“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”

Paleontology Historical Markers

Impact Crater Area Effects image, Touch for more information
By Mark Hilton, August 20, 2013
Impact Crater Area Effects
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Ancient Life / D'anciennes formes de vie
English: Some of the world's oldest fossils from a time long before dinosaurs have been found near here. Billion-year-old cyanobacteria lived underwater in Precambrian times and left circular shapes in the rock called . . . — Map (db m147794) HM
New Brunswick (Saint John County), Saint John — Fossil Hunters / Chasseurs de fossiles
English: Saint John was home to some of Canada's earliest fossil hunters. One great story from the 1880s tells how a young boy named Will Matthew found a gigantic trilobite — perhaps the largest ever found at that time about . . . — Map (db m147799) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), Flower's Cove — Thrombolites or Living Rocks
These are critically endangered microbial structures. Thrombolites-building micro-organisms resemble the earliest form of life on Earth. These organisms were the only known form of life from 3.5 billion to 650 million years ago. These are some of . . . — Map (db m79656) HM
Newfoundland and Labrador (Division No. 9 (North Peninsula)), Sally's Cove — Green PointCambrian-Ordovician Boundary / La limite Cambrien-Ordovicien
English: In 2000, the global stratotype for the boundary between the Cambrian and Ordovician systems was designated here at Green Point by the International Commission of Stratigraphy. It is located within a bed of shale and limestone . . . — Map (db m79654) HM
Ontario (Ottawa Division), Ottawa — The Woolly Mammoth / Le mammouth laineuxIcon of the Ice Age / Un symbole de l'ère glaciaire
English: DNA from fossil bones reveals that the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) evolved around 350,000 years ago in North America. The life-sized replicas seen here were created by Canadian Museum of Nature sculptors . . . — Map (db m144900) HM
Ontario (Toronto County), Toronto — William Arthur Parks 1868-1936
The first Director of the Royal Ontario Museum of Palaeontology, Parks was born in Hamilton and educated at the University of Toronto, from which he received a Doctorate in 1900. Initially known as an expert on "stromatoporoids", a unique group of . . . — Map (db m83663) HM
El Salvador, San Salvador — The American HippopotamusEl Hipopótamo Americano
Toxodonte o Hipopotamo americano Mixotoxodon larensis Se originaron en Sur America y logran llegar hasta el sur de Mexico cuando se consolida el puente centroamericano, que origino el gran intercambio biótico centroamericano, hace unos tres . . . — Map (db m93000) HM
El Salvador, San Salvador — The Giant SlothPerezoso Gigante
Perezoso Gigante Eremotherium laurillardi Este mamifero se extinguio hace unos 10 mil años por causas que aun se desconocen, pero se cree que tuvo mucho que ver el cambio climático que produjo la ultima glaciación. Se originaron en Sur America y . . . — Map (db m93014) HM
Mexico, Ciudad de México, Colonia Polanco — The National Anthropology Museum of Mexico
Museo Nacional de Antropologia. Tiene sus inicios en 1825 cuando el Presidente Guadalupe Victoria crea el Museo Nacional de Historia coleccionando objetos arquelogicos y documentos prehispánicos. Sufriendo posteriormente cambios . . . — Map (db m103496) HM
Nicaragua, León, La Paz Centro — Momotombito IslandLake Xolotlán
Isla Momotombito: Estratovolcán de 350 msnm. cono apagado de basalto. La isla fue llamado por los indígenas "Cocobolo", por la abundancia de ñámbares fue un santuario arqueológico precolumbino. La composición de flora: Bosque latifoliado bajo . . . — Map (db m93654) HM
Alabama (Elmore County), Wetumpka — Wetumpka Impact Crater
The ridges located here are the remnants of a six-mile diameter circular feature created some 85 million years ago by an estimated 1,000-foot diameter asteroid. The area at the time of impact was a shallow sea. The ridges consist of a variety of . . . — Map (db m67939) HM
Arizona (Apache County), Chambers — Painted Desert / Finding Fossils
The colorful mesas, buttes, and badlands before you compose a natural work of art--the Painted Desert. Wind and running water cut these features from the Chinle Formation deposited over 200 million years ago when this area was a vast inland . . . — Map (db m72925) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Dinosaur Tracks
The imprints were made by a one ton, twenty foot long, meat-eating dinosaur. The slab of sandstone came from a nearby side canyon. When Dilophosaurus tracked through the silt 170 million years ago, this was a different landscape. Shallow streams . . . — Map (db m40326) HM
Arizona (Coconino County), Page — Saurischia Dinosaur Tracks
These tracks were made by a three-toed dinosaur known as a Saurischia therapod. It lived here about 170 million years ago during the Jurassic era when the environment was tropical. The footprints are raised natural sandstone castings of the . . . — Map (db m40321) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Holbrook — Agate Bridge
Centuries of scouring floodwaters washed out the arroyo, or gully, beneath this 110-foot (34 meter) petrified log to form Agate Bridge. The stone log, harder than the sandstone around it, resisted erosion and remained suspended as the softer rock . . . — Map (db m68872) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Canyons in TimeNavajo National Monument
The maze of canyonlands stretching before you is the continuing work of millions of years of powerful and pervasive geological forces. Water scours and down-cuts channels in the soft sandstone plateau. The process is augmented by forces of . . . — Map (db m71515) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Dinosaur FootprintNavajo National Monument
Footprints of a small dinosaur that walked on his hind legs. About 180 million years ago, he left a lasting signature by walking through the mud. The print then filled with sediment, and both print and cast (upside-down here) eventually turned to . . . — Map (db m71516) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — SweathouseNavajo National Monument
This miniature forked-stick hogan without a smoke hole is actually a highly effective bath — an ancient solution to the problem of keeping clean in a land where water is scarce. Here’s how it works: Stones are heated in a fire, then . . . — Map (db m71517) HM
Arizona (Navajo County), Shonto — Upside-down MountainNavajo National Monument
Hidden away in Tsegi Canyon’s wilderness of bare rock, sand, and sparse vegetation are surprising pockets of luxuriant growth. Betatakin Canyon—home to a village of prehistoric cliff-dwellings farmers—is one of these oases. Fir Canyon, . . . — Map (db m71514) HM
California (Contra Costa County), El Cerrito — El Cerrito Hills
. . . — Map (db m94102) HM
California (Contra Costa County), Walnut Creek — Blackhawk Ranch QuarryA Paleontological Treasure
The Blackhawk Ranch fossil quarry is located south of Rock City on the lower slopes of Mount Diablo. During the Late Miocene, approximately 9-10 million years ago, this region was a rolling lowland. It represented the first evidence of emergence of . . . — Map (db m93648) HM
California (Kern County), McKittrick — 498 — McKittrick Brea PitCalifornia Historical Landmark
