“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Environment Historical Markers

2464 markers matched your search criteria. The first 200 markers are listed. Next 2264
The Eastern Shore Trail Marker image, Touch for more information
By Sandra Hughes, January 17, 2019
The Eastern Shore Trail Marker
Alabama (Baldwin County), Daphne — The Eastern Shore Trail
The Eastern Shore Trail is a 24-mile pedestrian/bike trail from US Hwy 98 at Gator Alley in Daphne to Weeks Bay on Scenic Hwy 98. Teko Wiseman, founder of the Baldwin County Trailblazers-the organization responsible for the trail's . . . — Map (db m128881)
Alabama (Baldwin County), Magnolia Springs — The Springs
Old tales have it that early explorers and even pirate vessels obtained potable water from springs scattered throughout the community of Magnolia Springs. This park is located at the largest of dozens of springs in the area. In 1865 The . . . — Map (db m68486) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Cherokee — Welcome!Natchez Trace Parkway
The Natchez Trace Parkway is designed to encourage leisurely exploration of the history and beauty of Old Southwest. Here are a few pointers to make your trip more enjoyable. Regulations and Safety Obey posted speed limits. Be alert for . . . — Map (db m107254)
Alabama (Colbert County), Cherokee — Wet, Wild, and Wonderful
Alabama’s Winter Waterfowl The Tennessee River Valley is the winter home for thousands of waterfowl. These birds migrate from across the northern US and Canada down through the center of the continent to the Tennessee River. Careful . . . — Map (db m107253) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Birds of North Alabama
Many Kinds of Birds Call North Alabama Home The northern tier of Alabama has two distinct landforms-the Tennessee River Valley and the Appalachian Plateau. A variety of terrain provides wonderful birding habitat and offers excellent . . . — Map (db m106183) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Building a New Future
In the early 1930s, which Wilson Dam serving as the starting point for the newly formed TVA and its river development plan, an era of new prosperity in the region began. TVA embarked on one of the largest U.S. hydropower construction programs . . . — Map (db m106193) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Explore the River
Just downstream from Wilson Dam lies a series of trails maintained by the Tennessee Valley Authority. Starting at the Visitor Center, explore the trails as they meander along the riverbank and through the forest

1.Wilson Dam Visitor Center . . . — Map (db m106186) HM

Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Gulls Glorious Gulls
Gulls are a Diverse and Fascinating Group of Birds Popularly known as sea gulls, these birds actually occur at the seashore and far inland as well. Each winter thousands of gulls gather along the Tennessee River. Three species form the . . . — Map (db m106184)
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Home Sweet HomeHeron Rookery
Scan the wooded island just across the Tennessee River for numerous bundles of sticks scattered through the canopy. These bulky structures are the nest of Great Blue Herons. Dozens of these nests are scattered across the island, and each year Great . . . — Map (db m106179) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Muscle Shoals National Recreational Trail
The Muscle Shoals National Recreational Trail complex is a 17-mile paved and primitive trail and bikeway for public use located on TVA’s Muscle Shoals Reservation. This National Recreation Trail System connects numerous historical sites including . . . — Map (db m106117) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Natural and Cultural Preservation/Protecting Resources
Natural and Cultural Preservation TVA is fully committed to protecting our natural and cultural resources. And nowhere is that more evident than right here at Wilson Dam. Here, the 25-acre Old First quarters Small Wild Area showcases the . . . — Map (db m106189)
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — TVA: A History of Progress and Innovation / A Valley of Hardships
The Tennessee Valley Authority is much more than just “a power company.” TVA has been proving this for more than 80 years by powering the region’s progress and managing the natural resources in its care for the greatest public good. . . . — Map (db m106190) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — TVA: Our Enduring Mission/Powering Prosperity
TVA has a rich history of improving quality of life and economic prosperity for people and businesses in the TVA service area. As times have changed, TVA has changed with them, updating and refining its focus to better serve it's enduring mission . . . — Map (db m106187) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Wilson Dam: Cornerstone of the TVA System
Wilson Dam is the longest-operating hydroelectric facility in the TVA System and certainly one of the most significant. Built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, primarily to supply power for nitrate production during World War I, Wilson Dam became . . . — Map (db m106188) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Sheffield — Forest Elders
Escape to an Earlier Time The giant trees of Northern Alabama's mature forest have stood throughout generations, witnessing considerable natural, historical, and cultural changes. Some probably witnessed the Civil War while others only date . . . — Map (db m117058) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — The Moon Tree
The Moon Tree was grown from seeds that journeyed to the moon and back aboard Apollo 14 during the period of January 31-February 9, 1971. The seed was germinated by the U.S. Forest Service in Gulfport, Mississippi, and the seedling was presented to . . . — Map (db m108374) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Tuscumbia — Yellow Fever Epidemic 1878 / The 31 Victims of Yellow Fever Who died in Tuscumbia
Side AYellow Fever Epidemic 1878 Taking 31 Lives in Tuscumbia Citizen's Relief Committee: F.H. Aydlett, H.M. Finley, J.J. Davis, James Jackson, Chm. J.W. Rand Jr., F.A. Ross, J.N. Sampson, Sec. and C. A. Womble. . . . — Map (db m29263) HM
Alabama (Cullman County), Cullman — Alabama's Aquatic Biodiversity
Alabama is one of the states with the most biodiversity.

In fact, Alabama ranks #1 when it comes to the number of freshwater critters! Biodiversity refers to the total number of different plant and animal species.

Every organism from . . . — Map (db m106105)

Alabama (Cullman County), Cullman — Alabama's Physical Diversity
Alabama is a very geological diverse state. The vast natural resources and biodiversity of Alabama can greatly be attributed to its geological history.

Clarkson Bridge is located in the physiographic region called the Cumberland Plateau, . . . — Map (db m106097) HM

Alabama (Cullman County), Cullman — Birds of Alabama
Birdwatching is a popular hobby for many in Alabama. Not only are birds fun to watch, but they also tell us a lot about environmental health.

Pileated Woodpecker • Red-tailed Hawk • Yellow-bellied Sapsucker • Cardinal • Bluebird • American . . . — Map (db m106103) HM

Alabama (Cullman County), Cullman — Land-Use and Water Quality
Land-based activities affect water quality and quantity. For that reason, it is important that we make good decisions about our day to day actions.

Dry stacks prevent poultry manure from entering streams. Silt fences prevent erosion from . . . — Map (db m107957) HM

Alabama (Cullman County), Cullman — Monitoring Watershed Health
How can we know if Crooked Creek is healthy or safe for recreation? Monitoring water quality with various test can give us our answers.

Chemistry Monitoring examines different variables like temperature, PH, dissolved oxygen, and water . . . — Map (db m106101) HM

Alabama (Cullman County), Cullman — What happens to my wastewater?
There are two main ways wastewater is treated. In rural areas septic tanks are common, in more populated areas homes are connected to wastewater treatment plants.

A Septic Tank is a concrete or steel tank buried near a home. Raw sewage . . . — Map (db m106106) HM

Alabama (Cullman County), Cullman — What is Water Pollution?
Water pollution is the contamination of waterbodies (for example streams, rivers, lakes and bays) often caused by human actions.

