Sandy Hook in Washington County, Maryland — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)
Maryland Heights - Mountain Fortress of Harpers Ferry
Southern forces under Col. Thomas J. Jackson first occupied this ground in early May 1861, violating Maryland's neutrality. Confederates remained here until they abandoned Harpers Ferry on June 15, 1861.
"I have finished reconnoitering the Maryland Heights, and have determined to fortify them at once, and hold them...be the cost what it may."
Col. Thomas J Jackson
May 7, 1861
Jackson returned fifteen months later, during the Confederacy's first major invasion of the North. "Stonewall" Jackson, as he was now called, directed a three-pronged siege of the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry, seizing Maryland Heights from the north on September 13, 1862. Two days later Federal commander Dixon Miles surrendered, allowing Jackson to rush his forces to Sharpsburg to join Gen. Robert E. Lee.
On September 22, 1862, five days after the Battle of Antietam and Confederate withdrawal from Maryland, Union troops once again occupied the Heights. Federal Commander George B. McClellan ordered fortifications built to deter future invasion, protect the B&O Railroad, and guard the U.S. supply depot
"I have determined to fortify [Maryland Heights] in order to avoid a similar catastrophe to the one which happened to Colonel Miles."
Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan
September 26, 1862
Despite this mountain fortress, Confederate invasion continued. During the Gettysburg Campaign, General Lee sidestepped the Heights position, crossing the Potomac 12 miles northwest near Shepherdstown. In July 1864, Jubal Early's 14,000 Rebels demonstrated against these defenses, but left them behind en route to Washington, D.C.
Federal soldiers and their cannon finally departed Maryland Heights in July 1865, three months after Lee's surrender. Behind them they left their forts and campgrounds - reminders of America's bloodiest war.
Location. 39° 19.958′ N, 77° 43.913′ W. Marker is in Sandy Hook, Maryland, in Washington County. Marker can be reached from Sandy Hook Road. Touch for map. Located on the hiking trail of Maryland Heights, at the first trail wayside, overlooking the Potomac River. Marker is in this post office area: Knoxville MD 21758, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Naval Battery ( approx. 0.2 miles away); Hiking Maryland Heights Exploring Maryland Heights ( approx. ¼ mile away); Making a Mountain Citadel ( approx. 0.4 miles away); Lock 34, Harpers Ferry ( approx. 0.4 miles away); 30-Pounder Battery ( approx. 0.4 miles away); Charcoal Making on Maryland Heights ( approx. 0.4 miles away); 100 - Pounder Battery - Heaviest and Highest ( approx. half a mile away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Sandy Hook.
More about this marker. The marker displays portraits of Jackson, McClellan, and Early (on the lower right).
On the right side of the marker are maps depicting the three Confederate invasions mentioned in the text, titled "Attacks on Maryland Heights." "Because of its strategic location, Maryland Heights remained a target for control throughout the Civil War." The three maps illustrate invasions in September 1862, June-July 1863, and July 1864.
The enemy "had taken refuge in his strongly fortified works ... and an attempt to carry them by assault would have resulted in greater loss than the advantage gained..."
-Lt. Jubal A. Early, commander
Regarding Maryland Heights - Mountain Fortress of Harpers Ferry. This marker is one of a set along the National Park Service's trail to the top of Maryland Heights. You can see the other markers in this set through the Maryland Heights Virtual Tour by Markers link below.
Also see . . .
1. Maryland Heights. National Park Service details about the heights and the hiking trail. (Submitted on January 27, 2008, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.)
2. Maryland Heights Virtual Tour by Markers. A set of markers relating the history of Maryland Heights in Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. (Submitted on February 2, 2008, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.)
Categories. • War, US Civil •
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on January 27, 2008, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia. This page has been viewed 2,791 times since then and 73 times this year. Photos: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. submitted on January 27, 2008, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.