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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
Topeka in Shawnee County, Kansas — The American Midwest (Upper Plains)
 

Corridor of Flags

 
 
Corridor of Flags, Looking SE image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
1. Corridor of Flags, Looking SE
Inscription.
Delaware, 1st State
December 7, 1787

1609 • Henry Hudson visited Delaware Bay
1638 • Swedish colonists established Fort Christina, Delaware's first permanent settlement, and founded the colony of New Sweden
1655 • Dutch captured New Sweden
1682 • William Penn took over Delaware counties
1880 • First beauty contest in United States was held at Rehoboth Beach for the title of Miss United States, the forerunner of today's Miss America pageant
Delaware's Northern Boundary with Pennsylvania is formed by an arc of a perfect circle, the only state to have such a boundary

Area: 2,026 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The First State
State Bird: Blue Hen Chicken
State Flower: Peach Blossom
State Tree: American Holly
Capital: Dover

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Pennsylvania, 2nd State
December 12, 1787

1754 • French and Indian War began in western Pennsylvania
1774 • First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia
1776 • July 4th, Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia
1787 • Constitutional Convention met at Philadelphia
1859 • Edwin Drake drilled the nation's first commercially successful oil well, near Titusville
1863 • Union forces defeated Confederate Army of General Robert E.
Delaware, 1st State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
2. Delaware, 1st State Marker
Lee in the Battle of Gettysburg
1905 • The world's largest chocolate and confectionary factory opened in Hershey
1940 • First section of Pennsylvania Turnpike opened

Area: 45,318 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Keystone State
State Bird: Ruffed Grouse
State Flower: Mountain Laurel
State Tree: Hemlock
Capital: Harrisburg

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New Jersey, 3rd State
December 18, 1787

1609 • Henry Hudson explored Sandy Hook Bay and sailed up the Hudson River
1664 • The Dutch surrendered New Jersey to England
1858 • First dinosaur skeleton discovered in America found buried in Haddonfield
1869 • Rutgers defeated College of New Jersey (now Princeton) in the first intercollegiate football game
1879 • Thomas A. Edison developed the first practical incandescent lamp in Menlo Park
1889 • First electric sewing machine was made by the Singer Manufacturing Company at its factory in Elizabethport (now Elizabeth)

Area: 7,790 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Garden State
State Bird: Eastern Goldfinch
State Flower: Purple Violet
State Tree: Red Oak
Capital: Trenton

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Georgia, 4th State
January 2, 1788

1793 • Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in Savannah
1828 • First known
Pennsylvania, 2nd State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
3. Pennsylvania, 2nd State Marker
newspaper to use an Indian Language in the United States was the bilingual Cherokee Phoenix
1842 • First successful use of ether in surgery by Crawford W. Long
1864 • Union General William T. Sherman burned Atlanta and marched to the sea
1912 • Juliette Gordon Low founded the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. in Savannah
1943 • Georgia became the first state to allow 18 year olds to vote

Area: 58,930 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Empire State of the South
State Bird: Brown Thrasher
State Flower: Cherokee Rose
State Tree: Live Oak
Capital: Atlanta

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Connecticut, 5th State
January 9, 1788

1764 • The Hartford Courant, one of Connecticut's chief newspapers, has been published continuously longer than any other in the United States
1776 • Connecticut passed a resolution in favor of independence from Britain
1864 • The first accident insurance policy sold in the United States by Travelers Insurance of Hartford
1878 • First telephone exchange in the world opened in New Haven, developed by George W. Coy
1910 • New London became home of U.S. Coast Guard Academy
1954 • 'Nautilus', the first nuclear powered submarine, launched at the Electric Boat Company in Groton

Area: 5,006 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Constitution State
State Bird:
New Jersey, 3rd State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
4. New Jersey, 3rd State Marker
Robin
State Flower: Mountain Laurel
State Tree: White Oak
Capital: Hartford

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Massachusetts, 6th State
February 6, 1788

1620 • The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth
1636 • Harvard became the first college in the colonies
1639 • First post office in the American colonies established
1773 • Patriots dumped British tea into Boston Harbor during Boston Tea Party
1850 • National Women's Rights Convention, held in Worchester, was the first national convention of women in favor of women's suffrage
1891 • Basketball was invented in Springfield by James A. Naismith
1903 • First World Series in baseball history played in Boston
1959 • U.S. Navy launched its first nuclear powered surface ship, the 'Long Beach", at Quincy

Area: 8,262 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Bay State
State Bird: Chickadee
State Flower: Mayflower
State Tree: American Elm
Capital: Boston

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Maryland, 7th State
April 28, 1788

1649 • Maryland passed a religious toleration act
1814 • Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star Spangled Banner" during British attacks on Fort McHenry
1828 • Construction of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad began and was completed in 1850
1864 • Constitution abolishing slavery
Georgia, 4th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
5. Georgia, 4th State Marker
was adopted in Maryland
1893 • The first elevated electric railway in the United States was built in Baltimore
1919-33 • Maryland resisted the nation's prohibition laws and became known as the "Free State"
The largest white oak tree in the United States is the Wye Oak in Wye Mills. This tree is 107 feet tall, has a circumference of 34½ feet and is more than 400 yrs. old

