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Civil Rights Historical Markers

1909 markers matched your search criteria. The first 200 markers are listed. Next 1709
 
Old Merritt School Midway Community Center Marker image, Touch for more information
By David J Gaines, October 20, 2012
Old Merritt School Midway Community Center Marker
Alabama (Bullock County), Midway — Old Merritt School Midway Community Center
Margaret Elizabeth Merritt of Midway sold two acres for $5 to the state of Alabama in 1921 as a site for an elementary school for African-American children. Built in 1922 with matching Rosenwald funds, the Midway Colored Public School featured oak . . . — Map (db m60910) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 7 — Anniston Memorial Hospital — May 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
When seven injured "Freedom Riders" arrived at the Hospital on this date, the mob that had attacked them earlier in the day followed. The Riders were testing desegregation of public transportation in the South by riding buses. The bus they . . . — Map (db m106647) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 6 — Anniston Public Library Desegregation — September 15-16, 1963 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Desegregation of the Library began when two African American pastors, Reverends William B. McClain and Nimrod Q. Reynolds, peacefully attempted to enter the building on September 15, 1963. Their actions were endorsed by the city of Anniston . . . — Map (db m106644) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Freedom Riders
On May 14, 1961, a Greyhound bus left Atlanta, GA carrying among its passengers seven members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a.k.a. the “Freedom Riders,” on a journey to test interstate bus segregation. The bus was met by an . . . — Map (db m35737) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 3 — Greyhound Bus Station Protest, May 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Front This was the site of the Greyhound bus terminal where on May 14, 1961, a bus carrying black and white Civil Rights Activists known as "Freedom Riders" was attacked by a mob of whites who were protesting desegregation of public . . . — Map (db m106621) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Saint John United Methodist Church — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Saint John, founded at the turn of the 19th century, is the first African-American Methodist Episcopal Church in South Anniston. The original structure was built in 1922. The current building was erected in 1951 on the corner of D Street and . . . — Map (db m144905) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 9 — Seventeenth Street Missionary Baptist Church, Organized 1887 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Seventeenth Street Missionary Baptist Church served as the home of "mass meetings" for black Annistonians who planned and executed Anniston's part of the Civil Rights Movement. Reverends D.C. Washington (1937-1960) and Nimrod Q. Reynolds (1960-2008) . . . — Map (db m106651) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 1 — Southern Railway Station Attack — January 2, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Local "Jim Crow" laws in the first half of the 20th century enforced racial segregation in public transportation facilities throughout the South. The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Boynton v. Virginia (1960) upheld that segregation in these . . . — Map (db m106602) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 5 — The Human Relations Council — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
The Anniston City Commission, on May 16, 1963, established by resolution the Human Relations Council, consisting of five white men and four black men. The Council's purpose was to "make recommendations concerning human relations," and its members . . . — Map (db m106627) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 4 — The Murder of Willie Brewster, July 15, 1965 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Willie Brewster became the target of white extremists after words spoken at a National States Rights Party encouraged them to commit acts of violence against blacks. As Brewster drove home with co-workers from the night shift at Union Foundry, he . . . — Map (db m106626) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — Trailways Attack — Seeking Justice
1st Panel Two busloads of Freedom Riders arrived in Alabama on Sunday, May 14, 1961, bound for New Orleans. It was an organized effort by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to challenge the South's continued defiance of U. S. . . . — Map (db m106721) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 2 — Trailways Bus Station Attack — May 14, 1961 — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
Throughout the first half of the 20th century, race relations in the South were dominated by local "Jim Crow" laws. Although in 1960 the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation violated the Interstate Commerce Act, local laws persisted. . . . — Map (db m106605) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Anniston — 8 — West 15th Street Historic District — Anniston Civil Rights Trail —
This district was once the economic and social hub of Anniston's African American community. In its heyday (1940-1950), the District was a "city within a city," with businesses that catered to the black community. Grocery stores, restaurants, . . . — Map (db m106650) HM
Alabama (Clarke County), Grove Hill — Colored and White Soldiers of World War I
This is a replica of the original tablet from the 1924 World War I monument located in front of the Clarke County Courthouse. The monument was the first memorial ever erected to honor county war dead. It cost $1,650 and was paid for with . . . — Map (db m57385) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Howell Thomas Heflin — 1921~2005
Howell Thomas Heflin retired from a lifetime of distinguished public service in 1997, having served Alabama in the U.S. Senate for three consecutive terms. There he was known as a national leader on judicial, agricultural, defense, and space issues. . . . — Map (db m28586) HM
Alabama (Dale County), Ozark — D. A. Smith High School/ Professor D. A. Smith, Principal — Dale County
D. A. Smith High School Dale County The first school building on this site for African Americans was constructed in 1939 and was named Ozark Negro High School. It was replaced during the “separate but equal” period in 1952 and . . . — Map (db m132087) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — A Grassroots Movement — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
For centuries, Selma was a city where the rules of race were enforced by humiliation and fear. But Selma gave birth to one of the greatest grassroots campaigns in history—the voting rights movement. The Selma to Montgomery march was . . . — Map (db m112370) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — 'Bloody Sunday' Attack at Edmund Pettus Bridge / U.S. Congress Approves Voting Rights Act of 1965
Side 1 'Bloody Sunday' Attack at Edmund Pettus Bridge A voting registration campaign in 1965 turned tragic Feb. 17 when an Alabama state trooper fatally shot Jimmie Lee Jackson in Marion. It prompted a protest march from . . . — Map (db m81944) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
Brown A.M.E. Chapel (in front of you) served as a safe haven for supporters during the voting rights campaign. Pastor P.H. Lewis and his congregation courageously broke the injunction prohibiting African Americans from holding mass meetings, making . . . — Map (db m131995) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Campsite 1 — Selma to Montgomery Trail
Hall Farm March 21, 1965 — Map (db m61846) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Edmund Pettus Bridge — National Historic Landmark
Edmund Pettus Bridge has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance for its association with "Bloody Sunday," a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement. Here, on March 7, 1965, . . . — Map (db m82037) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — First Baptist Church — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
First Baptist was the first church in Selma to open its doors to members of the Dallas County Voters League as well as to young activists from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. From 1963 to 1965, under the leadership of Reverend M.C. . . . — Map (db m112366) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — George Washington Carver Homes Projects — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Street
In 1952, the City of Selma accepted federal funds to build the George Washington Carver Homes Projects. The residences became “The Face of the Civil Rights Movement” to many in the 1960s because Dr. King, the Southern Christian . . . — Map (db m112354) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — George Washington Carver Neighborhood — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
The George Washington Carver neighborhood served as base camp for the votings rights movement during the tumultuous weeks of March 1965. These blocks of brick two-story homes—the city's first and largest federal housing project for blacks, . . . — Map (db m112365) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Highlights of Selma History / William Rufus DeVane King 1786-1853
[Side A:] Highlights of Selma History Dallas County was created by Territorial Legislature Feb. 9, 1818. Selma Land Company formed Mar. 19, 1819 by George Phillips, William Rufus King, Jesse Beene, Gilbert Shearer and Caleb Tate. . . . — Map (db m37679) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Honoring: Amelia Boynton Robinson - Marie Foster
The Selma-Montgomery March "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965 Mothers of the Civil Rights Movement Before and Beyond the Bridge Didn't Let Nothing Turn Them Around! Presented by The Evelyn Gibson Lowery . . . — Map (db m111691) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — I Had A Dream — Dr. Martin L. King Jr.