Located one-eigth mile west of here is ancient asphaltum seepage in which hundreds of Pleistocene (15,000 - 50,000 years ago) birds and animals were trapped. Site first explored in 1925 by the University of California, with excavation completed in . . . — Map (db m42707) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — Chester Stock, Ph.D. - Observation PitHancock Park — Rancho La Brea —
Panel 1: Chester Stock, Ph.D. January 28, 1892 - December 7, 1950 Paleontalogist Chief curator of science - Los Angeles County Museum Chairman of the Division of Geological Sciences California Institute of Technology who, encouraged . . . — Map (db m51436) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Los Angeles — 522 — Tongva SpringsWounded Deer Springs — Serra Springs —
In 1776 Portola encamped at the springs, part of the Rancho San Vicente - Santa Monica, known as the: 1. Junipero Serra Springs; 2. El Berrendo; 3. San Gregorio; 4. San Vincente Springs. This site is on the El Camino Real route, used by the Mission . . . — Map (db m122157) HM
California (Los Angeles County), Pearblossom — The Devil's PunchbowlDepartment of Parks & Recreation, County of Los Angeles
The hills where you stand are a part of one of the world's geological wonders, The San Andreas Rift -- A great fault and earthquake zone. __________ Because of the movements along this fault zone, the pink and tan colored Punchbowl rocks seen . . . — Map (db m115197)
California (Napa County), Calistoga — 915 — Petrified Forest
The petrified forest, dating from the Eocene Period, is the only known example of a petrified forest in California. Its size, scope and variety of petrification is unique in the world. Opalized wood, obsidian, quartz crystal, petrified coral and . . . — Map (db m101552) HM
California (Orange County), Laguna Hills — 28 — Fossil Reef
Before you are the white limestone remains of an 18,000,000 year old tropical shell reef. Formed in a shallow bay, it contains fossils of scallops, clams, and tube worms. Mudstones of the same age, found nearby, held fossil whales and shark teeth. . . . — Map (db m101952) HM
California (Orange County), Mission Viejo — FossilWhale Exhibit
The main exhibit displays a fossil right whale skull in profile. It was recovered from the marine siltstone member of the Capistrano Formation (3.5 to 5 million years old) in the 1970's right here in Mission Viejo. It is a fossil skull from the . . . — Map (db m72036) HM
California (Orange County), Mission Viejo — Whale Fossil
Originally dedicated on June 4, 1977 by the Mission Viejo Cultural and Heritage Association. The Fossil was unearthed in the southern part of the city in 1976, and is a partial skull of a Baleen whale belonging to the Bowhead or right whale . . . — Map (db m72035) HM
California (San Bernardino County), Zzyzx — A Lost Lake
The dry lake bed before you was once part of ancient Lake Mojave. During the last ice age, a cooler and wetter climate produced the Mojave River. It flowed inland about 150 miles from the San Bernardino Mountains, until its waters became trapped . . . — Map (db m83467) HM
California (San Francisco City and County), San Francisco — 20,000 Years Ago
San Francisco was an ancient river valley were creatures who grazed and browsed and stalked their prey, left their bones. (text on the horizontal surface) 20,000 years ago you could have walked to the Farallon Islands... . . . — Map (db m92829) HM
California (Sonoma County), near Calistoga — 915 — Petrified Forest
The Petrified Forest, dating from the Eocene Period, is the only known example of a petrified forest in California. Its size, scope and variety of petrification is unique in the world. Opalized wood, obsidian, quartz crystal, petrified coral and . . . — Map (db m102520) HM
California (Sonoma County), near Calistoga — To Commemorate..."Petrified Charlie"
To Commemorate ... The discovery of the petrified forest by "Petrified Charlie" in the year 1870. ... The meeting with Robert Louis Stevenson immortalized in the book, "Silverado Squatters." ... All those others whose lives were devoted to . . . — Map (db m102524) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Bird Track
Birds are descendants of theropod (meat-eating) dinosaurs and their tracks look similar: three long narrow toes with claw marks. However, bird tracks are generally smaller than most theropod tracks. This print is wider than long and the . . . — Map (db m114062) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Bone Deposition
Dinosaur bones were deposited here on the inside of a meander by a fast-flowing stream. This deposit known as a “point bar” grew by the addition of sand, causing growth of the point bar towards the outer bank and downstream. Larger, . . . — Map (db m125104) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Brontosaur Bulges
The downward bulges in the rock layers are most likely dinosaur tracks viewed in cross section. When dinosaurs walked in soft sand they sank in, pushing down and distorting the layers beneath their feet. The tracks later filled in with more . . . — Map (db m125156) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Cretaceous Time
The tan sandstone of the Dakota Group form the crest of Dinosaur Ridge and were deposited more than 100 million years ago during Cretaceous time along the western shore of the Western Interior Seaway. At that time, only low hills existed to the . . . — Map (db m125322) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Palm Fronds
Large palm fronds show that the climate was much warmer than that of today. Other plant and tree types found here, such as extinct relatives of sycamore, walnut, paddle-leafed ginger and an ancient relative of the avocado, lost their leaves . . . — Map (db m114059) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Theropod Track
First noted by Matt Mossbrucker and later described by Dr. Martin Lockley, this theropod (a carnivorous dinosaur) track was part of the top layer of sandstone at the Bone Site, 50 yards to the north. During road construction in 1937, this . . . — Map (db m125150) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Triceratops Tracks
Triceratops: 30 feet long, 6-12 ton Herbivore Several tracks of Triceratops or a closely related horned dinosaur were discovered in this area. Among horned dinosaurs, Triceratops is the most likely track maker because many of its bones have . . . — Map (db m114058) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Triceratops Trail
Based on Late Cretaceous fossil evidence found along this trail, this area was a delta with lakes, streams and a mosaic of swamps, scrubby forests, palm tree thickets and small open areas. Impressions of logs, leaves and palm fronds suggest a . . . — Map (db m111418) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Morrison — Dinosaur RidgeDesignated as part of the Dakota Hogback Natural Area
Designated a Colorado Natural Area in 2002, the Dakota Hogback/Dinosaur Ridge Natural Area in Jefferson County is a crown jewel of statewide, national and international importance. The Dakota Hogback/Dinosaur Ridge Natural Area exemplifies all the . . . — Map (db m80464) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Morrison — Front Range Foothills
You are looking out over the edges of tilted and eroded layers of sandstone and shale that lie upon much older rocks in the mountains behind you. If the eroded layers were restored to where you stand they would be more than two miles thick. The . . . — Map (db m57932) HM
Connecticut (New Haven County), New Haven — Othniel Charles Marsh