Area: 10,455 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Old Line State
State Bird: Baltimore Oriole
State Flower: Black Eyed Susan
State Tree: White Oak
Capital: Annapolis

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South Carolina, 8th State
May 23, 1788

1740 • Slave Codes passed, severely restricting allowable slave activities
1773 • First museum in the American Colonies was opened by the Charleston Library Society
1780 • American forces won Battle of Kings Mountain, a turning point in the Revolutionary War
1826 • Robert Mills, who was the architect of the Washington Monument, built the first fireproof building in Charleston
1830 • First steam locomotive placed in regular freight and passenger service, built for the South Carolina Canal and Railroad Company
1861 • Civil War began when Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter

Area: 31,117 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Palmetto State
State Bird: Carolina
Connecticut, 5th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
6. Connecticut, 5th State Marker
Wren
State Flower: Yellow Jessamine
State Tree: Palmetto
Capital: Columbia

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New Hampshire, 9th State
June 21, 1788

1614 • Captain John Smith landed on Isles of Shoals
1849 • First State General Library Law was enacted by New Hampshire. The law permitted cities, towns and school districts to raise taxes to support libraries and required them to be open to all citizens
1905 • Treaty ending the Russian/Japanese War was signed in Portsmouth. Theodore Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his work in ending the war
1947 • Artificial rain was first used to fight a forest fire near Concord by seeding clouds with dry ice
1961 • Alan B. Shepard, Jr. of East Derry became the first American to travel in space

Area: 9,238 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Granite State
State Bird: Purple Finch
State Flower: Purple Lilac
State Tree: White Birch
Capital: Concord

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Virginia, 10th State
June 25, 1788

1612 • John Rolfe helped save the colony by introducing tobacco growing and exporting
1775 • George Washington, a Virginian, became Commander-in-Chief of Continental Army
1776 • Thomas Jefferson of Virginia wrote the Declaration of Independence
1781
Massachusetts, 6th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
7. Massachusetts, 6th State Marker
• Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown in last major battle of Revolutionary War
1789 • George Washington became the first President of the United States. Other Virginia presidents were; 1801 Thomas Jefferson, 1809 James Madison, 1817 James Monroe, 1841 William Henry Harrison, 1841 John Tyler, 1849 Zachary Taylor, 1913 Woodrow Wilson

Area: 40,598 sq. mi.
Popular Name: Old Dominion
State Bird: Cardinal
State Flower: Flowering Dogwood
State Tree: Flowering Dogwood
Capital: Richmond

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New York, 11th State
July 26, 1788

1735 • Publisher John Peter Zenger was found innocent of libel, a victory for freedom of the press
1789 • George Washington inaugurated in New York City as the first U.S. President
1825 • The Erie Canal opened
1831 • New York's first railroad, the Mohawk and Hudson, began running
1899 • The first escalator was manufactured by the Otis Elevator Company of New York
1973 • World Trade Center opened. It was so large that each of its twin towers had its own zip code. The buildings were destroyed on September 11, 2001, in a terrorist attack

Area: 49,112 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Empire State
State Bird: Bluebird
State Flower: Rose
State Tree: Sugar Maple
Capital: Albany

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North
Maryland, 7th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
8. Maryland, 7th State Marker
Carolina, 12th State
November 21, 1789

1587 • Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America, was born on Roanoke Island
1765 • Colonists in North Carolina began to resist enforcement of British Stamp Act
1833 • The first interstate railroad opened between Blakely, in Northampton County, and Petersburg, Virginia. The 75 mile railroad helped to increase tobacco trade and still operates as part of the Seaboard System Railroad
1903 • Wright brothers made the first successful powered airplane flight near Kitty Hawk
North Carolina's nickname, the Tar Heel State, refers to one of the state's earliest products, tar

Area: 52,672 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Tar Heel State
State Bird: Cardinal
State Flower: Flowering Dogwood
State Tree: Longleaf Pine
Capital: Raleigh

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Rhode Island, 13th State
May 29, 1790

1636 • Roger Williams founded Providence, Rhode Island's first permanent European settlement
1763 • The oldest Jewish synagogue still standing in the United States was built in Newport and the congregation dates back to 1654
1774 • Rhode Island prohibited importation of slaves
1776 • Rhode Island General Assembly declared independence from Great Britain making it the first free republic in the New World
1854 • Introduction
South Carolina, 8th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
9. South Carolina, 8th State Marker
of the Rhode Island Red, the chicken that made raising of poultry a major industry in the U.S.
1941 • First quonset hut was built at the Quonset Point Naval Air Station

Area: 1,213 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Ocean State
State Bird: Rhode Island Red
State Flower: Violet
State Tree: Red Maple
Capital: Providence

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Vermont, 14th State
March 4, 1791

1724 • Fort Drummer, the first permanent white settlement in the Vermont region, established
1775 • Ethan Allen, of the Vermont Republic, captured Fort Ticonderoga in New York from the British in the Revolutionary War
1777 • Vermont included Issue of Emancipation in state's constitution, becoming first state to forbid slavery
1790 • First patent issued by United States government was granted to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont. Thomas Jefferson, the Secretary of State at that time, signed the patent
1823 • The Concord Academy was the first school established solely for the purpose of training teachers
Vermont is the largest producer of maple syrup in the U.S.