The demonstration that led to the most important advance in civil rights for millions of Black Americans began here March 21, 1965. It was the 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, the State Capital. Defying threats of death, Dr. . . . — Map (db m83578) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — In Honor of James Joseph Reeb — 1927-1965 — “This Good Man” —
Rev. James J. Reeb, an Army Veteran and Unitarian minister from Casper, Wyoming, was working in Boston when Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. appealed for clergymen of all faiths to come to Selma to protest the violence that occurred at the Edmund Pettus . . . — Map (db m37683) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — In Memory of Reverend Hosea Williams, Sr.
Leader of The Selma-Montgomery March "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965 He Fed the Hungry "Unbossed and Unbought" 1926-2000 Presented by SCLC/W.O.M.E.N. Inc. Women's Organizational Movement for Equality . . . — Map (db m111689) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Lynching in America / Lynching in Selma
Lynching in America

Thousands of African Americans were victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between the Civil War and World War II. The lynching of African Americans during this era was a form of racial terrorism . . . — Map (db m132071) HM

Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — R.B. Hudson High School — Dallas County
This school was the city of Selma's first public high school for African-Americans. Completed in 1949, the school was named in honor of Richard Byron Hudson, a black educator who had served for 41 years as principal of Clark Elementary School, . . . — Map (db m82741) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Sanctuary to Stage — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
The shooting of Jimmie Lee Jackson in nearby Marion, Alabama, transformed Brown Chapel from a sanctuary into a staging area for the Selma march, In a passionate sermon SCLC worker James Bevel suggested making a pilgrimage to the State Capitol to . . . — Map (db m112364) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — St. Paul’s Episcopal Church Est. 1838
Side A The original church, built one block south of the present site, was consecrated in 1843 by Bishop Leonidas Polk. In 1861, the second Bishop of Alabama, the Rt. Rev. Richard H. Wilmer, was elected there. During the Battle of Selma, St. . . . — Map (db m37691) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Tabernacle Baptist Church — Dallas County
Side 1 In January 1885, Dr. Edward M. Brawley, President, Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School (now Selma University) formed Tabernacle Baptist Church to be an integral part of the students' Christian formation and education. . . . — Map (db m82034) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Tabernacle Baptist Church — Dallas County
Side 1 Tabernacle Baptist Church was founded in 1885, and in March of that year, the congregation purchased this site. Built in 1922 under the leadership of Dr. David Vivian Jemison, the current church features bricks from the original . . . — Map (db m83677) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — The Honorable John Lewis
Honoring: Leader of The Selma-Montgomery March "Bloody Sunday", March 7, 1965 "Get in the Way" "When We Pray, We Move Our Feet" Presented by: The Evelyn Gibson Lowery . . . — Map (db m111683) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — The Selma Movement — (The Beginning) / (The Prize)
[Side A:] (The Beginning) The major civil rights protest, which focused national attention on the issue of racial discrimination in voting & led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, was centered in Selma. In January . . . — Map (db m37662) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Selma — Turning Point — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
By early 1964, the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL) and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee's (SNCC) efforts to organize for voting rights had reached a turning point. In July 1964 Judge James Hare, pressured by Selma law enforcement to . . . — Map (db m112369) HM
Alabama (Henry County), Abbeville — Rosa Parks Lived Here
Front Civil rights pioneer Rosa McCauley Parks was born on February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. Shortly after her birth her parents James and Leona McCauley, moved here to a 260 acre farm owned by her grandparents, Anderson and Louisa . . . — Map (db m83758) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Paint Rock — The History of Paint Rock, Alabama / Paint Rock Arrests in 1931 Began 'Scottsboro Boys' Cases
(side 1) The History of Paint Rock, Alabama Originally Camden circa 1830, the post office was renamed Redman in 1846 and became Paint Rock on May 17, 1860. After the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Co. built a depot and water . . . — Map (db m69756) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Scottsboro — Jackson County Courthouse And The Scottsboro Boys
Marker front: Constructed in 1911-1912 and designed by architect Richard H. Hunt, the Jackson County Courthouse is a Neo-Classical, brick building situated on a town square in Scottsboro, the county seat of Jackson County. The front, . . . — Map (db m22264) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — "Peace Be Still" — Mark 4:39
On Palm Sunday, 1963 Rev. N. H. Smith, Rev. John T. Porter and Rev. A. D. King led a sympathy march from St. Paul United Methodist Church down 6th Avenue North in support of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth and Rev. Ralph . . . — Map (db m73023) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1963 Church Bombing Victims
This cemetery is the final resting place of three of the four young girls killed in the September 15, 1963 church bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church. Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley and Carol Robertson are buried here. The fourth victim, . . . — Map (db m61197) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4th Avenue District
The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor . . . — Map (db m26985) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Arthur D. Shores — "Dean of Black Lawyers in The State of Alabama."
During the first 30 years of his 54-year-old practice, Attorney Shores practiced all over the State of Alabama - from the Tennessee line to the Gulf of Mexico at Mobile Bay, and from the Mississippi borders to the Georgia limits. During the period . . . — Map (db m26720) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 14, 1961
On Mother's Day, May 14, 1961, a group of black and white CORE youth on a "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans arrived by bus at the Birmingham Greyhound terminal. They were riding through the deep south to test a court case, "Boynton . . . — Map (db m83809) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me
Leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) learned they could apply economic pressure to White businesses with more effective results than moral persuasion alone. Therefore, the central strategy of the Birmingham Campaign . . . — Map (db m73037) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Don't Tread on Me
1963 A female protestor remains defiant as police drag her away from a demonstration in Birmingham's nearby retail district. Activists in Birmingham--led for seven years by Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth before the 1963 Birmingham Campaign--put their . . . — Map (db m83814) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Born Jan. 15, 1929 Assassinated Apr. 4. 1968 "...yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major, say that I was a drum major for justice; say that I was a drum major for peace..." His dream liberated Birmingham from itself and began a . . . — Map (db m73007) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 8 — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to Birmingham in 1962. Shuttlesworth saw potential in the young minister, and their combined efforts were instrumental in Birmingham's desegregation. The campaign catapulted King into the . . . — Map (db m73031) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Dr. Ruth J. Jackson — 1898 - 1982
Dedicated to Dr. Ruth J. Jackson 1898-1982 This woman of strength and vision graduated from the Poro School of Cosmetology, the first black registered school in the State of Alabama. At the vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement, she was . . . — Map (db m27090) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — East Birmingham
Marker Front: Founded in 1886 on 600 acres of land, East Birmingham was the agricultural area consisting primarily of dairy farms extending to the present Birmingham airport. The East Birmingham Land Company that developed the area was . . . — Map (db m83827) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Emory Overton Jackson — 1908 - 1975
Emory Overton Jackson was born on September 8, 1908 in Buena Vista, Georgia to Will Burt and Lovie Jones Jackson. E. O. Jackson and his seven siblings were raised in the middle-class Birmingham enclave of Enon Ridge, located on the west side of town . . . — Map (db m64736) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Foot Soldier Tribute — Ronald S. McDowell, Artist I.B.J.C.