Point Source Pollution is contamination that can be traced to a specific source such as a wastewater pipe or . . . — Map (db m106108) HM

Alabama (Cullman County), Cullman — What’s the Big Deal about Litter?!
Litter or trash thrown on our roadside or illegally dumped often ends up in a steam or creek. This threatens the critters that live there and it can threaten humans too!

Thankfully, litter is an easy problem to fix - If everyone does their . . . — Map (db m106102)

Alabama (Cullman County), Cullman — Where does your drinking water come from?
At Clarkson Covered Bridge, your drinking water comes from Lake Catoma. Following a drop of water from the source through the treatment process and eventually to the faucet.

1.Coagulation is the process that removes dirt and particles . . . — Map (db m106109) HM

Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Alabama's Native Prairie
Waist-high grasses billowing in the wind. Rolling prairie expanses. Most people connect these images with the Midwest's Great Plains. But for thousands of years, tallgrass soils of Alabama's Black Belt. Along prairie—25 miles across . . . — Map (db m112692) HM
Alabama (Jackson County), Estillfork — Walls of Jericho
Nature preserve, recreation area, and wildlife management area. This tract was protected and made available for public recreation through the efforts of the Alabama forever wild land trust. The Alabama state lands division of the department of . . . — Map (db m145464)
Alabama (Jefferson County), Birmingham — Building The ParkVisiting the Park — Restoring Vulcan Park —
Side 1 - Building the Park In the mid-1930’s, civic leaders worked to move Vulcan to a place of honor on Red Mountain. The park was built through the combined efforts of several groups: the Kiwanis Club of Birmingham, the Birmingham Parks . . . — Map (db m83807) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Clay — The Cahaba Heart River of Alabama
On Cahaba Mountain to the NW, springs form a fragile stream that grows as it carves through the steep, rocky terrain of Birmingham suburbs, flowing south on the Gulf Coastal Plain to the Alabama River, at the site of Alabama's first capital, . . . — Map (db m25110) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), McCalla — Pioneer Farm BuildingsCirca 1870's
1. Gear House 2. Smoke House 3. Corn Crib 4. Double Pole Barn Donated by Mr. & Mrs. Carthell Kornegay. These buildings were located on the George Stewart Farm in Bibb County and restored in 1975… — Map (db m107513) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Rogersville — Elk River Shoals
(side 1) At this location is the Elk River that flows into the Tennessee River approximately four miles south of here. That location is the easternmost point of a massive underwater formation which was exposed until the early 1900s. The . . . — Map (db m133187) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Rogersville — Return of a Native
When the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources began a Bald Eagle Restoration Project in 1984, Bald Eagles had not successfully nested in Alabama since 1949. Thanks to these restoration efforts, Bald Eagle populations increased . . . — Map (db m107997) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Waterloo — A Gathering of Eagles
When the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources began a Bald Eagle Restoration Project in 1984, Bald Eagles had not successfully nested in Alabama since 1949. Thanks to these restoration efforts, Bald Eagle populations increased . . . — Map (db m105709) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Waterloo — Mud Glorious Mud
Birds Come From All Directions to Enjoy the Tasty Treats Hidden Beneath the Mud In the late summer. fall, and winter, reservoir levels in the Tennessee River Valley drop drastically to expose areas of mudflats. although unsightly to some, theses . . . — Map (db m105713) HM
Alabama (Lauderdale County), Waterloo — Tiny Jewels of the Air
Few birds are as distinctive and charismatic as hummingbirds. From their iridescent plumage to their incredible aerial antics, hummingbirds are an irresistible attraction at Rock Springs. Each fall, hundreds of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds pass this . . . — Map (db m84702)
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — A Significant Forest
A Special Place: for People and Birds The forest of Bankhead have been here for many generations, witnessing considerable natural, historical and cultural changes. This area was home to native Americans for many years. The pioneers who live . . . — Map (db m107295) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — Birds of North Alabama
Many Kinds of Birds Call North Alabama Home The northern tier of Alabama has several district landforms including the Tennessee River Valley and the southern Cumberland Plateau. The variety of terrain and the large expanse of forest in the . . . — Map (db m107297) HM
Alabama (Lawrence County), Moulton — Explore the Forest
Discover the Incredible Variety of Habitats and Birds in the Bankhead National Forest 1. Walston Ridge Road The road along Walston Ridge provides a variety of forest habitats. Prescribed fire maintains the open oak-pine woodlands. . . . — Map (db m107294) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Norwegian Light Beacon And Fog Bell
The light beacon and fog bell in Big Springs International Park were presented as a gift from Norway in 1973. The light beacon served as one of the guiding lights to the mariner from 1903 to 1966 being situated on the west coast of Norway at . . . — Map (db m85545) HM
Alabama (Madison County), Huntsville — Spring Migration
Returning Home in the Spring Each year millions of North American birds return from their southern wintering quarters in south and Central America. The returns of these birds heralds the arrival of spring and perhaps the most exciting time in a . . . — Map (db m106293) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Dauphin Island — Energy from the Sands of Time
The platform that you can see east of Dauphin Island is operated by one of many oil and gas companies operating in Alabama waters. These platforms are extracting natural gas (methane), a relatively clean-burning petroleum product. The platform . . . — Map (db m122548) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Mobile — Gen. William C. Gorgas
On this site stood the Gov. John Gayle home, birthplace of William Crawford Gorgas, world famous sanitarian, Panama Canal Zone, 1902-14; Surgeon Gen. & Maj. General; conqueror of dread plagues of yellow fever and malaria. — Map (db m98590) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Theodore — The Story of Bellingrath GardensA Gift to Posterity
(plaque 1) The site of the famed gardens was originally a semi-tropical jungle on the Isle-Aux-Coirs River. In 1917 the property was acquired for a private fishing lodge by Walter and Bessie Morse Bellingrath… The primeval beauty of the . . . — Map (db m100526)
Alabama (Montgomery County), Montgomery — Ray W. Scott Jr. Founded Bass Anglers Movement
Montgomery native Ray W. Scott Jr. launched the Bass Anglers Sportsman Society (B.A.S.S.) in 1967 from a small office upstairs at 513 Madison Avenue. From this beginning, B.A.S.S. became the largest sportfishing organization in the world. Scott . . . — Map (db m98551) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — Health and Civic WelfareRestoring the Vision ... Preserving the Legacy
"The opportunies which were at hand in the development of the river and the region were being seized upon by our people with renewed courage and confidence. We now know that we couldn't be licked again, that what had been preached to us by TVA was . . . — Map (db m86505) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — Our HistoryU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service — Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge —
1838 Trail of Tears: The discovery of gold in Georgia and thirst for land expansion prompted the U.S. Government and white communities to force the Cherokee nation from their ancestral lands. During the summer and winter of 1838, the first . . . — Map (db m113290) HM
Alabama (Morgan County), Decatur — Recreation and RefreshmentRestoring the Vision ... Preserving the Legacy
