Water has always played a significant role in the history of Prattville. Daniel Pratt chose the location for his new town because of the proximity to Autauga Creek and the Alabama River. This area was referred to as an . . . — — Map (db m70815) HM
(Front): Daniel Pratt CemeteryFinal resting place of early Alabama industrialist Daniel Pratt, 1799-1873, and wife Esther Ticknor Pratt, 1803-1875. He was from New Hampshire and she, Connecticut. Married 1827 at Fortville, Jones County, . . . — — Map (db m27957) HM
Located within Daniel Pratt Historic District, this park overlooks Autauga Creek and the manufacturing complex around which this New England style village developed. Daniel Pratt founded Prattville in 1839, and patterned the town after those of his . . . — — Map (db m27958) HM
The plank road was constructed of large pine logs, sawed lengthwise and laid round-side down. Daniel Pratt built the road for public benefit and to provide transportation from the Pratt Cotton Gin Factory to Washington on the Alabama River. Over . . . — — Map (db m27983) HM
Once the world's largest plant manufacturing cotton gins.
Founded 1833 by Daniel Pratt, the greatest industrialist of Alabama prior to 1860. Pratt's many industries were of great aid to Confederacy during Northern blockade. — — Map (db m70799) HM
Daniel Pratt, Prattville’s founding father,
constructed an imposing home and garden
within a quarter-mile of this site on
Autauga Creek, near his industrial complex.
The large home was designed and erected by
Pratt himself, a noted architect / . . . — — Map (db m27985) HM
In 1860, the center of commerce in Baldwin County ran along the rivers with the remainder of the county mostly wilderness. In 1861, with secession declared, the Alabama Legislature allocated funds to finish the stalled Mobile . . . — — Map (db m100846) HM
The Charles Swift Family
Charles Swift came to Alabama in 1880 and married Susan Roberts in 1885. He developed a successful lumber business, including a sawmill here on the Bon Secour River. The Swifts raised their eleven children in this . . . — — Map (db m122465) HM
The community of Orange Beach goes back to at least
1838, as evidenced by property deeds. As an incorporated
city, it is quite young. Following Hurricane Frederic on
September 12, 1979, with all its publicity, Orange Beach
was 'discovered'! . . . — — Map (db m122462) HM
Born in Winchester, Virginia, he moved to Missouri where at age 17 he enlisted in the State Guard. In 1861 he became a Private in the Confederate States Army, was captured during the Battle of Wilson's Creek and escaped.
Captain Danner . . . — — Map (db m100880) HM
Site of one of Alabama’s first sawmills. In 1811, Joshua Kennedy engaged Jesse Ember to build two water-powered sawmills, convertible to grist mills, for a total of $1400. The mills were operated by Kennedy through 1820; were burned twice, once by . . . — — Map (db m66379) HM
The Pea River Electric Membership Corporation was energized on this site on June 8, 1939. This rural electric cooperative was organized under an executive order signed by President F. D. Roosevelt on May 11, 1935.
Rural members of Barbour, Dale . . . — — Map (db m71804) HM
A primary factor in the eventual expulsion of the Creeks from their ancestral homeland was the fact that their territory was some of the best suited in the nation for the production of cotton. Containing enormous tracts of productive soils, a long . . . — — Map (db m101658) HM
Cowikee Cotton Mills, which operated on this site for over 100 years, was for decades Eufaula’s largest employer. The mill began in 1888 as the Eufaula Cotton Mill. In 1909 the Comer family purchased the business and renamed it Cowikee Cotton Mills. . . . — — Map (db m89606) HM
Built between 1856 and 1860 by Edward Brown Young and his wife, Ann Fendall Beall, this was one of the first of the great Italianate style homes constructed in Eufaula. It later became the home of the builders’ daughter, Anna Beall Young, and her . . . — — Map (db m33759) HM
William Thomas "Tom" Mann
Family man, entrepreneur and bass angler legend, Tom Mann, achieved fame as a fishing lure designer/manufacturer and helped put Lake Eufaula on the map with his popular television shows. With an . . . — — Map (db m113682) HM
The Bibb County Iron Company under the direction of C. C. Huckabee of Newbern, Alabama, constructed a furnace here and poured the first iron in November 1862. Within a year, the Confederate government purchased the works and completed a second and . . . — — Map (db m37090) HM
One and a half miles northeast of here, the mining town of Belle Ellen was established by the Bessemer Coal, Iron and Land Company in the fall of 1895 and named for Henry F. DeBardeleben's daughter, Belle, and wife, Ellen. DeBardeleben was a noted . . . — — Map (db m37226) HM
Centered around the coke ovens, Blocton, first called Gresham, was the Cahaba Coal Mining Company town founded by Truman H. Aldrich in 1883-84. Other company officers included W. A. Clark of Muscatine, Iowa, and Cornelius Cadle, Jr., . . . — — Map (db m37228) HM
The town of Piper was established in 1901 a half mile northeast of here by the Little Cahaba Coal Company, named for Oliver Hazzard Perry Piper, a partner of industrialist Henry F. DeBardeleben. Two coal mines . . . — — Map (db m83225) HM
West Blocton began as a business and residential community adjoining the Cahaba Coal Mining Company's town of Blocton in 1883-84. West Blocton incorporated in 1901. Eugene D. Reynolds was the first mayor, 1901-1904, followed by Dr. L.E. Peacock, . . . — — Map (db m72283) HM
John Hanby came in 1817 and found a rich seam of brown iron ore. Named Champion in 1882 when Henry DeBardeleben and James Sloss bought land and brought L&N Railroad causing county seat to be moved from Blountsville to Oneonta in 1889. Most ore was . . . — — Map (db m28362) HM
The Butler County Electric Membership Corporation was formed as a rural electric cooperative in Greenville in July 1938. The first home receiving electricity from the cooperative was located near here.
