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Teotihuacán de Arista in Municipality of Teotihuacán, Estado de Mexico, Mexico — The Central Highlands
 

The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex

 
 
The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, June 28, 2017
1. The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex Marker
Inscription.
Complejo Arquitectónico Quetzalpapálotl
Trabajos de conservación
A principios de la década de los años sesenta del siglo pasado el Arqueólogo Jorge Acosta trabajó la zona de la Plaza de la Pirámide de la Luna en el marco del Proyecto Teotihuacán 1962-1964, localizando fragmentos de esculturas pertenecientes al edificio, por lo que decidió explorarlo, encontrando indicios de que había sido quemado. Se decidió reconstruirlo para mostrar de manera didáctica la arquitectura administrativa ocupada por grupos sociales pertenecientes al gobierno y/o la alta jerarquía religiosa.

Pintura Mural
Se cree que la figura escalonada es la estilización del corte transversal de una concha marina, que representa la fecundidad y la vida. Para estos murales se usó la técnica denominada “al fresco” en ciertos muros, mientras que en otros la de “fresco-seco” que viene a ser realmente un “temple” a la cal.

Excavación en los años 60’s
Se priorizó la reconstrucción sobre la investigación arqueológica, sin embargo, el trabajo de Jorge Acosta es uno de los mejor documentados de la historia de la arqueología en Teotihuacán ya que cuenta con la publicación de un libro en el que se enumeran las acciones de reconstrucción y algunas de las soluciones propuestas
The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, June 28, 2017
2. The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex Marker
The marker is here to the left of the stairway that leads into the complex.
para la mejor presentación del conjunto.

Sistema constructivo
Presenta la configuración espacial típica de la arquitectura teotihuacana, en la que los aposentos y sus pórticos se articulan alrededor de un patio central, hacia donde se orientan los accesos, que a su vez sirven como única manera de recibir iluminación y ventilación natural. Las cubiertas se constituían por un entramado de vigas, morillos, ramas y entortados, que se apoyaban, ya sea directamente sobre los muros, o sobre columnas para el caso de los pórticos y las antesalas.

Elementos escultoricos
Además de la monumental cabeza de serpiente (la más grande hasta ahora encontrada en Teotihuacán), se recuperó la escultura de un jaguar y una lápida con el fragmento de una figura antropomorfa, ambas hechas en tecali (piedra caliza).

Cronología
Mediante el análisis de la cerámica encontrada en las excavaciones en el Palacio, se fecha la construcción del mismo para los años 450-650 DC.

Cerámica
De las escasas ofrendas encontradas durante las excavaciones de los años 1960, destacan vasijas enteras que contenían residuos de carbón y estaban asociados a navajillas de obsidiana, pulidores y huesos humanos.

Patio de los Pilares
Se trata de un patio de 9.80 X 8.20 mts. Presenta grandes columnas en bajo relieve con la representación
The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex Marker image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, June 28, 2017
3. The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex Marker
This additional view of the featured marker is from the entrance to the complex, looking towards the east out to the Calzada de los Muertos.
de aves en posición de perfil y de frente, acompañados por símbolos de ojos y elementos flamígeros.

Viguería
La reconstrucción de la techumbre se realizó con base en los datos arqueológicos, como la presencia de vigas carbonizadas que dejaron huellas sobre los pisos.

Tablero pintado
El diseño es una interpretación del arqueológo basada en los murales encontrados en la Antesala 1.

Columnas esculpidas
Durante la intervención se labraron centenares de piedras para reconstruir los pilares, a las que se les hicieron pequeñas incisiones para diferenciarlas de los sillares originales.

Almenas
En este caso representan el símbolo del año teotihuacano.

El Palacio
Este edificio junto con los que delimitan la Plaza de la Pirámide de la Luna, forma parte de uno de los espacios públicos más grandes y suntuosos del mundo mesoamericano.

Jorge Acosta (1908-1975)
Inició su carrera como arqueólogo en Guatemala, en 1928. Fue colaborador de Alfonso Caso en las excavaciones de Monte Albán, realizadas durante la década de 1930 y principios de los años 1940.

En 1940 inició una serie de trece temporadas de trabajo de campo en Tula, que permitieron el rescate de importantes piezas arqueológicas, entre ellas, los Atlantes. En su memoria, el museo arqueológico de sitio en Tula lleva
The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, June 28, 2017
4. The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex
This view is to the right of the featured marker, showing more of the reconstructed palace. An additional marker, "Palace of Quetzalpapálotl", is in the right corner.
su nombre.

Cuando murió a la edad de 67 años, era jefe de la Sección de Mantenimiento y Conservación del Departamento de Monumentos Prehispánicos del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH).

1959
Ignacio Bernal y Jorge Acosta, elaboran el proyecto para explorar Teotihuacan, en una extensión de 2 km2, incluyendo la Plaza de la Pirámide de la Luna.

1962-1964
Se reconstruye el Patio de los Pilares y las antesalas 1 y 2, bajo la dirección del Arqlgo. Jorge Acosta, quien tuvo como ayudante al Arqlgo. Eduardo Matos.

1989
Se hacen los primeros trabajos de mantenimiento en el edificio, principalmente en el Patio y la Antesala 1, para contrarrestar los problemas de humedad.

2009-2012
“Proyecto de Conservación del Complejo Arquitectónico Quetzalpapálotl”, a cargo de la Mtra. Verónica Ortega Cabrera.

Pie de dibujos:
Restos de las columnas en la esquina noreste del patio. Foto: Juan Monterrubio

Lápida de tecali fragmentada, en la que se observa un personaje ricamente vestido.