"We are definitely in an era of building; the best kind of buildings - the building of great projects for the benefit of the public and with the definite objectives of building human happiness". Franklin Delano Roosevelt Delano park was . . . — Map (db m86510) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Fort Mitchell — Archaeology And Our Understanding of the Creek People — Creek Heritage Trail —
Archaeology is the scientific study of the past through analysis of physical traces of daily life discovered through excavation. It enables us to extend our knowledge of human history beyond the limits of written records and to learn details about . . . — Map (db m101816) HM
Alabama (Russell County), Phenix City — Bartram's Trail
William Bartram, American's first native born artist - naturalist, passed through Russell County during the Revolutionary era, making the first scientific notations of its flora, fauna and inhabitants. As the appointed botanist of Britain's King . . . — Map (db m48433) HM
Alabama (Sumter County), Emelle — Town of Emelle, AlabamaA One of a Kind Community
This community honors Emelle Dial, whose father Joseph Dial gave land to the Alabama, Tennessee and Northern Railroad with the provision that the station be named for his daughter. The daughter is said to have been named for her two aunts, Emma and . . . — Map (db m92660) HM
Alabama (Tuscaloosa County), McCalla — Bessemer Sewer System
The large 54 inch inside diameter pipe was unearthed in 2001 behind the Woodward Golf Course by Bob Hall and the Jefferson County Environmental Services. It was used by the Bessemer sewer system. (Donated by U.S. Pipe & Foundry Company, 2002) — Map (db m107497) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past
Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native . . . — Map (db m60114) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment
A Village You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the . . . — Map (db m60089) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes
Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse . . . — Map (db m60105) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life
Plaza An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other . . . — Map (db m60110) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano
The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anasazi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over . . . — Map (db m60107) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features
The Citadel It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because . . . — Map (db m60087) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Albright Training Center History
The Horace M. Albright Training Center is a National Park Service facility for employee development. Established in 1963 and named for the National Park Service's second director, the training center serves as an educational program center for . . . — Map (db m39602) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Bright Angel Trail
Each year thousands of hikers enter Grand Canyon on the Bright Angel Trail. They follow a tradition - and a trail route - established by prehistoric people. For centuries humans have used this route for two key reasons: water and access. Water . . . — Map (db m39563) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Grandview, 1898
"No language can fully describe, no artist paint the beauty, grandeur, immensity and sublimity of this most wonderful production of Nature's great architect. [Grand Canyon] must be seen to be appreciated." C.O. Hall, Grand Canyon visitor, . . . — Map (db m39659) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mining on Horseshoe Mesa
In 1890 prospector Pete Berry staked the Last Chance copper claim 3,000 feet below you on Horseshoe Mesa. The Last Chance Mine began a 17-year flurry of activity here at Grandview Point. For a while the Last Chance Mine thrived. The ore was . . . — Map (db m39662) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Mission 66
Responding to mounting political and public pressure, Congress authorized a ten-year program in 1955 to regenerate and modernize the national parks dubbed "Mission 66" for the target date of 1966, the National Park Service's 50th anniversary. The . . . — Map (db m39587) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Jacob Lake — Jacob Lake Lookout Tower
This location has two markers This steel lookout tower is 80 feet tall and has a 7 foot by 7 foot steel cab on top. It was erected in 1934. As guardians of our nation's vast timber reserves, the U.S. Forest Service has always given fire . . . — Map (db m94919) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Jacob Lake — Kaibab Squirrel Area
Has been designated a National Natural Landmark This site possesses exceptional value as an illustration of the Nation's natural heritage and contributes to a better understanding of the environment. — Map (db m94912)
Arizona (Coconino County), Jacob Lake — Theodore Roosevelt
In memory of Theodore Roosevelt 1858 'Teddy' 1919 Est. Grand Canyon National Game Preserve ‘06 — Map (db m94913) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Marble Canyon — Vermilion Cliffs National Monument
Welcome to Vermilion Cliffs National Monument, an isolated and spectacular landscape. Tucked away in north-central Arizona, this Monument is a wonderland of geologic formations and rugged terrain that supports a rich array of desert wildlife and . . . — Map (db m94911) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Saurischia Dinosaur Tracks
These tracks were made by a three-toed dinosaur known as a Saurischia therapod. It lived here about 170 million years ago during the Jurassic era when the environment was tropical. The footprints are raised natural sandstone castings of the . . . — Map (db m40321) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"
They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native . . . — Map (db m41664) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Changes to Come
Buried under Sunset Crater's lava and cinders are perhaps dozens of pithouses. Those excavated revealed few artifacts; even building timbers had been removed. This suggests people had ample warning of the impending eruption. The changed . . . — Map (db m41693) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — Geological Infant
Erupting less than 1,000 years ago, Sunset Crater is the youngest in an impressive field of volcanoes all around you. The 1,000-foot-high (305m) cinder cone we see today formed when basalt magma rose directly to the surface through a primary vent. . . . — Map (db m41665) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — The Power to Symbolize
As a living ancestral homeland to the Hopi, Zuni, Yavapai, Havasupai, Navajo, Western Apache, and Southern Paiute, Sunset Crater is remembered, revered, and cared for. People return often, bringing prayers and engaging in timeless traditions. . . . — Map (db m41678) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Tusayan — The Tusayan Lookout TreeEarly Fire Detection on the Kaibab National Forest
The Tusayan Lookout Tree is an example of one of the earliest fire detection systems in American history. Early rangers were tasked with keeping the forest safe, especially from wild fire. With little funding and no staff, rangers would simply . . . — Map (db m141327) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Community Sharing the Land
This was a community of relatives and neighbors. Its members worked together to haul water, hunt animals, and gather plants. They likely assisted each other with large fields on the rims. They shared walls and resources, joy and sorrow, success . . . — Map (db m61366) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Complex Community
The Island Trail, visible below you, follows the sharp meander of Walnut Creek. Many cliff dwelling rooms, unique in this area, were built throughout the canyon at the level of this trail. On both rims are numerous pithouses and pueblos. On . . . — Map (db m61304) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Days Work
Puebloan traditions reach far back in time and are the basis for the social organization portrayed here. What responsibilities might you have had in this community, given your age and gender? [Photo captions read] Hopi men plant and tend . . . — Map (db m61350) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Ribbon of Life