The Cooperative's original Board of . . . — — Map (db m70756) HM
West Commerce Street Historic District
The completion of the railroad in the late 1850s brought this District into being. The District grew into a major trade center between Montgomery and Mobile. The capital accumulated . . . — — Map (db m70753) HM
The Legacy of the Military
On the other side of Anniston, the Army constructed an Ordnance Depot on 15,000 acres west of the city during WWII. Over time, the depot evolved into the region's largest employer. The economic and community . . . — — Map (db m106619) HM
This district was once the economic and social hub of Anniston's African American community. In its heyday (1940-1950), the District was a "city within a city," with businesses that catered to the black community. Grocery stores, restaurants, . . . — — Map (db m106650) HM
Since 1890 the financial interests of this area have been served by The First National Bank and its predecessor The Tredagar National Bank (an institution of the "Boom" days of Jacksonville)
Organizers were Peyton Rowan, President, Jos. . . . — — Map (db m29480) HM
The furnace was constructed by Montgomery businessman Alfred A. Janney, reportedly using slaves brought from Tennessee by a "Dr. Smith." The furnace was completed and ready to produce pig iron when, on July 14, 1864, a Union cavalry raiding force of . . . — — Map (db m25544) HM
The town of Oxford was first incorporated by the Alabama legislature in 1852. The original boundaries included a one square mile area enlarged in 1860. Oxford became active as a cotton and trading center but during the Civil War growth slowed, and . . . — — Map (db m106591) HM
Known as Bluffton from about 1835-1893. Bluffton was incorporated in 1865. Name changed to Lanett, town of Lanett incorporated 1893. Its charter was approved in 1895. Early records mention academies, two near this site. The . . . — — Map (db m92061) HM
Built in 1916, the kindergarten was one of five original public buildings in the Fairfax Mill Village. Each mill village had an efficient, attractive, and well kept kindergarten for children ages four to six. LaFayette Lanier, Sr. was the . . . — — Map (db m71634) HM
Cornerstones of Chattahoochee Mfg. Co., Langdale, Ala., and Alabama & Georgia Mfg. Co., River View, Ala., were laid on August 1, 1866. Mills used Chattahoochee River water power for operation of spindles and looms. Planters and businessmen of . . . — — Map (db m71637) HM
The Confederate States of America in 1862 commissioned the Noble Brothers of Rome, Georgia to erect a cold blast furnace to produce needed pig iron for the war effort.
The skilled labor was detailed from Confederate army personnel. It is . . . — — Map (db m83267) HM
In February 1937, W.P. Brown & Sons Lumber Co. signed a contract with Alabama Power for an estimated 20,000,000 feet of saw timber. The south end of Brown's property is located 1,000 feet back of this marker and extended northward ¾ mile. Brown . . . — — Map (db m114741) HM
Put into blast on June 1, 1874, the furnace would change ownership two times prior to being purchased by the Bass Foundry and Machine Co. of Fort Wayne, Indiana in 1880. A rail spur was built from the furnace to Selma, Rome and Dalton Railroad at . . . — — Map (db m114842) HM
Named by the Board of Directors
Alabama Power Company
Major modifications to this project were completed
in 1985. Three new generating units with a total
capacity of 150,000 . . . — — Map (db m72486) HM
On January 2, 1944, the State of Alabama granted Hunt Oil Company a permit to drill the A.R. Jackson Well No. 1 at this location near Gilbertown. Hunt Oil Company was owned by the famous oil man, H.L. Hunt of Dallas, Texas. Drilling commenced on . . . — — Map (db m80351) HM
The Clarke-Washington Electric Membership Corporation was organized near this site on March 2, 1936, by some 83 members from Clarke and Washington Counties. This was the first rural electric cooperative organized in Alabama under an executive order . . . — — Map (db m80356) HM
First home of Creek and Choctaw Indians, Jackson’s first pioneer settlers arrived about 1800. The little village was first called Republicville, then Pine Level, before its incorporation by an act of the Mississippi Territory . . . — — Map (db m101591) HM
First village called Republicville. Town laid out in 1815 by Pine Level Land Company and named Pine Level. Incorporated 1816 and renamed Jackson for General Andrew Jackson. First commissioners, David Taylor, David White, Reuben Saffold, Peregrin . . . — — Map (db m101589) HM
Just west of this spot, along Ocre Ave. on a 10-acre tract, was the site of a WWII prisoner of war camp. The camp was one of twenty such labor camps in Alabama. Hdqrs. for the camp was at Camp Shelby in Hattisburg, MS. The camp . . . — — Map (db m101593) HM
The area from Stave Creek to Jackson Creek was one of sites for the making of salt during the years 1862-64.
Furnaces of native stone were built and salt water from dug wells evaporated by boiling in large kettles.
Amount of salt six hundred . . . — — Map (db m101607) HM
Here was located the large and important Central Salt Works. Official government reports indicate that salt was being mined at this works as early as 1816, but the Indians had obtained salt here for centuries prior to this. During the blockade of . . . — — Map (db m101605) HM
In the summer of 1887, a notice was published confirming that the route for the Mobile and West Alabama Railroad would be the Choctaw Corner route. Soon the sounds of building could be heard over the swamp that was the . . . — — Map (db m101601) HM
Clay County was formed by an act of the Alabama General Assembly on December 7, 1866. Less than a year later, Ashland was established as the county seat on land donated by Hollingsworth Watts for the construction of a . . . — — Map (db m95087) HM
This building was built in 1903 with additions in 1916 and 1997. The first freight shipments and passengers came here on the Alabama Midland railroad in 1898 immediately after construction of the roadbed. That was also the year when most of the . . . — — Map (db m30307) HM
Original two-story brick structure built 1903 by Japheth Rawls, developer of some of earliest turpentine plants in Coffee County. Building remodeled 1928 and three-story wings added by Jesse P. Rawls, founder of first electric power system in . . . — — Map (db m30308) HM
George Colbert's stand sat atop the ridge before you. As one of many inns that dotted the Trace between Nashville and Natchez, it provided travelers with food and lodging.