This sculpture is dedicated to the Foot Soldiers of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement. With gallantry, courage and great bravery they faced the violence of attack dogs, high powered water hoses, and bombings. They were the fodder in the . . . — Map (db m27394) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Fourth Avenue Historic District.
Marker front: Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the . . . — Map (db m83830) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 1 — Ground Zero
You are standing at Ground Zero of the 1963 civil rights struggle in Birmingham. When African-American leaders and citizens resolved to fight the oppression of a strictly segregated society, they were met with vitriol and violence despite their own . . . — Map (db m73015) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A1 — Jim Crow on the Books
The first march to City Hall was organized in 1955 by Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth when he petitioned the city to hire Negro policemen. By 1963, thousands of Blacks marched on City Hall to protest Jim Crow laws that were a constant reminder of Blacks' . . . — Map (db m73036) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 6 — Kneeling Ministers
Responsible for much planning and leadership, the clergy played a central role in the Birmingham Campaign--like the famous Palm Sunday incident in 1963 (see nearby plaque). Local clergy like Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth worked with out-of-town ministers, . . . — Map (db m73080) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — A3 — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
The central principle of the American Civil Rights Movement was non-violence, based on the strategies of Mahatma Gandhi, who led India's independence struggle against the British Empire. Being non-violent did not mean being passive. Using "direct . . . — Map (db m83833) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Non-Violent Foot Soldiers
Those who participated in the marches and other demonstrations in the Birmingham Campaign agreed to a pledge of nonviolence. A few of the "Ten Commandments" of the pledge were: "Meditate daily on the teaching and life of Jesus. Remember always that . . . — Map (db m83834) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Police Presence
May 1963 Helmeted police stand ready in Kelly Ingram Park outside the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, one of many strategic hubs from which "Project C" organizers launched marches. Police try to keep marchers away from City Hall, usually stopping . . . — Map (db m73032) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 5 — Reflecting Pool
Throughout May 1963, the pressure continued to build. The downtown business district was closed, a prominent black-owned motel was bombed, and 3,000 federal troops were dispatched to restore order before Birmingham was officially desegregated. This . . . — Map (db m73021) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 9 — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth
No one did more to bring about positive change in Birmingham than the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth. In his struggle for equal rights, he survived a series of assaults, including the bombing of his home and a brutal armed beating by the Ku Klux Klan. . . . — Map (db m73025) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth Bethel Baptist Church
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth's tenure as pastor of Bethel Baptist Church (1953-1961) was marked by demonstrations, bombings and passionate sermons critical of segregation laws. His activism earned him a house bombing, frequent beatings, arrests, and . . . — Map (db m83836) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Sixteenth Street Baptist Church
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church has been designated a National Historic Landmark This property possesses National Significance in commemorating the history of the United States. In 1963 it was the staging ground for the . . . — Map (db m63733) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 3 — The Children's Crusade
On May 2, 1963, more than 1,000 students skipped school and marched on downtown, gathering at the 16th Street Baptist Church. Bull Connor responded by jailing more than 600 children that day. So the next day, another 1,000 students filled the park . . . — Map (db m73017) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 2 — The Foot Soldiers
When notoriously racist police commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor sicced dogs on the "Foot Soldiers" of the movement, civil rights leaders hoped it would shine a national spotlight on their plight, but the country at large remained woefully ignorant. . . . — Map (db m73398) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — 4 — Water Cannons
Bull Connor ordered the fearless "Child Crusaders" to be blasted with high-pressure fire hoses, and he once again loosed the dogs on the young demonstrators. When the media finally exposed the nation to the cruel scene, President John F. Kennedy . . . — Map (db m73019) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Zion Memorial Gardens
Mt. Zion Baptist Church began burying here in the mid-1800s. On June 2, 1970, New Grace Hill Cemetery, Inc., a subsidiary of the Booker T. Washington Insurance Company in Birmingham, purchased this cemetery and officially named it Zion Memorial . . . — Map (db m35602) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Brighton — Lynching In America / The Lynching of William Miller
Side 1 Lynching In America Thousands of black people were the victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between 1877 and 1950. The lynching of African Americans during this era was a form of racial terrorism . . . — Map (db m101159) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Charles Lee Moore — City of Florence Walk of Honor
Recipient of 1989 of the first Kodak Award for Photojournalism, Charles Moore chronicled such major events as the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960's South, political violence in Haiti, and the air war in Vietnam. — Map (db m56376) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Dred Scott — (In Florence 1820 -1830)
Dred Scott, whose name is associated with the landmark U.S. Supreme Court Dred Scott Decision of 1857, was born in Virginia between 1795~1809. In 1818 he was in Madison County, Alabama. He came to Florence with the Peter Blow family in 1820. About . . . — Map (db m35183) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Florence — Henry S. "Hank" Klibanoff — City of Florence Walk of Honor
A keen observer and researcher of the Civil Rights Movement in the South, Hank Klibanoff won the Pulitzer Prize in 2007 for The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation. — Map (db m38643) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — Judge Thomas M. Peters
A scientist of national fame, Peters (1810-1888) lived for many years in Moulton with his wife Naomi (Leetch), a relative of President James K. Polk, who possibly visited here. A man of many talents, Peters was a noted linguist, early civil rights . . . — Map (db m69670) HM
Alabama (Lee County), Auburn — Desegregation at Auburn
The first African American student entered the library to register at Auburn University at this site. Acting on a court order, Auburn president Ralph Brown Draughon accepted the application of Harold Franklin as the first African American student in . . . — Map (db m90861) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), Hayneville — In Memory of Jonathan Myrick Daniels — VMI Class of 1961
Johnathan Daniels was murdered near this spot, then Cash's Store, on August 20, 1965.

He gave his life in the fight for integration of the churches and universal voter registration.