Perhaps people living here 800 years ago called this place Wupatupqa ("long canyon"), as it is known to some of their descendants, the Hopi. It was no doubt known as a place of abundance, given its wealth of plant and animal life and the . . . — Map (db m61305) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Time of Change
When a volcanic eruption occurred near what is now Flagstaff, Arizona, people lost homes and lands they had cultivated for at least 400 years. A major life events for locals, the eruption was also visible to large population centers across the . . . — Map (db m61325) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — An Efficient Design
Overhanging ledges protected rooms from snow and rain, and shaded them during summer months. Thick walls of stone and mud insulated them from harsh winds and retained essential heat in winter. Small doors were covered with animal skins, mats, . . . — Map (db m61365) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Cliff Homes and Canyon Life
As recently as the mid-1200s, families lived, worked, and played in Walnut Canyon. Tending crops on the rim, traveling to gather food, and collecting water from the canyon bottom were part of a daily routine. It may be difficult to imagine . . . — Map (db m61302) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Departure
Despite all it had to offer, in time Walnut Canyon became a difficult place for farmers to live. Drier, colder conditions meant crop failures. More people and diminished resources meant nutritional stress, disease, and conflict. However, . . . — Map (db m61370) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — From Ocean to Alcove
Limestone forms the massive overhang above you and the ledge you are standing on. In between, softer layers of silty limestone have retreated, eroded away. All of the cliff dwelling rooms in Walnut Canyon — more than 300 — were built . . . — Map (db m61342) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Migration is not abandonment.
Walnut Canyon was once filled with the sounds of a busy community as families hunted, planted, and harvested with the seasons. Children were born, grew up, and raised children of their own. They were neither the first nor the last to use and . . . — Map (db m61328) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Problem Solving
Time has worn away details that once made these rooms complete. Still, bits of evidence tell us people devised ways to make their homes comfortable, durable, and suitable for changing circumstances. Rooms were added as families grew or . . . — Map (db m61341) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Room Functions
Most rooms in this community did not house people. Archeologists think many rooms, like the one to your left, were used to store tools, food, and water. Residents could have stored a 100-day water supply without much difficulty, given large . . . — Map (db m61347) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — Tension and Harmony
With its steep and sheer walls, Walnut Canyon provided homebuilding advantages along with controlled access. Living here, people were situated to monitor their world. This was not uncommon; most villages of the time had some form of passive . . . — Map (db m61326) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Perfect Shelter
For each room tucked into this rock alcove, nature provided the back wall, floor, and leak-proof ceiling; no excavation was needed. Builders simply laid up unshaped blocks of limestone for side walls, enclosed the front, and opened their doorway . . . — Map (db m61340) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — The Quest for Water
During the spring thaw, snowmelt rumbled through the narrow passage below you. Water flowed again during the summer monsoon. Shaded pools held precious water after the flow ebbed. Walnut Creek was the lifeblood of the community. Still, people . . . — Map (db m61356) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — What Happened Here?
"It is very dusty work to dig for relics....We dug for an hour or more, and found...cornstalks, corncobs in abundance, beans, gourds, nuts, reeds, arrows, bowstrings,...coarse cloth, a child's sandal, a measuring stick with notches at regular . . . — Map (db m61368) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — The Blowhole
This blowhole - a crevice in the earth's crust that appears to breathe - is one of several found in the Wupatki area. It connects to an underground passage - size, depth, and complexity unknown - called an earthcrack. Earthcracks resulted from . . . — Map (db m41701) HM
Arizona (Gila County), Globe — Old Dominion Mine
Included in this historic copper mine are the Globe ledge silver claims. Discovered in 1873, the first to yield profitable ore in the Globe-Miami district. The Old Dominion included many other early claims. Production ceased in the 30s, due to . . . — Map (db m67463) HM
Arizona (Gila County), Payson — The Dude Fire
On June 25, 1990 a lightning caused fire entrapped ten members of the Perryville fire crew in this canyon. Resulting in six fatalities. Before the fire was contained it had burned more than 24,000 acres and destroyed over 70 structures. This . . . — Map (db m28210) HM
Arizona (Gila County), Payson — These Trees Planted in Memory of the Firefighters Who Died in the Dude Fire June 26, 1990
These Trees Planted in Memory of the Firefighters Who Died in the Dude Fire June 26, 1990 Sandra J. Bachman • Joseph Chacon • Alex S. Contreras • James L. Denny • James E. Ellis • Curtis E. Springfield — Map (db m28211) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Fredonia — Pipe Spring National Monument
Pipe Spring National Monument is establishing a native vegetation plot, reminiscent of the grasslands of the Arizona Strip prior to the 1850s. Over-abundant shrubs (four-wing saltbush and sagebrush) were removed from the area, and native grasses and . . . — Map (db m149366) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Fredonia — Stephen Tyng MatherJuly 4, 1867 — Jan. 22, 1930
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m149341) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Fredonia — When the Good Grass Goes — Pipe Spring National Monument —
1880 — Ten years ago the desert spaces… were covered with abundant grasses. Today hardly a blade of grass is to be found within 10 miles of [Pipe] spring… Even if there had been no drought… cattle would have… destroyed the grass by cropping . . . — Map (db m149473) HM
Arizona (Mohave County), Temple Bar Marina — Taming the Colorado
You are looking into Black Canyon and a narrow, river-like portion of Lake Mohave. To your left, about 59 miles downstream, is Davis Dam. To your right, 11 miles upstream, is Hoover Dam. The U.S. Government built the dams to tame the periodic . . . — Map (db m111185) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Pioneers of Paleontology
Petrified Forest is a laboratory where scientists study not only the fossil record, but the records of earlier discoveries by naturalists and paleontologists. Interest in the area’s fossils goes back to 1853, when a U.S. Army expedition . . . — Map (db m68873) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Desert Laboratory
. . . — Map (db m63672) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Desert LifeSaguaro National Park
The Sonoran Desert can be described as a “desert jungle” because more than 200 species of animals and 600 species of plants live here. Saguaros---with their branching arms and accordion-like pleats—dominate this scene. Intermixed . . . — Map (db m83147) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Home for Saguaros
The saguaro cactus before you owes its existence to the foresight of local residents. In the 1920s grazing and development threatened the saguaro's future. Saguaro forests began to disappear as mature cactuses were chopped to make way for new roads. . . . — Map (db m85355) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Seed to SentinelSaguaro National Park
Standing like desert sentinels, mature saguaros start life as tiny black seeds. These seeds usually germinate under nurse plants but only a few survive to become mature saguaros.

