginalized and subjected to racial scrutiny....Of central importance, this marker points to the other memorial sites of the National Socialist persecution of Romani that are located in the industrial areas on the outskirts of the city. (Submitted on December 7, 2016.) 

3. Dr. Robert Ritter: Racial Science and “Gypsies” (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The research of racial scientist Dr. Robert Ritter and his associates served both as instrument and justification for the Nazi regime to isolate and eventually destroy the German Gypsy population. By studying Gypsies, Ritter, who was a psychiatrist, hoped to determine the links between heredity and criminality.... (Submitted on December 7, 2016.) 
Categories. War, World II
Credits. This page was last revised on December 7, 2016. This page originally submitted on December 7, 2016, by Andrew Ruppenstein of Sacramento, California. This page has been viewed 149 times since then and 4 times this year. Photos:   1, 2. submitted on December 7, 2016, by Andrew Ruppenstein of Sacramento, California.
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