Area: 9,615 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Green Mountain State
State Bird: Hermit Thrush
State Flower: Red Clover
State Tree: Sugar Maple
Capital: Montpelier

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Kentucky,
New Hampshire, 9th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
10. New Hampshire, 9th State Marker
15th State
June 1, 1792

1767 • Daniel Boone made his first journey to Kentucky
1809 • Abraham Lincoln, "Honest Abe," 16th President of the United States, was born in Hardin, Kentucky
1875 • The first Kentucky Derby was run as part of the program for the opening of Churchill Downs race track in Louisville. The Kentucky Derby is the oldest continuously run horse race in the United States
1893 • The song "Happy Birthday to You" was created by two sisters in Louisville
1936 • U.S. Treasury established a gold vault at Fort Knox
The Mammoth-Flint Ridge Cave System, located entirely within Kentucky, is the longest known cave system in the world. The system is more than 300 miles long

Area: 40,411 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Bluegrass State
State Bird: Kentucky Cardinal
State Flower: Goldenrod
State Tree: Kentucky Coffeetree
Capital: Frankfort

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Tennessee, 16th State
June 1, 1796

1540 • Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto is the first white man known to come to the area. The dominant tribes were Cherokee, Shawnee, and Chickasaw
1794 • Blount College was founded in Knoxville on September 10, the first American nondenominational institution of higher learning
1916 • After pulling a wealthy Chattanooga businessman's car out of a shallow
Virginia, 10th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
11. Virginia, 10th State Marker
creek, "horseless carriage" mechanic Ernest Holmes invented the tow truck
1939 • The "Grand Ole Opry" was first heard on network radio
1942 • The federal government began to build an atomic energy plant at Oak Ridge. Scientists worked on the development of the atomic bomb

Area: 42,146 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Volunteer State
State Bird: Mockingbird
State Flower: Iris
State Tree: Tulip Poplar
Capital: Nashville

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Ohio, 17th State
March 1, 1803

1600 B.C. • The oldest known watercraft in North America is a dugout canoe
1747 • Ohio Company of Virginia was organized to colonize the Ohio River Valley
1869 • The first public weather forecasting service in the United States was started in Cincinnati
1870 • Benjamin F. Goodrich began the manufacture of rubber goods in Akron
1896 • The first book matches were manufactured by the Diamond Match Company
1914 • The first electric traffic signal lights were invented by James Hoge of Cleveland. Signals consisted of red and green lights that rang when lights were about to change

Area: 41,328 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Buckeye State
State Bird: Cardinal
State Flower: Scarlet Carnation
State Tree: Buckeye
Capital: Columbus

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Louisiana,
New York, 11th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
12. New York, 11th State Marker
18th State
April 30, 1812

1716 • Built as a small parish church, the St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans is the oldest cathedral in continuous use in the United States
1762 • France ceded Louisiana to Spain
1800 • Spain ceded Louisiana back to France
1803 • Napoleon sells region of Louisiana to United States, including state of Louisiana and all or part of 14 other future states, known as Louisiana Purchase
1815 • Andrew Jackson defeated British in Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812
1868 • Tabasco sauce was first made from tabasco peppers grown on Avery Island

Area: 47,717 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Pelican State
State Bird: Brown Pelican
State Flower: Magnolia
State Tree: Baldcypress
Capital: Baton Rouge

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Indiana, 19th State
December 11, 1816

1811 • William Henry Harrison's troops defeated Native Americans in Battle of Tippecanoe
1825 • Robert Owen founded experimental community of New Harmony
1871 • The first professional baseball game was played in Fort Wayne
1889 • Standard Oil Company built one of the world's largest refineries in Whiting
1906 • U.S. Steel Corporation began building the city of Gary and put up its largest steel plant there
1909 • The Indianapolis Motor Speedway built, paved with
North Carolina, 12th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
13. North Carolina, 12th State Marker
3,200,000 bricks inspiring its nickname, "the Brickyard
1914 • The Raggedy Ann Doll was created in Indianapolis

Area: 38,185 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Hoosier State
State Bird: Cardinal
State Flower: Peony
State Tree: Yellow Poplar
Capital: Indianapolis

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Mississippi, 20th State
December 10, 1817

1798 • Mississippi Territory organized
1863 • Union forces captured Vicksburg
1894 • Coca Cola was first bottled by Joseph A. Biedenharn, a candy store owner in Vicksburg
1935 • Elvis Aaron Presley, also known as "The King of Rock'n'Roll", singer and songwriter, was born in East Tupelo
1964 • The world's first heart transplant into a human being was performed by Dr. James D. Hardy at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson
1969 • A federal court ordered the desegregation of Mississippi's public schools

Area: 47,695 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Magnolia State
State Bird: Mockingbird
State Flower: Magnolia
State Tree: Magnolia
Capital: Jackson

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Illinois, 21st State
December 3, 1818

