Marker Logo HMdb.org THE HISTORICAL
MARKER DATABASE
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
St. Andrews in Charlotte County, New Brunswick — The Canadian Atlantic
 

War of 1812: Defending St. Andrews

Guerre de 1812: La defense de St. Andrews

 
 
War of 1812: Marker image. Click for full size.
By Barry Swackhamer, June 10, 2014
1. War of 1812: Marker
Caption: Capture of the American privateer Snap Dragon by HMS Martin in June 1814; Capture du corsaire americain Snap Dragon par le HMS Martin en juin 1814.
Inscription. English on left

No hard feelings
Have a look across the St. Croix River to the land on the other side of Navy Island; that’s the United States you can see! When the War of 1812 broke out, the citizen of St. Andrews had little to fear from their neighbors in Maine. Not everyone in New England was in favor of the war: trade with Atlantic Canada was brisk and around here the main threat to security was from privateering, not invasion. Despite the conflict, resolutions were passed on both sides of the border declaring a local truce, although in 1814 the British in Halifax invaded Northern Maine, which they occupied until 1818.

The privateering menace
In the early 1800’s, St. Andrews was a prosperous garrison town with a busy commercial seaport. Licensed American privateers would undoubtedly be drawn to the ships for their valuable cargoes or loot homes and businesses. During the American Revolution, privateers attacked and robbed every port in the Maritimes except for Halifax.
Three gun batteries were quickly erected and three blockhouses - including this one - were added soon after to defend them. From inside, soldiers armed with muskets and a small cannon could defend the batteries and help protect shipping along the river and harbour. These 18-pounder guns - so called because the
War of 1812: Marker image. Click for full size.
By Barry Swackhamer, June 10, 2014
2. War of 1812: Marker
Of the two markers beside the blockhouse, this marker is the one on the right.
shot they fired weighed 18 pounds - could fire as far as Navy Island. The defenses worked. Although privateers captured many ships at sea, they never attached St. Andrews.

Privateering: a two-way street
Privateering was a common wartime practice until the mid-1800s. In wartime, governments licensed private businesses and ships to seize enemy vessels and cargoes as “prizes.” These (for the most part) completely legal raids by American and British privateers were frequent along the east coast during the War of 1812.

French on right

Sans rancune
Jetez un coup d’oeil de l’autre côté de la rivière Ste. Croix, au-delà de l’ile Navy: ce sont les États-Unis que vous voyez! Lorsque la guerre de 1812 éclata, les citoyens de St. Andrews avaient peu à craindre de leurs voisins du Maine. Les citoyens de la Nouvelle Angleterre n’étaient pas tous favorables à la guerre: le commerce avec la région de l'Atlantique était florissant, et la population redoutait devante les corsaires qu’un éventuel envahisseur. Malgré les hostilities, des résolutions furent adoptées de part et d’autre de la frontière pour déclarer un trêve à l’échelle locale, même si, en 1814, les Britanniques d’Halifax envahirent le Nord du Maine, qu’ils occupèrent jusqu’un 1818.

Le menace des corsaires
Au début du 19ᵉ siècle, St. Andrews était un village de garnison prospère, et son port de mer commercial fourmillait d’activité. Il ne faisait aucun doute que les corsaires sanctionnés par le gouvernement américain chercheraient à saisir la précieuse cargaison des navires ou a piller les demeures et les entreprises. Pendant la guerre de l’Indépendance, les corsaires avaient attaqué et pillé tous les ports de Maritimes, sauf celui d’Halifax.
Trois batteries de tir furent érigées à la hâte, et trois blockhaus - dont celui-ici - furent construits peu après en guise de protection. De l’intérieur, les soldats armés de fusils et d’un petit canon pouvaient défendre les batteries et contribuer a protéger les navires marchands qui circulaient sur la rivière dans le port. Le canon de 18 livres - appelé ainsi parce que le boulet pesait 18 livres - pouvait atteindre des cibles aussi éloignées que l’ile Navy. Les ouvrages de défense produisirent les résultats souhaites. Les corsaires capturèrent de nombreux navires en mer, mais jamais ils n’attaquèrent St. Andrews.

Les guerres de course, profitables aux deux camps.
La course demeura une pratique courante en temps de guerre jusqu’au milieu du 19ᵉ siècle. En période de conflict, les gouvernement autorisaient des entreprises privées et des navires à s’emparer de cargaisons et des navires ennemis comme «butin». Pratiqués en toutes légalité (la plupart et temps) par les corsaires américains et britanniques, ces raids étaient fréquents le long de le côte Est pendant la guerre 1812.
 
Erected by Parks Canada.
 
Location. 45° 4.622′ N, 67° 3.711′ W. Marker is in St. Andrews, New Brunswick, in Charlotte County. Marker is on Joes Point Road just from Harriet Street, on the right when traveling east. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 23 Joes Point Road, St. Andrews, New Brunswick E5B, Canada.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Blockhouse 101 (here, next to this marker); Two hundred years and counting (a few steps from this marker); St. Andrews Blockhouse (a few steps from this marker); Welcome, Enjoy your visit! (within shouting distance of this marker); Wartime legacies (within shouting distance of this marker); St. Croix River (approx. 0.8 kilometers away); Lest We Forget (approx. 0.8 kilometers away); St. Andrews Historic District (approx. 0.8 kilometers away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in St. Andrews.
 
More about this marker. This marker is locate beside the blockhouse
 
Also see . . .  Privateering in the War of 1812 - War of 1812. The War of 1812 was the last major war in which private armed vessels played an important role. Unlike naval vessels, privateers were looking for prizes and profits and almost invariably fled from hostile warships. The advantages a privateer had over a merchant vessel were not only their armament but also a large crew of up to 50, compared to a small merchant ship that might carry three or four. (Submitted on September 22, 2014, by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California.) 
 
Categories. Forts, CastlesWar of 1812
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on September 22, 2014, by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California. This page has been viewed 288 times since then and 34 times this year. Photos:   1, 2. submitted on September 22, 2014, by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California. • Andrew Ruppenstein was the editor who published this page.
Paid Advertisement