Alexandria, Virginia — The American South (Mid-Atlantic)
Wilkes Street Tunnel
Wilkes Street Tunnel is typical of cut-and-cover tunnel construction. Presumably, the tunnel was cut through the bluff overlooking the Potomac River and covered to continue the streets above. After the sides were built up with stone, the arch probably was constructed over wood falsework from both sides using a centering technique to form the brick barrel vault. The tunnel was deepened after World War I to accommodate higher boxcars.
The Orange and Alexandria line was one of the many Alexandria railroads taken over by Union forces at the onset of the Civil War. While this northerly section of the railroad was incorporated into the U.S. Military Railroads, the length of track south of the Rappahannock River remained in Confederate hands.
Both sections played an major role in the strategies of North and South, as well as a decisive
Shortly after the Civil War, the old Orange & Alexandria line was incorporated into the Washington City, Virginia Midland & Great Southern Railway controlled by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Wilkes Street Tunnel played a part in the rivalry between the Baltimore & Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroads for supremacy in the north-south trade across the Potomac River. The Pennsylvania Railroad acquired Congressional authorization for exclusive use of Long Bridge (14th Street). To maintain a competitive position, Baltimore & Ohio offered trans-Potomac service by way of carfloats linking Wilkes Street with Shepherd's Ferry on the Maryland shore until about 1906.
The Wilkes Street track continued in operation until 1975 when declining industrial activity along the waterfront no longer warranted rail service. The tunnel is significant today as Alexandria's only 19th century transportation site surviving intact.
Marker series. This marker is included in the Orange and Alexandria Railroad marker series.
Location. 38° 48.005′ Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Alexandria VA 22314, United States of America.
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Orange & Alexandria Roundhouse (here, next to this marker); Alexandria Railroads (here, next to this marker); First Presbyterian Church of Alexandria (about 600 feet away, measured in a direct line); Saint Mary's Catholic Parish (about 700 feet away); "For God and Country" (approx. 0.2 miles away); Home of Dr. James Craik (approx. 0.2 miles away); Alexandria Academy (approx. 0.2 miles away); Saint Paul's Episcopal Church (approx. 0.2 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Alexandria.
Also see . . .
1. Wilkes Street tunnel is important piece of past. Historic Alexandria. (Submitted on March 16, 2014, by Allen C. Browne of Silver Spring, Maryland.)
2. Wilkes Street Tunnel re-opens Saturday. October 6, 2008, article in the Alexandria Times (Submitted on March 16, 2014, by Allen C. Browne of Silver Spring, Maryland.)
Categories. • Man-Made Features • Railroads & Streetcars • War, US Civil •
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on March 16, 2014, by Allen C. Browne of Silver Spring, Maryland. This page has been viewed 939 times since then. Photos: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. submitted on March 16, 2014, by Allen C. Browne of Silver Spring, Maryland. • Bernard Fisher was the editor who published this page.