Othniel Charles Marsh Born at Lockport, N.Y. October 29, 1831. Died at New Haven, March 18, 1899 Professor of Paleontology in Yale University 1866 – 1899 President of the National Academy of Sciences 1883 – 1895 Eminent as . . . — Map (db m50917) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), Foggy Bottom — GW's River Horse — [Lisner Auditorium] —
Legend has it that the Potomac was once home to these wondrous beasts. George and Martha Washington are even said to have watched them cavort in the river shallows from the porch of their beloved Mount Vernon on summer evenings. Credited . . . — Map (db m46980) HM
District of Columbia (Washington), The National Mall — Triceratops horridusBronze cast of prototype, USNM 517431
Triceratops roamed northwestern North America 70-65 million years ago, when the climate was much warmer and wetter. It dined on plants that included relatives of those you see here. This cast was created from the skull of our . . . — Map (db m113990) HM
Florida (Alachua County), Gainesville — Florida Museum
The Florida Museum traces its roots to the 1890s at Florida Agricultural College in Lake City. In 1906, the collections moved to the UF campus in Gainesville. On May 30, 1917, the Florida State Museum became the state's official natural history . . . — Map (db m134906) HM
Florida (Brevard County), Titusville — F-486 — Windover Archaeological Site
Discovered by accident in 1982, the Windover site is a burial place of Early Native Americans who inhabited this region 7,000 to 8,000 years ago. The burials were placed underwater in the peat of the shallow pond. This peat helped to preserve . . . — Map (db m60342) HM
Florida (Hernando County), Bayport — F-788 — The Bayport Area Before Human Occupation/Bayport's First People
(side 1) The Bayport Area Before Human Occupation The fossilized remains of many prehistoric animals and plants are buried in the Bayport area. During the Eocene Period, 45 million years ago (MYA), the Gulf covered this region. . . . — Map (db m93296) HM
Florida (Hillsborough County), Ruskin — Miracle at Cockroach Bay The Leisey Shell Fossils
In the ponds in front of you one of the richest Ice-Age fossil discoveries in the world took place in 1983-84. When amateur paleontologists reported a large accumulation of fossils to the Florida Museum of Natural History, the Leisey Shell Pit and . . . — Map (db m120625) HM
Florida (Orange County), Lake Buena Vista — Tyrannosaurus Rex“Sue”
This fossil cast is an exact replica of “Sue”, the most complete Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton ever found. Named for her discoverer, Sue was found in South Dakota on August 12, 1990. Sue is 90% complete, a fossil find of enormous importance . . . — Map (db m76896) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), North Port — Little Salt Spring
The waters of this unusual archeological and paleontological site have yielded preserved human skeletal remains and artifacts dating from 10,000 to 3000 B.C. Animal fossils have also been recovered. Including species of extinct tortoise, sloth, . . . — Map (db m128665) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), North Port — Prehistoric Man Lived Here/Spring Was Once a Cave
Prehistoric Man Lived Here More than 10,000 years ago prehistoric man, sabre-tooth cats, giant sloths, mammoths and mastodons lived in this area of Florida which eons later became a part of Sarasota County. Warm Mineral Springs, here, and . . . — Map (db m128664) HM
Florida (Sarasota County), Venice — 1926 Article From "Venice News"
"It's a mammoth," voiced Dr. J. W. Gidley, Paleontologist of the Smithsonian Institute, 15 minutes after he first saw the fossil tusks and jaw bone of the prehistoric monster found in Venice. The size of the tusks indicates that it probably stood 14 . . . — Map (db m32747) HM
Florida (St. Johns County), Switzerland — William Bartram Scenic Highway
Within a mile and a half of this marker are numerous prehistoric sites, several of which date from 2000 BC. Native Americans occupied the northern river section from about 4000 BC until the arrival of Europeans after 1500 AD. Riverbank . . . — Map (db m61973) HM
Florida (Volusia County), Port Orange — Bongoland
Several attempts were made to operate Dunlawton Plantation as a tourist attraction in the the 1950's Dr. Perry Sperber leased the premises from J. Saxon Lloyd for a park to display prehistoric monsters and had a number of replicas, molded in . . . — Map (db m34878) HM
Florida (Volusia County), South Daytona — Giant Ground Sloth
On this site in 1975 was found the best preserved and most complete giant ground sloth ever found in North America. The sloth weighed three to five tons, stood thirteen feet tall and was a vegetarian. An estimated fifty species of animals were . . . — Map (db m45449) HM
Georgia (DeKalb County), Atlanta — Lophorhothon atopus“Crested Nose”
Lophorhothon atopus (Loh-FOUR-ah-thon ay-TOH-pus) “Crested Nose” Cretaceous Period (65- 144 million years ago) Southeastern United States This scene shows a family of Lophorhothon dinosaurs, as they may have . . . — Map (db m113593) HM
Hawaii (Hawaii County), Waimea — Clues from the Past... The Archaeology of Lapakahi
Archaeologists seek to understand people and places of the past by studying the sites and cultural remains left behind. Students from the University of Hawai'i conducted extensive excavations here between 1968 and 1970 to learn about the people of . . . — Map (db m110325) HM
Idaho (Bannock County), Downey — 171 — Red Rock Pass
You are standing in the outlet of ancient Lake Bonneville, a vast prehistoric inland sea, of which Salt Lake is modern remnant Covering over 20,000 square miles when it overflowed here about 14,500 years ago, its winding shoreline would have . . . — Map (db m105831) HM
Idaho (Caribou County), Soda Springs — China Hat Geological Site
Noticeable for their distinct shapes, China Hat and nearby China Cap are rhyolite domes that intruded and pierced the basalt of the Blackfoot Lava Field. The basaltic phase of this volcanic province was active in middle Pleistocene around 500,000 . . . — Map (db m105966) HM
Idaho (Franklin County), Preston — 432 — Old Delta Sediments
Diverted into this valley by lava flows, the Bear River deposited a huge, mostly red clay delta here where it entered a vast inland sea that covered much of Utah. About 14,500 years ago , its shoreline suddenly went down about 80 feet . . . — Map (db m105834) HM
Idaho (Gooding County), Hagerman — A Changing Climate
Idaho was a very different place during the Pliocene Epoch (three to four million years ago). Like much of the planet, this area was warmer and more humid, with annual rain fall of 20 inches. Studies of ancient pollen found in the sand and clay . . . — Map (db m139552) HM
Idaho (Gooding County), Hagerman — Right Beneath Your Feet
A trained eye, persistence - and a good deal of luck - often lead paleontologist to new fossil discoveries. New fossil localities are discovered every year. Currently Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument monitors over 600 fossil bearing . . . — Map (db m139609) HM
Idaho (Gooding County), Hagerman — Sediments and Fossils
The rock layers in the bluff across the river are made of sediments - particles of sand, silt, and clay. These layers, called strata, were carried here by the ancient Snake River and were deposited as the river entered an ancient lake. This process . . . — Map (db m139554) HM
Idaho (Gooding County), Hagerman — Where are the Fossils?
