“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Anthropology & Archaeology Historical Markers

1001 markers matched your search criteria. The first 200 markers are listed. Next 801
Bottle Creek Site Marker in front of Baldwin County Courthouse. image, Touch for more information
By Mark Hilton, January 14, 2017
Bottle Creek Site Marker in front of Baldwin County Courthouse.
Alabama (Baldwin County), Bay Minette — Bottle Creek Site
Bottle Creek Site has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses National Significance in Commemorating the History of the United States of America . . . — Map (db m100849) HM
Alabama (Baldwin County), Blakeley — Site of Baldwin County's First Courthouse
This foundation is all that remains of Baldwin County’s first courthouse. Authorized in 1820 but not constructed until circa 1833, the two-story brick building contained a jail on the bottom floor with office space on the upper floor. . . . — Map (db m131830) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — Charcoal Production at Caver-Christian-Davis FarmAD 1865 to AD 2000 — Choccolocco Park Interpretive Trail —
When workers began excavating the lake for Choccolocco Park, they uncovered several large charcoal-filled ditches that formed circles. Archaeologists investigated these features and determined that these were the remains of 19th century charcoal . . . — Map (db m144947) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — Paleoindian12,750 BC to 9,500 BC — Choccolocco Park Interpretive Trail —
The people living during the Paleoindian period experienced a world very different from that we know today. These people lived during the last ice age when large mammals still roamed North America. Archaeologists sometimes refer to these . . . — Map (db m144948) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — Reconstructing the Cultural Landscape — Choccolocco Park Interpretive Trail —
The stone mound here once sat on nearby Signal Mountain and is now understood to be part of a much larger cultural landscape. Working with the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and the people of the Arbeka (Abihka) Ceremonial Ground, archaeologist Robert . . . — Map (db m144927) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — The Choccolocco Creek Archaeological ComplexAlabama Indigenous Mound Trail
Centered around Boiling Spring, the Choccolocco Creek Archaeological Complex once consisted of at least three earthen mounds, a large stone mound, and a large snake effigy (representation) also made of stone. The largest earthen mound once . . . — Map (db m144926) HM
Alabama (Calhoun County), Oxford — Woodland1,250 BC to AD 1000 — Choccolocco Park Interpretive Trail —
Woodland period people established permanent communities within a climate and forest that was very similar to that experienced by today's residents of the Choccolocco Valley. By AD 100, the residents had started constructing the earthen mound . . . — Map (db m144977) HM
Alabama (Colbert County), Muscle Shoals — Natural and Cultural Preservation/Protecting Resources
Natural and Cultural Preservation TVA is fully committed to protecting our natural and cultural resources. And nowhere is that more evident than right here at Wilson Dam. Here, the 25-acre Old First quarters Small Wild Area showcases the . . . — Map (db m106189)
Alabama (Dallas County), Beloit — Cahawba
Site of Alabama's first permanent capital 1820-26. County seat Dallas County, 1820-66. Prison for Union soldiers during the War Between the States 1863-65. Indians were the first inhabitants over 4000 years ago. Their large fortified village could . . . — Map (db m75779) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Civil War Prison
In 1858, the railroad company graded away an Indian mound that stood here. A brick warehouse was built in its place. From 1863 - 1865 the Confederate government used this warehouse to hold captured Federal Soldiers. You are standing on a pile of . . . — Map (db m22666) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Footprint of a Church
St. Luke's Episcopal Church was built at Cahawba in 1854 but was dismantled and moved sometime after 1884 but before 1888. It was reassembled fifteen miles away in a rural community called Martin's Station. The raised outline before you indicates . . . — Map (db m83510) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — Site of Alabama's Statehouse1820 - 1825
This structure collapsed in 1833 and its fallen remains were reportedly heaped into a railroad embankment. Consequently, we have no picture of the Statehouse that was drawn by someone who actually saw the building. Any modern picture you see of this . . . — Map (db m75909) HM
Alabama (Dallas County), Cahaba — St. Luke's Episcopal Church
St. Luke's was consecrated in 1854. It was an outstanding example of the Gothic Revival style, popular at the time. The contractor closely followed designs in a widely circulated book, Rural Architecture, published in 1852 by the celebrated . . . — Map (db m75922) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — A Perspective of PowerMoundville Archaeological Park
Imagine a clan chief 800 years ago standing exactly where you are. It's possible he would see something resembling this artist's rendering. Larger mounds, like this one, dotted the plaza's perimeter, serving as elevated platforms for . . . — Map (db m144752) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Mound BMoundville Archaeological Park
The mound in front of you probably once served as a platform for the principal chief's house. The noble who lived there was an extremely important political and religious figure. It is likely that this chief claimed to have divine relationships with . . . — Map (db m144808) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Moundville
Site of a prehistoric Native American political and ceremonial center from about A. D. 1100-1500 that, at its height in the 13th century, was America’s largest community north of Mexico. Between 1,000 and 3,000 people lived in this town fortified by . . . — Map (db m30700) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Moundville Archaeological ParkAlabama Indigenous Mound Trail
I do not think in the Southern States there is a group of Mounds to compare to Moundville, in the arrangement and state of preservation of the mounds. - Clarence B. Moore, amateur archaeologist, 1910

Spanning more than . . . — Map (db m144745) HM

Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Moundville Archaeological ParkMoundville Archaeological Park
Welcome to Moundville Archaeological Park, the best preserved site of its kind in North America. At its height, Moundville was the largest and most powerful political and religious center in the Southeast. Nobles at Moundville ruled over thousands . . . — Map (db m144759) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Politics and PowerMoundville Archaeological Park
The mounds you see here were built in a very orderly arrangement over the course of about 100 years. Surrounding them was an immense wall constructed from tens of thousands of logs. How did the rulers harness the manpower and allegiance of the . . . — Map (db m144774) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — Protection and the PalisadeMoundville Archaeological Park
Rival Mississippian chiefdoms constantly threatened one another. Warfare was a way of life for most men. By proving their valor militarily, warriors probably increased their overall status as they were promoted up through the ranks. One theory . . . — Map (db m144815) HM
Alabama (Hale County), Moundville — The CCC and Moundville — Moundville Archaeological Park —
The Civilian Conservation Corps was born during the turmoil of the Great Depression. Hundreds of thousands of young men were out of work, and wasteful exploitation of the environment had devoured millions of acres across America. In 1933, as part of . . . — Map (db m144813) HM
Alabama (Jefferson County), Bessemer — The Bessemer SiteAlabama Indigenous Mound Trail