1837 • John Deere developed the steel plow in Grand Detour
1847 • Cyrus McCormick began to manufacture mechanical reapers in Chicago
1858 •
Rhode Island, 13th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
14. Rhode Island, 13th State Marker
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas debated throughout Illinois
1858 • The Pullman, the first successful railroad sleeping car, was built by George M. Pullman in Bloomington
1871 • The Great Chicago Fire destroyed much of the city
1874 • A practical machine for manufacturing barbed wire was invented by Joseph Glidden of DeKalb
1884-85 • The world's first metal frame skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building engineered by William Le Baron Jenney, was constructed in Chicago

Area: 56,343 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Land of Lincoln
State Bird: Cardinal
State Flower: Native Violet
State Tree: White Oak
Capital: Springfield

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Alabama, 22nd State
December 14, 1819

1866 • The first electric trolley streetcars in the United States began operating in Montgomery
1897 • George Washington Carver gained a reputation as one of the world's greatest agricultural scientists from the research he conducted at Alabama's Tuskegee Institute
1955 • The Civil Rights Movement began at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church. The church's minister, Martin Luther King, Jr., organized a nonviolent protest group to help carry out a boycott against the Montgomery bus system
1956 • A federal court ordered Montgomery to desegregate its public bus system

Area:
Vermont, 14th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
15. Vermont, 14th State Marker
51,718 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Heart of Dixie
State Bird: Yellowhammer
State Flower: Camellia
State Tree: Southern Pine
Capital: Montgomery

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Maine, 23rd State
March 15, 1820

1498 • John Cabot probably explored Maine coast
1641 • Gorgeana (now York) became the first chartered English city in what is now U.S.
1775 • First naval battle of Revolutionary War took place off Maine coast
1851 • Maine became first state to outlaw sale of alcoholic beverages
1910 • The Camp Fire Girls originated in Sebago Lake. Luther Halsey Gulick and his wife, Charlotte Vetter Gulick, founded the organization
1980 • U.S. agreed to pay Passamaquoddy and Penobscot Indians for Maine lands seized in the 1700's and 1800's

Area: 33,128 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Pine Tree State
State Bird: Chickadee
State Flower: White Pine Cone & Tassel
State Tree: White Pine
Capital: Augusta

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Missouri, 24th State
August 10, 1821

1735 • Missouri's first permanent European settlement established at Ste. Genevieve
1854 • Border warfare began between antislavery Kansans and proslavery Missourians
1873 • The first public school kindergarten was opened by the St. Louis Board of Education
1904
Kentucky, 15th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
16. Kentucky, 15th State Marker
• Louisiana Purchase Exposition held in St. Louis. Ice cream cones were first served there
1912 • The first parachute jump from an airplane was made by Captain Albert Berry at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis
1965 • Last section of stainless steel Gateway Arch put in place in St. Louis

Area: 69,709 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Show Me State
State Bird: Bluebird
State Flower: Hawthorn
State Tree: Flowering Dogwood
Capital: Jefferson City

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Arkansas, 25th State
June 15, 1836

1803 • U.S. acquired Arkansas as part of the Louisiana Purchase
1873 • The city of Texarkana organized. It is divided by the Arkansas-Texas state line
1905 • Basin Park Hotel in Eureka Springs is seven stories tall, but every floor is a "ground" floor. The hotel is built against a hillside, and each story opens onto the hill at a different height
1957 • Federal court ordered integration of Little Rock's Central High School
1993 • Former Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton became 42nd President of U.S.

Area: 53,183 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Land of Opportunity
State Bird: Mockingbird
State Flower: Apple Blossom
State Tree: Pine Tree
Capital: Little Rock

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Michigan, 26th State
January
Tennessee, 16th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
17. Tennessee, 16th State Marker
26, 1837

1668 • Jacques Marquette founded Michigan’s first permanent settlement at Sault Ste. Marie
1763 • Chief Pontiac of the Ottawas led a war against the British
1783 • U.S. gained Michigan from British after Revolutionary War
1787 • Congress made Michigan part of Northwest Territory
1855 • Soo Canal completed
1911 • The first lines to designate traffic lanes were painted near Trenton
1942 • Michigan’s entire automobile industry converted to war production during World War II

Area: 58, 513 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Wolverine State
State Bird: Robin
State Flower: Apple Blossom
State Tree: White Pine
Capital: Lansing

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Florida, 27th State
March 3, 1845

1513 • Juan Ponce de Leon landed on the Florida coast and claimed the region for Spain
1565 • Pedro Menendez de Aviles founded St. Augustine, the first permanent European settlement in what became the United States
1835 • Second Seminole War began; most of the Seminole were wiped out in the war
1896 • Henry M. Flagler’s Florida East Coast Railroad reached Miami
1903 • The first federal wildlife refuge in the United States was established by President Theodore Roosevelt at Pelican Island

Area: 58, 681 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Sunshine State
State
Ohio, 17th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
18. Ohio, 17th State Marker
Bird: Mockingbird
State Flower: Orange Blossom
State Tree: Sabal Palm
Capital: Tallahassee

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Texas, 28th State
December 29, 1845