At the time, he was a divinity student at . . . — Map (db m147604) HM

Alabama (Lowndes County), Hayneville — Varner's Cash Store
On August 20, 1965, Jonathan Myrick Daniels, a 26-year-old Episcopal seminarian from Keene, New Hampshire, was shot dead at point blank range here. He was a graduate of Virginia Military Institute and was attending Episcopal Theological School, . . . — Map (db m147601) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Campsite 3 — Selma to Montgomery Trail
Robert Gardner Farm March 23, 1965 — Map (db m61847) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Elmore Bolling — May 10, 1908 - December 4, 1947
Lowndesboro, AL—Enraged whites, jealous over the business success of a Negro are believed to be the lynchers of Elmore Bolling. Bolling, 39, was found riddled with shot gun and pistol shots 150 yards from his general merchandise store. . . . — Map (db m85460) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), Lowndesboro — Viola Liuzzo
In memory of our sister Viola Liuzzo who gave her life in the struggle for the right to vote... March 25, 1965 Presented by SCLC/WOMEN Evelyn G. Lowery, National Convener - 1991 - The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Joseph E. . . . — Map (db m85461) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — A Price Paid — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
Threatened by the potential four-to-one advantage of the black vote, whites retaliated by ousting black families from white-owned lands. The African American families who lived here paid dearly to earn their right to vote. Crowded into canvas tents . . . — Map (db m112400) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — After the March—Tent City — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
Since the federal registrars came in August of 1965, thousands and thousands of Negroes have registered to vote. White plantation owners have retaliated by mass evictions. In December 1965, over forty families either left the county, moved in . . . — Map (db m112405) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Campsite 2 — Selma to Montgomery Trail
Rosie Steele Farm March 22, 1965 — Map (db m70954) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Day Two — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
Monday, March 22, 1965, on the second day of the Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March, protesters passed this site in late afternoon. At that time the four-lane highway in front of you was only two lanes, and for safety reasons the number of . . . — Map (db m112375) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — It Started in Selma — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
At times history and fate meet at a single time in a single place to shape a turning point in man's unending search for freedom. So it was at Lexington and Concord. So it was a century ago at Appomattox. So it was last week in Selma, Alabama. . . . — Map (db m112403) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Marchers, Supporters, Hecklers — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
While helicopters buzzed overhead, National Guard soldiers—ordered by President Lyndon Johnson to protect the marchers—lined U.S. Highway 80, alert to the potential of violence by angry whites. Marchers walked mile after tired mile, . . . — Map (db m112384) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — Mount Gillard Baptist Church
The roots of this house of worship date to 1868 when 26 African American members of Mount Gilead Church left to form their own congregation. The present building was constructed in 1901, with several enlargements and renovations throughout the . . . — Map (db m104068) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — No Isolated Incident — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
For African Americans in the 1960s, being kicked off white-owned lands for trying to register to vote no isolated incident. Just as had happened here in Lowndes County, blacks in Tennessee, Mississippi, and Greene County, Alabama, were driven from . . . — Map (db m112389) HM
Alabama (Lowndes County), White Hall — You Gotta Move — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
In December 1965, a city of tents appeared on this site. The temporary shelters were homes for evicted black sharecropper families. These farmers worked and lived their lives on white-owned farms in Lowndes County. But when they dared to register to . . . — Map (db m112371) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Shorter — Shorter, Alabama — A New Town in an Older Community
Shorter was originally called Cross Keys for the birthplace in South Carolina of an early settler, J.H. Howard. It was later named Shorter for former Alabama Governor John Gill Shorter. The town embodies the memories of the proud Creek Indian . . . — Map (db m85463) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 9 — "Trade With Your Friends" — The Tuskegee Boycott — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
In 1957, local government officials in Tuskegee, Alabama sought to gerrymander the city's limits in an attempt to diminish the number of black votes in upcoming elections. Alabama state senator Sam Engelhardt sponsored Act 140, which transformed . . . — Map (db m139876) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 7 — Area Churches That Hosted Important Civil Rights Meetings — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Churches within the African American community played an important role during the civil rights movement. They were places beyond control of white power structure, as well as locations where people could express themselves without reprisal. They . . . — Map (db m139884) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Brief History of Tuskegee, Alabama
Tuskegee consists of 80 square miles and is the county seat of Macon County, Alabama. Tuskegee rests in the heart of the rural Alabama Black Belt and is 40 miles east of Montgomery. Tuskegee was founded by General Thomas S. Woodward in 1833 after he . . . — Map (db m99679) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — Butler Chapel AME Zion Church
Before the mid-1960s, Tuskegee’s black population faced many challenges when attempting to register to vote. Furthermore, the State of Alabama redrew the town’s political boundaries in an effort to prevent registered blacks from voting in local . . . — Map (db m69048) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 13 — Mount Olive Missionary Baptist Church — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Mount Olive Missionary Baptist Church developed out of the Tuskegee Baptist Church, originally organized in 1842. Although both whites and blacks (slaves) initially worshipped at the same location, the white congregants built a new facility in 1858, . . . — Map (db m139880) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 10 — Rosa Parks — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (1913 – 2005) was an iconic activist during the mid twentieth century civil rights movement. Born in Tuskegee, Parks later moved with her mother to Pine Level located near Montgomery, Alabama. She was encouraged by . . . — Map (db m134670) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 12 — Samuel "Sammy" Leamon Younge, Jr. — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Samuel "Sammy" Leamon Younge, Jr. (1944-1966), a civil rights and voting rights activist, was the first African American university student killed during the civil rights movement. A Tuskegee native, Younge was attending Tuskegee University when . . . — Map (db m139875) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 11 — Tuskegee High School — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
In August of 1963, the United States District Court M. D. Alabama sided with the plaintiff in Lee v. Macon County Board of Education. This pivotal civil rights case involved the integration of, the all-white Tuskegee High School (located on . . . — Map (db m139878) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee — 8 — William P. Mitchell — (1912-1986) — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Following World War II, Tuskegee's black population began to grow, and many sought to register to vote. Perceiving a threat to their political power, white politicians tried to control the black vote through a variety of techniques. These actions . . . — Map (db m139877) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 1 — Amelia Boynton Robinson — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Amelia Boynton Robinson (1911 2015) was a voting rights activist and civil rights icon. Born on August 18, 1911, in Savannah, Georgia, she received her bachelor's degree in home economics from Tuskegee University in 1927. In 1934, Mrs. Boynton . . . — Map (db m139890) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 2 — Charles Goode Gomillion — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Charles Goode Gomillion (1900-1995) was born on April 1, 1900, in Johnston, South Carolina. He joined the faculty at Tuskegee University in 1928, where he served as dean of students and chair of the social sciences department. He was president of . . . — Map (db m140006) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Fred David Gray — Civil Rights Attorney and Legislator / Advocate for Victims and History