The Bessemer Site was the largest indigenous mound site in what is now Jefferson County, and it once dominated a large territory in what became north-central Alabama. Occupied from about AD 1150 to 1250 during the early Mississippian period, . . . — Map (db m144908) HM
Alabama (Mobile County), Dauphin Island — Dauphin Island Indian Shell Mound Park
This park and bird refuge dates from the Mississippian Period (AD 1100 to 1550). Native Americans, who roasted oysters and fished in adjacent Dauphin Island Bay, visited the shell mounds for centuries. From excavations carried out in 1990, . . . — Map (db m122350) HM
Alaska (Denali Borough), Denali National Park — Ice Age HuntersThe Deadliest Predators
High above river valleys, at overlooks like this, Denali’s first human visitors watch for mammoth, giant bison, and caribou. Ridge tops made the best game launching platforms; herds tend to follow sheltered stream corridors. Hunters had to be . . . — Map (db m69724) HM
Arizona (Cochise County), Hereford — Lehner Mammoth Kill Site
At this location in 1952, a large bone bed was discovered containing the remains of extinct mammoth, tapir, bison and horse. Found with the bones were the weapons and tools of the Indians who had killed and butchered these animals. The bones and . . . — Map (db m43633) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Gathering Place
]Panel 1:] Between 1100 and 1200, more people lived in this area than ever before, or since. Located along routes linking large populations to the northeast and south, villages here were well situated for trade. As people, goods, and ideas . . . — Map (db m60079) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Legacy of the Past
Box Canyon and Lomaki ruins are a short 15-minute walk from here, along the edges of ancient earthcracks. The 1/4-mile trail will take you back in time over 800 years to the remnants of this once-thriving community. You will see the few native . . . — Map (db m60114) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — A Village/Abandonment
A Village You are entering the “Citadel,” a ruin from the late 1100s. Research has not been completed so it is important that we leave things as they are. Will there be extra storage spaces found, possible evidence for the . . . — Map (db m60089) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Ancient Landscapes
Eight hundred years ago, a savannah-like grassland covered much of this high desert with abundant grasses. The residents would have collected and burned much of the nearby fuel, necessitating long walks to adjacent areas to gather wood. Sparse . . . — Map (db m60105) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Box Canyon Ruins
The Box Canyon ruins are typical of many pueblos found in this region. Early inhabitants constructed walls of nearby sandstone and limestone, and used local soils to cement the stones together. The flat roofs were built of timbers laid side-by-side, . . . — Map (db m60094) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Daily Life
Plaza An open area in the pueblo near the rim of the earthcrack is known as the plaza. In pueblos, the plaza was the center for many daily activities including grinding corn, making pottery, working obsidian into arrowheads, processing other . . . — Map (db m60110) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Dry Land Farming
Volcanic activity to the south produced giant fissures or earthcracks throughout the Wupatki area in the Kaibab Limestone. This formation covers most of the western half of Wupatki National Monument. The Sinagua and Anasazi Indians who inhabited . . . — Map (db m60098) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Sunset Crater Volcano
The distant San Francisco Peaks would have looked much like they do today. To the east, however, Sunset Crater Volcano would still have been belching black smoke and cinders when the Sinagua and Anasazi lived here. The thick layer of cinders over . . . — Map (db m60107) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — The Citadel / Natural Features
The Citadel It was a remarkable achievement, to use primitive mortar and local stones to build the walls above you straight up from the edge of the top of the rock. “The Citadel” is the modern name given to this ruin because . . . — Map (db m60087) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Flagstaff — Wukoki
Wukoki, a modern Hopi word for “Big House” was once home for two or three prehistoric Indian families. The inhabitants are believed to have been of the Kayenta Anasazi culture, judging from the types of artifacts found during excavation . . . — Map (db m60078) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Museum and Ruin
Cohonina and ancestral Pueblo (Kayenta Anasazi) people lived in this area in prehistoric time. The ancestral Puebloans built Tusayan about AD 1185. A visit to the museum and a short walk through the remains of the village will furnish a glimpse of . . . — Map (db m39631) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Grand Canyon National Park — Tusayan Ruin Trail
Allow about 30 minutes to tour Tusayan Ruin. The 0.1 mile loop trail through the main ruin is paved and wheelchair-accessible; the side loop to a prehistoric farming site is not. Signs along the way explain the site's features. An interpretive . . . — Map (db m39633) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument — "The Peaks"
They dominate the horizon, rising 12,633 feet (3851 m) to Arizona's highest point. Visible for miles from all directions, they stand guard over a land which has long sustained people in spirit and natural resources. All of the region's Native . . . — Map (db m41664) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Walnut Canyon National Monument — A Days Work
Puebloan traditions reach far back in time and are the basis for the social organization portrayed here. What responsibilities might you have had in this community, given your age and gender? [Photo captions read] Hopi men plant and tend . . . — Map (db m61350) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — Community
This area seems quiet and lonely today - but not 800 years ago. This valley was used for farming and hunting by the people living in Citadel, Nalakihu, and other nearby pueblos, all inhabited at about the same time. (You can see the ruins of at . . . — Map (db m41716) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Wupatki National Monument — The Blowhole
This blowhole - a crevice in the earth's crust that appears to breathe - is one of several found in the Wupatki area. It connects to an underground passage - size, depth, and complexity unknown - called an earthcrack. Earthcracks resulted from . . . — Map (db m41701) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Big SagebrushArtemisia tridentata
It is not known if the prehistoric Indians of the canyons used this plant, but both Navajos and Hopis make medicine from it, to cure stomach-ache. The Navajos use it to cure colds and headache. — Map (db m144404) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Broadleaf YuccaYucca baccata
As with the narrowleaf yucca, all parts of this plant provided something for the Indians. They ate the fruit, and shredded and twisted the leaves into cord and rope. Soap comes from the crushed roots and is used as a shampoo in Navajo and Hopi . . . — Map (db m144395) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Douglas FirPseudotsuga taxifolia
Generations of Hopis have long travelled far from their arid, mesa-top homes to collect fir boughs and branches. Navajos also traded cut boughs to the Hopis in exchange for corn. Each culture requires fir neck-wreaths for the dancers of certain . . . — Map (db m144406) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Gambel OakQuercus gambelii
The most common oak in Navajoland has a hard, durable wood, which is still used for ax handles, weaving battens, and cradleboard hoops. The leafy branches are favored for shade ramadas in the summer. Solutions of root bark are used to dye wool and . . . — Map (db m144405) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — HoganNavajo National Monument
