“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Chillicothe in Ross County, Ohio — The American Midwest (Great Lakes)

Banking Crisis of 1819

Banking Crisis of 1819 Marker (Side A) image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., December 21, 2008
1. Banking Crisis of 1819 Marker (Side A)
Inscription. [Marker Front]:
To provide direction and stability to the economy, Congress created the nation's largest lending agency in 1816, the Second Bank of the United States. Branch banks were established around the country, two of them in Ohio-Chillicothe and Cincinnati. The Chillicothe branch was located in a building on this site. The presence of these branches adversely affected the ability of state chartered and independent banks, which had long printed and lent their own money without the backing of species. When the Secretary of Treasury forced the state chartered and independent banks to redeem their notes in specie, at a time when a sharp recession hit the nation in 1819, a wave of protest arose from those connected with those banks. In February 1819, Ohio's General Assembly levied a tax of $50,000 on each of the two branch banks, and bank officers were given until September 1 to comply with the law.

[Marker Reverse]:
The state's new bank tax was to be collected by state auditor Ralph Osborn. If payment was refused, Osborn was authorized to search the bank under what has been termed the “crowbar law” and to seize sufficient money to pay the tax. Osborn hired John Harper to collect the tax in Chillicothe, and on September 17, 1819, with help from Chillicotheans Thomas Orr and James McCollister,
Banking Crisis of 1819 Marker (Side B ) image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., December 21, 2008
2. Banking Crisis of 1819 Marker (Side B )
Harper asked bank officials to comply. When they refused, the three men forced their way into the vault and carried off assets of more than $100,000. Ohio's bank tax, which involved the issue of state versus federal government rights was fought over until the Supreme Court, in the case Osborn v. Bank of the United States, decided in favor of the federal government. The 1824 landmark decision, which struck down Ohio's law, was significant as the nation moved further toward recognizing the power of the federal government.
Erected 2003 by Ohio Bicentennial Commission, The Longaberger Company, Chillicothe and Ross County 2003 Commission, and The Ohio Historical Society. (Marker Number 11-71.)
Marker series. This marker is included in the Ohio Historical Society / The Ohio History Connection marker series.
Location. 39° 20.08′ N, 82° 58.939′ W. Marker is in Chillicothe, Ohio, in Ross County. Marker is at the intersection of Paint Street and 2nd Street, on the right when traveling west on Paint Street. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Chillicothe OH 45601, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Site of Ohio's First Statehouse (about 500 feet away, measured in a direct line); The "Statehood Riots" / The Enabling Act 1802
Banking Crisis of 1819 Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., December 21, 2008
3. Banking Crisis of 1819 Marker
Looking west along Paint Street.
(about 500 feet away); Enderlin Civil War Memorial (about 500 feet away); Donald E. McHenry (about 500 feet away); Court House Renovation (about 500 feet away); Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Ohio (about 500 feet away); Ross County World War I Memorial (about 500 feet away); Cultural Influences of Chillicothe and Ross County (about 600 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Chillicothe.
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Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on December 23, 2008, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania. This page has been viewed 816 times since then and 2 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3. submitted on December 23, 2008, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania. • Kevin W. was the editor who published this page.
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