Side 1 Born in 1930 in Montgomery, Gray was among the foremost civil rights attorneys of the 20th century. Forced by segregation to leave Alabama to attend law school, he vowed to return and "destroy everything segregated I could find." . . . — Map (db m101898) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 6 — Jessie Parkhurst Guzman — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
Jessie Parkhurst Guzman (1898-1996) was born in Savannah, Georgia, educated at Howard University (BA, 1919) and Columbia University (MA, 1924), and worked at Tuskegee University for over forty years. During Guzman's time at Tuskegee University, she . . . — Map (db m139885) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 3 — The Tuskegee Institute Advancement League — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
The Tuskegee Institute Advancement League (TIAL) was a student-based organization started in 1963 and reorganized in 1965 during the school integration crises. It originally sought to gain a measure of academic freedom through input with the . . . — Map (db m139886) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — 5 — Tuskegee Civic Association — The Tuskegee Civil Rights and Historic Trail —
The Tuskegee Civic Association, whose offices were located here, started out of The Men’s Meeting of the 1920s and the Tuskegee Men’s Club of the 1930s. On April 13, 1941, in order to increase its effectiveness and to embrace all segments of the . . . — Map (db m139923) HM
Alabama (Macon County), Tuskegee Institute — Up From Slavery — Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site —
I determined when quite a small child . . . I would in some way get enough education to enable me to read common books and newspapers. —Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery Booker T. Washington changed the . . . — Map (db m101932) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Rev. Dr. Joseph E. Lowery Boyhood Home Site — (Dean of Civil Rights Movement)
Side A Dr. Joseph Echols Lowery was born in Huntsville on Oct 6, 1921, to Dora and Leroy Lowery. He grew up in Lakeside (Methodist) church. He began his education in Huntsville, spent his middle school years in Chicago, and returned to . . . — Map (db m85550) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 32 — Dr. H. Roger Williams — (1869-1929)
Dr. Williams opened one of the early African-American drugstores- Live and Let Live on this site in 1901. Born on a sugar plantation in Louisiana, he graduated from Meharry Medical School in 1900 and was the second black physician to practice . . . — Map (db m86393) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 20 — Finley's Drug Stores
John L. Finley Jr. opened Finley's Pharmacy #1 in 1950. John and his brother, James, established Finley's #2 in 1959, which was later sold to Benjamin F. Jackson, Sr. James H. Finley. Sr. eventually opened six stores, launching the first black . . . — Map (db m111305) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 24 — John L. LeFlore — Non-Partisan Voters League
After the NAACP was outlawed in 1956, LeFlore and the Non-Partisan Voters League took a more active role in civil rights in Mobile. LeFlore served as its director of casework. He was a plaintiff in Bolden vs. Mobile and the judgement changed . . . — Map (db m86391) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — John L. LeFlore — 1903- 1976
A postal worker, a community leader, a state legislator, a journalist, and a civil rights activist, Mobile native John L. LeFlore spent 50 years working to peacefully transform the character of the city and create opportunities to enhance citizens' . . . — Map (db m111413) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 29 — Most Pure Heart of Mary Catholic Church
Organized in 1899 as St. Anthony's Mission by Creoles of African descent. By 1901, Josephite priests Revs. Joseph St. Laurent and Louis Pastorelli had established a small school. The present church was completed in 1908 and dedicated as Most Pure . . . — Map (db m111302) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — 39 — Vernon Z. Crawford Law Firm
Vernon Crawford established the first African-American law firm in Mobile. He successfully argued the Birdie Mae Davis case that desegregated Mobile schools. He stood before the Supreme Court and won the landmark case of Bolden vs. the City of . . . — Map (db m111319) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — Vivian Malone Jones — July 15, 1942 - October 13, 2005
Side 1 On May 30, 1965, Vivian Malone, became the first African-American to graduate from the University of Alabama. To achieve admission at the all-White university, she was forced to confront then Governor, George C. Wallace, in what has . . . — Map (db m111392) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Mathews — The Jonesville Community — (Honoring Mr. Prince Albert Jones Sr.)
(Obverse) The Jonesville Community on Old Pike Road in Mathews, named for wealthy landowner George Mathews from Olgethorp County Ga. was designated by the Montgomery County Commission on October 16th, 2007 to honor the life and legacy . . . — Map (db m68716) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — A Refuge — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
The City of St Jude, always a refuge for African Americans, hosted the marchers on the last night of their journey. This religious complex—named for the patron saint of impossible situations—housed a school church and hospital and had a . . . — Map (db m91481) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Alabama's First Capitals / The Alabama State Capitol
Alabama's First Capitals On March 3, 1817, Congress designated the town of St. Stephens on the Tombigbee River north of Mobile as capital of the newly formed Alabama Territory. There in 1818, the territorial legislature named Huntsville as the . . . — Map (db m86063) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 10 — An Intersection of History: Court Square — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
At the intersection of Commerce Street and Dexter Avenue, Court Square is arguably the most historic location in America. As the center of 19th century Southern economic and political power, Montgomery's Court Square was host to a massive slave . . . — Map (db m91736) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder — Civil Rights Pioneer
Side 1 Aurelia Eliscera Shines Browder was born January 29, 1919, in Montgomery, Alabama. She graduated with honors in 1956 from Alabama State Teachers College (now Alabama State University). In April 1955, Browder's refusal to give up . . . — Map (db m71349) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case / Montgomery: Learning From the Past
(side 1) Bernard Whitehurst and the Whitehurst Case On December 2, 1975, Bernard Whitehurst was shot to death by a police officer in Montgomery, Alabama. He died behind a house on Holcombe Street, running from police officers . . . — Map (db m69366) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Beulah Baptist Church — Organized 1880
Beulah Baptist Church was organized in the home of Monday and Dora Duvall, on the corner of Hull and Winnie Streets. Rev. William (Billy) Jenkins served as the pastor when the first church building was erected on Norton Street. Beulah served as the . . . — Map (db m71377) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Birth of Montgomery Bus Boycott — Boycott planned & publicized here at ASU's Councill Hall
Side 1 On Dec. 1, 1955, at Alabama State College (now Alabama State University) in a basement room in Councill Hall, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was planned and publicized after the arrest that day of Rosa Parks, who refused to give up . . . — Map (db m91279) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 6 — Black Churches Provide Significant Support for the March and Voting — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Holt Street under Interstates 65 and 85 —