With a Scottish father and Chickasaw mother, George Colbert used his . . . — — Map (db m107260) HM
Levi Colbert, a Chickasaw Chief, operated a stand near here that served Old Trace travelers in the early 1800's. Adjacent to this area was a spring which provided an abundant water supply. — — Map (db m84708) HM
When the bombing of Pearl Harbor suddenly thrust the United States into World War II, President Roosevelt knew that industrial might would be the key to Ally victory. He needed to build thousands of ships, planes, and bombs, and that meant an urgent . . . — — Map (db m106194) HM
The Tennessee Valley Authority is much more than just “a power company.” TVA has been proving this for more than 80 years by powering the region’s progress and managing the natural resources in its care for the greatest public good. . . . — — Map (db m106190) HM
TVA has a rich history of improving quality of life and economic prosperity for people and businesses in the TVA service area. As times have changed, TVA has changed with them, updating and refining its focus to better serve it's enduring mission . . . — — Map (db m106187) HM
Wilson Dam and the TVA System
From the very beginning, TVA knew how important Wilson Dam would be to their operations. In fact, the Wilson Dam area served as the headquarters for TVA's initial agricultural and chemical programs. Today, Wilson . . . — — Map (db m124084)
With the U.S. entrenched in World War I, President Woodrow Wilson called for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to build nitrate plants at Muscle Shoals to produce explosives for the war effort—and a hydroelectric dam to power them both. . . . — — Map (db m106191) HM
Center of Industry for new town of Sheffield. Five blast furnaces with 75 ft stacks build 1886~1895 1/2 mile west. Promoted by E. W. Cole and E. Ensley. Iron ore and limestone from Franklin Co., coke from Walker Co. and Virginia used. Hattie Ensley . . . — — Map (db m28428) HM
Side A Prehistoric man arrived in this area bout 10,000 years ago.
Later Indian cultures left many stone artifacts and pottery vessels.
In the 1780s, a French trading post and Indian village were located near the mouth of Spring Creek. . . . — — Map (db m83389) HM
This sculpture is dedicated to the many individuals whose efforts made Sheffield and the Muscle Shoals area the “Hit Recording Capital of the World,” and to those who continue that legacy.
Legend of the Singing River
The . . . — — Map (db m95130) HM
In 1918, during World War I, the U.S. Government built this unique village of 85 bungalows, school, and officers barracks to house personnel at nearby Nitrate Plant No. 1. Prefabricated and standard size materials were used in construction along . . . — — Map (db m88110) HM
Midway was one of the first settlements established in Conecuh County along the Post Road which later became the Old Federal Road. Long serving as a hub for Indian trails branching out to the north, northeast and northwest, the Midway town site once . . . — — Map (db m81277) HM
In the early 1900s, Repton was a bustling railroad town along the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Among other businesses, it boasted several hotels, banks, stores, a livery stable, cotton gin and the only hospital with a Board . . . — — Map (db m100840) HM
William Stewart Harlan was the manager of Jackson Lumber Company in Lockhart, established in the early twentieth century as a mill town during the booming demand for longleaf yellow pine. Marketed as Dixie Rift Flooring and Dixie Poles and . . . — — Map (db m111256) HM
The Depot In 1900, the L&N Railroad won the right to establish the railroad through this area. The town is named for Henry Opp, who represented L&N in successful legal negotiations. The coming of the railroad consolidated the surrounding areas . . . — — Map (db m39777) HM
The Horseshoe Lumber Company
E.L. More, president of the A&F Division of the L&N Railroad, arrived in River Falls from Nashville in 1897 to spearhead the construction of a branch line of the L&N. Recognizing a business . . . — — Map (db m83458) HM
Born in South Carolina and orphaned as a young child,
Daniel Dozier arrived in Alabama around 1817. As an adult,
he operated a large farm and grist mill and served as minister
for several area churches. He was a moderator and leader in
the . . . — — Map (db m115007) HM
In 1946, the McPhillips family brought King Pharr Canning Company, a major vegetable canning operation to Cullman. Led by chairman Julian B. McPhillips of Mobile, and his two sons Julian L. McPhillips and W. Warren McPhillips (returning from Navy . . . — — Map (db m101093) HM
The Cahaba Drug Store once covered this cellar hole. It was operated by Herbert Hudson and J. D. Craig.
On the same lot were T. L. Craig's large family grocery, Coleman's dry goods store, and Fellows' Jewelry.
All these men were related . . . — — Map (db m23008) HM
This cellar was under Joseph Babcock's brick store. During the Civil War the building was used as a commissary.
Babcock's warehouse and cotton shed were located to your right on the bluff overlooking the river. The family home, kitchen, and . . . — — Map (db m23287) HM
A "row" was a 19th century shopping mall. The word was used when a building or block had several similar storefronts arranged in a straight line or row.
This cellar marks the spot where David and Nicholas Crocheron built a large 2 story brick . . . — — Map (db m83509) HM
This artesian well was drilled to serve a factory which did not materialize. It was then used to water the grounds, a garden and pastures. In addition, by forcing water through pipes into his $50,000 home, E. M. Perine, a merchant prince, had the . . . — — Map (db m83518) HM
1822 - Crocheron's Row
Cahawba's First Shopping Center
This large hole was dug in 1822 to be the
basement beneath Cahawba's first brick
In the 19th century the word "row"
described a building that consisted of . . . — — Map (db m112577) HM
By 1858 many brick stores had been built in Cahaba, so everyone called this the "old brick store." Merchant Sam M. Hill turned the building into one huge dry goods store where shoppers could buy just about anything!