Step back in time, three to four million years, and imagine a place were zebra-like horses, ground sloths, mastodons, and other amazing creatures roamed. Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument is filled with fossil evidence of their existence in . . . — Map (db m139551) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Grangeville — A Mammoth Discovery
Can you imagine mammoths walking the streets of Grangeville? Before Sept. 2, 1994, no one else could either. But on that date, a heavy equipment operator for Prairie Land and Timber, found a "big bone" when he was digging in Tolo Lake. That . . . — Map (db m141309) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Grangeville — Gathering at Tipahxlee’whum (Tepahlewam)
(Three panels outline the history of Tolo Lake) The Nez Perce name for this lake is Tipahxlee’whum (Tepahlewam or Split Rocks). In early June 1877, five bands of Nimiipuu gathered here for their last taste of freedom before . . . — Map (db m121267) HM
Idaho (Idaho County), Grangeville — The Camas Prairie Mammoth
Look Up! You're looking up at a full-size replica of the skeleton of a male Columbian mammoth. Mammoths are related to modern Asian elephants. Males stood up to 14 feet tall at the shoulders and may have weighed 10 tons. Females were . . . — Map (db m141310) HM
Idaho (Jerome County), Hunt — 276 — Prehistoric Hunters
Bone fragments of extinct species of ground sloth, horse, camel, and elephant found in a nearby cave mingle with weapons and radiocarbon dates from Idaho’s earliest hunters.

Archaeologists have confirmed that people camped here at least 10,000 . . . — Map (db m62963) HM

Indiana (Franklin County), Brookville — 24.1995.2 — Brookville's Carnegie Library
Dedicated in 1912, starting with approximately 600 books; collections and services have expanded to meet needs of local patrons. One of 1, 679 libraries built in U.S. with funds from philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. Indiana built more Carnegie . . . — Map (db m44694) HM
Kansas (Logan County), Oakley — The Monument RocksOne of the Eight Wonders of Kansas
Over 100 million years ago, during the cretaceous era, Kansas was covered by a vast ocean. Dramatic natural features, such as the Monument Rocks, are remains of that ancient seabed. Since the 1870s, fossil hunters have searched the chalk beds . . . — Map (db m66099) HM
Kansas (Marshall County), Blue Rapids — Gigantic GlaciersThe Monument to the Ice Age — Blue Rapids, Kansas —
Huge continental glaciers, hundreds of feet thick, came from the north to northeastern Kansas in at least two different episodes carrying rocks, gravel, sand, and a special clay called loess to the Blue Rapids area. Our fertile soils and . . . — Map (db m78960) HM
Kansas (Marshall County), Blue Rapids — Ice AgeThe Monument to the Ice Age — Blue Rapids, Kansas —
The age of ice made great changes in the Earth's climate. From 1.6 million to 10,000 years ago the climate chilled, glaciers formed and advanced and retreated at least twice. Advancing glaciers squeezed zones where plants, people and other . . . — Map (db m78957) HM
Kansas (Marshall County), Blue Rapids — Oldest Rocks in KansasThe Monument to the Ice Age — Blue Rapids, Kansas —
The oldest rocks in Kansas can be found right here in Blue Rapids. They are called Sioux Quartzite, a metamorphosed red sandstone originally deposited as sand in riverbeds, buried, and made extremely hard by heat and pressure. This quartzite was . . . — Map (db m78958) HM
Kansas (Riley County), Manhattan — Geology at Konza

The image on this plaque depicts your view of the Konza Prairie and the Kansas River Valley. Looking from west to southwest, the view is typical of the Flint Hills in their natural state. Due west is the floodplain of the Kansas River and to . . . — Map (db m80813) HM

Kentucky (Boone County), Florence — 1253 — Boone County, 1798
Formed by legislative act from a part of Campbell County. Names for Daniel Boone, renowned Kentucky pioneer-explorer. Big Boone Lick, graveyard of the mammoth, was discovered in 1729 by Capt. M. de Longueil. In 1756, Mary Inglis was brought . . . — Map (db m61867) HM
Kentucky (Boone County), Union — 32 — Big Bone Lick
Discovered in 1739, by the French Capt. Charles Lemoyne de Longueil this famous saline- sulphur spring was frequented for thousands of years byIndians and vast herds of buffalo, deer and other animals. The first English explorers found . . . — Map (db m79060) HM
Kentucky (Boone County), Union — 2124 — Big Bone Lick — Marker #2 - Marker at the Museum - with Lewis and Clark marker —
Scientists consider William Clark’s dig at Big Bone Lick in 1807 as establishing American vertebrate paleontology. Bones found here by Clark included mastodon and mammoth. Prehistoric native American artifacts found were given to Dr. Wm. . . . — Map (db m79062) HM
Kentucky (Boone County), Union — 2124 — Lewis and Clark in KentuckyBig Bone Lick
In Oct. 1803, while traveling down Ohio River to meet Wm. Clark for expedition to Pacific, Meriwether Lewis visited Big Bone Lick. He was to gather fossilized bones for Pres. Thomas Jefferson. In Sept. 1807, Clark supervised a 3-week dig for . . . — Map (db m79088) HM
Louisiana (West Carroll Parish), Pioneer — Before Poverty Point — Poverty Point World Heritage Site —
Clovis and other spear point types typical of the Paleoindian period are found at Poverty Point and at other sites on Macon Ridge. They are scattered, as if the people were highly mobile, only stopping briefly as they moved across the landscape. . . . — Map (db m110001) HM
Maryland (Prince George's County), Laurel — Dinosaur Alley
Dinosaurs lived during most of the Mesozoic Era (235 to 65 million years ago), on every continent on Earth. In Maryland, each of three Mesozoic time periods in which dinosaurs live is represented in its geology -- Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. . . . — Map (db m67139) HM
Maryland (Prince George's County), Laurel — Dinosaurs in Maryland!