As the social and cultural epicenters of Montgomery's black communities in the 1950s and 1960s, black churches also played a political role, providing sanctuary and strength against discrimination On December 5, 1955 following the first day of . . . — Map (db m91464) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Campsite 4 — Selma to Montgomery Trail
Final stop before arrival at State Capitol March 24, 1965 — Map (db m117069) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Charlie and Lucille Times — Civic Leaders and Civil Rights Activists
Lucille and Charlie (d. 2/7/78) Times were married on February 3, 1939. Shortly after, the Times' joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Mr. Times received several medals and a Commendation for his service in . . . — Map (db m81804) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — City of St. Jude/The Selma to Montgomery March
(side 1) City of St. Jude Founded by Father Harold Purcell in the 1930s, the City of St. Jude included church, school, medical facilities, social center and rectory. Its mission was to provide spiritual, educational, social and . . . — Map (db m86070) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Civil Rights Freedom Riders — May 20, 1961
On May 20, 1961, a group of black and white SNCC members led by John Lewis left Birmingham for Montgomery on a Greyhound bus. They were determined to continue the "Freedom Ride" from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans that had met with violence in . . . — Map (db m71256) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Cleveland Court Apartments
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks left work and boarded a downtown bus. Her destination was home, Cleveland Court Apartment No. 634. She didn't make it home that day as she was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white man. This single . . . — Map (db m86074) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Day Street Baptist Church
Organized from Bethel Baptist Church, congregation founded 1882 with Rev. George Casby as first minister. Originally met in frame building; fund-raising began for this edifice in 1906. Designed by Wallace Rayfield, Tuskegee Institute architect and . . . — Map (db m71081) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church — Organized 1877
The second black Baptist Church in Montgomery. First pastor was Rev. C. O. Boothe. Present structure built 1885. Designed by Pelham J. Anderson; built by William Watkins, a member of the congregation. Many prominent black citizens of Montgomery . . . — Map (db m25128) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Elijah Cook / City of Montgomery v. Rosa Parks
Elijah Cook Educator, Businessman, Lawmaker Born a slave in Wetumpka in 1833, Elijah Cook became a leader in Montgomery’s African American community. Credited with helping to establish the city’s first school for blacks in the basement . . . — Map (db m69222) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — First Baptist Church — (Brick-A-Day Church)
Organized in 1866, this pioneering congregation grew out of First Baptist Church, now on Perry Street, where early parishioners had worshipped as slaves. The first building, facing Columbus Street, was erected in 1867. Nathan Ashby served as first . . . — Map (db m36499) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 7 — Four Points: One of Several Black Business Hubs in Montgomery — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Corner of Mildred and Mobile Streets —
Four Points: One of Several Black Business Hubs in Montgomery, and the Impact of Desegregation on Black Business Districts The intersection of Mildred and Moore Streets was once home to Four Points, a thriving black business . . . — Map (db m91462) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Fred David Gray — Civil Rights Attorney and Legislator / Advocate for Victims and History
Side 1 Born in 1930 in Montgomery, Gray was among the foremost civil rights attorneys of the 20th century. Forced by segregation to leave Alabama to attend law school, he vowed to return and "destroy everything segregated I could find." . . . — Map (db m80842) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 4 — From Bus Boycott to Voting Rights: Community Activism 1955-65 — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — West Jefferson Davis near Loveless School —
The foundation of the civil rights movement was based in the grassroots strength of West Montgomery. The historic black communities located along this route provided the leadership and support for over a decade. Whether it was the clergymen, the . . . — Map (db m91466) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Georgia Gilmore — February 5, 1920 - March 3, 1990
Georgia Gilmore, cited as a “solid energetic boycott participant and supporter.” Lived in this house during the days of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Once arrested on a bus, Gilmore was ardent in her efforts to raise funds for the Movement . . . — Map (db m28197) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Harris House
Front Between May 20-24, 1961 Dr. Harris opened this home to a group of 33 students from Nashville, Tennessee, who were challenging interstate bus segregation. Known as the Freedom Riders, the group was attacked at the historic Montgomery . . . — Map (db m86119) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Here Stood Mrs. Rosa Parks — Mother of the Civil Rights Movement
Commemorating the centennial Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated Here stood Mrs. Rosa Parks Mother of the Civil Rights Movement and honorary member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. where she boarded the Montgomery . . . — Map (db m85986) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Heroes' Welcome — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
The ranks of marchers swelled enormously by the last leg of the trip on Wednesday, March 24, 1965. By the time they arrived at the last campsite, only two miles from the city limits at the Saint Jude complex, they were 10,000 strong. Dirty and . . . — Map (db m91482) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Historic Sites Near Fairview Environmental Park
Role of MIA The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was founded on December 5, 1955, to implement the 382-day Montgomery Bus Boycott that jumpstarted the 20th-century Civil Rights Movement. The MIA, as its name suggests, remains dedicated . . . — Map (db m129484) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Holt Street Baptist Church
Congregation founded by former members of Bethel Baptist Church in 1909. Under leadership of Rev. I.S. Fountain, group met for four years in Labor's Hall, corner of Cobb and Mobile Streets, before purchasing this site and constructing church in . . . — Map (db m71086) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Dr. E. D. Nixon, Sr. — 20th Century Civil Rights Activist
Nationally recognized as a pioneer of the modern day Civil Rights Movement, Edgar D. Nixon, Sr., posted bail for segregation law violator Rosa Parks. In her defense, Nixon gathered the support of Montgomery blacks in implementing the successful . . . — Map (db m81801) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Home of Ralph David Abernathy — (March 11, 1926-April 30, 1990)
This was the home of Dr. Ralph David Abernathy, a central leader of the historic events of the Civil Rights Movement. Dr. Abernathy graduated from Alabama State University in 1950 and from Atlanta University in 1951. He and his family lived . . . — Map (db m71232) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Johnnie R. and Arlam Carr, Sr. Home
This home was originally owned in 1901 by Emily V. Semple. It changed hands several times until purchased by Flora K. Daniels and Arlam and Johnnie R. Carr, Sr. The Carrs moved into this residence in 1943. They resided here during the 1955 . . . — Map (db m71265) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 9 — Judge Frank M. Johnson: Judicial Fairness in the Age of Segregation — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Molton and Montgomery Streets —
Following two attempted marches from Selma in 1965 civil rights leaders turned to the federal courts for legal protection prior to the Selma To Montgomery March. Federal District Court Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr., appointed by President . . . — Map (db m91321) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Juliette Hampton Morgan / Montgomery City-County Public Library