The Navajo Indians resourcefully met the demands of desert dwelling when they came up with this comfortable and sturdy forked-stick hogan — so called because its chief structural support is made up of three poles with their forked ends . . . — Map (db m144378) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Indian Rice GrassStipa hymenoides
When protected from overgrazing, this bunchgrass thrives on the high desert. It was once a nutritious food source for the Hopi Indians. While Navajos also depended on rice grass, other foods that were easier to prepare eventually replaced it. . . . — Map (db m144391) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Into The MemoryNavajo National Monument
Who Was Here? Descendants of the Hopi people who built this place call it Talastima, a Hopi word for "Place of the Blue Corn Tassels." They call their ancient relatives “Hisatsinom.” Zuni, also pueblo builders, know . . . — Map (db m144402) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Pinyon PinePinus edulis
The nut of this little tree, eaten raw or roasted, is a favorite wild food of the Southwestern Indians. Prehistoric Indians used the pitch to fasten stone arrowheads and knives to wooden shafts and handles, and to repair broken pots. Navajos made . . . — Map (db m144399) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Prehistoric PioneersNavajo National Monument
This Is The Place The Ancestral Puebloans often chose south-facing alcoves like this one for their cliff villages; here are all the basic necessities of life. Benefits of winter sun and summer shade, shelter from the elements, and springwater . . . — Map (db m144400) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Rabbit BrushChrysothamnus nauseosus
Hopi Indians burn rabbit brush kindling with three other wood fuels in their ceremonial kivas. Slender, flexible stems are woven into basketry. Green dye comes from the inner bark, while early autumn flowers yield a yellow dye. The Hopis once . . . — Map (db m144448) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Sandal TrailNavajo National Monument
Follow the easy one-mile (1.6 km) round-trip trail to a point overlooking Betatakin Ruin—multi-level cliff-village home to a community of 13th-century Anasazi farmers. On the way there and back, you’ll be walking through pygmy . . . — Map (db m71519) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — ServiceberryAmelanchier utahensis
Serviceberry is one of the enduring "life medicines" of the Navajos, which insure their survival, health, and harmony. It is gathered to treat nausea, stomach problems, animal bites, and recovery from childbirth. It is also valued as a medicine in . . . — Map (db m144449) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — SweathouseNavajo National Monument
This miniature forked-stick hogan without a smoke hole is actually a highly effective bath — an ancient solution to the problem of keeping clean in a land where water is scarce. Here’s how it works: Stones are heated in a fire, then . . . — Map (db m71517) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — The Pygmy Conifer Forest - An Indian Store
This trail leads through vegetation typical of the plateaus of northern Arizona. Although the trees are small, they make up a true forest – the pinyon pine-juniper forest. The stunted trees and plants here may seem an unlikely source of food, . . . — Map (db m144397) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Upside-down MountainNavajo National Monument
Hidden away in Tsegi Canyon’s wilderness of bare rock, sand, and sparse vegetation are surprising pockets of luxuriant growth. Betatakin Canyon—home to a village of prehistoric cliff-dwellings farmers—is one of these oases. Fir Canyon, . . . — Map (db m71514) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Utah JuniperJuniperus osteosperma
This tree had many uses. Many of the roof beams in Betatakin are juniper. Fires were started with juniper fire-drills, the shredded bark was used for tinder, and the wood was used for fuel. The shredded bark also served as diaper pads, was braided . . . — Map (db m144396) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Voices in the CanyonNavajo National Monument
By 1286, Betatakin village had grown to fill even the most precarious shelves and niches in the alcove, and housed 100 to 125 people clustered into 20 to 25 households. Looking down at this sheltered site today you can still see most remnants of the . . . — Map (db m144401) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Lifeline / Prehistoric Produce
Lifeline Beaver Creek has always been a major focus of life in the Verde Valley. Prehistoric Sinagua farmers constructed Montezuma Castle and other structures near the creek. They dug ditches to carry creek water to irrigate the fields of . . . — Map (db m40868) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Macaw Pen Stone?
Could This Stone Be The Opening to a Macaw Pen? Where Did This Stone Come From? Who Used It? Why Is This Stone at Montezuma Castle? Did the Ancient Sinaguans Possibly Raise Macaws Here? In the 15th century, near modern-day Casa . . . — Map (db m40895) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Community
A farming community of perhaps 200 people prospered here for more than three centuries. The Castle was home to 35 or so of these people. Archeologists suggest they may have fled what is today the Flagstaff area due to overpopulation around A.D. . . . — Map (db m40840) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Neighborhood / Mysterious Departures
The Neighborhood You can see Montezuma Castle and Castle A from here. If you look closely at the Cliffside, you might spot other ledges and caves used by the Sinagua. The Sinagua people who made their homes here may have been a . . . — Map (db m40869) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The People Next Door
Here’s another “castle” – this one called “A” by the archeologists who excavated it in the 1930s. Like neighboring Montezuma Castle, Castle A was occupied by Sinagua farmers between A.D. 1200 and 1450. However, with . . . — Map (db m40863) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — The Way Up / Construction Sequence
The Way Up How in the world do you build a structure large enough to house 35 people high up on a steep canyon wall? Sound impossible? Here’s how Montezuma Castle’s ingenious Sinagua farmers managed it. Construction Sequence 1. . . . — Map (db m40860) HM
Arizona (Yavapai County), Montezuma Castle National Monument — Welcome to The Castle
Pause a few moments to enjoy this view of Montezuma Castle. Don't you suppose it must have stopped the settlers and soldiers who first saw the cliff-dwelling over a century ago? The odd name came from a mistaken belief that the cliff-dwelling . . . — Map (db m40819) HM
California (Butte County), Oroville — Native Food Preparation
As you rest under the shade of this oak tree, you may notice several bowl shaped depressions in the rocks. These depressions, called mortars, were created over the last 2000 years by Maidu Indians. Each mortar was created for a specific purpose, . . . — Map (db m146228) HM
California (Humboldt County), Orick — Madison Grant Forest and Elk RefugeDedicated to the Memory of Madison Grant — 1865-1937 —
Conservationist, author, anthropologist, a founder of the Save-the-Redwoods League.

This area of 1600 acres, habitat of the last surviving herd in California of Roosevelt Elk is established as a memorial by · De Forest Grant · John D. . . . — Map (db m32569) HM

California (Imperial County), Ocotillo — Jay C. von Werlhof
The Imperial Valley College Desert Museum represents the creative vision of noted archaeologist and anthropologist Jay Crawford von Werlhof (1923-2009) A prolific author, von Werlhof wrote many scholarly books and articles on the archaeology . . . — Map (db m82451) HM
California (Kern County), Ridgecrest — Coso Rock Art DistrictBig and Little Petroglyph Canyon — National Historic Landmark —
This District possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States Of America.