Col. Hill, like most of the . . . — — Map (db m23242) HM
Vine Street was Cahawba's business district. Stores, offices and hotels were tightly packed together along these three blocks. Homes were scattered over an entire square mile. Nearly every house had a yard of one or two acres. — — Map (db m83520) HM
Cahawba's homes were spread over an
entire square mile, many with yards of
one or two acres. That was not the case
here on Vine Street. Offices, stores and
hotels were tightly packed along this
main street. The steamboat landings on
the . . . — — Map (db m112560) HM
Anvil used in Selma’s Confederate Arsenal to make armament for Southern forces.
Presented to Sturdivant Museum Association April 1, 1961 by the Southern Railway Company which as the Selma, Rome and Dalton Railroad Company purchased the anvil . . . — — Map (db m37690) HM
At the age of 20, Lewis lost his sight in 1957 from Glaucoma. He learned the
language of braille, other independent living and vocational skills during his
attendance at the Alabama Institute for the Deaf and Blind in Talladega, Alabama. . . . — — Map (db m112363) HM
following the Battle of Selma, April 2, 1865. This occupation protected the hotel from the arson and looting in the first 24 hours that destroyed much of downtown. In the next week Wilson methodically burned the huge military/industrial complex that . . . — — Map (db m80792) HM
Selma’s Water Avenue is one of the finest surviving examples of a 19th century riverfront street in the south. Located here are structures which reflect the architectural trends in commercial buildings from 1830 to 1900.
This was the main . . . — — Map (db m37669) HM
Around 1889-1891 Fort Payne experienced a great industrial boom due to promotion by New England investors who speculated greatly on the area’s mineral deposits. During this period several highly ornate commercial and civic buildings, along with the . . . — — Map (db m28027) HM
Brigadier General Birkett Davenport Fry, CSA
In his lifetime General Birkett D. Fry was a cadet at Virginia Military Institute and West Point; 1st Lt. (U.S. Infantry) in Mexican War; lawyer in California; . . . — — Map (db m95112) HM
Settled by A.J. Hall in 1852 and occupied by Confederate troops because of its value as a railroad stop during the War Between the States (1861-65), Canoe was the site of a March 27, 1865 encampment of Union forces. The 1870s brought expansion . . . — — Map (db m72265) HM
Williams Station, Alabama
Creek Indians lived in these parts some 200 years before trains began stopping here in 1866 to leave supplies for a farmer, William Larkin Williams, who lived nearby. Workers, who came first . . . — — Map (db m72260) HM
Side A Recognized as “Alabama’s Oldest Bank,” the Bank
of Brewton opened for business on Monday, January 7, 1899. Brewton, Alabama was a prosperous town in the late 1800s. A local resident, Charles Sowell, participated in the . . . — — Map (db m39025) HM
This tank was used to hold water for the City of Brewton Electric Light and Water Works Fire Protection System and was built circa early 1890's. This location was originally the Blacksher Miller Lumber Company, which became . . . — — Map (db m94172) HM
The Southern Pine Electric Membership Corporation was energized at this site on September 12, 1939, sending electric power flowing into 75 homes and businesses in rural areas of Escambia, Conecuh, Monroe and Baldwin Counties for the first time. The . . . — — Map (db m84372) HM
Front As railroads were reconstructed following the Civil War, a junction of north-south and east-west lines was established along the Alabama-Florida border near the confluence of Big Escambia Creek and the Conecuh-Escambia River. A . . . — — Map (db m47484) HM
Nichols came to Alabama City in 1894 to supervise construction of the Dwight Manufacturing Company. While serving as the mill's first agent, he planned and began a model mill village and was elected Mayor of Alabama City. — — Map (db m18578) HM
In the fall of 1902, Captain William Patrick Lay, of Gadsden, began construction of a small hydro electric generating plant at the site of Wesson Mill on Big Wills Creek, just southwest of Attalla. The plant was constructed, in Lay’s words, . . . — — Map (db m83730) HM
William Patrick Lay (1853-1940), founder of Alabama Power Company, built his first hydroelectric plant on Big Wills Creek about 2 miles east on Simmons Lane.
Lay purchased the Old Wesson Mill in 1902 and built a small hydroelectric generating . . . — — Map (db m73995) HM
Dwight Manufacturing Company of Chicopee, Massachusetts selected this site in Alabama City for a cotton mill in 1894. The Mill and the village covering 240 acres was constructed under the direction of Howard Gardner Nichols.
There were 160 . . . — — Map (db m18575) HM
In the early 1840’s, John S. Moragne, along with Gabriel and Joseph Hughes, began surveying for a city on the banks of the Coosa River near the settlement of Double Springs. The new city would be located on 120 acres of land at the . . . — — Map (db m39139) HM
T. A. Wilson built the theater in 1927. Since Red Bay had no electricity at that time, he used a Delco System. Shortly after, electricity became available and he had to switch from Delco to Alabama Power. When he first started in the business, he . . . — — Map (db m83742) HM
The Depot, a treasured landmark in the history and growth of Red Bay, was built by Illinois Central Railroad in 1907. The trains provided a lifeline for towns like Red Bay. They brought necessities like sugar, flour, cheese, canned . . . — — Map (db m83746) HM
In Red Bay's early years, ice was shipped by freight train to Red Bay. The ice was buried in sawdust to keep it from melting until all had been sold. On the day the ice arrived, the freight car was put on a sidetrack, emptied, and later picked up by . . . — — Map (db m83747) HM
Yarber Grist Mill opened for business in February 1933, in a tin building on Main Street in downtown Red Bay. Preston Yarber, owner and operator, had moved to Red Bay from Belmont early in January that same year. The mill was located across the . . . — — Map (db m83749) HM
Built in 1828-29 by John Gayle,
sixth governor of Alabama.
