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Gulf Shores in Baldwin County, Alabama — The American South (East South Central)
 

The Battle of Mobile Bay

“A Deadly Rain of Shot and Shell”

 

—Civil War Trail, Battle for Mobile Bay —

 
Stop C1 - The Battle of Mobile Bay Marker image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
1. Stop C1 - The Battle of Mobile Bay Marker
Inscription.
Eager to attack Mobile Bay since 1862, U. S. Admiral David Farragut knew he could not capture control of the lower bay without the support of the army and without a flotilla of ironclad monitors to confront the Confederate ironclad CSS Tennessee. In July 1864, U. S. General Edward Canby sent 1,500 men under General Gordon Granger on army transports from New Orleans. Granger landed on Dauphin Island on August 3. By August 4 all of Farragut’s monitors had joined the fleet. Farragut was ready to attack.

Farragut would confront three forts, a series of obstructions, a triple row of torpedoes, and C. S. Admiral Franklin Buchanan’s squadron. The Confederate ships mounted a total of 22 guns and Fort Morgan mounted 46 guns, 38 of them bearing upon the channel. The ironclad ram, CSS Tennessee, Buchanan’s flagship and the most powerful warship in the world, mounted ten guns, four of them rifled. Farragut’s ships carried a total of 199 guns. His wooden ships were partially armored with improvised chain armor and sand bags, intended to protect the ship’s boilers and machinery. His monitors carried a total of four 15” and eight 11” smoothbore guns.

On August 5, 1864, Farragut attempted to run past Forts Gaines and Morgan into Mobile Bay. The USS Tecumseh, the lead monitor, when within 2,000
This Marker along with a group of markers located on the top right side of Battery Duportail image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
2. This Marker along with a group of markers located on the top right side of Battery Duportail
yards of Fort Morgan, fired the first shot of the day at 6:47 a.m. A few minutes later the fort returned fire. Farragut’s flagship, the USS Hartford, fired her first shot about 25 minutes later. Soon after, the engagement became general and a light west wind blew black smoke into the faces of Fort Morgan’s gunners. A soldier in the fort remembered that “everything was so enveloped in smoke that little could be seen except their brilliant banners…” But the smoke also obscured Farragut’s view and forced him into the rigging.

At 7:25 the USS Brooklyn, in the lead of the wooden fleet, found its way blocked by the USS Tecumseh and stopped. Farragut ordered the Brooklyn to “go on,” but, the Tecumseh, intent on attacking the CSS Tennessee, did not get out of the way and the Brooklyn did not move. At 7:40 the Tecumseh, within two hundred yards of the Tennessee, hit a torpedo and sank, causing “immense bubbles of steam, as large as cauldrons” to rise to the surface. Then the Brooklyn backed up. The ships behind the Brooklyn became crowded in front of the fort. Fort Morgan’s gunners, sensing victory, punished them badly.

“…A deadly rain of shot and shell was falling on… [the Hartford], and her men were being cut down by the scores, unable to
Top Left Image: Movement to Battle, July - August 1864 image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
3. Top Left Image: Movement to Battle, July - August 1864
Information on map from Jack Friend, West Wind, Flood Tide: The Battle of Mobile Bay, Passim.
make reply. The sight on deck was sickening beyond the power of words to portray. Shot after shot came through the side, mowing down the men, deluging the decks with blood, and scattering mangled fragments of humanity so thickly that it was difficult to stand on the deck, so slippery was it.”
Lieutenant John C. Kinney, aboard the Hartford

Conditions were similar on many of Farragut’s ships. At 7:50, the admiral, taking a calculated risk, ordered the Hartford and her consort, the Metacomet, across the torpedo field into the Bay at full speed. He knew that torpedoes submerged for too long might be ineffective. Within ten minutes, the Brooklyn and Octorora followed. Over the next 30 minutes the rest of Farragut’s wooden ships followed. As they passed through the field, many heard torpedoes knocking against the bottom of their ships. The Federal fleet was lucky; none exploded. When the torpedo field was swept a few weeks later, one out of ten was dry. Though risky, Farragut’s decisive action saved the Union fleet from certain destruction.
 
Erected by Mobile Bay Convention and Visitors Bureau. (Marker Number Stop C1.)
 