The Coso Rock Art District contains the largest concentration of unaltered prehistoric petroglyphs and associated sites in North . . . — Map (db m116049) HM

California (Kern County), Tehachapi — 1054 — Tomo-Kahni
In the Kawaiisu language, tomo-kahni means winter village. The site's location between the coast and desert allowed the site occupants to hold an important place for trade between these areas and the southern Central Valley. The sacred rock art . . . — Map (db m92889) HM
California (Lassen County), Westwood — Paul BunyanThe Legend Lives On
Paul Bunyan has been the hero of lumberjack whopper tales that were handed down for generations in the camps of White Pine lumbermen in the north eastern forests of America. In 1913 the Walker family who owned the Red River Mill in Minnesota, moved . . . — Map (db m56687) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — 112 — A Gabrielino Indian SiteFerndell Canyon
Archaeological evidence indicates that Indian villages were located in Ferndell Canyon. — Map (db m122444) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — 283 — Southwest Museum
The first museum in Los Angeles. Dedicated to the Native Peoples of the Southwest. Declared Historic-Cultural Monument No. 283. — Map (db m114691) HM
California (Mendocino County), Cleone — Harvesting the Shore
For thousands of years, the Cum-a-Lul Pa'Mu (Coastal Pomo) and neighboring Indian tribal groups have set up seasonal camps within a few hundred yards of this beach to gather the sea's valuable food resources. Fishing Pomo caught . . . — Map (db m96677) HM
California (Nevada County), Soda Springs — Summit Valley Native American MortarsHwy 40 Scenic Bypass
History For thousands of years Native Americans from what is now Nevada called Summit Valley their summer home. They came to hunt, fish, gather food, and trade with Native Americans from what is now California. We can see evidence of their . . . — Map (db m129595) HM
California (Riverside County), Blythe — 101 — Giant Desert Figures
Times of origin and meaning of these giant figures, the largest 167 feet long, smallest 95 feet, remains a mystery. There are three figures, two of animals and a coiled serpent, and some interesting lines. [Panel #1] Blythe . . . — Map (db m50992) HM
California (Riverside County), Hemet — 104 — Pochea Indian Village Site
Pochea was one of cluster of Indian villages forming the very large settlement of Pahsitna which extended along the ridge east and west of Ramona Bowl. Pahsitnah was thriving when the Spanish first passed by in 1774. A tragic story tells of the . . . — Map (db m50668) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Goffs — 61 — Pah-Ute CreekFort Pah-Ute — Mojave Road —
Pah-Ute Creek, which runs year around, attracted many Indian tribes, who used several Indian trails through this area. The first white man to visit Pah-Ute Creek was Fr. Francisco Garces in May of 1776. It was given it's name by Lt. A.W. Whipple . . . — Map (db m78577) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Lucerne Valley — 737 — Chimney Rock
Conflicts between Indians and white settlers over the rich lands of the San Bernardino Mountains culminated in The Battle at Chimney Rock on February 16, 1867. Although the Indians defended themselves fiercely, they were forced to retreat into the . . . — Map (db m63982) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Newberry-Baker — 16 — Jack and Ida Mitchell
Modern Pioneers, Miner and Geologist who helped to preserve these caverns — Map (db m78594) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — Ashurbanipal MonumentThe Assyrians
The Assyrians formed one of the earliest great empires in the world. Their civilization dates from 2700 B.C. with the important cultural centers at Ashur and Nineveh north of modern Baghdad. Beginning as a river civilization in Mesopotamia between . . . — Map (db m32080) HM
California (San Luis Obispo County), McKittrick — Painted Rock
Rising above the Carrizo Plain is Painted Rock, an important cultural and spiritual site to California’s native peoples. Most of the pictographs, or painted images found on Painted Rock, are characteristic of the Chumash who lived on the Channel . . . — Map (db m126610) HM
California (Santa Barbara County), Santa Barbara — 306 — Burton Mound
Thought to have once been the Indian Village of Syujtun, this site has yielded some of the most important archeological evidence found in California. In 1542 the village was recorded by Cabrillo while on his Voyage of Discovery, and again, in 1769, . . . — Map (db m137508) HM
California (Santa Clara County), San Jose (New Almaden) — Early People of Mount Umunhum
Mount Umunhum is a sacred site for today's Amah Mustun and Muwekma tribal bands, who are the living descendants of the ancestral Ohlone tribes native to the region. Along with the eagle, hawk, and raven, the hummingbird plays an important role in . . . — Map (db m114626) HM
California (Siskiyou County), Tule Lake — Petroglyph Point
For thousands of years, the hill rising in front of you was an island. Ancient Lake Modoc lapped against its base, scouring cliffs. Later, Native Americans canoed to these cliffs to carve symbols in the soft volcanic tuff, and Modocs still tell of . . . — Map (db m13736) HM
California (Ventura County), Piru — 624 — Portolá Expedition
On August 11, 1769, the explorers and priests accompanying Portolá found a populous village of Piru Indians near this point. Carrying their bowstrings loose, the Indians offered necklaces of stones, in exchange for which Portolá presented them with . . . — Map (db m117174) HM
California (Ventura County), Thousand Oaks — 5 — Lang RanchOakbrook Regional Park Archeological Area
Dating as far back as 12,000 years ago until the late 1800’s, Chumash people had established many villages and seasonal encampments in this area due to territorial and ritual privileges and the abundant source of food and water bestowed upon the . . . — Map (db m120179) HM
California (Ventura County), Ventura — The Flood of 1997: A Destructive Force
The low-lying Scorpion Valley has always been subject to flooding, but overgrazing by sheep increased the intensity.

One night in December 1997, over a foot of rain fell on eastern Santa Cruz Island, sending a torrent of mud and water . . . — Map (db m141329) HM

Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Yucca House National Monument
Yucca House National Monument Dec. 19, 1919. A fine example of a valley pueblo being held by National Park Service — Map (db m71498) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Canyon BarriersMesa Verde National Park
Surrounded by deep canyons, villages here seem isolated, cut off from people on other mesas. Look closely at these cliffs and imagine hand and toe trails pecked into the sheer sandstone. These vertical trails were the Anasazi’s highways; steep . . . — Map (db m71206) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Oak Tree HouseMesa Verde National Park
Adapting to Alcoves To level the sloping alcove floor, the Anasazi filled in behind retaining walls. The altered floor not only supported rooms but also provided working space and a safe play area for children. Oak Tree House appears to . . . — Map (db m71209) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Pithouse LifeMesa Verde National Park
There is an enormous gap between identifying pithouse features—the hollows and scattered stones—and visualizing the inhabitants’ daily lives. Set in the four corner post holes, timbers supported a ceiling that was probably head-high. . . . — Map (db m71203) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Split-Level HistoryMesa Verde National Park
Mesa-top and Alcove Living Although the Puebloan used the cliff alcoves throughout the entire time they lived in Mesa Verde, the cliff dwellings themselves were not built until the final 75-100 years of occupation. For over 600 years these . . . — Map (db m71207) HM
Connecticut (Litchfield County), Barkhamsted — Barkhamsted Lighthouse VillageA Connecticut State Archaeological Preserve
Who Lived Here ? James Chaugham (a Native American who was, according to his granddaughter, a member of the Narragansett Tribe) and his wife, Molly (of European descent), lived in a village located here for fifty years, in what became Peoples . . . — Map (db m102323) HM
Connecticut (Litchfield County), Barkhamsted — Barkhamsted Lighthouse Village CemeteryA Connecticut State Archaeological Preserve
