Abbeville in Abbeville County, South Carolina — The American South (South Atlantic)
Patrick Calhoun Burial Grounds
5.5 miles southeast is the burial ground of Patrick and Martha Caldwell Calhoun, Parents of John C. Calhoun; Deputy Surveyor 1756; First Representative from Up Country to Commons House of Assembly, 1769-1772; Member of First Provincial Congress, 1775; Second, 1775-1776; General Assembly, 1776; and frequently after until his death, 1796. His greatest service to his state was his successful fight for the Circuit Courts Act, 1762. Across the road is his home site.
Erected 1950. (Marker Number 1-1.)
Location. 34° 8.102′ N, 82° 24.856′ W. Marker is in Abbeville, South Carolina, in Abbeville County. Marker is at the intersection of State Highway 72 and Mt. Carmel Road (State Highway 823), on the left when traveling south on State Highway 72. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Abbeville SC 29620, United States of America. Touch for directions.
Other nearby markers. At least 10 other markers are within 4 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Lebanon Presbyterian Church (approx. 1.4 miles away); Forest Lawn Memory Gardens Veterans Monument (approx. 3.1 miles away); Quay-Wardlaw House Trinity Episcopal Church (approx. 3½ miles away); Maj. Thomas D. Howie (approx. 3½ miles away); The Old Livery Stable (approx. 3½ miles away); Old Bank Building (ca. 1865) (approx. 3.6 miles away); Humane Society Alliance Fountain (1912) (approx. 3.6 miles away); Abbeville County Confederate Monument (approx. 3.6 miles away); "Big Bob" (approx. 3.6 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Abbeville.
Regarding Patrick Calhoun Burial Grounds. The Patrick Calhoun Burial Grounds is located directly across from the "Birthplace of Calhoun" marker on Mt. Carmel Road. A short drive into the woods will take you to the grounds. Mt. Carmel Road was also the route taken by Jefferson Davis after he spent the night in Abbeville on his flight from Richmond.
Also see . . .
1. Patrick Calhoun Burial Grounds. This cemetery contains the graves of Patrick Calhoun and members of his family, who settled in the Long Canes area of Abbeville County in (Submitted on July 20, 2008, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.)
2. Caldwell Family Ancestry. Ancestry of Martha Caldwell Calhoun, Patrick Calhoun's second wife. (Submitted on December 22, 2008, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.)
3. Members of the First Provincial Congress. First Session - January 11-17, 1775. Second Session - June 1-22, 1775. (Submitted on December 22, 2008, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.)
4. John C. Calhoun. John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was the 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. (Submitted on May 24, 2009, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.)
5. Long Canes Massacre Marker. Three miles west is the site of an attack by Cherokee Indians upon settlers of Long Canes in the Cherokee war of 1759-1761. (Submitted on July 19, 2009, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.)
6. Calhoun Plantation Cemetery. Located on the grounds of Clemson University, this cemetery holds the remains of descendants of John C. Calhoun, many from his son, Andrew Pickens Calhoun. (Submitted on June 26, 2012, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.)
1. The Patrick Calhoun Family Cemetery - National Register
The Patrick Calhoun Cemetery contains approximately 30 graves, some unmarked except for field stones. The area is enclosed by a 70' by 70' field-stone wall, varying in height from ground level to three feet high. Originally, the cemetery had an iron fence; this has been removed as a result of vandalism.
There are a variety of tombstone types, dating from 1796 to 1862. The most impressive marker is a monument with a square base and octagonal obelisk, erected in 1844 by John C. Calhoun to his mother, sister, and father, Patrick Calhoun.
Standing in a secluded area wooded with pine and hardwood trees, on land originally belonging to Patrick Calhoun's plantation, the cemetery is located several feet from South Carolina Highway 823, just south of White's Creek.
This cemetery contains the graves of Patrick Calhoun and members of his family, who settled in the Long Cane area of Abbeville County in the 1750s. Patrick Calhoun, early settler of backcountry South Carolina soon achieved a reputation as an Indian fighter. He entered politics and served in South Carolina's early assemblies. Realizing that the Charleston-based state legislature often served only the interests of the lowcountry planters, Calhoun became a spokesman for the rights of the backcountry settlers. He was influential
Military and Political
James, Ezekiel, William and Patrick Calhoun, four brothers, emigrated from Ireland to Pennsylvania in the 1730s and then moved southward along the Alleghenies to Wythe County, Virginia. Indian attacks, after Braddock's defeat, forced them to move southward again. In 1756 they established the Calhoun settlement in the Long Canes community of present-day Abbeville County, S.C.