In 1842, English scientist Sir Richard Owen coined the term "dinosaur" to describe a group of ancient reptiles that inhabited the Earth from 230 to 65 million years ago. The discovery of the first dinosaur bones and the knowledge they reveal about . . . — Map (db m67193) HM
Maryland (Prince George's County), Laurel — Welcome to Dinosaur Park
A Walk Through Time As you enter Dinosaur Park you take a walk through time from the present day into Dinosaur times! Modern plants and trees give way to ginkgoes and ferns reminiscent of the early plants and tree that are fossilized here . . . — Map (db m67243) HM
Montana (Beaverhead County), Lima — The Tendoy Mountains
About four million years ago, this part of the North American Plate slid over a gigantic source of heat in the mantle known as the Yellowstone hot spot. In Yellowstone National Park, this heat is responsible for the geysers, mud pots, and hot . . . — Map (db m124335) HM
Montana (Cascade County), Great Falls — "Nibbles"A Life-size Montanoceratops
"Nibbles," a Montanoceratops cerorynchus (sic, cerorhynchos?), was a small plant eating dinosaur from the late cretaceous period. The species is about 68 million years old and was discovered in 1942 in the St. Mary River Formation in North Central . . . — Map (db m143859) HM
Montana (Gallatin County), Three Forks — Thunder Horses
From 38 to 30 million years ago, great herds of rhinoceros-like herbivores, called Megacerops, roamed this part of Montana. Megacerops, also known as Brontotheres, were massive animals. Classified as Perissodactyla, Megacerops had three . . . — Map (db m141653) HM
Montana (Jefferson County), Whitehall — A New World: Tertiary Mammals
Between the time dinosaurs went went extinct 65 million years ago, and the beginning of the Ice Age, some 2 million years ago, is a time called the Age of Mammals. During this period of time the western third of Montana experienced a variety of . . . — Map (db m141642) HM
Montana (McCone County), Brockway — Dinosaurs
Its (sic) difficult to believe now, but 65 million years ago the middle of this continent was a shallow sea. The area, when not underwater, was part of a hot, humid subtropical coastline of marshes, rivers and river deltas bearing dense vegetation . . . — Map (db m143334) HM
Montana (Mineral County), Alberton — Glacial Lake Missoulaand Transportation Along the Clark Fork
During the last ice age about 15,000 years ago, an enormous glacier pushed down from British Columbia and blocked the Clark Fork River in northern Idaho. The glacier functioned as an ice dam creating the largest glacial lake known to have existed, . . . — Map (db m123059) HM
Montana (Mineral County), Saltese — A Lost WorldPrecambrian Belt Rocks
Imagine a world very different than we know today. About 1.5 billion years ago during the Precambrian Era, the earth's environment was desolate, with no trees, fish, animals or birds. Shallow seas with extensive near-shore flats were fed by streams . . . — Map (db m123024) HM
Montana (Roosevelt County), Culbertson — Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas
The Fort Union Formation was deposited not long after the dinosaur extinction, about 65 million years ago. Rivers originating in mountains to the west and south carried abundant sediment to the nearby shallow inland sea to the east, crossing the . . . — Map (db m142979) HM
Montana (Valley County), Glasgow — The Ice Ages
For thousands of years, northern Montana was covered under massive ice sheets. Glaciologists aren't sure why the ice ages began, but the process of glaciation is known because of the mark it leaves on the landscape. About 190,000 years ago, glaciers . . . — Map (db m142928) HM
Nebraska (Lancaster County), Lincoln — Mammuthus Columbi
Mammoths roamed Nebraska's grasslands for more than one million years before mysteriously disappearing between 11,000 and 10,000 years ago. These extinct relatives of today's elephants were the largest mammals ever to walk the Great Plains. Adult . . . — Map (db m54358) HM
Nebraska (Morrill County), Bayard — The Innocent Assassins
Once in the sun-fierce badlands of the west in that strange country of volcanic ash and cones, . . . we found a sabertooth, most ancient cat, far down in all those cellars of dead time.”From The Innocent Assassins by . . . — Map (db m89174) HM
Nebraska (Sioux County), Harrison — Fossil Hills TrailAgate Fossil Beds National Monument — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
The hills held ancient secrets for paleontologists. The two hills in the distance don’t look like anything special. Even up close the untrained eye will see nothing astounding. But a sandstone layer near the bases of the hills has yielded one of the . . . — Map (db m62064) HM
New Hampshire (Coos County), Lancaster — 173 — Lake Coos and the Presidential Range
Lancaster, founded in 1763, lies on the bed of glacial Lake Coos, formed as the glaciers receded 14,000 years ago. Today, the Connecticut, an American Heritage River, flows along the bottom of the ancient lake. You stand at a gateway to The Great . . . — Map (db m75697) HM
New Hampshire (Grafton County), Lincoln — Borasaurus(Granitus Holus)
Millions of years ago, the borasaurus roamed this area, It was similar in size to a T-Rex but with a large drill like horn on its head. It was his constant sharpening of this horn that produced such a smooth hole in this granite boulder. This rare . . . — Map (db m97311) HM
New Jersey (Camden County), Haddonfield — Hadrosaurus Foulkii
In a marl pit on the John E. Hopkins farm in October 1858, the world’s first nearly complete dinosaur skeleton was unearthed by William Parker Foulke. The find was adjacent to this point. This was also the first dinosaur skeleton to ever be mounted. . . . — Map (db m29239) HM
New Jersey (Camden County), Haddonfield — The Hadrosaurus foulkii Sculpture
Commemorates the Historic Discovery by William Parker Foulke in Haddonfield, New Jersey, 1858 Historic Fossil The 1858 find was the most complete dinosaur skeleton unearthed anywhere in the world up until that time. It was the first that . . . — Map (db m114425) HM
New Jersey (Middlesex County), Woodbridge — William Cutter House
William Cutter House Built at the end of the 18th century, this farm house at 115 Amboy Avenue was the home of William Cutter (1778-1838), father of successful clay magnate, Hampton Cutter (1811-82). William Cutter’s great-grandfather, Richard . . . — Map (db m125780) HM
New Mexico (Rio Arriba County), Abiquiu — Coelophysis Quarry — Ghost Ranch —
In 1881 David Baldwin discovered small fossilized bones on what is now Ghost Ranch. He mailed the bones to paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope in Philadelphia. Cope had been through the area in the late 1870s and had urged Baldwin to explore and . . . — Map (db m75212) HM
New York (Albany County), Cohoes — Cohoes Mastodon
Site of Cohoes Mastodon Found September 1866 Now in N. Y. State Museum — Map (db m40818) HM
New York (Albany County), Cohoes — The Cohoes Mastodont
The Cohoes Mastodont was discovered during the excavation for Harmony Mill #3 in 1866. The mill is sometimes referred to as the "Mastodon Mill" for this reason. When all the bones were recovered, they were kept at the Harmony Mills Office on . . . — Map (db m41622) HM
New York (Albany County), Voorheesville — Indian Ladder
In Colonial Times An Indian Trail Ascended The Helderberg Cliffs At This Point From The Lowlands To The East State Ed Dept 1932 Friends of Thacher Park 2014Map (db m77125) HM
New York (Albany County), Voorheesville — Thacher Point
