Fairfield in Adams County, Pennsylvania — The American Northeast (Mid-Atlantic)
Aftermath of Batle
—Gettysburg Campaign —
From the onset of the Civil War, Adams County and Fairfield were in a precarious position. Located just north of the Mason-Dixon Line and the slave state of Maryland, Fairfield's residents lived with the fear that the war might come home to them. It did, twice.
The more significant event occurred on July 3, 1863, after the "Battle of Fairfield" that was fought about two miles northeast of the town as the Battle of Gettysburg raged. When Union Maj. (later Col.) Samuel H. Starr's 6th U.S. Cavalry clashed with Confederate Gen. William E. "Grumble" Jones's cavalry brigade, Starr was wounded, and his regiment was completely
On July 4 and 5, 1863, most of Gen. Robert E. Lee's army retreated from Gettysburg through Fairfield on its return to Virginia, leaving many of their wounded behind and creating additional hardships for the residents. For all the damage incurred during the war, $40,000 in damage claims were filed in Hamiltonban Township, of which $12,000 in claims were from the town of Fairfield.
(Sidebar 1): The threat of war first became a reality for Fairfield on October 10, 1862, when Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and 1,800 of his cavalrymen crossed the Potomac River and headed for south-central Pennsylvania. On the next afternoon, the force arrived in Fairfield, looted the stores, and made prisoners of Postmaster John B. Paxton, Justice of the Peace Andrew Low, and several other male residents. Stuart's raid also netted hundreds of horses.
(Sidebar 2): John Miller founded Fairfield (first called Millerstown) in
Erected 2012 by Civil War Trails.
Location. 39° 47.219′ N, 77° 22.173′ W. Marker is in Fairfield, Pennsylvania, in Adams County. Marker is at the intersection of West Main Street (State Highway 116) and Spring Street, on the right when traveling west on West Main Street. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Fairfield PA 17320, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within 4 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. Army of the Potomac (within shouting distance of this marker); Field Hospital "Tapeworm Railroad" (approx. 0.6 miles away); Jones's Brigade (approx. 2.7 miles away); Sixth Regiment U.S. Cavalry (approx. 2.9 miles away); Lower Marsh Creek Church (approx. 3 miles away); Hugh Culbertson Farm (approx. 3.2 miles away); John Hanson "Hance" Steelman (approx. 3.6 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Fairfield.
Categories. • War, US Civil •
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on October 14, 2012, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia. This page has been viewed 625 times since then and 36 times this year. Photos: 1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on October 14, 2012, by Craig Swain of Leesburg, Virginia.