In February 1760, the Cherokee Indians were threatening the frontier, and a caravan of about 250 settlers from the Long Canes Community were traveling to Fort Moore, near Augusta, for shelter. The caravan, of which Patrick Calhoun and his family were a part, was attacked by over 100 Indians, and many of the settlers were killed. This event, known as the Long Canes Massacre, awoke the indignation of the colonial
In 1769, Patrick Calhoun led a band of upcountry settlers to Charleston, where they demanded and received the right to vote. Calhoun was elected the first representative from the upcountry in the Provincial assembly as a result of this expedition. From 1769-1772, he served in the Commons House of Assembly from Prince Williams Parish. He participated in the First and Second Provincial Congresses (1775-1776) and was a member of the state's first General assembly (1776), in which he served until his death in 1796.
Patrick Calhoun's grave is the earliest recorded in the cemetery, which is located on the former grounds of his plantation. before dying his political and military career, he earned a livelihood as a farmer and surveyor.
John C. Calhoun, son of Patrick and Martha Calhoun, was born in the Long Canes
After Patrick Calhoun died in 1796, John C. Calhoun left Waddell's Academy and returned home to manage the family plantation, which included the family cemetery. In 1800 he reentered Waddell's academy, which had been moved to the South Carolina side of the Savannah River, and in 1802 he entered Yale. After acquiring a law degree from Yale in 1806, Calhoun returned to South Carolina and opened a law office in Abbeville in 1807. The Law Range where Calhoun had his office is still standing in the town of Abbeville.
In 1811 Calhoun married and made his home in Bath, S.C., across the Savannah River from Augusta. In 1825 he built a mansion at Fort Hill in the northwest corner of the state but continued to maintain connections in the Long Canes community. In 1844, while he was U.S. Secretary of State, John C. Calhoun erected a monument in the family cemetery to his father, mother, and sister. The monument, with inscriptions written by Calhoun, stands today.
— Submitted July 15, 2009, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.
2. Patrick Calhoun
During his lifetime, Patrick
He was first married to a Miss Craighead, the daughter of an immigrant Irish protestant minister. After her death, he married Martha Caldwell, the daughter of Capt. William Caldwell and the mother of all of his five children. For nearly the next century, the Calhoun family, through its marriages, personalities, and connections, continued to be instrumental in the development of Abbeville District and South Carolina.
1. William Calhoun (1772-1840), married to Catherine Jenna De Graffenreid.
2. Catherine Calhoun (1775-1796), married to Moses Waddell, a local educator.
3. Patrick Calhoun, Jr. (1776-1840), married to Nancy Needham De Graffenried.
4. James Calhoun (1779-1843), married to Sarah Caldwell Martin.
5. John Caldwell Calhoun (1782-1850), married Floride Bonneau Calhoun (Colhoun).
According to John C. Calhoun, Patrick was "more Jeffersonian than Jefferson." The
— Submitted July 20, 2008, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.
3. Patrick Calhoun, the First Lawmaker from the Upper Country
Patrick Calhoun — We have now seen the men who were leaders in the work of making settlements near the seacoast of South Carolina. We have followed some of the settlers as they made their way from the seashore up the four great rivers, the Savannah, the Edisto, the Santee, and the Pee Dee.
We must now turn our eyes to the northern border of the colony to watch the coming of a great multitude of settlers from Scotland. Among these new colonists we shall see a strong, brave man leading the rest of his people in the work of building homes in the highlands. This man is Patrick Calhoun, the father of the great and good South Carolina statesman, John C. Calhoun.
Scotch Emigrants to the Upper Country — Patrick Calhoun was a Scot, a descendant of that large
Long Canes Settlement — In February, 1756, Patrick Calhoun led a small group of Scots with their families into the region west of the Saluda River. The land near the creeks and rivulets was covered with wild cane from five to thirty feet in height. They built homes on Long Cane Creek, in the present Abbeville County. Their community was named the Long Canes settlement. In the year 1760 some Indians attacked this settlement and killed a number of the colonists. The rest fled, and among the number, Patrick Calhoun. Afterwards he returned to the country of the cane brakes, in Abbeville.
The Waxhaws Settlement — About the year 1760 a company of Scots Cut down the trees and built
The stream of Scots from the northward kept on bringing settlers to the Waxhaws. A log church was built. The earth was the only floor and the seats were made of split logs. The people of the settlement came together in this building every Sunday to worship God according to the Presbyterian form of service.