1821 • San Antonio officials swear allegiance to the new, independent nation of Mexico. Stephen F. Austin brings his first American colonists to Texas
1836 • The Alamo fell to Santa Anna on March 6th after a 13-day siege, and over 300 unarmed Texas prisoners were massacred at Goliad on March 27th
1840 • The frontier town of Austin was chosen capital of Texas
1810-40 • Santa Gertrudis Cattle, the first recognized beef breed in the Western Hemisphere, were developed at the King Ranch in southern Texas
1949 • The first round-the-world nonstop airplane flight originated from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth

Area: 266,874 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Lone Star State
State Bird: Mockingbird
State Flower: Bluebonnet
State Tree: Pecan
Capital: Austin

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Iowa, 29th State
December 28, 1846

1673 • Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette became first Europeans to see the Iowa region
1788 • Julien Dubuque, Iowa’s first white settler, began mining lead
1803 • The U.S. acquired Iowa in the Louisiana Purchase
1833 • Permanent settlements
Louisiana, 18th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
19. Louisiana, 18th State Marker
began in the Iowa region
1867 • First railroad completed across Iowa, from Mississippi River to Council Bluffs
1873 • The Red Delicious Apple, the top-selling apple in the United States, was developed on an orchard near East Peru
1882 • The shortest and steepest railroad in the United States was constructed in Dubuque

Area: 56,276 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Hawkeye State
State Bird: Eastern Goldfinch
State Flower: Wild Rose
State Tree: Oak
Capital: Des Moines

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Wisconsin, 30th State
May 29, 1848

1634 • Jean Nicolet landed on the Green Bay shore
1763 • England received the Wisconsin region from France under Treaty of Paris
1783 • Wisconsin became part of U.S.
1856 • The first kindergarten in the United States was opened in Watertown by Mrs. Carl Schurz
1872 • William D. Hoard and others organized the Wisconsin Dairyman’s Association
1882 • The world’s first plant to produce electricity from water power began operating in Appleton
1932 • Wisconsin passed the first state unemployment compensation act

Area: 56,145 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Badger State
State Bird: Robin
State Flower: Wood Violet
State Tree: Sugar Maple
Capital: Madison

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California,
Indiana, 19th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
20. Indiana, 19th State Marker
31st State
September 9, 1850

1579 • Francis Drake sailed along coast and claimed California for England
1848 • James W. Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s Mill
1849 • The Gold Rush began. California became known as the Golden State. Its gold fields attracted thousands of miners, known as the “Forty-Niners”
1869 • The Central Pacific Railroad completed its line from California into Utah, meeting the Union Pacific in Promontory to form the nation’s first transcontinental railroad
1873 • First cable car street railway system was installed in San Francisco

Area: 158,648 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Golden State
State Bird: California Valley Quail
State Flower: Golden Poppy
State Tree: Redwood
Capital: Sacramento

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Minnesota, 32nd State
May 11, 1858

1855 • With the opening of the canal at Sault Ste. Marie, MI, Duluth was joined to the Atlantic Ocean
1884 • First shipment of iron ore from the Vermillion Range left Minnesota
1885 • The home thermostat was invented and first manufactured in Minnesota by Alfred M. Butz
1889 • William W. Mayo and his two sons founded the Mayo Clinic in Rochester
1930 • Cellophane transparent tape was invented and patented by Richard Gurley Drew of St. Paul. The Minnesota Mining and
Mississippi, 20th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
21. Mississippi, 20th State Marker
Manufacturing Company began producing the tape

Area: 84,397 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Gopher State
State Bird: Common Loon
State Flower: Lady's Slipper
State Tree: Norway Pine
Capital: St. Paul

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Oregon, 33rd State
February 14, 1859

1792 • Robert Gray sailed his ship, Columbia, up the river he named after his ship
1805 • Meriwether Lewis and William Clark reached the mouth of the Columbia River
1848 • Oregon became a territory
1840-50 • Thousands of settlers traveled by covered wagon on the Oregon Trail to the fertile farmlands of the Willamette Valley
1971 • The first state anti-litter law affecting nearly all beverage containers was passed by the Oregon legislature
The world's largest forest of lava cast trees is located on the slopes of Newberry Volcano in Deschutes National Forest, south of Bend

Area: 97,052 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Beaver State
State Bird: Western Meadowlark
State Flower: Oregon Grape
State Tree: Douglas Fir
Capital: Salem

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Kansas, 34th State
January 29, 1861

1820 • Santa Fe Trail across Kansas became a trade route
1850s • Fighting between Kansas free-state "Jayhawkers" and Missouri pro-slavery "Bushwhackers"
Illinois, 21st State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
22. Illinois, 21st State Marker
earned the state the nickname "Bleeding Kansas"
1855 • The Topeka Free State Convention drafted proposed state constitution prohibiting slavery
1859 • Cyrus K. Holliday established Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (originally Atchison, Topeka Rail Road Co.)
1874 • Volga Germans from southern Russia introduced a drought-resistant strain of winter wheat to Kansas
1876 • First Harvey House opened in Topeka's Santa Fe depot
1954 • U.S. Supreme Court ordered desegregation of U.S. schools in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

Area: 82,264 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Sunflower State
State Bird: Western Meadowlark
State Flower: Wild Native Sunflower
State Tree: Cottonwood
Capital: Topeka