Look for young saguaros growing low to the ground. Those that are . . . — Map (db m83146) HM

Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — Where Have All the Saguaros Gone?
The view from this hill has changed a lot over the years. In the 1930s, this was the most spectacular cactus forest in Arizona. But no one knew that these aging giants were near the end of their lives. Today we speculate that mild weather in the . . . — Map (db m85357) HM
Arizona (Pima County), Tucson — World of the WashSaguaro National Park
Below is the dry bed of an intermittent stream called a desert wash. For a short time, during desert thunderstorms, flash floods rush down the mountain slopes and through desert washes to nearby rivers.

However, beneath the wash’s sandy surface, . . . — Map (db m83148) HM

Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Lifeline / Prehistoric Produce
Lifeline Beaver Creek has always been a major focus of life in the Verde Valley. Prehistoric Sinagua farmers constructed Montezuma Castle and other structures near the creek. They dug ditches to carry creek water to irrigate the fields of . . . — Map (db m40868) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Sedona — Early TourismHistoric Sedona
Soldiers from Camp Verde were early tourists to Sedona, enjoying the beauty, cooler temperatures and Oak Creek as a break from the camp.

As early as 1895, Lou Thomas turned Bear Howard’s cabin into a two-story hunting fishing lodge. It was . . . — Map (db m133684) HM

Arkansas (Benton County), Bentonville — Democratic Architecture / Usonian Characteristics

The word "Usonian" was derived from an abbreviation of "United States of North America." Frank Lloyd Wright embraced this term as the name for a distinct American and democratic style of residential architecture he developed during the Great . . . — Map (db m108874) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — "Mud" Street and "Underground Eureka"

Professor KALKLOSCH’s Guidebook, published in 1880, states: “The first street of the town was surveyed down the gulch below the spring. A broad avenue connects this street with the famous EUREKA BASIN SPRING. It being the first street it . . . — Map (db m79755) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — 18 — Civil War Healing
The Eureka Springs area's reputation as a health resort has its origins in the Civil War. Late 19th-century accounts claim Dr. Alvah Jackson treated sick and wounded soldiers during the war. In early 1865, Maj. J. W. Cooper, who led Confederate . . . — Map (db m59967) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Crescent Spring and Trail

Crescent Spring was revered for its healing waters almost as much as the basin, the legendary Indian Healing Spring. Situated beside the Wagon Road on a hillside with a rocky outcropping described as "crescent" shaped, the spring was soon given . . . — Map (db m80135) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Eureka Springs Historical MuseumEstablished 1971 in Calif House

This three-story limestone building with metal-clad roof enclosing the top story was constructed in 1889 by Samuel L. Calif. For fifty years it served as a residence, general merchandise store, and boarding house. About 1948 the building was . . . — Map (db m90699) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Grotto Spring

The words "esto perpetua" emblazoned upon a stone above the entrance to Grotto Spring declare the prevailing belief that these healing waters would flow forth forever. Early townspeople discovered the spring under an overhanging rock ledge, a . . . — Map (db m80121) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Harding Spring

Named for J. Emmett Harding, a photographer who began the tradition of making photographs of people in front of the spring as souvenirs. He built a small dwelling near the spring in the summer of 1879.

In 1879, the spring was accessed by a . . . — Map (db m80151) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Laundry Spring

The site of this spring was outside the area included in the 1879 survey. Known as East Mountain, this area was crowded with wood structures by 1885. The spring, which flowed from a small cave lined with projections of onyx stone, was already . . . — Map (db m80152) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Mud Street to Main StreetNorth Main

"It being the first street in town... it was named Main Street. But owing to its low elevation and the law of gravitation, the water would find a level in the street, and as the immense travel created an abundance of mud, the street was . . . — Map (db m80153) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — Sweet Spring

This spring derived its name from early townspeople who declared the water to have a pleasant, sweet taste. The spring was originally located in the deep ravine below the present site. A long wooden stairway led from the spring to the narrow . . . — Map (db m80115) HM

Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Basin Bath House
Basin Bath House was established 1879 adjacent to Basin Spring by Dr. Alvah Jackson's son, Thomas. John S. Tibbs succeeded Jackson about 1880, operated bath house and Eureka Water Shipping Company. Building was destroyed by Great Fire of 1888, . . . — Map (db m59969) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Basin Park Sycamore
I stood here growing so many years, I shared your laughter, I shared your tears. My life was good, beginning to end, and this is a wish I'd like to send. Be happy and kind to all around, and let not sorrow be ever found. The spirit . . . — Map (db m59971) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Civic CenterSouth Main
These two large limestone public buildings anchor this part of downtown Eureka Springs. They span the deep ravine cut by Leatherwood Creek which flows in a tunnel beneath all the buildings on this entire part of Main Street. [Photo 1.] This . . . — Map (db m59964) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Southern Hotel
The Southern was built in the year 1880 adjacent to Basin Spring and some 25 feet above it on the hillside. L.M. Rainey of Missouri, its original owner, sold the hotel to W. E. Beatty in 1886, at which time it was acclaimed to be one of the city's . . . — Map (db m59970) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Springs
"It is sometimes called The Basin Springs, and is invariably the first resort for visitors. If there is any one in the city you desire to find, if no other way, go to the Basin Springs, seat yourself comfortable, and await his coming." Prof. . . . — Map (db m63300) HM
Arkansas (Carroll County), Eureka Springs — The Town that Water BuiltNorth Main

First by horseback, wagons or on foot, invalids from all over this region flocked to Eureka Springs in 1879 to seek cures from the miraculous healing springs. But soon there were easier ways to arrive - stagecoaches, then trains. This laid a . . . — Map (db m80211) HM

Arkansas (Garland County), Hot Springs — Peak Trail
The Peak Trail is a short, moderately steep route up Hot Springs Mountain. The summit has been a traditional site for observation towers. Unlike the 216-foot-high steel structure of today, the earliest wooden tower of the 1870s barely . . . — Map (db m145684) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — Does the River ever flood?
Flooding, a long-feared natural phenomenon, is a very real concern throughout the region. Water has spilled from the banks of the Mississippi many time over the years, causing widespread fear and devastation. The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, the . . . — Map (db m107819) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — River Birds
Seasons change, as they do, birds and other wild animals migrate from one place to the next to find food. Many birds follow the twists and turns of the Mississippi River as they journey from the northern United States to their winter breeding . . . — Map (db m107814) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The Helena Bridge
Built in 1961, the Helena bridge is about a mile long and 28 feet wide. It stretches across the Mississippi River, linking Helena with the town of Lula, Mississippi via US 49.

Before the bridge Until the early 1960s, there was no bridge . . . — Map (db m107818) HM

Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — The River Connects communities
Among our nations’s most valuable treasures: a web of inland waterways that winds its way through America’s heartland to the Mississippi River. Boats carrying people and freight use these well-traveled “marine highways” to travel from . . . — Map (db m107817) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — What is a bottled hardwood forest?
Found in the floodplains of rivers and streams, these wetland communities depend on water. Unlike a swamp where (water is always present), bottomland hardwood forests experience seasonal flooding. Disappearing forest Before the arrival . . . — Map (db m113255) HM
Arkansas (Phillips County), Helena — What is the impact of stormwater on the Mississippi
The impact of stormwater runoff on the Mississippi River is an environmental concern. The quality and quantity of water in all of our streams, rivers, lakes, aquifers, and oceans is diminishing. We can reverse this negative trend by becoming . . . — Map (db m113256) HM
Arkansas (Washington County), Fayetteville — Evolution of Fayetteville
The earliest known inhabitants of the hardwood forest of the Ozarks migrated to Arkansas over 12 thousand years ago through the Great Bering Strait. For the next two thousand years Bluff Dwellers hunted the mountain plateaus before the Quapaws, . . . — Map (db m59882) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — "Annie's Oak"City of Berkeley Landmark — Designated in 1986 —
Here a venerable oak tree was saved by Annie Maybeck (1867-1956), wife of architect Bernard Maybeck. She is said to have "marched off to city hall" to protest the cutting of native trees during street paving early in the 20th Century. She and other . . . — Map (db m18562) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Claremont Public ImprovementsJohn Galen Howard, Architect — 1905 —
City of Berkeley Landmark designated in 1984 Claremont, a 1905 subdivision, was originally part of the 125-acre Edson Adams ranch. Early advertisements for the tract enticed families to leave the noisy, crowded city behind and head for . . . — Map (db m54679) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Daley’s Scenic Park Street ImprovenentsBounded by Le Roy Avenue, La Loma Avenue, La Vereda Road and Hilgard Avenue — The Hillside Club and Town Engineers; 1909 —
City of Berkeley Landmarks designated in 1983 In the late 1890s a group of concerned women formed the Hillside Club to “encourage artistic homes built of materials complementing the natural beauty of the Berkeley Hills.” The Club soon . . . — Map (db m53886) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Hillside ClubJohn White, Architect, 1924 — Listed on the National Register of Historic Places —
City of Berkeley Landmark designated in 2004 The Hillside Club was founded in 1898 by Berkeley women intent on preserving the natural beauty of the hills. It soon became an influential cultural force. North Berkeley’s curved streets with old . . . — Map (db m54186) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Indian RockBerkeley History
Outcroppings of weathered rock are a prominent feature of the Berkeley Hills, providing evidence of this area’s complex geological past. Composed of Northbrae rhyolite, Indian Rock is an ancient volcanic remnant. Native Ohlone communities gathered . . . — Map (db m53852) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Jensen HouseGeorge Jensen, Builder — 1891 —
City of Berkeley Landmarks designated in 1996 This is one of the earliest houses built in the north Berkeley hills. George Jensen came from Denmark and was a contractor in Los Angeles before moving to Berkeley. Members of the Jensen family lived . . . — Map (db m53887) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — La Loma StepsCirca 1910-1916
City of Berkeley Landmarks designated in 1995 When the La Loma Park subdivision was created in 1900, the streets were laid out in harmony with the natural contours of the land as advocated by Berkeley’s Hillside Club. The rustic quality of the . . . — Map (db m53884) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Live Oak Park1914 — Berkeley History —
Live Oak Park was created in 1914 when the City of Berkeley purchased four acres from landowners R.S. Penniman and Michael O’Toole. Mr. Penniman’s brown shingle house served as the park clubhouse and also, from 1916-1936, as Berkeley’s North Branch . . . — Map (db m54190) HM
California (Alameda County), Berkeley — Thousand Oaks Neighborhood and UrnsCirca 1909-1910 — Mark Daniels, Landscape Engineer —
Berkeley History In the early 1900s, the natural beauty of this undeveloped district, with dramatic rock outcroppings and ancient oaks made it a favorite destination for picnickers and hikers. After a campaign to make the area a city park . . . — Map (db m53848) HM
California (Alameda County), Oakland — Jefferson Square Park
1853 Oakland was shaped by seven GREEN SQUARES Downtown’s living rooms now only five Parks bring out the Goodness of good people — Map (db m72832) HM
California (Alameda County), Oakland — 962 — Site of Blossom Rock Navigation Trees
Until at least 1851, Redwood trees on this site were used as landmarks to avoid striking the treacherous submerged Blossom Rock in San Francisco Bay west of Yerba Buena Island. Although by 1855 the original stems had been logged, today's trees are . . . — Map (db m100564) HM
California (Alameda County), Oakland — The Creation of a Park
Joaquin Miller Park was formed in 1917 when the City of Oakland and its citizens – led by The California Writers Club – purchased 68 acres from the estate of Joaquin Miller, the noted 19th century “Poet of the Sierras” and . . . — Map (db m71737) HM
California (Alameda County), Pleasanton — Gay 90's Pizzeria
Here stands one the first commercial buildings in Pleasanton, possibly as old as 1864. Originally a general store, this building has been a bar, brothel, bank and unofficial Wells Fargo stagecoach stop. Since 1959 it has become well-known as the . . . — Map (db m112913) HM
California (Alameda County), San Leandro — Of Fins and FlippersLake Chabot Historical Walk
How do you climb the wall of a dam using fins? The dam blocked the natural migratory route of the steelhead trout, prohibiting them from swimming up San Leandro Creek to spawn in their natural habitat, what is now upper San Leandro Reservoir and . . . — Map (db m71713) HM
California (Alpine County), Bear Valley — Harry SchimkePioneer in His Own Time — 1917 – 1995 —
Through his life’s dreams and efforts. Thousands enjoy skiing, good water, scenic meadows and preservation of Bear Valley’s natural beauty. In Appreciation — Map (db m10965) HM
California (Alpine County), Markleeville — Reynolds PeakElevation 9300 Feet
Named in memory of G. ELMER REYNOLDS Stockton, California Conservationist and lover of nature — Map (db m11479) HM
California (Calaveras County), Angels Camp — The MonitorCalifornia Hydraulic Mining
Hydraulic Mining was the largest and most destructive form of mining. Water, brought through flumes and ditches from high up in the mountains, was redirected into an ever-narrowing channel and out through a giant iron nozzle, called a . . . — Map (db m56649) HM
California (Calaveras County), Tamarack — Camp Tamarack
For more than 80 years, the area was known as Onion Valley due to the profusion of wild onions growing here. It was mainly used as a summer stock range. In the late 1860-70’s a sawmill was operated by C. Brown. Later a man called . . . — Map (db m40974) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Martinez — From an Accident to a Preserve
In 1988, a massive oil spill from the nearby Shell Refinery inundated the Carquinez Strait and downstream marshes including McNabney Marsh. As a result of a settlement with a number of agencies, Shell Oil paid over $12 million into a Natural . . . — Map (db m145095) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Richmond — Where the Deer and the Antelope PlayAnza Expedition of 1776
In 1775 and 1776, Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza, Father Pedro Font, along with 240 settlers, soldiers, and others traveled 1,800 miles from Sonora, Mexico to Monterey, California. Anza and Font, with a small group passed through by horseback . . . — Map (db m145988) HM
California (Del Norte County), Crescent City — National Tribute Grove5000 Acres — Largest World War II Memorial in the United States —
–top plaque– This Unit of 500 Acres in the National Tribute Grove is Preserved Through the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution To Honor Those Who Served in the Armed Forces of the United States in World . . . — Map (db m122130) WM
California (Del Norte County), Crescent City — The Metcalf Grove
This grove is given to the State of California for the preservation of these ancient trees by Mr. and Mrs. Jesse H. Metcalf of Rhode Island. — Map (db m1510) HM
California (Fresno County), Dunlap — Converse Basin Grove
One of the largest stands of Giant Sequoias, it contained some of the finest Big Trees. The grove was logged as a private land between 1897 and 1907, first by the Sanger Lumber Company and later by Hume-Bennett Lumber Company, which in 1909 . . . — Map (db m52239) HM
California (Fresno County), Fresno — 916 — Forestiere Underground Gardens
Here, beneath the hot, arid surface of the San Joaquin Valley, Baldasare Forestiere (1879-1946) began in the early 1900's to sculpt a fantastic retreat. Excavating the hardpan by hand, he created a unique complex of underground rooms, passages and . . . — Map (db m41003) HM
California (Humboldt County), Orick — Madison Grant Forest and Elk RefugeDedicated to the Memory of Madison Grant — 1865-1937 —
Conservationist, author, anthropologist, a founder of the Save-the-Redwoods League.