Amelia Gayle Gorgas,
wife of Gen. Josiah Gorgas,
Chief of Ordnance, CSA,
mother of Wm. Crawford Gorgas,
US Surgeon General who freed
Canal Zone of yellow fever. . . . — — Map (db m83754) HM
Begun on 160 acres of land owned by Dr. Joshua Head, "Head's Land," or Headland, was established in 1871, incorporated as a town in 1884 and a city in 1893. The land itself yielded the city's first industry. Due to the abundance of pine trees, . . . — — Map (db m71816) HM
James Madison Wells founded a village called Wells circa 1882. When Abbeville Southern Railroad laid tracks through the town in 1893, its name was changed to Wells Station. The post office was built in . . . — — Map (db m71810) HM
Founded in 1820, Columbia was originally located about a mile south, near where the Omussee Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River. It served as the county seat of Henry County from 1826 to 1833. Bordering the State of Georgia and the . . . — — Map (db m73364) HM
Old Columbia Jail
Erected sometime in the early 1860's, the Old Columbia Jail is today one of the last wooden jails still standing in Alabama. Originally, there were two cells, each measuring 10 x 15 feet. Interior . . . — — Map (db m73368) HM
In April 1903, the Town of Cottonwood was incorporated, making it the first town established in Houston County. The town's name may have come from either Mr. Wood, an influential land owner, or from the softwood trees growing in the area. General . . . — — Map (db m73381) HM
The History of Paint Rock, Alabama
Originally Camden circa 1830, the post office was renamed Redman in 1846 and became Paint Rock on May 17, 1860. After the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Co. built a depot and water . . . — — Map (db m69756) HM
In 1907, Greek immigrant Tom Bonduris invested his savings and opened a small cafe with only a horseshoe shaped bar at First Avenue and 21st Street in Bessemer, Alabama. Outgrowing three locations, the Bright Star moved to this . . . — — Map (db m83797) HM
The Fourth Avenue "Strip" thrived during a time when downtown privileges for blacks were limited. Although blacks could shop at some white-owned stores, they did not share the same privileges and services as white customers, so they created tailor . . . — — Map (db m26985) HM
The arrival of two railroad lines in Jones Valley opened nearby deposits of iron ore, limestone, and coal to commercial development and helped make Birmingham one of the great industrial cities of the post Civil War South.
In 1871, the year of . . . — — Map (db m69018) HM
Red Mountain, where you are standing, and Jones Valley, which stretches before you, were sites of human activity long before Birmingham's founding in 1871.
Native American presence
Recorded history and archaeological evidence indicate the . . . — — Map (db m83805) HM
The Corey Land Company, a group of prominent local businessmen headed by Robert Jemison, Jr., developed Belview Heights as a neighborhood for the professional employees of U.S. Steel in the 1910's. Extending the grid system being used in Ensley over . . . — — Map (db m24351) HM
The availability of seemingly limitless mineral resources was the key to the success of the Birmingham District, an area defined by geologic deposits that span five counties (Jefferson, Shelby, Tuscaloosa, Walker and Bibb). Some of the minerals . . . — — Map (db m69026) HM
Side A The Elyton Land Company, which had founded the city of Birmingham in 1871, established a subsidiary, the Birmingham Water Works Company in 1887. Dr. Henry M. Caldwell, President of the Elyton Land Company, contracted with Judge A. O. . . . — — Map (db m83806) HM
The boiler was the source of power for most of Sloss. The boilers burned blast furnace gas to provide the heat necessary for converting water into steam. The steam produced here powered the blowing engines and turbo-blowers, the . . . — — Map (db m43728) HM
The Brock building was established in 1915, located at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and 18th Street North, was built while the area was residential. The three-story building housed a hotel upstairs that catered to professional musicians and . . . — — Map (db m26723) HM
Side 1 - Building the Park
In the mid-1930’s, civic leaders worked to move Vulcan to a place of honor on Red Mountain. The park was built through the combined efforts of several groups: the Kiwanis Club of Birmingham, the Birmingham Parks . . . — — Map (db m83807) HM
The technology of casting molten iron into bars called pigs changed dramatically over the years. Prior to 1931 casting at Sloss took place inside the cast shed. Men cut molds into the sand floor of the shed, allowing the . . . — — Map (db m69083) HM
This building was constructed in 1908 by Louis V. Clark (1862-1934), who also built the historic Lyric Theater located nearby on 18th Street. The Clark Theater on Caldwell Park is named in honor of Mr. Clark’s generosity to the Birmingham Little . . . — — Map (db m27515) HM
The two commercial buildings on this corner lot are some of the earliest surviving business houses in Birmingham. The Dewberry building appeared on the corner about 1881, and it housed the first and longest surviving drug store in the city, starting . . . — — Map (db m36740) HM
This neighborhood developed in the 1880s as one of Birmingham's first streetcar suburbs. It was the Town of Highlands from 1887 to 1893, when it became part of the City of Birmingham. The heart of the neighborhood was Five Points Circle, a major . . . — — Map (db m83829) HM
Prior to 1900 a "black business district" did not exist in Birmingham. In a pattern characteristic of Southern cities found during Reconstruction, black businesses developed alongside those of whites in many sections of the . . . — — Map (db m83830) HM
The Fraternal Hotel Building was built in 1925. Some of the businesses that were located in this building included:
1925 - 1980 Fraternal Hotel
1925 - 1970 Fraternal Café
1950 - 1966 Monroe Steak House
1985 - 1994 Grand Lodge Knights of . . . — — Map (db m27518) HM
Businesses that occupied this building between 1908 - 1970
1908 - 1913 Southern Bell Telephone Company Stockroom