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West Virginia, 35th State
June 20, 1863

1742 • Coal discovered by John Howard and John Peter Salley on Coal River near Racine
1859 • John Brown and his followers raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, for which he was hanged
1861 • Virginia joined the Confederate States, but the people of the northwestern counties remained loyal to the Union
1919-21 • State's first labor unions were formed
1921 • West Virginia was the first state to levy a sales tax
1968 • Explosion in a coal mine at Farmington took 78 lives and led to new mine safety
Alabama, 22nd State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
23. Alabama, 22nd State Marker
laws

Area: 24,231 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Mountain State
State Bird: Cardinal
State Flower: Rhododendron
State Tree: Sugar Maple
Capital: Charleston

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Nevada, 36th State
October 31, 1864

1843-45 • John C. Fremont and Kit Carson explored Great Basin and Sierra Nevada
1859 • Discovery of silver near Virginia City brought a rush of prospectors to western Nevada
1931 • Legislature reduced the divorce residency requirement and made gambling legal
1936 • Boulder (now Hoover) Dam was completed
1951 • Atomic Energy Commission began testing nuclear weapons in Nevada
1980 • Legislature passed conservation laws to protect Lake Tahoe from pollution

Area: 110,567 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Silver State
State Bird: Mountain Bluebird
State Flower: Sagebrush
State Tree: Bristlecone Pine and Single-Leaf Pinon
Capital: Carson City

Nebraska, 37th State
March 1, 1867

1720 • Pawnee Indians defeated Spanish forces along the Platte River
1803 • U.S. bought the Louisiana Territory, including Nebraska, from France
1843 • Great Migration began through Nebraska along the Oregon Trail to the West
1854 • Congress passed Kansas-Nebraska Act, creating Nebraska Territory
1865 • Union Pacific Railroad
Maine, 23rd State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
24. Maine, 23rd State Marker
began building its line west from Omaha, completing the first transcontinental railroad line at Promontory, Utah in 1869
Nebraska is one of the leading farming states in the United States and has the largest planted national forest

Area: 77,359 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Cornhusker State
State Bird: Western Meadowlark
State Flower: Goldenrod
State Tree: Cottonwood
Capital: Lincoln

Colorado, 38th State
August 1, 1876

1858 • Gold was discovered at Cherry Creek, near the site of what is now Denver
1859 • Colorado Gold Rush attracted thousands of prospectors and settlers
1870 • Denver Pacific Railroad from Cheyenne, Wyoming was completed in Denver
1887 • First Community Chest, a single fund drive to support a number of charitable causes, was established in Denver
1906 • U.S. Mint in Denver issued its first coins
1927 • Moffat Tunnel, a railroad tunnel through the mountains, was completed

Area: 104,100 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Centennial State
State Bird: Lark Bunting
State Flower: Rocky Mt. Columbine
State Tree: Blue Spruce
Capital: Denver

——————

North Dakota, 39th State
November 2, 1889

1863 • Dakota Territory opened to settlers for homesteading
1873 • Lignite coal discovered. About two-thirds
Missouri, 24th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
25. Missouri, 24th State Marker
of the lignite coal in the United States can be found throughout the western portion of North Dakota
1875 • Era of bonanza farming began with 3,000 to 30,000 manageable acres
1889 • President Benjamin Harrison signed the proclamation that made North and South Dakota states. He shuffled the states' admission papers so that one state could not claim to have been admitted before the other. Today, the two are listed alphabetically, making North Dakota the 39th and South Dakota the 40th

Area: 70,704 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Flickertail State
State Bird: Western Meadowlark
State Flower: Wild Prairie Rose
State Tree: American Elm
Capital: Bismarck

——————

South Dakota, 40th State
November 2, 1889

1743 • LeVerendrye brothers were first European men known to visit South Dakota region
1803 • U.S. acquired South Dakota through Louisiana Purchase
1817 • First permanent settlement in South Dakota established at what is now Fort Pierre
1861 • Congress created Dakota Territory
1874 • Gold deposits were discovered in the Black Hills
1927 • Gutzon Borglum began work on Mount Rushmore National Memorial
1980 • Federal government ordered to pay South Dakota Native American tribes for land seized in 1877

Area: 77,122 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The
Arkansas, 25th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
26. Arkansas, 25th State Marker
Mount Rushmore State
State Bird: Ring Necked Pheasant
State Flower: American Pasqueflower
State Tree: Black Hills Spruce
Capital: Pierre

——————

Montana, 41st State
November 8, 1889


1803 • Eastern Montana became U.S. Territory through Louisiana purchase
1864 • Congress established Montana territory
1876 • Sioux and Cheyenne Indians defeated U.S. Cavalry troops at Battle of Little Bighorn
1877 • Chief Joseph and Nez Perce Indians surrendered to federal troops
1880 • Utah and Northern Railroad entered Montana
1883 • Northern Pacific Railroad crossed Montana
1910 • Congress established Glacier National Park
1984 • Libby Dam hydroelectric project completed