(side 1) Juliette Hampton Morgan Juliette Hampton Morgan was a white Montgomery, Alabama librarian whose privileged upbringing seemed unlikely to produce the determined civil rights activist that she became. Her letters to the . . . — Map (db m71258) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lilly Baptist Church — "The Lilly" — 820 Hill Street —
Lilly Baptist Church, established November, 1900 as a missionary church of Bethel Missionary Baptist. Originally located on St. Clair Street in a small frame building. Moved May 27, 1973, into new 1500-seat sanctuary at present location. Education . . . — Map (db m71088) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Lower Dexter Park
History Happened Here The City of Montgomery built this public park on one of the lots occupied by the Montgomery Fair Department Store. Rosa Parks was an assistant to the tailor for Montgomery Fair. On December 1, 1955, Mrs. Parks . . . — Map (db m121435) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Minister's Home / Dr. Martin Luther King — Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church
Side A House built circa 1912. It has been the home of the ministers of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church since 1919. Its most famous occupant, Dr. Martin Luther King, lived here from Sept. 1954-Feb. 1960. During this time he led the Bus Boycott . . . — Map (db m86132) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery County Circuit Court / Sit-Ins and Marches at the Montgomery County Courthouse
Montgomery County Circuit Court Site of Major Civil Rights Cases 1956-1960 In 1956, 89 persons were indicted for violating an anti-boycott law; Rosa Parks' conviction was appealed; the Montgomery Improvement Association car . . . — Map (db m94925) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery Racial Segregation on Buses
On multiple occasions in 1955, black women were arrested for challenging Montgomery's law requiring racial segregation on buses. The arrest of Rosa Parks sparked a mass protest that launched the modern civil rights movement and brought to prominence . . . — Map (db m118040) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery’s Slave Markets / First Emancipation Observance - 1866
Side A The city’s slave market was at the Artesian Basin (Court Square). Slaves of all ages were auctioned, along with land and livestock, standing in line to be inspected. Public posters advertised sales and included gender, approximate . . . — Map (db m28187) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Montgomery's Panel Project
Montgomery's Cotton Slide The history of Montgomery Panel Project is place on top of the remains of Montgomery's Cotton Slide. The Cotton Slide was used to transport heavy cotton bales from the streets above to the waiting steamboats below. . . . — Map (db m78145) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal AME Zion Church
Side 1 Located in the heart of one of Montgomery's historic African-American neighborhoods. Mount Zion A.M.E. Zion Church was constructed in 1899 and heavily remodeled in 1921. It served as a significant center for religious, political, and . . . — Map (db m86411) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Racial Inequality in the United States
Black and brown people in the United States often are presumed dangerous and guilty when thet have done nothing wrong. Our history of racial inequality has created conscious and unconscious bias that has resulted in racial discrimination against . . . — Map (db m119077) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Louise McCauley Parks / The Bus Stop
Side A A Lady of Courage Born in Tuskegee, AL on February 4, 1913, to James McCauley, a carpenter, and Leona Edwards, a teacher. Moved with mother and brother to Pine Level, AL after parents' separation. Enrolled in Mrs. White's School . . . — Map (db m36503) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Louise Parks — She sat down - So we can stand up — February 4, 1913 - October 24, 2005 —
Mother of the modern day civil rights movement — Map (db m91278) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Side 1 On December 1, 1955, Rosa Louis McCauley Parks was arrested on this site for refusing the order of city bus driver J. F. Blake to vacate her seat under the segregation laws of the Jim Crow era. She was taken to police . . . — Map (db m91286) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Branch Library / Bertha Pleasant Williams
Side 1 Rosa Parks Branch Library Second public library for blacks in City of Montgomery, this building opened in 1960 as Montgomery Branch Library on Cleveland Avenue. Designed by architect James Miller Davis, it served the black . . . — Map (db m71388) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Montgomery Bus Boycott / Hank Williams Alabama Troubadour
Side A At the bus stop on this site on December 1, 1955, Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to boarding whites. This brought about her arrest, conviction, and fine. The Boycott began December 5, the day of Parks’ trial, as a . . . — Map (db m86422) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Returns to St. Paul AME / Rosa Parks's Faith Guided Her Life
Rosa Parks Returns to St. Paul AME Rosa Louise McCauley Parks, the Mother of the Civil Rights Movement, passed away in Detroit on Oct. 24, 2005 at the age of 92. Six days later, dressed in the uniform of an AME deaconess, her body arrived . . . — Map (db m127280) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Rosa Parks Statue
Rosa M. Parks (1913-2005) was arrested on a Montgomery bus December 1, 1955 for refusing to relinquish her seat to a white passenger. Her arrest, which happened 2 blocks west on Montgomery Street, sparked the 381-day Montgomery Bus Boycott, which . . . — Map (db m143325) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Selma-to-Montgomery March
Side A The Selma-to-Montgomery March ended here on March 25, 1965, when 25,000 civil rights marchers arrived at the Alabama State Capitol to demand the right to vote for African Americans. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights . . . — Map (db m62747) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — St. Paul A.M.E. Church
By the turn of the twentieth century, African Americans were gathering on Hardaway Street in a brush arbor to worship. In 1907, they incorporated what is now known as St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church, with Rev. Felix Strum serving as the . . . — Map (db m127279) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 3 — Support: Local and Organizational — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Near Early and Oak Streets —
The civil rights movement in Montgomery was born from the support of both organized groups and individual residents. The day-in-day-out support came from local citizens, who were guided by groups on both the local and the national level. The . . . — Map (db m91467) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The E. L. Posey Parking Lot
This site, known as “Posey’s Parking Lot,” served the black community as one of two major transportation centers during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Mrs. Rosa Parks’s December 1, 1955 arrest following her refusal to surrender her seat at . . . — Map (db m71261) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Hon. Rufus A. Lewis — 1906 - 1999
Lewis began an earnest voting rights drive in the early 1940s. Credited with registering 4 generations of Montgomery voters. He established Citizenship Schools that tutored prospective black voters to fill out the literacy text, a barrier before the . . . — Map (db m86429) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Jackson-Community House/The Montgomery City Federation of Women’s Clubs
(side 1) The Jackson-Community House In 1853, Jefferson Franklin Jackson, a native Alabamian and U.S. Attorney for the Alabama Middle District, built this two-story clapboard home originally with a dogtrot pattern. A Whig Party . . . — Map (db m71236) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The National Memorial for Peace and Justice
In the 17th and 18th centuries, 12 million African people were kidnapped, chained, and brought to the Americas after a torturous journey across the Atlantic Ocean. Nearly two million people died during the voyage. The labor of enslaved black people . . . — Map (db m118044) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March — Led by Martin Luther King, Jr.