1915 - 1926 OK French Dry Cleaning Company
1927 - 1938 George Kanelis Billiards
1940 - 1945 Alex’s Steak House
1946 - . . . — — Map (db m27521) HM
Heavy industry, the reason for Birmingham’s founding, is still an economic force here today. Foundries and pipe plants dot the landscape, the railroad runs through the city’s center, and steam rises periodically in the distance from the quenching of . . . — — Map (db m69019) HM
The Industry That Built A City
The minerals needed to make iron-iron ore, coal, and limestone-are abundant in the Birmingham area, and for ninety years men turned these materials into pig iron at Sloss. Sloss pig iron was sold to foundries, . . . — — Map (db m43973) HM
The railroad trestle support wall across the road is a remnant of L&N's 156-mile Mineral Railroad, the backbone of the local iron industry. This segment ran along the north edge of Vulcan Park on its route around the Birmingham District, linking . . . — — Map (db m83831) HM
Created 1972 by the Jefferson County Historical Commission, the district is based on this avenue. Morris Avenue was named for one of the founders of Birmingham, Josiah Morris, who paid $100,000 for 4,157 acres of the original site of the city in . . . — — Map (db m27156) HM
On October 1, 1886, the North Birmingham Land Company was formed to develop a planned industrial and residential town on 900 acres of land, formerly part of the Alfred Nathaniel Hawkins plantation north of Village Creek. The plan included sites for . . . — — Map (db m26700) HM
The original log structure was built c. 1820 - 1830, with the board and batten addition dating to as late as the 1860s. The log cabin was at first one and one-half stories and is believed to be the oldest structure in Shades Valley. Members of the . . . — — Map (db m26697) HM
First blast furnace in Jefferson County erected near this site (1863) by Red Mountain Coal and Iron Co. Destroyed (1865) by Federal troops: rebuilt (1873) and second furnace added. Successful experimental run made in Furnace No. 2 (1876) using local . . . — — Map (db m27280) HM
In addition to making iron the furnace produced a molten waste called slag. Workers drained off the slag periodically through the cinder notch, a hole at the base of the furnace. After processing, the slag was sold for use in road building and in . . . — — Map (db m83839) HM
The crossing of railroads in 1872 adjacent to this site gave rise to the industrial city of Birmingham. In 1881 Alabama railroad magnate and entrepreneur James Withers Sloss, capitalizing on the unusual coincidence of coal, iron ore and limestone in . . . — — Map (db m23498) HM
Construction of the stock trestle/tunnel complex was part of the extensive modernization that Sloss carried out between 1927 and 1931. Much of the work focused on mechanizing the charging operations and equipment—the stock trestle/tunnel . . . — — Map (db m69077) HM
This row of buildings from 2009 to 2017 Second Avenue dates from the early years of the 20th century and has undergone a variety of changes and modernizations over the years. Originally part of a larger building that burned in 1944 (now the site of . . . — — Map (db m38563) HM
In the blast furnace the combination of iron ore, flux (limestone and/or dolomite), coke, and hot air produced molten iron and two waste products: molten slag and blast furnace gas. The molten products collected in the bottom of the furnace and . . . — — Map (db m69078) HM
The blast furnace required a tremendous amount of air - about two tons for every ton of iron produced. These three rooms, known collectively as the blower building, house the equipment used to pump air to the furnaces. Workers called this blast of . . . — — Map (db m43628) HM
John Valentine Coe, president of Birmingham Lumber and Coal Company, commissioned this two-story Craftsman-Tudor Revival style house in 1908. Coe, who had previously been a lumber merchant in Selma, moved his family and business to Birmingham at the . . . — — Map (db m83858) HM
The Gas System
Gas produced in the furnace as a by-product of the ironmaking process was used in the plant as fuel. A large pipe called the downcomer carried gas from the top of the furnace to the gas cleaning equipment, which removed the . . . — — Map (db m43669) HM
At the turn of the 20th century, Birmingham was a small town of two and three story buildings with a few church steeples punctuating the skyline. During the industrial boom from 1902 to 1912 which made Birmingham the largest city in the state. Four . . . — — Map (db m27500) HM
The giant, cast iron statue you see towering above you is Vulcan, the Roman god of metalwork and the forge. The 56-foot tall statue was commissioned by Birmingham leaders to represent their new, growing city at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. After . . . — — Map (db m26297) HM
You are standing in front of the entrance to Lone Pine Mine Number 3. This mine is one of over one hundred ore mines on Red Mountain that were active between 1860 and 1960.
In the early twentieth century, iron ore was extracted from this . . . — — Map (db m83859) HM
The raw materials for making iron—iron ore, limestone and dolomite, and coke—came to Sloss by railroad and were stored in the stock bins below. An inclined, steam-driven "skip hoist" carried the stock to the top of the furnace and . . . — — Map (db m83861) HM
Designed by William C. Weston and erected in 1902, the Title Building was the second skyscraper built in Birmingham. It was the first building to supply its tenants with electric power with its own power-generating plant and the water supply was . . . — — Map (db m27501) HM
On March 3, 1899, the United States Pipe and Foundry Company was incorporated consolidating 14 iron and steel foundries in 9 states. One of these foundries, the Howard-Harrison Iron Company of Bessemer, was founded in 1889. In 1911, the Dimmick Pipe . . . — — Map (db m27526) HM
Gen. James H. Wilson, USA, having crossed the Tennessee River with a large force of well equipped cavalry, grouped them here at Elyton.
Their mission: to destroy Alabama's economic facilities for supporting the War.