The Settlement of Lancaster County —Through the Waxhaws settlement the stream of settlers poured into the region now called Lancaster County. Then they crossed the Catawba and found the hills and ridges covered with forests of hickory, chestnut, and oak. The ground in the woodlands was hidden under a carpet of wild-pea vines and wild flowers. This fair region of forest and vine and flowing stream was the home of vast numbers of buffaloes, deer, bear, turkeys, partridges, geese, and ducks. The Scots made it their own home and their habitations remain in this earthly paradise, until this day. From the Catawba region they passed
Other Settlements in the Upper Country — About 1765, as captain of the armed men of the settlement, Patrick Calhoun marched some distance down the Saluda to meet and offer welcome to two bodies of settlers who entered the colony at Charles Town. One of these was made up of Germans, who settled on Hard Labor Creek, in Abbeville County. The other company was a group of Huguenot families, who established themselves near Long Canes. The Calhouns furnished them for a time with food. The Huguenots called their settlements New Bordeaux and New Rochelle, and afterward they gave to the county the French name, Abbeville. Just before the outbreak of the Revolution some Scots sailed to Charles Town Harbor and then moved into the highlands to join the other Scots who were moving southward from Pennsylvania and Virginia. These Scots took possession of nearly all of the upper country of South Carolina. They were intelligent people, and worked with great energy. They killed the wild beasts, drove away the Indians, cut down the forests, and planted corn and wheat. They built churches and schoolhouses. Their ministers were well- educated men, and
Patrick Calhoun Admitted to the South Carolina Legislature -— In 1768 Patrick Calhoun, with a few others, presented himself before the legislature at Charles Town and asked the rulers of the colony to show more justice to the settlers in the highlands. These settlers wished the same privileges that were given to other tax-payers. They asked the lawmakers to open public roads, to organize courts of justice, to allow the upper country to send delegates to the legislature, and to help the mountaineers as they helped the lowlanders to build schoolhouses and churches and to secure ministers. In the following year (1769) Patrick Calhoun took his seat among the lawmakers at Charles Town as the first representative chosen by the people of the upper country. Patrick Calhoun's last wife was the daughter of John Caldwell, a Scot who joined the settlement in Abbeville. Their son was John Caldwell Calhoun, South Carolina's great lawgiver. (Source: The Making of South Carolina by Henry Alexander White, pgs 62-67.)
— Submitted April 24, 2009, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.
4. Patrick Calhoun's Obituary
Died, on Monday the 15th ultimo, at his seat in Abbeville county, the hon. Patrick Calhoun,
— Submitted May 24, 2009, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.
5. The Early Calhouns
In 1756 James, Ezekiel, William and Patrick Calhoun and their sister, Mrs. Mary Noble, widow of John Noble, and their mother, Mrs. Catherine Calhoun, removed to South Carolina, arriving, according to a letter written by John C. Calhoun, a son of Patrick, in February.
Ezekiel Calhoun made his will September 3, 1759, and it was proved before Thomas Bell, to whom a dedimus had been issued for the purpose, May 25,1762. Ho gave his son John his gun and saddle and a balled face horse: gave one-third of his personal property to his wife Jean and the rest thereof to his children, John, Patrick, Ezekiel, Mary, Rebecca, Catherine and Jean, to be equally divided between them; gave all of his lands on Long Cane and on Reed Creek, Augusta County, Virginia, to his three sons to be divided equally between them21; gave his wife (when the lands should be valued and divided) her third part thereof in money or in the lands; gave a similar interest to each of his four daughters; gave wife the management of the plantation
In 1760 the Cherokee Indians began to give trouble to the people of the Up-Country of South Carolina and on the first day of February, 1760, while the people of the Long Cane Settlement were removing with their families to Augusta for safety they were attacked and twenty-three of the number were slain. The following contemporary accounts of the massacre were published:
"Yesterday se'nnight the whole of the Long-Cane Settlers, to the Number of 150 Souls, moved off with most of their Effects in Waggons; towards Augusta in Georgia, and in a few Hours after their setting off, were surprised and attacked by about 100 Cherokees on Horseback, while they were getting their Waggons out of a boggy Place: They had amongst them 40 Gunmen, who might have made a very good Defence, but unfortunately their Guns were in the Waggons; the few that recovered theirs, fought the Indians Half an Hour, and were at last obliged to fly: In the action they lost 7 Waggons, and 40 of their People killed or taken (including Women and Children) the Rest got safe to Augusta; whence an Express arrived here with the same Account, on Tuesday Morning."
"We have no late Advices from Fort Prince-George, or any Consequence from Places in that Route. But from Fort Moore, we learn, that a Gang of about 18 Cherokees, divided into 3 or 4 Parties, on the 15th Instant, way-laid, killed, and scalped Ulric Tobler, Esq; a Captain of Militia in those Parts, as he was riding from his Father's to that Fort; and shot Mr. William Calhoun, who was with him, in the Hand: 3 other Persons, who were in Company escaped unhurt: the Indian who killed Capt.
