Crystal City in Zavala County, Texas — The American South (West South Central)
World War II Enemy Alien Internment
”Inevitably, war creates situations which Americans would not countenance in times of peace, such as the internment of men and women who were considered potentially dangerous to America’s national security.”
Texas played a significant role in World War II. Thousands worked in war industries such as oil production and aircraft manufacturing. Sacrifices were made on the home front in many ways such as rationing, scrap driving, and buying war bonds. In service of the war effort, 750,000 Texas men and women joined the military, and the sate hosted more than 65 U.S. Army Air Forces facilities, 35 U.S. Army Ground Forces camps and forts, nearly a dozen naval installations, and 68 prisoner of war camps.
Shocked by the December 7, 1941, Empire of Japan attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii that propelled the United States into World War II, one government response to the war was the incarceration of thousands of Japanese Americans on the West Coast and the territory of Hawaii. Issei (Japanese-born immigrants who were prohibited by law from becoming U.S. citizens) and Nisei (American-born children who were U.S. citizens by birth) were significantly impacted by war hysteria. More than 120,000 Issei and Nisei were moved, primarily, to War Relocation Authority
The government's authority over Enemy Aliens and, by circumstance, their American-born children came from United Stares Code, Title 50, Section 21, Restraint, Regulation, and Removal, which allowed for the arrest and detention of Enemy Aliens during war. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Proclamation No. 2525 on December 7, 1941 and Proclamations No. 2526 and No. 2527 on December 8, 1941—modeled on the Enemy Alien Act of 1798—collectively stated,
”All natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of [Japan, Germany and Italy], being of the age of fourteen years and upward, who shall be in the United States and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, and removed as alien enemies."
Prior to these presidential
Early in 1942, the DOJ established a hi-level organization, which handled the individual cases of Enemy Aliens: The Enemy Alien Control Unit in Washington, D.C. and an Enemy Alien Hearing Board with branches located in each of the federal judicial districts of the United States (in Texas boards were held in Houston, Dallas, and San Antonio). Each Enemy Alien Hearing Board consisted
Erected 2011 by Texas Historical Commission.
Location. 28° 41.463′ N, 99° 49.484′ W. Marker is in Crystal City, Texas, in Zavala County. Marker is at the intersection of North 7th Avenue (Farm to Market Road 1433) and Popeye Lane, on the right when traveling north on North 7th Avenue. Touch for map. Marker is located in southwest corner of vacant lot (former internment camp site), adjacent to the Crystal City High School Baseball field. Marker is at or near this postal address: 104 Popeye Lane, Crystal City TX 78839, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 7 other markers are within 12 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. World War II Concentration Camp (here, next to this marker); Crystal City Family Internment Camp, World War II (here, next to this marker); Confinement Site - History of Crystal City Family Internment Camp (a few steps from this Living and Working in an Internment Camp (about 600 feet away, measured in a direct line); Zavala County (approx. 0.8 miles away); Burleson Cemetery (approx. 9.6 miles away); Dimmit County Courthouse (approx. 11.9 miles away).
Related markers. Click here for a list of markers that are related to this marker.
Also see . . .
1. World War II Enemy Alien Control Program.
Immediately after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamations 2525, 2526, and 2527 to authorize the United States to detain allegedly potentially dangerous enemy aliens. The FBI and other law enforcement agencies arrested thousands of suspected enemy aliens, mostly individuals of German, Italian, or Japanese ancestry, living throughout the United States. The Department of Justice oversaw the processing of the cases and the internment program. Although many were released or paroled after hearings before a local alien enemy hearing board, for many the adversarial hearings resulted in internment. Often families, including naturalized or American-born spouses and children, of those interned voluntarily joined them in internment. (Submitted on December 13, 2017, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.)
2. The Legacy of Crystal City’s Internment Camps.
The Crystal City camp was part of a separate program called the Enemy Alien Control Unit, run by the Department of Justice and administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. The program was designed for Axis citizens, people who had renounced their U.S. citizenship, and those who had been deemed particularly dangerous—a broad description that fit many pillars of immigrant communities, including religious leaders, martial arts instructors and members of cultural organizations. German- and Italian-Americans who had come under FBI suspicion, as well as Japanese-Americans considered too dangerous for the War Relocation Authority, were sent to Crystal City. (Submitted on December 13, 2017, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida.)
Categories. • Asian Americans • Man-Made Features • War, World II •
Credits. This page was last revised on December 13, 2017. This page originally submitted on December 12, 2017, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. This page has been viewed 82 times since then and 23 times this year. Photos: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. submitted on December 12, 2017, by Cosmos Mariner of Cape Canaveral, Florida. • Bernard Fisher was the editor who published this page.