At this site, on September 14, 1914, this park was formally dedicated in memory of John Boyd Thacher. His widow, Emma Treadwell Thacher, donated the 350 acres to the state of New York to be preserved as a public park. The Thachers, whose summer home . . . — Map (db m77243) HM
New York (Chautauqua County), Irving — Everett R. Burmaster
1890-1965 lived in Irving. Historian, Archaeologist, Paleontologist, BMS Curator. Seneca adopted-Gahgewa. Saved Hanover Elm & Sottle Fiddle. — Map (db m64672) HM
New York (New York County), New York — The Arsenal
The historic Arsenal is one of two buildings in Central Park predating the park. It was designed by esteemed architect Martin T. Thompson (1786-1877) and built between 1847 and 1851 by the State of New York as a storage repository for the storage . . . — Map (db m137070) HM
New York (Ontario County), Naples — Grimes Glen
Grimes Glen Home of the oldest fossil tree found and mounted by D. Dana Luther, Naples, N.Y. Now in State Education building, Albany, N.Y. — Map (db m125503) HM
New York (Orange County), Montgomery — Mastadon Dig 1800
1st U.S. Science expedition remains exhibited London & Amer. philosoph. Society, Philadelphia. Dig Painted by Charles W. Peale, 1810. — Map (db m49822) HM
New York (Saratoga County), Saratoga Springs — Lester ParkA Natural History Site of the New York State Museum
A 490 million year old fossilized sea bottom. Donated in memory of William Lester, Esq. 1914 — Map (db m131595) HM
Ohio (Franklin County), Columbus — Dominion Land Company Mound An Early Woodlands Period Structure/Sunwall and Moonwall Murals
Dominion Land Company Mound An Early Woodlands Period Structure In the early 1800s, Prosper Wetmore wrote about his childhood memories of native mounds in the ravine area of Northwestern Clinton Township. At that time, he recalled two . . . — Map (db m108853) HM
Ohio (Lorain County), Sheffield Lake — 12-47 — Jay Terrell and his "Terrible Fish"
Around 1867, along the shale cliffs of the lakeshore of Sheffield Lake, Jay Terrell found fossils of a "terrible fish" later named in his honor as Dinichthys Terrelli. This animal, now known as Dunkleosteus terrelli, was a massive arthrodire (an . . . — Map (db m67502) HM
Ohio (Lucas County), Sylvania — 62-48 — Centennial Terrace and Quarry / Fossil Park
Side A Centennial Terrace and Quarry In 1931, the France Stone Company ceased operations. Robert Burge leased 19 acres of the site for recreational swimming and opened Centennial Quarry in 1934. Five years later, . . . — Map (db m94772) HM
Ohio (Mercer County), Fort Recovery — Native Cultures
About 14,000 years ago, the last glacier receded from this area. Mastodons, mammoths, and giant beavers, roamed the region. The ancestors of American Indians arrived in Ohio during this time. These Paleoindians were hunters and . . . — Map (db m136902) HM
Ohio (Mercer County), St. Henry — 1- 54 — The Cranberry PrairieA Geological Feature of Western Ohio
The Cranberry Prairie, southwest of this marker, is a part of Ohio's natural history. The place was named for the cranberries that grew in a swamp here prior to drainage of the area. The Cranberry Prairie was created by centuries of peat . . . — Map (db m94414) HM
Ohio (Montgomery County), Miamisburg — Miamisburg MoundMarker Number One
This is the highest and largest of the many conical burial mounds in Ohio. Erected in prehistoric times by the so-called Mound Builders. It stands as an imposing memorial to those first Ohioans.

The mound is 70 feet in height; 877 feet in . . . — Map (db m105858) HM

Ohio (Montgomery County), Miamisburg — Miamisburg MoundMarker Number Two
Miamisburg Mound, the largest conical earthwork in Ohio, originally was sixty-eight feet high with a diameter of three hundred feet. One excavating attempt in 1869 reduced the height to its present sixty-five feet. The mound was then partially . . . — Map (db m105872) HM
Ohio (Wyandot County), Carey — 4-88 — Sheriden Cave — Ohio Historical Marker —
Indian Trail Caverns, first opened in 1927, is one of many caves that occur on the dolomite ridge traversed by State Route 568 in Wyandot and Hancock counties. Sheriden Cave, a karst sinkhole associated with the caverns, was discovered in 1989. It . . . — Map (db m93656) HM
Oklahoma (Cleveland County), Norman — Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
In 1899 the Oklahoma Territorial Legislature created a natural history museum to preserve Oklahoma’s rich heritage. More than 100 years later, the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History was built to protect the museum’s priceless . . . — Map (db m143652) HM
Oregon (Grant County), Dayville — An Oregon Fossil Rush
“What is it that urges a man to risk his life in these precipitous fossil beds? I can answer only for myself, but with me there were two motives, the desire to add to human knowledge, which has been a great motive all my life, and the . . . — Map (db m114115) HM
Oregon (Grant County), Dayville — Mascall OverlookJohn Day Fossil Beds National Monument
Marker 1 Shows an overview map of the National Monument with other points of interest.

Marker 2 Like Icing on a Cake. "Between 16.6 million and 15 million years ago, eastern Oregon sat above the nascent Yellowstone hot spot's . . . — Map (db m108677) HM

Oregon (Lake County), Fort Rock — A Path to the Past10,000 Years of Homesteading
The history of the west is linked with the idea of finding a new home in a challenging land. We call it homesteading. During the Pleistocene epoch, homesteaders in the Fort Rock Basin were mammoths, camels, horses, flamingos, and . . . — Map (db m113604) HM
Oregon (Lane County), Eugene — Granite Glacial Erratic
A rock or boulder carried from its original source by an act of nature is called an erratic. This granite erratic was deposited near Harrisburg, Oregon about 12,000 years ago. Geologists say it was carried there by an iceberg during the . . . — Map (db m99224) HM
Oregon (Lane County), Eugene — Petrified Wood
This piece of petrified wood was found near the mouth of Moffett Creek when the Columbia River Highway was widened in 1950. The wood turned to stone as the fiber of the original tree, which lived during the early Miocene age (26 million years ago), . . . — Map (db m99223) HM
Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — Fossils on the Frontier
Northern Paiute Indians and a few mountain men were the only residents of the John Day Country before 1860. Cavalry troops passed through the John Day River drainage looking for the best route from the Columbia River to Fort Boise. One company, . . . — Map (db m71675) HM
Oregon (Wheeler County), Mitchell — Painted Hills OverlookJohn Day Fossil Beds National Monument
Through this dry land in 1865 rode a pioneer minister and amateur scientist named Thomas Condon. It was the first of his many visits. Imagine his reaction when he discovered the imprints of countless fossilized leaves near these Painted Hills, . . . — Map (db m71698) HM
Pennsylvania (Allegheny County), Pittsburgh — Diplodocus carnegii
Diplodocus carnegii lived 150 million years ago, when dinosaurs dominated the land. Carnegie Museum paleontologists first discovered the remains in Wyoming on July 4, 1899. A new species, the dinosaur was named after Andrew Carnegie, the museums . . . — Map (db m99165) HM
Pennsylvania (Crawford County), Conneaut Lake — Geology
Conneaut Lake is a kettle lake formed by the receding glacier during the last Ice Age, about 12,000 years ago. As the glacier melted, a large block of ice partially embedded in accumulated sediment formed the depression, which became the lake. . . . — Map (db m74623) HM