From these headquarters he . . . — — Map (db m24358) HM
Mt. Zion Baptist Church began burying here in the mid-1800s. On June 2, 1970, New Grace Hill Cemetery, Inc., a subsidiary of the Booker T. Washington Insurance Company in Birmingham, purchased this cemetery and officially named it Zion Memorial . . . — — Map (db m35602) HM
When it was first proposed in 1905 that Vulcan be placed on Red Mountain, the time was not right for such a move. But by 1935 when the idea for Vulcan Park was proposed, iron ore mining had ceased here, the mineral railroad had been abandoned and . . . — — Map (db m95335) HM
Lynching In America
Thousands of black people were the victims of lynching and racial violence in the United States between 1877 and 1950. The lynching of African Americans during this era was a form of racial terrorism . . . — — Map (db m101159) HM
Brookside's Unique Heritage
Originally settled by the Samuel and Mary “Polly” Fields family in the 1820s, Brookside enjoyed a quiet life as an agricultural community until industrialists discovered rich coal . . . — — Map (db m43223) HM
Black Creek Park, part of the Five Mile Creek Greenway Partnership, encompasses the Fultondale Coke Oven Park development. The Fultondale Coke Oven Park preserves the environment and history of the old mining communities of north Birmingham, . . . — — Map (db m50823) HM
In the latter 1800s and early 1900s, the city of Graysville was called Gin Town. Because Graysville had the only cotton gin for miles around, the town and community grew. As the community grew, the need for businesses and houses of . . . — — Map (db m43221) HM
In the early 1900's, among the many craftsmen who migrated south to build the booming industrial cities was Swedish brick mason A. G. Hallman. Hallman moved from the Lake Michigan area and purchased an acre of farmland along the north side of Oxmoor . . . — — Map (db m26986) HM
Clyde Nelson, born in Columbiana, Alabama, was only 26 when he began development of the Town of Hollywood in 1926. With a sales force of 75 and the slogan "Out of the smoke zone, into the ozone" his beautiful community soon took shape. Homes were . . . — — Map (db m27091) HM
In 1858, the State of Alabama, wanting to develop coal and iron industries in Jefferson County, Had John T. Milner survey Shades Mountain for the most practical route for the South and North Railroad to cross. He selected Brock's Gap, named for . . . — — Map (db m26773) HM
The City of Hoover has grown rapidly since its incorporation in 1967 from a small four block area west of this site. A metal shed behind Employers Ins. Co. became the first fire station and “city hall.” A bank, grocery, hardware, drug . . . — — Map (db m28448) HM
In 1858 James Taylor Ross, a Scotchman, migrated to the South, acquired land and homesteaded in what is now Shades Valley. He provided land for the construction of a railway, including a bridge spanning Ross Creek. After the Ross family moved . . . — — Map (db m27302) HM
The story of "steel driving' man" John Henry is one of America's most enduring legends. The strong ex-slave became a folk hero during construction of the Columbus & Western Railroad between Goodwater and Birmingham. He drilled holes for explosives . . . — — Map (db m22207) HM
Sometimes called a slag ladle or cinder pot, this relic from U.S.
Steel's Ensley Works was used as a part of a eight-car train to move slag from the furnaces to the slag dump. A single car could hold up to 15 tons.
Pot manufactured at U.S. . . . — — Map (db m107494) HM
The large 54 inch inside diameter pipe was unearthed in 2001 behind the Woodward Golf Course by Bob Hall and the Jefferson County Environmental Services. It was used by the Bessemer sewer system. (Donated by U.S. Pipe & Foundry Company, 2002) — — Map (db m107497) HM
Built under the supervision of Moses Stroup to supply air blast for Tannerhill Furnace No. 1 (1859), this facility made use of blowing tubs and a large waterwheel. It remained in operation even after Furnace Nos. 2 and 3 were added in 1862 and . . . — — Map (db m107498) HM
Built near West Blocton, Al in 1860 by Winston Stewart, a local contractor. Mr. and Mrs. Fowler occupied the house from 1928 until their death.
Restored as a country School to be a part of the Learning Center in 1978...
Donated by the . . . — — Map (db m107995) HM
The John Wesley Hall Grist Mill & Cotton Gin operated on this site from 1867 to 1931, was successor to one of Alabama's earliest grist mills located a mile west on Mud Creek.
Burned during the Civil War, Hall's Mill was moved to this location . . . — — Map (db m107515) HM
The pipe marked DL & CO 1889 for Dennis Long and Company was unearthed in Cahaba Heights. Dennis Long was a native of Londonderry, Ireland who began the manufacture of cast iron pipe prior to the Civil War in Louisville, Kentucky. Long won and lost . . . — — Map (db m107495) HM
James Monroe "Jim" Williams married Martha Evaline George.
Mr. Williams was a farmer and a coal miner at Gray Hill in Bibb County, Alabama.
They raised ten children, of which seven were born in this house.
Donated by Mrs. Audry . . . — — Map (db m107511) HM
In 1955, Ervin Jackson and Newman H. Waters developed the first office park in the United States.
Since 1871 office buildings had been located in downtown Birmingham so the concept of thousands of workers coming to a suburban work-place was a . . . — — Map (db m83252) HM
In 1821 the first settlers came to this area, later called Waddell. Large numbers of people first migrated here in 1863 with the construction of the Irondale Furnace. Destroyed in the Civil War, the furnace was rebuilt and operated from 1867 to . . . — — Map (db m26769) HM
Wallace S. McElwain (1832-1888)McElwain trained in a gun factory in New York and in a foundry in Ohio before moving to Holly Springs, MS, where he operated Jones, McElwain and Company Iron Foundry. He was well known in the Southeast for his . . . — — Map (db m26266) HM
This cemetery is owned by St. John Baptist Church in Edgewater and operated by Scott-McPherson Funeral Home, Inc. US Steel Corporation previously owned the area and it is historically associated with the Edgewater Mining Camp community established . . . — — Map (db m37221) HM
Pinson, one of Alabama’s oldest communities, was settled by General Andrew Jackson’s soldiers in the early 1800s, after victory at Horseshoe Bend during the War of 1812. The community was originally known as Hagood’s Crossroads for settler Zachariah . . . — — Map (db m88406) HM
A pipe foundry was established in 1912 by the following founders, A. H. Ford, F. M. Jackson, E. E. Linthicum, Charles Green and Charles Day. Originally the main office was located approximately 100 yards west of this building. The . . . — — Map (db m83928) HM
Operated on this site under the ownership of seven companies to produce foundry pig iron. Supplied pig iron during World War 1. Closed for the last time in the Spring of 1919. Dismantled in 1933, and the land sold in 1935 for a Federal Housing . . . — — Map (db m26229) HM