You are now looking into the Lighthouse Village cemetery. The unmarked, upright field stones designate the final resting places of many who lived in the community, including the founding couple, James Chaugham, a Native American, and Molly . . . — Map (db m102325) HM
Connecticut (Litchfield County), Barkhamsted — Barkhamsted Lighthouse Village Grind StoneA Connecticut State Archaeological Preserve
The residents of the Lighthouse community were largely self-sufficient when it came to their subsistence. Bone fragments found in their fireplaces show that they ate deer and small wild game. Gun flints (used in flint-lock rifles) and gun . . . — Map (db m112198) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Anacostia — 18 — The Sage of AnacostiaAn East-of-the River View — Anacostia Heritage Trail —
This imposing property once belonged to Anacostia’s most famous resident: Frederick Douglass. After escaping slavery as a young man, Douglass rose to become a distinguished abolitionist, writer, publisher, and orator. By the 1860s Douglass was . . . — Map (db m88723) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Acorus calamusSweet Flag
The Penobscot tribe of Maine believed this plant to have protective powers; they chewed a piece of the aromatic root to ward off disease when traveling or used steam from the root to prevent illness. — Map (db m144624) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Apocynum cannabinumIndian Hemp
Native Americans used the stalk for fiber in the same way Europeans used their hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. Indian Hemp is superior, however, because it is stronger and lasts longer. This herb is poisonous. — Map (db m144567) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Asarum canadenseWild Ginger
The Chippewa used this herb to season food and chewed the root to relieve indigestion. The Iroquois used the roots to preserve meats. — Map (db m144574) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Asclepias tuberosaButterfly Weed
This plant was one of the most important medicines of the Menomini. The pulverized root was used for cuts and wounds, and was mixed with other roots for additional cures. This herb is potentially toxic if taken internally. — Map (db m144617) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Baptistia tinctoriaWild Indigo
The Cherokee used the leaves and woody stem to make a blue die. The Mohegan bathed their cuts and wounds with an infusion of the plant. This entire herb is toxic. — Map (db m144568) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Calycanthus floridusCarolina Allspice
The Cherokee used the root of this herb to make a strong diuretic for urinary and bladder complaints. The seeds of this plant are poisonous. — Map (db m144619) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Ceanothus americanusNew Jersey Tea
The Menomini believed the tea made from the roots to be a cure-all for stomach troubles. — Map (db m144607) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Cephalanthus occidentalisButtonbush
The Louisiana Choctaws chewed the bitter bark of this shrub to relieve toothaches. They also drank a strong decoction (extract) of it to treat diarrhea. The leaves have poisoned grazing animals. — Map (db m144625) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Cladrastis kentukeayellowwood
The Cherokee used the wood of this tree for building and carving. Early settlers in the southern Appalachians used the root bark for dye and the yellow heartwood for gunstocks. Today, yellowwood is popular in urban settings for its resistance to . . . — Map (db m144694) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Comptonia peregrinaSweet Fern
The leaves of this herb were thrown on fires by the Potawatomi of Michigan to create a smudge to deter mosquitos. The Ojibwe used the leaves for a tea to cure stomach cramps. — Map (db m144611) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Corylus americanaHazelnut
This shrub produces a sweet, edible nut. The Cherokee drank a tea made from the bark for hives. — Map (db m144570) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Crocus sativusSaffront Crocus
The stigmas are used in yellow food coloring and flavoring. Chemical analysis of ancient linens and mummies' winding sheets confirms its use as a dye. Today, it is used more as a spice and in cosmetics than as a textile dye. — Map (db m144652) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Cunila origanoidesAmerican Dittany
Native peoples of eastern North America drank a tea of this plant to produce sweating when treating fever and colds. — Map (db m144616) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Echinacea purpureaPurple Coneflower
The Plains Indians considered this herb to be one of the most important medicinal plants. Its root was the universal antidote for snakebites and all kinds of venomous bites and stings. — Map (db m144605) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Euonymus atropurpureusBurning Bush
The Meskwaki used the fresh outer bark, pounded into a poultice (compress), to heal facial sores. They steeped the inner bark to make an eye lotion. — Map (db m144577) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Eupatorium purpureumJoe-Pye Weed
The Menomini used a decoction, or extract, of the root to treat the genitourinary tract. The Potowatomi made a poultice of fresh leaves to treat burns, and the Ojibwe bathed babies in a solution of the root to strengthen them. — Map (db m144569) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Eupatorium purpureumBoneset
The northern Iroquois used the leave to make a tea that was considered a tonic and cure for colds and fevers This herb may damage the liver. — Map (db m144612) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Geranium maculatumWild Geranium
The Meskwaki of Minnesota pounded the astringent root of this geranium in an animal bladder to make a poultice for hemorrhoids. — Map (db m144596) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Gillenia trifoliataIndian Physic
The root furnished an effective purge of the bowels and an emetic to induce vomiting. — Map (db m144626) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Helenium flexuosumSneezeweed
According to Cherokee belief, the roots of sneezeweed and Veronica noveboracensis steeped in warm water acted as a contraceptive by preventing menstruation for two years. — Map (db m144614) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Heuchera americanaRock Geranium
The root, a powerful astringent, was used by Choctaw, Chickasaw and Creek of the Southeast when conditions required an astringent or "puckering" medicine. — Map (db m144613) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Hydrastis canadensisGoldenseal
Native American medicinal uses of the root included treatment of the eyes and skin and for cancers and venereal diseases. The yellow root provided dye. This plant should be avoided during pregnancy. — Map (db m144572) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Ilex vomitoriaYaupon
Yaupon was a common drink of the Southeastern tribes, taken mainly for its emeting (vomit-inducing) action, which was a means of purification. The fruit is poisonous. — Map (db m144604) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Lobelia inflataIndian Tobacco
The common name for this plant comes from its purported use as a Native American smoke. It was used by the Seneca as an emetic (vomit-inducer) and for coughs. The whole plant is poisonous. — Map (db m144621) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — 53002-H — Magnolia virginianasweetbay magnolia
American Indians used the leaves of this small tree to make a medicinal tea for the treatment of chills, colds, and other ailments. Early American physicians used it as a quinine substitute as well as to treat gout, rheumatism, and respiratory . . . — Map (db m144692) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Mertensia virginicaVirginia Bluebells
The Cherokee used this plant for whooping cough and consumption. — Map (db m144608) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Mitchella repensPartridge-berry
The St. Lawrence Montagnai considered the cooked berries a fever medicine. The dried leaves were added to Chippewa smoking mixtures. — Map (db m144622) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Osmorhiza calytoniiSweet Cicely