Pennsylvania (Crawford County), Titusville — Titusvillia Drakei Caster
In ancient seabottom rocks exposed in this stream, the Holotype Specimen of a rare fossil sponge was found by Paleontologist Kenneth E. Caster. In 1939 in recognition of the support which brought the sciences of geology and paleontology to such . . . — Map (db m64970) HM
Pennsylvania (Monroe County), Minisink Hills — Shawnee-Minisink Archaeological Site
Nearly 13,000 years old, this location, near the confluence of the Delaware River and Brodhead Creek, is one of the earliest dated Native American sites in the northeastern US. Archaeological investigations uncovered hundreds of stone tools left by . . . — Map (db m86978) HM
Pennsylvania (Philadelphia County), Philadelphia — Edward Drinker Cope
Internationally renowned vertebrate paleontologist and zoologist, Cope lived and worked here in his later years. He wrote many scientific papers describing hundreds of fossils & living animals and is famous for his long-standing feud with O.C. Marsh . . . — Map (db m82812) HM
Pennsylvania (Philadelphia County), Philadelphia — Peale’s Mastodon, 2017American Philosophical Society Museum
In 1801, Charles Willson Peale excavated a mastodon skeleton in upstate New York. Afterwards, he made this painting that shows how he did it. Eventually Peale displayed the skeleton in his Philadelphia Museum. In this garden, you see an artist’s . . . — Map (db m106384) HM
South Dakota (Fall River County), Hot Springs — 680 — The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, SD
Gigantic mammoths, ancestors of the majestic elephants of today, once roamed freely on the High Plains of North America. A repository of their remains, along with other kinds of animals, lay undisturbed until their discovery over 26,000 years later, . . . — Map (db m89376) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — A 75-Million-Year Walk
This trail features seven types of animals that once lived in the area now known as Badlands National Park. Each of these lineages met a different fate as the climate changed. Some moved, some adapted to the changes, and some are now extinct. . . . — Map (db m114175) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — Anatomy of a Badland
In the days when oreodonts walked this land, the rock layer before you was not rock but the muddy bottom of a streambed. Over time, those sediments hardened into the thick horizontal band of grayish red stone you see here. Thin ribbons of . . . — Map (db m137007) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — Bands of Time
Rock layers in Badlands National Park contain fossils that show a dramatic cooling and drying of global climate over millions of years. The oldest rock layers contain marine fossils, roughly 70 million years old, from when this area was . . . — Map (db m113124) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — Dying to Become a Fossil
Oredonts were common throughout the Badlands, but became extinct. Their fossil remains provide evidence of their lives and habitat. Fossils can develop over time when animal or plant remains are quickly covered in sediment and replaced by . . . — Map (db m113122) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — It's a Dog's Life
Dogs have changed and adapted over millions of years. Members of the dog lineage gradually evolved in to the wolf by growing longer, stronger legs and a shorter tail. This increased size led to increased strength and power to hunt food and . . . — Map (db m113177) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — See Ya Later, Alligator
Prehistoric alligators lived in swampy conditions, as they do today. Physically, alligators have changed mostly in size over the last several million years. Modern alligators are larger, growing up to 14 feet long. Ancient alligators grew . . . — Map (db m113092) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — Titanic Discovery
The discovery of this specimen led to the golden age of paleontology in North America. After acquiring this fossil from fur traders, Dr. Hiram Prout wrote about it in 1846. His description captured the attention of scientists. At that time, . . . — Map (db m113176) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — Under the Sea
Ammonite fossils found in the park are evidence that this area was under water 75 million years ago. Some ammonites could grow to more that three feet across and served as a food source for giant mosasaurs and other predators. The Western . . . — Map (db m113115) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Interior — What a Find!
Your fossil discovery begins a scientific process. Every detail is important, even the area around the find. A fossil and its surroundings reveal what types of plants and animals existed and how they lived, died, and changed. The . . . — Map (db m113123) HM
South Dakota (Jackson County), Wall — Fight for Survival
Fossils can reveal how animals lived and died, and what their environment was like. Evidence from one of the park's nimravid fossils offers crime-scene clues. The size and location of the holes in the forehead of this fossil match the knife-like . . . — Map (db m113121) HM
South Dakota (Minnehaha County), Sioux Falls — Inland Seas
(side 1) The changing of global sea levels over millions of years was a major factor in determining the ancient geography of Minnehaha County. Through much of geologic time, salty warm-water seas covered the interior of the United . . . — Map (db m124175) HM
Texas (Brewster County), Big Bend National Park — Ancient Swamp CreaturesBig Bend National Park
Tiny horses and hippopotamus-like animals once roamed a more humid Big Bend. For a glimpse into the parks tropical past, take a short trail to the fossil bone display and the overlook beyond. — Map (db m95632) HM
Texas (Fisher County), Sylvester — 82 — Adair - Steadman Site
In this vicinity is a prehistoric archeological site discovered in 1969 near the Clear Fork of the Brazos River. Archeologists have conducted extensive scientific excavations and attribute most of the cultural materials to the Paleo-Indian Period. . . . — Map (db m81124) HM
Texas (Hale County), Plainview — 1228 — Discovery Site of the Plainview Point(200 yards SE)
The first of this distinctive type of early man dart point was found by 15-year-old Val Keene Whitacre in 1941, in a caliche quarry on Running Water Draw. In 1944, quarry workers uncovered a fossil bone deposit, which was noted by scientists . . . — Map (db m104523) HM
Texas (Kendall County), Boerne — 749 — Cascade Cavern
Probably formed during the Pleistocene epoch by the underground passage of the Cibolo River, Cascade Cavern presents an interesting mix of geological, archeological,and historical features. It exhibits a combination of the joint and the dip and . . . — Map (db m46924) HM
Texas (Roberts County), Miami — 2039 — Fossil Beds(three miles southeast)
Cited as one of most prolific fossil fields of lower Pliocene age at time of discovery, these beds are about 13,000,000 years old. Geologists of Rio Bravo Oil Company found them in 1928 on C.C. Coffee Ranch, and their reports brought specialists . . . — Map (db m55797) HM
Texas (Somervell County), Glen Rose — 1226 — Dinosaur Tracks
Formed 100,000,000 years ago, tracks of 3 kinds of dinosaurs are preserved in the limestone below Paluxy River. Types include Acrocanthosaurus (a meat-eater), Camptosaurus (plant-eater who left 3-toed bird-like tracks), and Pleurocoelus (a . . . — Map (db m137798) HM