Almenas con la figura de Tlaloc, recuperadas durante las excavaciones de la temporada 1962-1964


English translation:

The Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex
Conservation Work
At the beginning of the 1960s,
The Patio of the Pillars at the Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, June 28, 2017
5. The Patio of the Pillars at the Quetzalpapálotl Architectural Complex
This patio, mentioned in the marker text, has been reconstructed to show how it might have appeared in prehispanic times.
the archaeologist Jorge Acosta worked in the area of the Pyramid of the Moon Plaza under the Teotihuacán Project of 1962-1964, locating fragments of sculptures belonging to this building. He decided to explore it further, finding signs that it had been burned. It was decided to reconstruct it as a way to showcase the administrative architecture occupied by social groups belonging to the government and/or to the high religious hierarchy.

Mural painting
It is believed that the stepped figure of the mural is the symbolization of the cross-section of a sea shell, which represented fecundity and life. For these murals the so-called "al fresco" technique was used on certain walls, while in others the "dry-fresco" technique was used, which is actually a type of paint using lime.

Excavation in the 60's
The priority of the project was reconstruction instead of pure archaeological research. However, Jorge Acosta's work is one of the best documented in the history of archeology in Teotihuacan, since it resulted in the publication of a book where he detailed the reconstruction steps and also some of the solutions proposed for the best presentation of the project.

Construction system
The area presents the typical spatial configuration of Teotihuacan architecture, in which the rooms and their porticos are articulated around
A bas-relief carving of a bird in the Patio of the Pillars image. Click for full size.
By J. Makali Bruton, June 28, 2017
6. A bas-relief carving of a bird in the Patio of the Pillars
a central patio, towards which the accesses are oriented, which in turn serve as the main way to receive natural lighting and ventilation. The roof consisted of a framework of beams, bricks and branches, all leaning either directly on the walls or on columns in the case of the porches and the antechamber.

Sculptural elements
In addition to the monumental serpent's head (the largest found so far in Teotihuacan), a jaguar sculpture and a tombstone with the fragment of an anthropomorphic figure, both made in tecali (limestone), were recovered.

Chronology
Through the analysis of the pottery found in the excavations at the Palace, its construction was dated to 450-650 AD.

Ceramics
Of the few offerings found during the excavations of the 1960s some of the most important were whole ceramic vessels found which contained coal residues and were associated with small obsidian knives, polishers and human bones.

Patio of the Pillars
This is a patio that measures 9.80 x 8.20 meters. It has large columns with bas-relief carvings of the representation of birds in different positions, accompanied by symbols of eyes and elements that could represent flames.

Roof beams
The reconstruction of the roof was made based on archaeological data, such as the presence of charred beams that left traces on the original floors.

Painted boardwork
The design on the boardwork is an interpretation made by the archaeologist, based on the murals found in Antechamber 1.

Sculpted columns
During the intervention hundreds of stones were worked to reconstruct the pillars, into which were made small incisions to differentiate them from the original carved columns.

Rooftop carved symbols
These carved stones represent the Teotihuacan symbol for a year.

The Palace
This building, along with those that delimit the Pyramid of the Moon Plaza, make up a part of one of the largest and most sumptuous public spaces in the Mesoamerican world.

Jorge Acosta (1908-1975)
He began his career as an archaeologist in Guatemala in 1928. He collaborated with Alfonso Caso in the Monte Albán excavations during the 1930s and early 1940s.

In 1940 began a series of thirteen seasons of field work in Tula, which conserved many important archaeological pieces, including the Atlantes. In his memory, the archaeological museum at Tula bears his name.

When he died at the age of 67, he was head of the Maintenance and Conservation Section of the Department of Prehispanic Monuments of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH).

1959
Ignacio Bernal and Jorge Acosta elaborate the project to explore Teotihuacan, in an extension of 2 km2, including the Pyramid of the Moon Plaza.

1962-1964
The Patio of the Pillars and Antechambers 1 and 2 are rebuilt under the direction of Jorge Acosta, with Eduardo Matos as his assistant.

1989
The first maintenance work is carried out in the building, mainly in the Patio and Antechamber 1, to counteract moisture problems.

2009-2012
This period encompassed the "Conservation Project of the Architectural Complex of Quetzalpapálotl", under Verónica Ortega Cabrera.

Captions:
Remains of the columns in the northeast corner of the courtyard. Photo: Juan Monterrubio

Fragmented tecali headstone, in which a richly dressed person is shown.

Rooftop carved stones with the figure of Tlaloc, recovered during the excavations of the 1962-1964 season.


 
Erected by Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH).
 
Location. 19° 41.854′ N, 98° 50.716′ W. Marker is in Teotihuacán de Arista, Estado de Mexico, in Municipality of Teotihuacán. Marker can be reached from Route 132 just east of Avenida Pirámides. Touch for map. The marker is a few meters south of the Plaza of the Moon, on the right while heading south on the Calzada de los Muertos at the Teotihuacan Archaeological Site. Marker is in this post office area: Teotihuacán de Arista, Estado de Mexico 55880, Mexico.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. The Temple of Agriculture (about 90 meters away, measured in a direct line); Miccoatli (about 120 meters away); Late Occupation of Teotihuacan and the Mexica Presence (about 120 meters away); The Puma Mural (about 210 meters away); The History of Teotihuacán (approx. half a kilometer away); The Importance of the Pyramid of the Sun (approx. half a kilometer away); A Ceremonial Incense Burner (approx. half a kilometer away); The Pyramid of the Sun (approx. half a kilometer away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Teotihuacán de Arista.
 
Categories. AnthropologyArchitectureMan-Made FeaturesNative Americans
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on July 17, 2017. This page originally submitted on July 16, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico. This page has been viewed 33 times since then. Photos:   1. submitted on July 16, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.   2, 3, 4, 5, 6. submitted on July 17, 2017, by J. Makali Bruton of Querétaro, Mexico.
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