Area: 147,047 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Treasure State
State Bird: Western Meadowlark
State Flower: Bitterroot
State Tree: Ponderosa Pine
Capital: Helena

——————

Washington, 42nd State
November 11, 1889

1792 • George Vancouver surveyed the coast of Washington and Puget Sound
1805 • Lewis and Clark reached Washington and the Pacific Ocean
1853 • Congress created Washington Territory
1883 • Northern Pacific Railroad linked Washington to the East
1962 • Century 21, a world's fair, held
Michigan, 26th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
27. Michigan, 26th State Marker
in Seattle
1962 • The first municipal monorail service in the United States began operating in Seattle
1960's • The Boeing Company produced the booster rocket for Apollo/Saturn 5 moon landing of 1969 and the lunar roving vehicle, which transported astronauts and equipment on the moon

Area: 68,126 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Evergreen State
State Bird: Willow Goldfinch
State Flower: Coast Rhododendron
State Tree: Western Hemlock
Capital: Olympia

——————

Idaho, 43rd State
July 3, 1890

1809 • David Thompson built first fur trading post in Idaho
1860 • Franklin, Idaho’s first permanent settlement, was founded
1863 • Congress established Idaho territory
1874 • Utah Northern Railroad entered Idaho territory at Franklin
1877 • U.S. troops defeated Nez Perce Indians in Nez Perce War
1951 • Electricity was generated from nuclear energy for the first time at EBR-1 near Idaho Falls
1959 • Engineers completed Brownlee Dam on the Snake River

Area: 83,574 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Gem State
State Bird: Mountain Bluebird
State Flower: Syringa
State Tree: Western White Pine
Capital: Boise

——————

Wyoming, 44th State
July 10, 1890

1807 • John Colter explored
Florida, 27th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
28. Florida, 27th State Marker
the Yellowstone area
1812 • Robert Stuart discovered South Pass across Rocky Mountains
1867 • Union Pacific Railroad entered Wyoming
1868 • Congress created Territory of Wyoming. It required four treaties, more than any other state
1869 • Wyoming is nicknamed the Equality State because Wyoming women were the first in the nation to vote, hold public office, and serve on juries
1871 • Congress created the first National Park at Yellowstone
1906 • President Theodore Roosevelt made Devil’s Tower the first national monument

Area: 97,818 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Equality State
State Bird: Meadowlark
State Flower: Indian Paintbrush
State Tree: Cottonwood
Capital: Cheyenne

——————

Utah, 45th State
January 4, 1896

1824 • Explorer and trapper Jim Bridger reported his sighting of the Great Salt Lake that was formed c.8,000 BC from prehistoric Lake Bonneville, which covered some 20,000 sq. mi. in what is now Utah, Nevada and Idaho
1847 • Brigham Young and the first Mormon pioneers arrived in Great Salt Lake region
1850 • Congress established Utah Territory and named it for the Ute Indian tribe that lived there
1861 • Telegraph lines met at Salt Lake City, providing first transcontinental telegraph service
1869 • On May 10, the “Golden
Texas, 28th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
29. Texas, 28th State Marker
Spike” was driven in Promontory, completing the nation’s first transcontinental railroad system

Area: 84,905 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Beehive State
State Bird: Sea Gull
State Flower: Sego Lily
State Tree: Blue Spruce
Capital: Salt Lake City

——————

Oklahoma, 46th State
November 16, 1907

1870-1872 • Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad built across the region
1872 • Oklahoma’s first commercial coal mined near McAlester
1889 • 3 million acres of “unassigned land” opened for white settlement via the Great Land Run
1893 • The Cherokee Outlet was opened to white settlement
1928 • Oklahoma City oil field opened. Oklahoma’s capitol became the nation’s only statehouse to have working wells on its grounds
1995 • The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was destroyed by a domestic terrorist bomb, killing 168 people

Area: 69,903 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Sooner State
State Bird: Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
State Flower: Mistletoe
State Tree: Redbud
Capital: Oklahoma City

——————

New Mexico, 47th State
January 6, 1912

1100 • The first Navajo, the Ta’a dine’, arrive
1598 • Juan de Onate founded first permanent Spanish colony, at San Juan
1821
Iowa, 29th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
30. Iowa, 29th State Marker
• Mexico won its independence from Spain, and New Mexico became a province of Mexico
1945 • First atomic bomb was exploded at Trinity Site near Alamogordo
1979 • The Smokey Bear Historical State Park was established in Capitan. The symbol of Smokey was first used by the United States Forest Service in 1944. In 1950, “Smokey Bear” was found clinging to a burned tree after a fire swept through Lincoln National Forest

Area: 121,599 sq. mi.
Popular Name: Land of Enchantment
State Bird: Roadrunner
State Flower: Yucca Flower
State Tree: Pinon or Nut Pine
Capital: Santa Fe

——————

Arizona, 48th State
February 14, 1912

1886 • Surrender of Geronimo to U.S. Army at Skeleton Canyon ends Apache wars
1912 • A low concrete monument that bears the seals of the states was erected where the boundaries of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah intersect at a point known as the Four Corners
1930 • The planet Pluto was discovered from the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff by Clyde W. Tombaugh. Tucson is known as the “Astronomy Capital of the World”
1936 • Hoover Dam completed at Nevada-Arizona border
1994 • Central Arizona Project water supply system including Havasu Pumping Plant (now Mark Wilmer Pumping Plant) was completed