Sweet Cicely roots taste and smell like anise. Oil from the roots contains sugar, fats, resins and tannin. Chippewa Indians women drank the tea of the roots to aid in childbirth. — Map (db m144601) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Osmunda cinnamomeaCinnamon Fern
In the spring, the Menomini limited their diet to the young coiled fern tips (croziers) so that their bodies had the scent of the fern. This allowed them to get close to deer to hunt them. — Map (db m144566) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Phytolacca americanaPoke
The Pamunkey of Virginia treated rheumatism with boiled poke berries. Several tribes used berry pigments as a dye. All parts of the plant are poisonous. — Map (db m144571) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Phytolacca americanaPoke
Native Americans made use of poke berries as a body paint. Later the Colonists found it an inexpensive source of red dye for woolens. Young leaves yield brilliant yellows on wool. Caution: poisonous — Map (db m144660) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Polemonium reptansJacob's Ladder
The roots were used by the Meskwaki Indians of Wisconsin to induce vomiting. They called the plant 'fine hair woman medicine'. — Map (db m144623) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Polygonatum biflorumSmall Solomon's Seal
This plant was called the "reviver" by the Menomini and Fox because inhaling the smoke of the heated root revived unconscious patients. — Map (db m144578) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Rosa virginianaPasture Rose
North-central Native Americans made a medicine with the rose hip skin for stomach troubles. — Map (db m144603) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Salvia lyrataLyre-leaved Sage
The roots of this sage were used by Native Americans to make a salve for sores. — Map (db m144620) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Satureja douglasiiYerba Buena
The Cahuilla of southern California believed a tea made from this plant to be an effective remedy for reducing fevers and curing colds. — Map (db m144618) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Smilacina racemosaPlumelily
Smoke from the burning root was used by the Meskwaki to revive unconscious patients, to hush a crying child, and to cast spells. — Map (db m144573) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Solidago canadensisCanada Goldenrod
The Potowami called it "yellow top" and made a tea of the flowers to treat fevers. — Map (db m144615) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Trillium grandiflorumLarge Flowered Trillium
A decoction of the root was used for female diseases and to bring on childbirth by some tribes; others used it to treat headaches and rheumatism. — Map (db m144606) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Vaccinium corymbosumHighbush Bluberry
The Chippewa made pemmican (high-energy food) by adding dried blueberries to moose fat and deer tallow. Native Americans also made a tea of blueberry roots to treat diarrhea and to ease childbirth. — Map (db m144610) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Arboretum — Veronicastrum virginicumCulver's Root
The black roots contain a substance with powerful emetic (vomit-inducing) and cathartic (bowel-purging) properties which was used by the Senecas and Menomini. This root is potentially toxic. — Map (db m144602) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — Inuksuk
English: An Inuksuk is a northern stone land marker used by the Inuit for navigation, communication and to mark hunting and fishing grounds; it symbolizes the traditional Inuit way of life. Canada presented the Inuksuk to the . . . — Map (db m114937) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Palisades — Palisades Recreation CenterDistrict of Columbia Parks & Recreation
Inhabitants When Captain John Smith first sailed up the Potomac in 1608, he encountered several Native American villages on both sides of the river in what was later to become the District of Columbia. Various names have been assigned to . . . — Map (db m144993) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Park View — 15 — "Treat Me Refined"Lift Every Voice — Georgia Ave./Pleasant Plains Heritage Trail —
The House at 3017 Sherman Avenue once was a boardinghouse for Howard University students. In 1923 a determined and talented young woman from the tiny town of Eatonville, Florida, lived here while earning an Associates Degree at Howard. In a . . . — Map (db m130759) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Can you hear the echo of the water bouncing off the rock?
Shhhh, quiet please! Listen. Can you hear the echo of the water bouncing off the rock? Stand in front of this boulder, and listen to the echo of the water. This stone surface amplifies sound, just like ancient Mayan ball courts. In . . . — Map (db m113973) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Cardinal Direction Marker: South
This boulder traveled more than 18,000 miles from the southernmost point of South America! Between 65 and 145 million years old, this granite stone was given to the museum by the Yagán people of Chile. The Yagán want this stone to represent their . . . — Map (db m113961) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Cardinal Direction Marker: West
This 300-year-old lava stone has a name: Kane Po. After a 20-year stay at the museum, it will return to its home in the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park near Hilo. Native Hawaiians consider it to be a living relative. It is one of four Cardinal . . . — Map (db m113975) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Cardinal Direction Markers
Native peoples honor the Four Directions through ceremony, song, art, and architecture. On the edges of the museum site, four large stones known as Cardinal Direction Markers honor Native cultures of the north, south, east, and west. Can you . . . — Map (db m113969) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Colossal Head 4 (replica)Olmec Culture — San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Vera Cruz, 1200-900 B.C.E. —
This portrait of an Olmec ruler is among 17 colossal heads known from one of the world’s great ancient civilizations. Without wheels or iron tools, the Olmec created spectacular monumental sculptures and ceremonial centers on Mexico’s Gulf Coast. . . . — Map (db m39628) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — 26/7920 — George RiveraPojoaque Pueblo
Buffalo Dancer II Case bronze, ed. 2/4 26/7920 Gift of the Pueblo of Pojoaque, George Rivera and Glenn Green Galleries For the Pueblo Indians of the Southwest, the Buffalo Dance is an enduring celebration, a prayer for the well-being . . . — Map (db m113968) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Live Oaks: Specimens of Global, Scholarly and Public Research
Early Conservation Efforts In the past, live oaks were so valuable to shipbuilding and U.S. national security that in the early 1800s Congress passed laws to prevent them from being harvested illegally. The U.S. government also purchased and . . . — Map (db m143310) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Lunar Calendars
The circles and moon phases marked on the pavement refer to a phenomenon known as lunar standstills. Lunar standstills occur every 18.6 years when the moon reaches a northern extreme at summer solstice and a southern extreme at winter solstice. This . . . — Map (db m110068) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — 26/8852 — Rick Bartow (1946-2016)Wiyot — Oregon —
We Were Always Here, 2012 Old-growth Western red cedar, Port Orford cedar, old-growth Douglas fir, oak, maple, stain, sealer Commissioned from the artist 2011 (26/8852) In creating these two poles from a single old-growth cedar . . . — Map (db m113974) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Upland Hardwood Forest
You are standing next to an upland hardwood forest—a group of shrubs and more than 30 species of trees—that reflects the dense forests of the Blue Ridge Mountains and other local sites. The Forests' Bounty The Nanticoke and . . . — Map (db m113971) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Wetlands
These diverse wetlands—and the ducks, squirrels, and dragonflies that make their home here—represent the original Chesapeake Bay environment, the largest estuary in North America. Chesapeake means "Great Shellfish Bay" in the Algonquian . . . — Map (db m113965) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — What is a Grandfather Rock?