Ended at the foot of the Capitol steps on March 25, 1965 Here Dr. King addressed 25,000 people "I believe this march will go down as one of the greatest struggles for freedom and dignity in the nation's history." . . . — Map (db m80847) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — The Transatlantic Slave Trade
The Transatlantic Slave Trade killed millions of African people. Men, women, and children were kidnapped and taken in chains to the Americas to create wealth for Europeans. For over two centuries, enslaved black people in the United States were . . . — Map (db m118041) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — 11 — Thousands Protest at the Seat of Government — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail — Dexter Avenue —
On Thursday, March 25, 1965, the Selma to Montgomery marchers left St. Jude and continued through the streets of Montgomery, the crowd swelling in numbers as they approached Court Square. By the time they reached Dexter Avenue, a crowd of more . . . — Map (db m91322) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Tribute to Montgomery's "Foot Soldiers"
The ten bronze roundels displayed on this wall are a tribute to the "foot soldiers" who toiled for 382 days during the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 and 1956. The roundels depict individuals who were involved in, and events that occurred . . . — Map (db m91276) HM
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church
Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized in 1918 at this location by ministers of what later became the American Lutheran Church under whose auspices the congregation organized a day school on the property across the street. That school . . . — Map (db m86469) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Marion — A Seed is Planted — Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
On February 18, 1965, a night march was planned to support activist James Orange, incarcerated in the Perry County Jail. Preachers led participants from this church, Zion Chapel Methodist, the physical and spiritual base of the movement in Marion. . . . — Map (db m116896) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Marion — Honoring: Reverend James Orange
Jailed as a leader in the struggle for voting rights Perry County, Alabama - 1965 - "Hey Leader!" SCLC/W.O.M.E.N., INC. Women's Organizational Movement for Equality Now Evelyn G. Lowery, . . . — Map (db m117076) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Marion — In Memory of Albert Turner, Sr. — 1936 - 2000
– Pioneer Freedom Fighter – Champion of Voting Rights
– Bold advocate for the poor and oppressed Presented by SCLC/W.O.M.E.N., INC. Women's Organizational Movement for Equality . . . — Map (db m117077) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Marion — Jimmie Lee Jackson / Jackson's Death Led to 'Bloody Sunday' March
Front Jimmie Lee Jackson Voting Rights Martyr The death of Jimmie Lee Jackson, shot after police disrupted a peaceful nighttime demonstration in Marion, inspired the first attempted march from Selma to Montgomery that led to . . . — Map (db m116893) HM
Alabama (Perry County), Marion — Muckle's Ridge
Side 1: The site that became Marion was settled by Michael McElroy, traditionally known by his alias, Michael Muckle, around 1817. McElroy sold his property, which had become known as Muckle’s Ridge, to Anderson West in 1818. West and his . . . — Map (db m70089) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Autherine Lucy Foster
First African American to enroll at the University of Alabama following successful litigation under the historic 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling. She began classes on February 3, 1956; however, after three days of tumultuous demonstrations, . . . — Map (db m108342) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — 1 — Capitol Park — Tuscaloosa Civil Rights History Trail
As you look at the ruins of the former Alabama State Capitol, it may be difficult to realize that the building stood at the center of debates over freedom and liberty. Until the end of the Civil War, Alabama and Tuscaloosa were centers of . . . — Map (db m144856) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — 16 — First African Baptist Church — Tuscaloosa Civil Rights History Trail
First African Baptist Church played a central role in the fight for civil rights in Tuscaloosa because it was the home church of Rev. T. Y. Rogers, Jr., the most important local leader in the movement, and the primary site for mass protest . . . — Map (db m144855) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — 18 — Howard-Linton Barbershop — Tuscaloosa Civil Rights History Trail
In September 1952, Autherine Lucy's application to the University of Alabama was accepted. When she arrived on campus and the university officials discovered that she was African-American, they denied her admission. In 1955, following . . . — Map (db m144853) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Lynching in America / Lynching in Tuscaloosa County
Lynching in America

Thousands of African Americans were victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between the Civil War and World War II. The lynching of African Americans during this era was a form of racial terrorism . . . — Map (db m144735) HM

Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Malone Hood Plaza
The Autherine Lucy Clock Tower is dedicated to the sacrifice and commitment of a courageous individual who took a stand for change at a crucial time in the history of The University of Alabama. The open arches, which mirror the architecture of . . . — Map (db m37918) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — Site Of The Stand In The Schoolhouse Door / Foster Auditorium, 1939
Foster Auditorium is the site of the June 11, 1963, “stand in the schoolhouse door” by Governor George C. Wallace in defiance of a court order requiring The University of Alabama to admit African-American students Vivian Malone and James . . . — Map (db m37917) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), Tuscaloosa — University of Alabama’s Slavery Apology
Buried near this plaque are Jack Rudolph and William “Boysey” Brown, two slaves owned by University of Alabama faculty, and William J. Crawford, a University student who died in 1844. Rudolph was born in Africa about 1791 and died . . . — Map (db m40389) HM
Alabama (Winston County), Haleyville — The Honorable Frank Minis Johnson, Jr.
Born in Winston County, Alabama in 1918, Frank M. Johnson, Jr. transcended the prejudices of his time and made his mark as one of the great jurists in American history. He married his Winston County sweetheart, Ruth Jenkins, in 1938. During . . . — Map (db m80559) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Fort McDowell — Grave of Dr. Carlos Montezuma — (Wassaja) — 1855-1923 —
Greatest of the educated Apaches, this Mohave-Apache Indian was taken captive at the age of six by Pima Indians. He was sold to a white man who educated him as a physician. Dr. Montezuma had a splendid practice in Chicago and became a champion of . . . — Map (db m27680) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Phoenix — Eastlake Park
Peace Eastlake Park has served the inhabitants of Phoenix since the late 1880's. Originally known as Patton's Park, it was developed by the Phoenix Railway Company to serve as a recreational area for patrons of the city's trolley system. The . . . — Map (db m55058) HM
Arizona (Maricopa County), Tempe — Hayden House — Constructed 1874
Tempe founder Charles Trumbull Hayden built a house of willow poles on this site in 1871 and erected an adobe home, store, and blacksmith shop during the next two years. He married Sallie Davis in Visalia, California, and brought her here in 1876. . . . — Map (db m27585) HM
Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — National Baptist Hotel
Built in 1923 as the Woodmen of the Union Building, this hotel, bathhouse, and performance venue quickly became the center of African American culture in Hots Springs. It housed virtually every great Negro League player and entertainer who visited . . . — Map (db m145649) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Judge Jacob Trieber — 1853-1927
Jacob Trieber served as United States District Judge for the Eastern District of Arkansas from 1901 to 1927. He was the first Jewish judge ever to serve on the federal bench. Trieber was born in Prussia in 1853, immigrated with his parents to St. . . . — Map (db m107824) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Hard Road to Equal Rights
African Americans Exercise Their Rights In the decades following the Civil War, former slaves in Arkansas saw African Americans elected to local, state and national offices. Henderson B. Robinson was elected . . . — Map (db m107892) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Right to Vote
The State of Arkansas is Dissolved In 1867, the state of Arkansas ceased to exist. It was dissolved, as were all states still in rebellion when the Confederate government surrendered in 1865. Readmission to the Union required that the states . . . — Map (db m51927) HM
Arkansas (Pulaski County), Little Rock — "Testament" — Civil Rights Memorial Sculpture of the Little Rock Nine
Facing law and social custom that defined them as second tier citizens, the Little Rock Nine, taking their cue from the ever expanding struggle for civil rights, opted to define themselves quite differently. With the help of stalwart parents, other . . . — Map (db m128501) HM
Arkansas (Pulaski County), Little Rock — Freedom Riders in Little Rock
On 10 July 1961 five Freedom Riders from the St. Louis branch the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - Benjamin Elton Cox, Annie Lumpkin, Bliss Ann Malone, John Curtis Raines and Janet Reinitz-arrived at the Mid-West Trailways bus station at Markham . . . — Map (db m102140) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Frances Albrier — (1898-1987) — Champion of Equal Rights and Social Justice —
It was just automatic for me to stand up and tell a person, “You’re wrong. You’re mistreating me. You’re discriminatory. Why don’t you give me a chance?” Great generosity coupled with anger at injustice guided the life of . . . — Map (db m54814) HM
California (Alameda County), Hayward — 1025 — Ukrania
“Ukraina” is the site of the farm and burial place of the Ukrainian patriot and exiled orthodox priest Agapius Honcharenko (1832-1916) and his wife Albina. Honcharenko was the first nationally conscious Ukrainian to arrive in the United . . . — Map (db m146447) HM
California (Alameda County), Oakland — 1946 General Strike
Site of the 1946 General Strike when Woman Retail Clerks fought For the Right to Organize a Union — Map (db m72701) HM

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May. 30, 2020