Area:
Wisconsin, 30th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
31. Wisconsin, 30th State Marker
114,007 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Grand Canyon State
State Bird: Cactus Wren
State Flower: Saguaro
State Tree: Paloverde
Capital: Phoenix

——————

Alaska, 49th State
January 3, 1959

1867 • U.S. purchased Alaska from Russia
1884 • Congress gave Alaska laws and a federal court
1897 • Klondike and Alaska gold rush started
1942 • Japanese bombed Dutch Harbor and invaded the Aleutian Islands
1977 • Pipeline to carry oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez was completed
1982 • The Alaska Chilkat Bald Eagle Preserve was created. Bald Eagles gather in greater numbers along the Chilkat River than any other place in the world
1989 • “Exxon Valdez” grounded on Bligh Reef off Prince William Sound, spilling 11 million gallons and creating the largest oil spill in U.S. history

Area: 587,878 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Last Frontier
State Bird: Willow Ptarmigan
State Flower: Forget-Me-Not
State Tree: Sitka Spuce
Capital: Juneau

——————

Hawaii, 50th State
August 21, 1959

1778 • Captain James Cook reached Hawaii
1820 • Protestant missionaries arrived to teach islanders Christianity
1894 • Republic of Hawaii established
1903 • Legislature first petitioned
California, 31st State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
32. California, 31st State Marker
Congress for statehood
1941 • Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, plunging the U.S. into World War II
1957 • First telephone cable from U.S. mainland to Hawaii began operation
1962 • Jet-aircraft terminal at Honolulu International Airport was completed

Area: 6,459 sq. mi.
Popular Name: The Aloha State
State Bird: Nene (Hawaiian Goose)
State Flower: Yellow Hibiscus
State Tree: Kukul
Capital: Honolulu
 
Location. 39° 3.953′ N, 95° 40.181′ W. Marker is in Topeka, Kansas, in Shawnee County. Marker can be reached from NW Railroad Street near NW Curtis Street, on the left when traveling west. Touch for map. Marker is along the Corridor of Flags at BNSF Railway Plaza, at the Great Overland Station Museum. Marker is at or near this postal address: 701 North Kansas Avenue, Topeka KS 66608, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. All Veterans Memorial (within shouting distance of this marker); Ward-Meade Home (approx. 0.7 miles away); Ward-Meade Mansion (approx. 0.7 miles away); David Puff (approx. 0.7 miles away); Pappan's Ferry (approx. Ύ mile away); Barber Shop
Minnesota, 32nd State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
33. Minnesota, 32nd State Marker
(approx. Ύ mile away); 100th Anniversary of the Pauline Depot (approx. Ύ mile away); The Pauline Depot (approx. Ύ mile away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Topeka.
 
Also see . . .
1. Official State Government Website Links. (Submitted on September 15, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
2. The Fifty States at InfoPlease. (Submitted on September 15, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
3. Corridor of Flags. (Submitted on September 15, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
 
Categories. Notable Events
 
Oregon, 33rd State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
34. Oregon, 33rd State Marker
Kansas, 34th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
35. Kansas, 34th State Marker
West Virginia, 35th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
36. West Virginia, 35th State Marker
Nevada, 36th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
37. Nevada, 36th State Marker
Nebraska, 37th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
38. Nebraska, 37th State Marker
Colorado, 38th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
39. Colorado, 38th State Marker
North Dakota, 39th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
40. North Dakota, 39th State Marker
South Dakota, 40th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
41. South Dakota, 40th State Marker
Montana, 41st State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
42. Montana, 41st State Marker
Washington, 42nd State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
43. Washington, 42nd State Marker
Idaho, 43rd State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
44. Idaho, 43rd State Marker
Wyoming, 44th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
45. Wyoming, 44th State Marker
Utah, 45th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
46. Utah, 45th State Marker
Oklahoma, 46th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
47. Oklahoma, 46th State Marker
New Mexico, 47th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
48. New Mexico, 47th State Marker
Arizona, 48th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
49. Arizona, 48th State Marker
Alaska, 49th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
50. Alaska, 49th State Marker
Hawaii, 50th State Marker image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
51. Hawaii, 50th State Marker
Corridor of Flags, SW Side image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr., April 29, 2011
52. Corridor of Flags, SW Side
Corridor of Flags, SE Side image. Click for full size.
By William Fischer, Jr.
53. Corridor of Flags, SE Side
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on September 15, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania. This page has been viewed 2,893 times since then and 73 times this year. Photos:   1. submitted on September 11, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   2, 3, 4, 5, 6. submitted on September 15, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. submitted on September 14, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. submitted on September 13, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. submitted on September 12, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   25, 26. submitted on September 11, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   27, 28, 29, 30, 31. submitted on September 17, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48. submitted on October 15, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   49, 50, 51. submitted on October 16, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   52. submitted on November 13, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.   53. submitted on September 11, 2011, by William Fischer, Jr. of Scranton, Pennsylvania.
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