This area of 1600 acres, habitat of the last surviving herd in California of Roosevelt Elk is established as a memorial by · De Forest Grant · John D. . . . — Map (db m32569) HM

California (Humboldt County), Weott — Laura Perrott Mahan & James P. MahanPioneers in the Save-the-Redwoods League
Laura Perrott Mahan 1867-1937 James P. Mahan 1867-1937 • Pioneers in the Save-the-Redwoods League • The California State Park Commission has dedicated to their memory this site where on Nov.19.1924, Mr. and Mrs. Mahan discovered that logging had . . . — Map (db m150292) HM
California (Inyo County), Furnace Creek — Stephen Tyng MatherJuly 4, 1867 - Jan. 22, 1930
He laid the foundation of the National Park Service, defining and establishing the policies under which its areas shall be developed and conserved unimpaired for future generations. There will never come an end to the good that he has done. — Map (db m71148) HM
California (Inyo County), Keeler — Owens Lake Dust Mitigation Program
Owens Lake was once over 300 feet deep and part of a large ancient freshwater lake. As the climate changed over centuries, the lake began to dry up leaving behind concentrated minerals and salts. By 1905, diversion of water by farmers in the Owens . . . — Map (db m72575) HM
California (Inyo County), Lone Pine — Alabama Gates
The Alabama Gates and gate house were constructed in 1913 when the Los Angeles Aqueduct was built to dewater the aqueduct when maintenance is necessary. On November 16, 1924, seventy or more local citizens seized the aqueduct at the Alabama Gates . . . — Map (db m93252) HM
California (Kern County), Tehachapi — Importance of Water and Creation of Brite Lake
In 1947 the Tehachapi Soil Conservation District was organized to advise the farm industry. It was apparent by the early 1960s that if agriculture were to continue as economic force in the District, additional water had to be found. In the early . . . — Map (db m135047) HM
California (Kern County), Tehachapi — Why Tehachapi Pass? / Pioneers of the Wind / Hike A Mile or Two - Thousand
First Panel: Wind Development Why Tehachapi Pass? 1) Close to Energy Users The proximity of Tehachapi Pass to the Los Angeles Basin makes it an attractive location for wind power development, as it reduces the length, . . . — Map (db m63166)
California (Kern County), Tehachapi — Wind Energy Industry
During the first US energy crises in the 1970s the need for a sustainable and renewable energy was evident and President Jimmy Carter created the first renewable energy program in the country. In the early 1980s the first commercial electricity from . . . — Map (db m135045) HM
California (Lake County), Upper Lake — Clear Lake Habitat
Freshwater Marsh A freshwater marsh once surrounded Bloody Island prior to land reclamation efforts that began in the late 19th century. Native plants within marshes around Clear Lake included tules (Scirpus acutus), rushes (Juncus sp.), . . . — Map (db m143781) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Pearblossom — The Devil's PunchbowlDepartment of Parks & Recreation, County of Los Angeles
The hills where you stand are a part of one of the world's geological wonders, The San Andreas Rift -- A great fault and earthquake zone. __________ Because of the movements along this fault zone, the pink and tan colored Punchbowl rocks seen . . . — Map (db m115197)
California (Los Angeles County), San Pedro — Santa Catalina Island
Located approximately 20 miles from the mainland, Santa Catalina Island rises 2000 feet above sea level, approximately 500 feet higher than the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The island is over 20 miles long, making it the longest of the eight California . . . — Map (db m129437) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Santa Monica — “Trees of Santa Monica”
To honor George T. Hastings, author of “Trees of Santa Monica,” October 10, 1963—his 88th birthday—in appreciation of his dedication in sharing his knowledge and love of trees, flowers and birds. To honor Grace L. . . . — Map (db m130429) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Sylmar — Rim of the Valley TrailMarge Feinberg — Saddletree Ranch Trailhead —
Marge Feinberg’s 1974 Master’s Thesis envisioning a wilderness trail encircling the San Fernando, La Crescenta and Simi Valleys and adjacent mountain ranges led to a California law establishing the Rim of the Valley Trail Corridor in the Santa . . . — Map (db m139166) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Venice — History of Ballona Lagoon
Today, Ballona Lagoon is a (16-acre) remnant of a formerly extensive coastal wetland. Like other southern California wetlands, urbanization has reduced its size and degraded its habitat over the last century. Historically, Ballona was much larger . . . — Map (db m128456) HM
California (Marin County), Inverness — Point Reyes Light — Point Reyes National Seashore —
Point Reyes Light has guided and cautioned mariners along this hazardous coast for over 100 years. Built by the U.S. Lighthouse Service in 1870, it came under management of the U.S. Coast Guard in 1939. Resident personnel operated the station until . . . — Map (db m63502) HM
California (Marin County), Inverness — The Rock PlantsPoint Reyes National Seashore
The wife of a lighthouse keeper once planted a small garden nearby, but with no success. As soon as the carrots sprouted the wind blew them away. Few plants can face up to the ocean’s harsh influences. On these fogbound, windblown rocks, . . . — Map (db m63363) HM
California (Marin County), Iverness — Point Reyes ConglomeratePoint Reyes National Seashore
The intriguing rock exposure in front of you is part of a formation that caps the highest hills in this area. The Point Reyes Conglomerate is a formation consisting of a sandy matrix embedded with pebbles, cobblestones, and boulders. Geologists . . . — Map (db m63377) HM
California (Marin County), Mill Valley — Fall in Muir WoodsMuir Woods National Monument
Warm days, gold and crimson foliage, and migratory animals mark the season.

Sonoma chipmunks busily prepare for hibernation. They forage through the woods in search of seeds, nuts, and berries. When their cheek pouches are full, they dig a . . . — Map (db m92646)