The South-Carolina Gazette of Monday, October 8, 1764, referring to the proceedings of the General Assembly in June preceding, said:
"On the 5th, they likewise voted pay for a company of rangers, for six months, to protect the Long-Canes settlement, against the incursions of Indians; to consist of a commission officer, a sergeant, and 20 men; of which Patrick Calhoun, Esq; is appointed captain, who serves without pay."
Patrick and William Calhoun were both made Justices of the Peace for Granville County and subsequently (after 1769) for Ninety Six District under the Provincial Government, and at the election held on the 7th and 8th of March, 1769, Patrick Calhoun was elected to the Commons House of Assembly from Prince William's Parish and served until the next election, in October, 1772, the first representative from the Up-Country.
At the commencement of the Revolutionary struggle in South Carolina, Patrick Calhoun was sent as a deputy to the first Provincial Congress (January 11, 1775-November 1, 1775) from Ninety Six District and was reflected to the second Provincial Congress (November 1, 1775-March 26, 1776) and as a member of that body became a member of the first General Assembly (March 26, 1776-October 21, 1776) to the State of South Carolina
— Submitted November 16, 2009, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.
6. Patrick Calhoun
There were two ways of getting to South Carolina in Colonial times. The first immigrants, many of whom were men of capital, landed at Charleston, and, settling in the fertile low country along the coast, became prosperous planters of rice, indigo, and corn before a single white inhabitant had found his way to the more salubrious upper country in the western part of the Province. The settlers of the upper country were plain, poorer, people who landed at Philadelphia or Baltimore and travelled southward along the base of the Alleghanies to the inviting tablelands of the Carolinas. In the lower country, the estates were large, the slaves numerous, the white inhabitants few, idle, and profuse. The upper country was peopled by a sturdier race who possessed farms of moderate extent,
Looking merely to the public career of Calhoun, the special pleader of the Southern aristocracy, we should expect to find him born and reared among the planters of the low country. The Calhouns, on the contrary, were up-country people farmers Whigs,
Patrick Calhoun was a strong-headed, wrong-headed, very brave, honest, ignorant man. His whole life, almost, was a battle. When the Calhouns had been but five years in their forest home, the Cherokees attacked the settlement, destroyed it utterly, killed one half the men, and drove the rest to the lower country; whence they dared not return till the peace of 1763. Patrick Calhoun was elected to command the mounted rangers raised to protect the frontiers, a duty heroically performed by him. After the peace, the settlement enjoyed several years of tranquility, during which Patrick Calhoun
This Patrick Calhoun illustrates well the North-of-Ireland character; one peculiarity of which is the possession of will disproportioned to intellect. Hence a man of this race frequently appears to striking advantage in scenes which demand chiefly an exercise of will; while in other spheres, which make larger demands upon the understanding the same man may be simply mischievous. We see this in the case of Andrew Jackson, who at New Orleans was glorious; at Washington, almost wholly pernicious; and in the case of Andrew Johnson who was eminently useful to his country in 1861, but obstructive and perilous to it in 1866. For these Scotch-Irishmen,
— Submitted January 16, 2012, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.