The Cheyenne refer to boulders as Grandfathers, the oldest beings on Earth. There are 40 Grandfather Rocks surrounding the museum, greeting and welcoming our visitors. How many can you find?Map (db m113967) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — WingapoWelcome to a Native Place — Lessons from the Sun —
The museum doors—etched with sun symbols—open to the east and greet the rising sun as do many traditional Native homes. Most Native peoples honor the sun as a life-giver and calendar, instructing when to plant, harvest, and conduct . . . — Map (db m113963) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — WingapoRestoration of the Land
Four hundred years ago, the Chesapeake Bay region abounded in forests, meadows, wetlands, and croplands. The National Museum of the American Indian restores these environments and is home to more than 27,000 trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants . . . — Map (db m144387) HM
Florida (Alachua County), Gainesville — F-1002 — Timucua Burial Mound/Timucua People
(side 1) Timucua Burial Mound This earthen mound pays tribute to the ancestors of the Timucua Indians who lived and established villages near lakes and other sources of fresh water in north central Florida. Around 950 CE, following . . . — Map (db m134740) HM
Florida (Brevard County), Cape Canaveral — F-857 — Carter-Fuller Mound Complex
Before modern construction a complex of six burial mounds occupied this location. They were built by the ancestors of the prehistoric Ais tribe, a group who occupied the Cape Canaveral area at the time of European contact. Based on pottery styles . . . — Map (db m101390) HM
Florida (Broward County), Fort Lauderdale — The Tequesta
The Tequesta Indians and their ancestors lived and traveled along the New River for at least 5000 years. The Tequesta were Native Americans that lived in Southeast Florida in an area that extended from Boca Raton to Key West encompassing the . . . — Map (db m100444) HM
Florida (Broward County), Pompano Beach — F-849 — Pompano Beach Indian Mound
Side One: The Pompano Beach Indian Mound is a prehistoric sand burial mound that was used by the Tequesta tribe and their ancestors for burial of their dead. Located nearby was their associated village and midden dating as far back as AD . . . — Map (db m100403) HM
Florida (Duval County), Jacksonville — ArchaeologyJacksonville On The Edge Of The Civil War — Camp Milton Historic Preserve —
Archaeology at Camp Milton In 2003, professional archaeologist investigated Camp Milton. On behalf of the City of Jacksonville, they searched for evidence of Civil War activities and examined the camp’s defensive earthworks. . . . — Map (db m149144) HM
Florida (Escambia County), Pensacola — J — Archaeology in a Maritime Community — Pensacola Maritime Heritage Trail —
Pensacola Bay has been a valuable resource for populations from prehistoric to modern times. The relationship between these people and their environment is often reflected in archaeological sites submerged beneath local waters. In addition to many . . . — Map (db m130819) HM
Florida (Escambia County), Pensacola — F-871 — Emanuel Point Shipwrecks / Los Naufragios de Emanuel Point
Side 1 Emanuel Point Shipwrecks In August 1559, eleven ships under command of Don Tristan de Luna y Arellano sailed into Pensacola Bay, then called Ochuse, to establish a new colony for Spain. Intended to stake a claim on the . . . — Map (db m102003) HM
Florida (Escambia County), Pensacola — F-313 — Hawkshaw
(Side 1) The Hawkshaw site has supported prehistoric and historic occupations which span a period of nearly 2,000 years. It was inhabited around A.D. 150 by groups of Native Americans whom archaeologists call the Deptford Culture. Scientific . . . — Map (db m72238) HM
Florida (Flagler County), Palm Coast — F-529 — Mala Compra Plantation Historic Site
Joseph Martin Hernandez (1788-1857) purchased and worked Mala Compra Plantation, originally a Spanish land grant, from 1816 to 1836. The name Mala Compra means “bad bargain” or “bad purchase” in Spanish. It served as the . . . — Map (db m99955) HM
Florida (Gadsden County), Chattahoochee — Chattahoochee Landing Mound Group
This prehistoric mound is the largest of seven that once stood here at River Landing Park. Believed to date from the Fort Walton time period (A.D. 900-A.D. 1500), its original appearance was that of a flat-topped pyramid. Archaeologists believe that . . . — Map (db m110893) HM
Florida (Hernando County), Bayport — F-788 — The Bayport Area Before Human Occupation/Bayport's First People
(side 1) The Bayport Area Before Human Occupation The fossilized remains of many prehistoric animals and plants are buried in the Bayport area. During the Eocene Period, 45 million years ago (MYA), the Gulf covered this region. . . . — Map (db m93296) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Charles Lafayette Knight"Charley" — May 31, 1928 - March 25, 1996 —
"Knight's Point" is dedicated in memory of Charley Knight, a native Tampan, well-known property appraiser and prominent collector of Native-American artifacts. Knight always had a keen interest in and fond feelings for the 177-acre tract of . . . — Map (db m36131) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Tampa — Old Fort Brooke Municipal Parking Structure1982
On this site was located the first cemetery for Fort Brooke, a U.S. military post dating from 1824 to 1882. Seminole Indians, soldiers and civilian settlers buried here were excavated by archaeologists in 1980 prior to construction of the parking . . . — Map (db m44377) HM
Florida (Lee County), Fort Myers — People and Plants
The story of people and plants provides a continuous thread from the Calusa to early Estero Island settlers, and to the present and future generations. With all the great advances in science and technology, people still rely on natural resources to . . . — Map (db m90988) HM
Florida (Manatee County), Bradenton — 1b — La Florida's Early PeoplesFlorida De Soto Trail
Born of Nomads The early peoples of the Americas were descended from nomadic tribes that arrived during the last Ice Age—more than 12,000 years ago. Florida’s climate resembled that of savannah Africa. Early hunters tracked mastodons, . . . — Map (db m126568) HM
Florida (Manatee County), Bradenton — Shaw's Point Archeological DistrictDe Soto National Memorial — Riverview Pointe —
Riverview Pointe and De Soto National Memorial are part of the Shaw's Point Archeological District. This thirty-five-acre archeological district is on the National Register of Historic Places and preserves a large prehistoric coastal village site . . . — Map (db m125370) HM
Florida (Martin County), Jensen Beach — F-752 — Mount Elizabeth Mound
Mount Elizabeth Mound was constructed approximately 4,000 years ago during the Late Archaic Period by Florida bands who selected this site for a ceremonial shell midden-mound. It was occupied 4,000-800 years ago by ancient peoples who first . . . — Map (db m106567) HM
Florida (Martin County), Stuart — Gilbert's Bar Prehistoric Site
Europeans arriving at Hutchinson Island in the 16th century found the island populated by hundreds of Native Americans living in settlements bordering both the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian River. The rich marine environment provided these . . . — Map (db m106588) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Brickell Park
The Brickell Family donated Brickell Park to Miami in 1921 as a preserve for the family mausoleum. Their remains are now in Woodlawn Cemetery. Brickell Park is one of the few parks connecting Brickell Avenue to the shoreline of Biscayne Bay. From . . . — Map (db m65647) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Mary Brickell Park
The Tequesta Indians were the indigenous people of Miami prior to European contact. Mary Brickell Park encompasses a portion of what was the largest Tequesta village in southeast Florida. Archaeological evidence reveals that this site was in use . . . — Map (db m65648) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — Saving the Circle
