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Near Eceabat in Eceabat district, Çanakkale Province, Turkey
 

The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915

Gelibolu Harekâtı --1915

 
 
The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 Marker image. Click for full size.
By Barry Swackhamer, May 10, 2015
1. The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 Marker
Inscription. English:
The Allied objectives in the Gallipoli Campaign were, by capturing Istanbul, to force Turkey out of the war, to secure an ice-free sea supply route to Russia and to open another front against Germany and Austria-Hungary. The campaign fell into four phases the first being the naval operations of early 1915 culminating, on 18th March, in the unsuccessful attempt by battleships to force the Dardanelles. The second was the landings, beginning on 25th April, by British and French armies on Cape Helles and by the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (the Anzacs) on the Anzac Beaches. Some headway, although at heavy cost, was made by the Helles landings in operations extending to 5th June but the precipitous and strongly defended terrain limited to a kilometer the penetration from the Anzac landings. In the third phase further British landings to the north of Anzac and at Sulva Bay on 6th August, simultaneously with offensives mounted from both the Helles and Anzac areas, came near to success but after this failure to achieve a breakout the opposing armies remained deadlocked in static trench warfare. In the fourth phase, the withdrawal, the Peninsula was evacuated in two stages - from Sulva and Anzac on the night of 19/20th December and from Helles on that of 8/9th January - in operations in which not one life was lost.
The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 Marker (detail: English on left side) image. Click for full size.
By Barry Swackhamer, May 10, 2015
2. The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 Marker (detail: English on left side)


The Royal Navy, with the assistance of ships of the French Navy, played a vital part throughout the campaign. The Navy was responsible for landing and finally for evacuating the troops and their stores; for protecting the wholly sea-borne lines lines of communication; for giving support to the troops by bombardment from the sea' and principally by a series of daring exploits by submarine in the Sea of Marmara, for effectively preventing intervention by the Turkish Fleet. On land the sailors of the Royal Naval Division and the Royal Marines fought and suffered equally with the soldiers.

Under the terms of the Armistice with Turkey the British Army re-entered the Peninsula and the end of 1918 and cleared the battlefields of the bodies still unburied. In the nine months of this bitterly fought campaign the Commonwealth lost more than 36,00 dead. The 31 war cemeteries on the Peninsula contain 22,000 graves but it was possible to identify only 9,000 of these. The 13,000 who rest in unidentified graves in the cemeteries together with the 14,000 whose remains were never found are commemorated individually by name on the Helles Memorial (British, Australian and Indian names), the Lone Pine Memorial (Australian and New Zealand names) and the Twelve Tree Copse, Hill 60 and Chunuk Bair Memorials ( New Zealand names).

Johnston's Jolly, Anzac
Lone Pine
The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 Marker (detail: Turkish on right side) image. Click for full size.
By Barry Swackhamer, May 10, 2015
3. The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 Marker (detail: Turkish on right side)
Cemetery and Memorial, Anzac

Johnston's Jolly, so called because an Australian artillery officer used to "jolly-up" the opposing troops there, was the northern and Lone Pine - a single pine grew there - the southern part of Plateau 400. Both positions were overrun in the initial Anzac landings but retaken by the Turks on the evening of the next day. The Lone Pine position, fortified to become one the strongest in the Turkish line, was again captured by the Australians on 6th August and held until the final evacuation. Johnston's Jolly was never recaptured. The burials in these two cemeteries, largely made after the Armistice, are: (see marker image for table)
A lone pine, grown from the seed of the original tree, still grows in the cemetery and the Lone Pine Memorial, carrying the names of 4,223 Australian and 709 New Zealand soldiers whose grave are unknown, stands over the captured trenches.

These Cemeteries and this Memorial Were Built and Maintained by The Commonwealth War Graves Commission