7. The Circuit Court Act Of 1769
The two common law courts at Charleston, together with the courts of justices of the peace for the trial of petty cases, amply served the needs of the province during the earlier years of its existence. As the settlements gradually extended further and further away from the coast, however, it became burdensome for the people to travel one hundred and fifty or two hundred miles to Charleston to attend court. The matter became still more serious when the Scotch-Irish, after Braddock's
The principal obstacle to this course was that it would lessen the fees of the provost marshal of the province. The patent for this office had been held since 1759 by Richard Cumberland, the English dramatist, who exercised his official duties through deputies and received a large share of the financial returns. Mr. Roger Pinckney, his deputy in the province, informed a committee of the assembly in December, 1766, that Cumberland was inclined to sell his patent. The committee
"An Act for establishing Courts, building Gaols, and appointing Sheriffs and other officers for the more convenient administration of Justice in this Province" soon passed the council and assembly and was ratified by the governor, April 12, 1768. The entire province was divided into seven judicial districts, each named for the town in which the court was to meet: Charleston, Beaufort, Orangeburgh, Georgetown, Camden, Cheraws, and Ninety-Six. The courts of general sessions and common pleas were still to sit at Charleston three and four times per annum respectively, but their jurisdiction was restricted to the Charleston district. Circuits for the trials of all cases, civil and criminal, were to be held in the other districts in April and November of each year. The chief justice of the province and the assistant justices of the common
The necessity of waiting for the king's approbation of the law before putting it into operation gave rise to another long delay. The Board of Trade referred it to their special counsel, Mr. Matthew Lamb, who brought up a number of objections. First, he criticised the clause which allowed judges in the circuit courts to determine summarily cases involving not more than twenty pounds sterling. This sum
The Lords of Trade in their report to the king, made September 15, 1768, disregarded Lamb's first two objections, laid considerable stress on the third and fourth, and added a fifth, namely, that the method of appointing sheriffs took away the discretionary power of the governor and hence of the crown. The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council agreed entirely with the objections of the Board of Trade, but the two main objections, those concerning the tenure of judges and the appointment of sheriffs, seemed still stronger to them "insomuch that they considered the first as indecent and disrespectful to His Majesty and the other as altogether inadmissible." His Majesty in council issued an order, October 7, 1768, rejecting the bill and forbidding the governor to give his assent to any similar act in the future until the two objections just noticed
Meanwhile the disturbances in the back settlements were increasing. Lieutenant-Governor Bull issued a proclamation, August 15, 1768, calling on all law-abiding citizens to help put down the riots. The Regulators and their opponents, the Scovilites, threatened for a time to plunge the upper country into a bloody civil war.
The assembly was dissolved November 19, 1768, because of a quarrel with Governor Montagu over the Massachusetts circular letter of February 11. Although an election was held shortly afterwards, the new assembly was not allowed to meet for business until June 26 of the following year. Montagu had just returned from an extensive tour of the back country. Consequently, in his opening speech, he dwelt upon the grievous condition of affairs in that section of the province, due to the lack of courts, and urged the assembly to take some steps to remedy the matter. At the same time he informed them that the circuit court act had been disapproved in England and laid before them the report of the Board of Trade.
Messrs. Lynch, Lowndes, Powell, Gaillard, Rutledge, Gadsden, and Kershaw, who had been appointed a committee to consider the question, reported, on July 4, that a bill should be brought in similar to the other, but without the objectionable stipulation in regard to judges holding office during good behavior. Such a measure
As soon as Governor Montagu arrived in London, he laid the act before the Board of Trade. A favorable report was received, and the king in council signified his approval on November 29. Lieutenant-Governor Bull was notified and was requested to send over a list of persons suitable to act as assistant judges. The evident intention was that the assistants should be selected from among the colonists, but, if so, the idea was soon abandoned. We cannot be sure whether this change of policy was due to the refusal of the South Carolina lawyers to serve, to the unwillingness of the home government to
The act of 1768 contained a clause, which was repeated in that of 1769, providing that the law was not to go into operation until all the court-houses and gaols in the province were completed, although no appropriation for expenses or details in regard to the matter were inserted in either act. Bull informed the assembly, February 21, 1770, of His Majesty's approval of the law, and urged them to take immediate steps for erecting the necessary buildings. A committee report of March 7, 1770, presented plans for court-houses in the country districts to be built of wood, for gaols to be built of brick at Georgetown, Port Royal, and Orangeburgh, and of wood in the other districts, and for a brick gaol at Charleston. To meet the expenses of this work the issue of £50,000
The work on the new buildings proceeded so slowly that the assistant judges complained to Lord Hillsborough, January 23, 1772, that it was being delayed on purpose to keep them out of their salaries, some of the popular leaders declaring that, as the law was not to be put into force until all the court-houses and gaols were completed, the salaries of the judges could not begin until that time. In consequence of orders from the home government, the province was compelled to pay the judges and attorney-general their salaries in full from February 19, 1770, the date on which Lieutenant-Governor Bull issued his proclamation announcing the confirmation by the king of the act relating to circuit courts.
A proclamation of May 19, 1772, announced that all of the court-houses and gaols had been completed and that the courts were to be opened at once. The six districts outside of Charleston were divided into two circuits, the southern including Orangeburgh, Ninety- Six, and Beaufort, and the northern including Camden, Cheraws, and Georgetown. (Source: South Carolina as a Royal Province, 1719-1776 by William Roy Smith, pgs 141-145.)
— Submitted April 24, 2009, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.
8. Marker Style
The marker shown reflects the earliest style of South Carolina Historical Markers. It was in use between the 1930s and 1955s. The original design was cast aluminum and crowned with an encircled palmetto tree. The markers were painted silver with black lettering.
— Submitted September 16, 2008, by Brian Scott of Anderson, South Carolina.
Categories. • Cemeteries & Burial Sites • Notable Persons •
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