Texas (Ward County), Monahans — 3434 — Monahans Sandhills State Park and Museum
In these shifting seas of sand, rich in stone evidences of primitive men, today's visitors find flint points, sandstone metates and manos of peoples who were here as early as 10,000 years ago and late as the 1870s. Bones of great mammoths and . . . — Map (db m73307) HM
Texas (Williamson County), Leander — 9260 — Leanderthal Lady
On Dec. 29, 1982, Texas Highway Department archeologists uncovered the skeleton of a pre-historic human female at the Wilson-Leonard Brushy Creek Site (approx. 6 mi. SE). Because of the proximity of the grave site to the town of Leander, the . . . — Map (db m114979) HM
Utah (Garfield County), Escalante — Conserving WildnessNational Treasure
A Place for Solitude In this vast landscape, you can immerse yourself in the sights, sounds, and textures of the natural world. Listen to a penetrating silence, broken only by the rasping call of a raven overhead. Walk amid rock formations that . . . — Map (db m146599) HM
Utah (Grand County), Crescent Junction — Copper Ridge Dinosaur Tracksite
The Copper Ridge Dinosaur Tracksite preserves the peculiar tracks of a long-necked herbivorous dinosaur (sauropod), along with two different sizes of meat-eating dinosaur (theropod) tracks. This site stands out for being the first place in Utah . . . — Map (db m134105) HM
Vermont (Chittenden County), Charlotte — The Charlotte WhaleThe Vermont State Fossil
In 1849 an 11,000 year old Beluga Whale was found north of this site in what had been the Champlain Sea. Resident J.G. Thorp collected the bones, and naturalist Zadock Thompson assembled the skeleton now displayed in the Perkins Museum of Geology . . . — Map (db m75963) HM
Vermont (Rutland County), Mount Holly — Mount Holly Railroad History
During construction of what became the Rutland Railroad, two important events occurred in Mount Holly. In 1848, a construction crew discovered the tusk and tooth of a woolly mammoth in the nearby wetland. These are on display in the Community . . . — Map (db m104493) HM
Virginia (Fairfax County), Great Falls — American Indians of the Potomac RiverRiverbend Park — Potomac River Gorge Interpretive Trail —
Prehistoric people arrived along the shores of the Potomac River some 13,000 years ago. Slowly they transformed from semi-nomadic hunters into farmers and fishermen. Eventually, a group called the Nacotchtanks became the dominant tribe of the . . . — Map (db m64316) HM
Virginia (Westmoreland County), Stratford — The Stratford Cliffs
Approximately 17 million years ago, during the Miocene Epoch, these 150-foot-high cliffs along the Potomac River formed the ancient seashore. Rich Miocene fossil deposits, which exist in the 1 1/2 -mile-long series of Horsehead, Stratford and Nomini . . . — Map (db m34585) HM
Washington (Kittitas County), Vantage — Welcome to Ginkgo Petrified Forest State Park
This landscape was built by ancient lava flows and sculpted by powerful Ice Age floods. Clues to this fascinating past are all around you. Remains of a Fossil Forest The park contains hundreds of pieces of petrified wood that were . . . — Map (db m82824) HM
West Virginia (Greenbrier County), Ronceverte — Organ Cave
In this cave, whose beautiful natural formations have long been known, salt petre was manufactured before 1835. When war broke out between the states in 1861, it was a source of powder supply for General Lee's army. — Map (db m76509) HM
Wisconsin (Ozaukee County), Belgium — Limestone
Millions of years ago, Wisconsin was covered by a vast, shallow inland sea, teeming with marine life. Over time, the shells of animals such as gastropods and corals became fossilized in limestone deposits. Twelve thousand years ago during the last . . . — Map (db m119310) HM
Wisconsin (Rock County), Beloit — 555 — Roy Chapman Andrews
Side A Roy Chapman Andrews, one of the most celebrated explorers of the 20th century, was born in Beloit on January 26, 1884. He grew up across the river at 419 St. Lawrence Avenue. Andrews acquired a lifelong passion for the natural world during . . . — Map (db m86686) HM
Wyoming (Albany County), Medicine Bow — Dinosaur Graveyard
To the north lies Como Bluff - "The Dinosaur Graveyard" - one of the greatest and well known fossil beds of dinosaur remains in the world. There paleontologist of the 19th century discovered and unearthed many excellent fossil specimens of the . . . — Map (db m89665) HM
Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Paha Sapa, Black HillsGeologic History of the Lakotas' Sacred Hills
Also known as "Temple of the Sioux," Sundance Mountain rises majestically in the southwest. It belongs to the Bear Lodge Mountain Range, which defines the northwestern edge of the Black Hills. It was named for the Plains Indians' religious . . . — Map (db m45541) HM
Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — Petrified TreesFossils Give Clues to Wyoming's Paleo-Past
Giant cypress trees growing today in swamps (or forested wetlands), such as these found in Louisiana's Pointe Lake, used to grow in Wyoming back when it was a warm, subtropical swamp - about 55 million years ago during the Late Paleocene epoch. Some . . . — Map (db m45539) HM
Wyoming (Crook County), Sundance — The Vore Buffalo JumpHunting Large Bison Took Teamwork and Ingenuity
Located a short distance to the east and camouflaged by the red eroded landscape is the Vore Buffalo Jump. This sinkhole served early residents as a slaughterhouse. using the natural pit as a trap, hunters would capture bison in late fall by running . . . — Map (db m45537) HM
Wyoming (Hot Springs County), Thermopolis — Ancient Red Rocks
The red cliffs seen in and around the park are called the Red Peak Formation - part of the Chugwater Group. This rock outcrop is composed of fine-grained sandstone and is up to 600 feet thick. The brick red color is caused by oxidation of iron . . . — Map (db m97658) HM
Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Fossil Butte
Fossil Butte is a 50 million year old lakebed and one of the richest fossil resources in the world. It is part of the Green River Formation, a layer of rock composed of laminated limestone, mudstone, and volcanic ash. Complete paleo-ecosystems are . . . — Map (db m36624) HM
Wyoming (Lincoln County), Kemmerer — Kemmerer Founders MonumentWyoming's Aquarium in Stone
Kemmerer founded 1897 by Mahlon S. Kemmerer 1843 - 1925 and Patrick J. Quealy 1857 - 1930 — Map (db m80542) HM
Wyoming (Sweetwater County), Green River — All Because of an Ancient LakeTrona Trail Historic Mine Byway
The bed of prehistoric Lake Gosiute (Go-shute) lies hundred of feet below you. This ancient lake set the stage of the world's largest trona and oil shale deposits as well as a significant natural gas reserve. Lake Gosiute Creates Trona . . . — Map (db m90093) HM
Wyoming (Washakie County), Ten Sleep — Tensleep Canyon
Ages ago, these mountains were deep within the Earth’s crust, and the area that is known today as the Bighorn Mountains was a basic. Beginning about 75 million years ago the land began to slowly rise above the sea bed reaching an elevation of nearly . . . — Map (db m97887) HM
Wyoming (Washakie County), Worland — Colby Mammoth Kill Site
Extinct species of mammoths, horses, camels, and bison roamed this area 11,000 years ago and were being killed by humans known as the Clovis hunters. South of this spot 400 meters is the location of one of the largest known Clovis mammoth kills in . . . — Map (db m97862) HM

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May. 31, 2020