Location. 30° 13.684′ N, 88° 1.405′ W. Marker is in Gulf Shores, Alabama, in
Bottom Left Image image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
4. Bottom Left Image
C. S. Admiral Franklin Buchanan's squadron and a supply boat off Mobile Point. (Mobile Municipal Archives)
Baldwin County. Marker can be reached from Fort Morgan Road (State Highway 180) 1.7 miles west of Dune Drive. Touch for map. Located in Fort Morgan State Historic Park. Marker is at or near this postal address: 51 Highway 180 West, Gulf Shores AL 36542, United States of America.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Panama Mount (here, next to this marker); a different marker also named The Battle of Mobile Bay (here, next to this marker); a different marker also named The Battle of Mobile Bay (a few steps from this marker); Citadel (1825-1865) (within shouting distance of this marker); The Citadel (within shouting distance of this marker); Battery Thomas (1898-1917) (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line); Fort Bowyer War of 1812 (about 500 feet away but has been reported missing); 6.4” (100 pounder) Parrott Rifle / 7” Brooke Rifle (about 500 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Gulf Shores.
 
More about this marker. This marker is within the walls of historic Fort Morgan. The marker is located on the top level, west side of Battery Duportail.
 
Also see . . .
1. Fort Morgan, Guardian On The Bay. (Submitted on September 25, 2013, by Timothy Carr of Birmingham, Alabama.)
2. Civil War Trail, Battle For Mobile Bay. (Submitted on September 25, 2013, by Timothy Carr of Birmingham, Alabama.)
Center, Top Left Image: Admiral David Farragut, USN. (Museum of Mobile) image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
5. Center, Top Left Image: Admiral David Farragut, USN. (Museum of Mobile)

 
Categories. Forts, CastlesWar, US Civil
 
Center, Bottom Left Image: image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
6. Center, Bottom Left Image:
Farragut's ships passing Fort Morgan, a painting by Xanthus Smith, who served with the Federal Fleet. (Xanthus Smith, The AmSouth Bank Collection of Naval Painting)
Center, Top Right Image: Battle Of Mobile Bay: Phase I image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
7. Center, Top Right Image: Battle Of Mobile Bay: Phase I
From Stern, The Confederate Navy: A Pictorial History.
Center, Bottom Right Image: Eleven-inch Forward Pivot Gun in action. (Battles and Leaders) image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
8. Center, Bottom Right Image: Eleven-inch Forward Pivot Gun in action. (Battles and Leaders)
Top Right Image: A drawing of the USS Brooklyn showing shots received during engagement. image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
9. Top Right Image: A drawing of the USS Brooklyn showing shots received during engagement.
(Mobile Municipal Archives)
Center Right Image: Fort Morgan's water battery engages Federal Fleet. (Museum of Mobile) image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
10. Center Right Image: Fort Morgan's water battery engages Federal Fleet. (Museum of Mobile)
Bottom Right Image: USS Hartford under full sail. (Library of Congress) image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
11. Bottom Right Image: USS Hartford under full sail. (Library of Congress)
Sand Island Lighthouse and The Aprroach Channel To Mobile Bay. image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, June 19, 2013
12. Sand Island Lighthouse and The Aprroach Channel To Mobile Bay.
45 miles east of Mobile Point, Farragut's ships prepared for battle at Pensacola Navy Yard. His ships passed Sand Island as they made their way toward the channel into Mobile Bay. The previous Sand Island Lighthouse that stood on Sand Island was destroyed by Confederate soldiers after Union spies were discovered in the tower.
The Channel Into Mobile Bay Viewed From Fort Morgan. image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, 2000
13. The Channel Into Mobile Bay Viewed From Fort Morgan.
In the distance across the channel stands Fort Gaines on Dauphin Island.
Fort Morgan Seen From The Channel Into Mobile Bay. image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, 2000
14. Fort Morgan Seen From The Channel Into Mobile Bay.
Gun Mounts Atop of the Fort's West Casemates Facing the Channel. image. Click for full size.
By Timothy Carr, 1988
15. Gun Mounts Atop of the Fort's West Casemates Facing the Channel.
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on September 25, 2013, by Timothy Carr of Birmingham, Alabama. This page has been viewed 1,201 times since then and 217 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. submitted on September 25, 2013, by Timothy Carr of Birmingham, Alabama. • Bernard Fisher was the editor who published this page.
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