Trussville was settled between 1816 and 1819 by a few settlers from the Carolinas prior to Alabama becoming the 22nd state in December 1819. The First Baptist Church, Cahaba, was organized in 1821. Trussville’s first postmaster in 1833 was Arthur . . . — — Map (db m34338) HM
In April 1886, railroad prospectors were traveling up the Butahatchie Valley in Lamar County, Alabama, Moscow beat, and securing right of way for a railroad to be built that would connect Birmingham, Alabama and Memphis, . . . — — Map (db m96472) HM
About one mile west of here is the site of the Globe Cotton Factory which was erected on Cypress Creek in 1840. By 1857 its operations included three cotton mills, a flour mill, and two corn mills, all powered by the use of three dams. By 1860 the . . . — — Map (db m83938) HM
A cotton mill was established near this site in 1822. Although short~lived, it was the forerunner of other cotton and textile factories located in this area during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Cherry Cotton Mill began operations on nearby . . . — — Map (db m48600) HM
The East Florence business area began in the industrial boom of the 1880s and 1890s and continued its development through the 1920s. Originally known as "Sweetwater", the small locally owned firms were established to serve the growing population . . . — — Map (db m35769) HM
Well-known throughout the nation and the world for his innovative work with rubber and vinyl, E. Stanley Robbins supplied rubber inner tubes, retread rubber and, later synthetic rubber for the Armed Forces in WW II. — — Map (db m38646) HM
With a fourth grade education, Ezra Culver employed his own innovative concrete process in major 20th century projects. His construction experience included work on Yankee Stadium, Lincoln Tunnel and the Florida Keys bridges. — — Map (db m29269) HM
Moved here from Atlanta in 1889, this industry made Florence a household word throughout the South. It was the largest wagon factory in the South, reportedly second largest in U.S. with 250 employees and annual production of 12,000 wagons. World War . . . — — Map (db m35772) HM
In 1947 Frank Achorn began his successful work as a chemical engineer in 45 states and 40 countries to feed the hungry of the world through increased crop yields. He later secured eight patents related to the fertilizer industry. — — Map (db m56373) HM
Beginning in the year 2000, the Cooper-Hewitt Design Museum in New York and the National Textile Museum in Washington, among others have honored the fabric and clothing designs of internationally known Natalie Chanin. — — Map (db m99376) HM
[Side 1:] The area known as Killen in Lauderdale County, was settled in the early 1800s. In 1826, Joseph Mason was appointed the first postmaster of the new community called Masonville, later to become Killen. The post office existed . . . — — Map (db m35169) HM
The settlement of what is now eastern Lauderdale County (known as "Over Elk)" by non-Native Americans commenced by 1807.
Federal land sales were held in Huntsville during the spring of 1818.
Although much of the land was described . . . — — Map (db m84296) HM
A combination of rich soil, mild climate and ready access to market via river and later railroad made Courtland an early center of cotton production. From surrounding plantations with colorful names like Bonnie Doone, Oak Grove, . . . — — Map (db m71285) HM
Courtland Army Air Field (CAAF): Facilities
At its greatest strength, CAAF was home to 4600 officers, enlisted servicemen, and cadets. During the war years it was the largest population center within Lawrence County. Over . . . — — Map (db m74411) HM
Built in 1924 and billed as the "the world's largest bottle", The Bottle (also know as the "Twist Inn") was built by John F. Williams, owner of the Nehi Bottling Company in Opelika, Alabama. A wooden replica of a bright orange Nehi soda bottle, it . . . — — Map (db m85167) HM
Built in Selma, Alabama, during the early part of the Civil War for the manufacture of military supplies for the Confederate Army. During the war an attempt was made to move it to Columbus, Georgia to prevent its being seized by Federal troops. En . . . — — Map (db m39815) HM
This famous intersection, now known as Toomers Corner was named for businessman and State Senator Sheldon Toomer who founded the Bank of Auburn here in 1907. He served 45 years as bank President and 25 years on the Auburn City Council. Toomers . . . — — Map (db m39813) HM
A popular recreation area for more than 100 years. Original dam located a short distance below Chewacla Lake Dam. Mill located on the west bank and ground both corn and wheat. Earlier mill owners from 1840's were Echols, Hiram . . . — — Map (db m85168) HM
Here in 1897 the first iron bridge in Lee County was built. In 1903 George W. Bean bought the mill, operating it until his death in 1952. About 1910 Bean installed an iron overshot wheel to replace the old turbine. Later, the dam . . . — — Map (db m73533) HM
From the 1850s to the 1970s, the Louisville & Nashville Depot was located between Market and Washington streets. The building has been used as a dress ship, a photographer's studio, and in 2004 was remodeled for the Limestone County Archives. . . . — — Map (db m93878) HM
The second Confederate Monument was erected in June 1912. This view shows the intersection of Market and Marion streets.
The 4-H'ers parade their cattle on the courthouse lawn in 1959. Judges were on hand to give a blue ribbon for the best . . . — — Map (db m93881) HM
The First Baptist Church, organized in 1824, built a meeting house in 1826. A brick structure was erected in 1831 but was replaced with the above building in 1909. This church located on the north west corner of Clinton and Hobbs streets, was later . . . — — Map (db m93883) HM
Train #3 southbound, circa 1913. The wye (turnaround) is visible on the right. Because trains traveled with only one engine in the early railroad days and the tracks further south were under construction, a wye was necessary at Elkmont for . . . — — Map (db m93859) HM
Limestone County High School (grades 9-12) was established in 1912. Money for the building, nearly $10,000, was obtained from three sources: the sale of property of an old Elkmont Elementary School, state funds, and private donations. Honored and . . . — — Map (db m93851) HM
Simeon Corder is said to have contracted with George Hamilton to build the mill and operate it for him in 1909. The contract was sealed with no more than a handshake. After Corder's death in 1923, his widow sold the mill to Aubrey Todd, who sold it . . . — — Map (db m93847) HM
Front The town of Cottonport flourished in the early years of Limestone County. It was settled in 1818 and chartered in 1824. It was located approx. 1½ miles S.E. near the point where Limestone Creek flowed into the Tennessee River and . . . — — Map (db m85455) HM
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