The Miami Circle site would not exist today if it were not for the support of the community. Public outcry over the impending destruction of the Miami Circle led to additional archaeological research and preservation of the 2.2 acre parcel of . . . — Map (db m65471) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — The Miami Circle
On this spot of land at the mouth of the Miami River, a historic discovery shed new light on one of Florida's early peoples - the Tequesta. During the demolition of the Brickell Point apartments in 1998, archaeologists uncovered preshistoric . . . — Map (db m65644) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Miami — The Miami Circle at Brickell Point
The Miami Circle at Brickell Point has been designated a National Historic Landmark This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. The Miami Circle is a 38-foot diameter ring of post . . . — Map (db m65646) HM
Florida (Miami-Dade County), Palmetto Bay — The Deering Estate at CutlerEstablished 1890
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1986, the Deering Estate at Cutler is a 444 acre environmental, archaeological, historical and architectural preserve owned by the State of Florida and managed by the Miami-Dade County Park . . . — Map (db m73439) HM
Florida (Okaloosa County), Fort Walton Beach — Preserving and Protecting the Mound
Preserving the Mound Florida is home to a rich variety of cultural resources that represent our society. Many significant archaeological sites, like the Fort Walton Temple Mound, are in public ownership. The preservation of the temple . . . — Map (db m99254) HM
Florida (Okaloosa County), Fort Walton Beach — Story of the Fort Walton Temple Mound
You are looking at a hill of earth which is the original temple mound built by the Prehistoric People living here between A.D. 700 and A.D. 1500. It is thought to be one of the largest human-made prehistoric earthworks on salt water. The temple . . . — Map (db m150434) HM
Florida (Palm Beach County), Jupiter — Jupiter Inlet Midden I
Jupiter Inlet Midden I is an ancient shell mound built by Indians known as Jeaga. A description of these Indians by Jonathan Dickinson was first published in 1699. This shell mound is the site of the village of Hobe where the Dickinson shipwreck . . . — Map (db m96948) HM
Florida (Palm Beach County), Jupiter — F-587 — Sawfish Bay
The waterfront location of today’s Sawfish Bay Park played a major role in the prehistoric and historic settlement of the Jupiter area. First inhabited during the Archaic Period 5,000 years ago, this site provided access to an intricate . . . — Map (db m96953) HM
Florida (Pinellas County), Safety Harbor — Safety Harbor Site
. . . — Map (db m13646) HM
Florida (Pinellas County), Tierra Verde — F-90 — Tierra Verde Mound
A large Indian burial mound was built near this spot about 1500 A.D. It was used for some years by the inhabitants of a nearby Safety Harbor culture village, Indians who were among the ancestors of the later Tocobaga tribe. Excavation in 1961 by . . . — Map (db m112512) HM
Florida (Polk County), Frostproof — Indian Burial Mound
In the seventeenth century under Spanish rule Indians buried their dead here Glass beads and silver ornaments found on an Indian skeleton identified the mound as pre-Seminole — Map (db m112128) HM
Florida (Polk County), Mulberry — The Mulberry Time Capsule
This marker commemorates the dedication of the Mulberry Time Capsule. The capsule was placed here on June 12, 1977 by the Greater Mulberry Chamber of Commerce. The capsule will be opened in the year 2076 to view the mementoes of the 1976 . . . — Map (db m4984) HM
Florida (Putnam County), Welaka — Mount Royal
Panel 1: Mount Royal Mount Royal is an ancient American Indian site that includes the burial mound beyond this display, as well a the remains of a Spanish mission and associated village. The mound was built around 1,000 years ago by . . . — Map (db m93077) HM
Florida (Putnam County), Welaka — F-299 — The Mount Royal Site
Indians constructed the mound and earthworks of this site between A.D. 1250 and 1500. They built the mound as a place to bury their dead, and it grew in phases. When Clarence B. Moore excavated portions of the mound in the 1890s, he discovered . . . — Map (db m93075) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), North Port — Little Salt Spring
The waters of this unusual archeological and paleontological site have yielded preserved human skeletal remains and artifacts dating from 10,000 to 3000 B.C. Animal fossils have also been recovered. Including species of extinct tortoise, sloth, . . . — Map (db m128665) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), North Port — Prehistoric Man Lived Here/Spring Was Once a Cave
Prehistoric Man Lived Here More than 10,000 years ago prehistoric man, sabre-tooth cats, giant sloths, mammoths and mastodons lived in this area of Florida which eons later became a part of Sarasota County. Warm Mineral Springs, here, and . . . — Map (db m128664) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), Osprey — Historic Spanish Point
This 30-acre preserve includes prehistoric shell middens and a burial mound dating from 3,000 B.C. to 1,000 A.D., buildings from the homestead of John Greene Webb, and gardens from the winter estate of Mrs. Potter Palmer. In 1975, it became the . . . — Map (db m60326) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), Sarasota — Indian Beach
(side 1) 5,000 years ago, prehistoric Indians seasonally came to these shore, drawn by freshwater springs, bays teeming with fish and shellfish, and woods rich with game. By 1000 A.D. their middens, ceremonial mounds, and a village plaza . . . — Map (db m60327) HM
Florida (Seminole County), Geneva — King Philipstown/Osceola
(side 1) Here, where the St. Johns River emerges from near-by Lake Harney, stands a shell mound complex significant to the history and pre-history of Seminole County. The mound has been examined by anthropologists Daniel Britton in the . . . — Map (db m93040) HM
Florida (Seminole County), Sanford — Sanford's First Residents
Over 1,000 years ago, the Timucua (tee-MOO-quo) people established villages in this area. They fished, hunted, and grew crops such as maize, squash, and beans. By the 1700s, the Timucuans began to disappear as they succumbed to war and disease . . . — Map (db m55389) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — An Archaeological Discovery
In 2011, archaeologists from the University of Florida made an unexpected discovery at this spot. Coquina and oyster shell foundations, outlining a building of at least 90 by 40 feet, were uncovered just inches under the sod. Artifacts associated . . . — Map (db m146511) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Archaeology at the 17th Century Shrine of Nuestra Señora de la Lecheat Mission Nombre de Dios
Archaeologists from Flagler College and the University of Florida, in collaboration with the Diocese of St. Augustine, are excavating the remains of the Shrine built here in 1687 by the Governor of Florida in honor of Nuestra Señora de la Leche y . . . — Map (db m146512) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — Archaeology at the Nombre de Dios Mission — Nuestra Señora de La Leche Shrine
Archaeological excavations at the Nombre de Dios Mission/Nuestra Señora de La Leche Shrine site have been undertaken by University of Florida archaeologists since 1985. The digs have been carried out in search of the earliest sixteenth century . . . — Map (db m146513) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), St. Augustine — The Ximenez-Fatio House
This two-story coquina house and detached kitchen was built for Spanish merchant Andres Ximenez ca. 1798 for use as a general store, tavern, and family residence. After Florida became a U.S. Territory in 1821, Margaret Cook bought the property in . . . — Map (db m143352) HM
Florida (St. Lucie County), Fort Pierce — Traces of an Early Indian VillageOld Fort Park - Fort Pierce
One of the largest and fiercest early Florida tribes, the Ais, consisted of several hundred thousand people, who lived in east central Florida prior to first contact with Ponce de Leon and the Spanish in 1513. The Ais territory ranged along the . . . — Map (db m117568) HM

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May. 26, 2020