California (Marin County), Point Reyes Station — Sea Life in These WatersGulf of the Farallones & Cordell Band — National Marine Sanctuaries —
Some of the world’s richest waters exist right off California’s coast. An explosion of life occurs here due to a combination of the sun’s energy, wind, ocean currents, and contours of the sea floor. Microscopic phytoplankton form the base of the . . . — Map (db m63362) HM
California (Marin County), Point Reyes Station — Whalewatching
Southern Migration
•Mexico to Artic feeding grounds •Pass Point Reyes early March through early May. . . . — Map (db m63360) HM
California (Marin County), Sausalito — Cold War Legacy: Missiles to Marine MammalsMarin Headlands Golden Gate National Park
The Marine Mammal Center is built on the site of the former Nike Missile Launch Area, SF 87L. In the 1950s, the army constructed two batteries in the Marin Headlands equipped with surface-to-are missiles, one near Fort Cronkhite and a second across . . . — Map (db m102832) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National — The Journey to Yosemite
Tourism in Yosemite began long before it became a national park. In the 1850s, daring visitors endured long days of rugged travel on foot and horseback. Indian trails led them to never-to-be-forgotten views of Yosemite. Entrepreneurs were soon . . . — Map (db m81942) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — A Seasonal Lake
Mirror Lake was once regarded by park scientists as a stream-fed lake slowly filling in to become a meadow. As hydrologists have developed a more complex understanding of the water's dynamics, they now theorize that the "lake" is a pool in a . . . — Map (db m81952)
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Bracken Fern and Baskets
Just above Mirror Lake, bracken ferns grow in large tracts. The root-like portion of the fern (rhizome) is favored for making the black designs in Southern Miwok and Mono Lake Paiute baskets. Because of the rich sandy sediments here, bracken fern . . . — Map (db m81953) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Disappearing Waterfalls
At certain times of the year some of the Valley’s waterfalls disappear. Bridalveil keeps flowing even in late summer, when Yosemite Falls begins to dry up. Above Yosemite Falls the terrain is largely bare granite; runoff is rapid. Bridalveil . . . — Map (db m63589) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — El Capitan
El Capitan is famous for its massive bulk of largely unbroken rock and its sheer, vertical face soaring 3,000 feet into the air. This monolith is composed of a particularly durable granite, allowing it to withstand the pressures of glaciers and . . . — Map (db m81949) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Glaciers at the Gate
Geologic processes that created Yosemite Valley include glaciation, erosion, rockfalls, and earthquakes. Most of these processes are still at work here, shaping and reshaping the land. Ancient glaciers have left dramatic geologic evidence virtually . . . — Map (db m81948) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — John Muir... The Woodcutter
In 1869, innkeeper James Hutchings hired a young wilderness explorer named John Muir to rebuild and operate his sawmill. Muir worked here for almost two years, milling trees blown down in a storm to build improvements at Hutchings’ Yosemite Valley . . . — Map (db m66101) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Mirror Lake Resources
For centuries, the local Indians use the bracken fern found above Mirror Lake. In the 1800s, Euro-American entrepreneurs found new uses for the area's resources. Hotel owners marketed the magnificent scenery to an enthusiastic audience or travelers. . . . — Map (db m81951) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Natural Dam
Perhaps only three or four hundred years ago, an enormous rockfall dumped boulders across this canyon, damming Tenaya Creek. During spring and early summer, the stream backs up into the two pools on either side of the dam. Tinkering with . . . — Map (db m81950) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Olmsted PointA Family Legacy
This turnout was named in honor of famed landscape architect, Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903), and his son, Frederick, Jr. when Tioga road opened to automobile traffic in 1961. Olmsted senior was considered the father of American landscape . . . — Map (db m65531) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — President Theodore Roosevelt & John Muir Meeting SiteYosemite National Park
On this site President Theodore Roosevelt sat beside a campfire with John Muir on May 17, 1903 and talked forest good. Muir urged the President to work for preservation and priceless remnants of America’s wilderness. At this spot one of our . . . — Map (db m62853) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Selling the Sublime
Mirror Lake's magnificent scenery was as much a commodity to be harvested as was the ice and sand. In the 1860s, entrepreneurs built a toll road to the lake, and here at the end of the carriage road, they opened an inn in 1870. Later the inn became . . . — Map (db m81962) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — The Story of Half Dome
Millions of years ago the granite block of Half Dome was larger, but there was never a matching half. Undercut by glaciers near the base, slabs of rock fell away from a broad vertical crack in the granite, leaving a sheer face. Remnants of the . . . — Map (db m81963) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Visitors at Mirror Lake
The opening of Yosemite to tourism in the 1850s coincided with America's glorification of nature and fascination with the picturesque. Early accounts of Mirror Lake are full of such sentiments. Visitors today still express many of the same emotions . . . — Map (db m81961) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — Waterfalls of Yosemite Valley
Nowhere else on earth are there so many spectacular waterfalls in such a concentrated area. During the spring, torrents of water from melted snow thunder over Yosemite's precipices. By August, the "ephemeral" falls disappear; others, like the . . . — Map (db m81943) HM
California (Mariposa County), Yosemite National Park — 790 — Yosemite Valley1864-1964
On June 30, 1864 the United States granted the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Big Tree Grove to the State of California to "be held for public use, resort and recreation...inalienable for all time." This act, signed by President Abraham Lincoln, . . . — Map (db m81941) HM
California (Modoc County), Alturas — Working Farm RootsThe Creation of Modoc National Wildlife Refuge
The first Euro-Americans arrived in 1870 when Presley A. Dorris, Henry Fitzhugh, and several other Dorris family members drove cattle and horses into the area. With land granted under the Homestead Act, the Dorris family established a livestock . . . — Map (db m113039) HM
California (Mono County), Walker — The C-130 CrewLost During the Cannon Fire - June 17, 2002
In Loving and Grateful Memory of The C-130 Crew Steve Wass, Craig Labare and Mike Davis Who gave their lives to save our community on June 17, 2002 — Map (db m23036) HM
California (Monterey County), Carmel — Lone CypressPerched over the Pacific for Hundreds of Years
Even though Monterey cypress trees prefer this area's rugged bare granite headlands, the Lone Cypress is a testament to the hardiness of these trees. It has withstood Pacific storms and winds for roughly 250 years. Fences and cables now offer added . . . — Map (db m8476) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — Ed Ricketts’s BackyardHistoric Cannery Row
You are looking at the backyard of Ed Ricketts’s lab, Pacific Biological Laboratories, where Ricketts lived and worked during the 1930 and 1940s. He collected and preserved tide pool plants and animals and sold them to schools around the world. What . . . — Map (db m55143) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — Giant Kelp Beyond the BreakersHistoric Cannery Row
Off the coast and beyond the breaking waves, giant kelp provides a lush home for marine life. Holding fast to the rocky bottom, these huge plants grow upward then spread their green-gold fronds across the water, creating a dense canopy of growth . . . — Map (db m55161) HM
California (Monterey County), Monterey — The Real “Docs”Historic Cannery Row
Pictured at the right are scientists Frances Clark, W.I. Scofield, Richard Croker, M.J. Linar and J.B. Philips. Working out of Hopkins Marine Station, this group monitored the growing sardine industry by collecting samples from the canneries and . . . — Map (db m55140) HM
California (Monterey County), Pacific Grove — Glass Bottom BoatThe Swan Boats of Pacific Grove
These boats were first introduced here at Lovers Point in the early 1890s. Launched from the narrow cove's wooden pier, the boats offered passengers a canopied window to the underwater flora and fauna around Lovers Point. Nathaniel Roscoe "Dad" . . . — Map (db m41574) HM
California (Monterey County), San Miguel — The San Andreas Fault
Left Marker This rift extends from El Centro on the south, 650 miles northwesternly the length of California to Point Arenas, where it continues seaward. The most publicized of California's geologic faults, it is the source of dozens of . . . — Map (db m111574) HM
California (Napa County), Calistoga — 915 — Petrified Forest
The petrified forest, dating from the Eocene Period, is the only known example of a petrified forest in California. Its size, scope and variety of petrification is unique in the world. Opalized wood, obsidian, quartz crystal, petrified coral and . . . — Map (db m101552) HM

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May. 30, 2020