The Architect was Sir John Burnet


Turkish:
Gelibolu Harekâtı ile Müttefik Devletlerin gayesi; İstanbul'u ele geçirmek, Türkiye'yi savaşdışı bırakmak, Sovyetler Birliǧi'ne giden ve ikmal yolu vazifesini gören ılık deniz yolunu ele geçirmek ve Avusturya-Macaristan'a
The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 Marker (map) image. Click for full size.
By Barry Swackhamer, May 10, 2015
4. The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 Marker (map)
karşı bir cephe açmaktı.
Bu harekât dört safhaya ayrılır. Birinci safha, deniz harekâtı olarak 1915 yılının başlarında başlar ve 18 Mart'da en yüksek noktasına ulaşır. Çanakkale Boğazı'nı savaş gemileri ile geçmek için yapılan bu teşebbüs başarısızlıkla sonuçlanır. İkinci safha, 25 Nisan'da başlayan İngiliz ve Fransız ordularının Seddülbahir ucuna ve Avustralya ve Yeni Zelanda ordularının (Anzaklar) Arıburnu (Anzac) kumsalına yaptıkları çıkarmalardır. Seddülbahirdeki harekâtta, 5 Hazirana kadar olan sürede büyük kayıplara malolan bazı ilerlemeler sağlanır. Fakat Arıburnu çıkarmalarında, çok dik ve kuvvetli savunulan arazi, birliklerin Üçüncü safha ise, 6 Ağustosdaki Arıburnu'nun kuzeyindeki Anafarta Limanına (Küçük Kemikli Körfezine) yapılan çıkarmalardır ki- Seddülbahir ve Arıburnu bölgesinde de aynı zamanda yapılan taarruzlar ile birlikte yürütülür - bu harekât hemen hemen başarıya ulaşır gözükür. Ancak bunda da başarı sağlanamayınca, her iki tarafın orduları, kurtuluş olarak sabit siper muharebelerine geçerler ve kilitlenip kalırlar.
<i>Landing at Anzac Cove (GALLIPOLI.) 25th April 1915</i> image. Click for full size.
April 25, 1915
5. Landing at Anzac Cove (GALLIPOLI.) 25th April 1915
Dördüncü safha ise, çekilme yâni yarımadayı terk etmedir. Gelibolu Yarımadası 2 aşamada boşaltılır. Anafarta ve Arıburnu'ndan 19/20 Aralık gecesi ve Seddülbahir'den 8/9 Ocak gecesi yapılan bu çekilme harekâtı hiç bir kayıp verilmeksizin gerçekleştirilir.

Ingiltere Kraliyet Deniz Kuvvetleri, Fransız Deniz Kuvvetleri gemilerinin de yardımı ile bütün harekât boyunca çok önemli bir rol oynamıştır. Kraliyet Deniz Kuvvetleri bütün bu çıkarmalardan ve sonunda birliklerin ve malzemenin geri çekilmesinden sorumluydu. Ayrıca; tamamen deniz yolundan yapılan muhaberenin sağlanması, denizden yapılan borbardımanlar ile birliklere destek sağlanması ve Marmara Denizinde, genellikle denizaltılar ile bir seri cüretli kahramanlık gösterileri yapma ve özellikle Türk Donanmasının işe karışmaması için gerekli önlemleri alına görevleri de vardı. Karada ise, Kraliyet Deniz Kuvvetlerine ait asker ve deniz piyadeleri diğer askerlerle birlikte aynı şartlar altında çarpışmış ve aynı güçlüklerle karşılaşmış ve bunlara katlanmıştı.

Türkiye ile yapılan Mütareke hükümleri gereğince, Ingiliz ordusu
<i>Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey</i> image. Click for full size.
6. Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey
In this image, British photographer Ernest Brooks captures a British soldier at a comrade’s grave at Cape Helles in an evocative sunset silhouette. Brooks was particularly keen on using silhouettes, as by rendering soldiers less recognisable, their outlines came to symbolise unknown soldiers. Cape Helles, on the southern tip of the Gallipoli peninsula, had witnessed bloody fighting on 25 April 1915, as a British division. - Royal Mail. This stamp was part of a set issued in spring, 2015, to commemorate the centenary of selected events of WW I.
1918 yılı sonlarında Gelibolu Yarımadasına tekrar girdi ve bu arada savaş alanlarında hâlâ gömülmemiş bulunan harb ölülerini gömerek sahayı temizledi. Bu acı harekâtin dokuz ayı içinde Britanya Milletler Topluluǧu 36000 den fazla savaş ölüsü vermişti. Şimdi yarımadada 31 Harb Mezarlıǧında 22000 savaş mezarı vardır ki bunlardan sadece 9000 adedinde yatanların kimlikleri bellidir. Ayrıca, 14000 askerin cesetleri bile bulunamamış olup bunlar; Helles Âbidesinde (İngiliz, Avustralyalı ve Yeni Zelandalıların), Lone Pine Âbidesinde (Avustralyalı, İngiliz ve Yeni Zelandalıların), Twelve Tree Copse, Hill 60 ve Chunuk Bair Âbidelerinde (Yeni Zelandalıların) isimleri vazıh olarak anılmaktadırlar.

Johnston's Jolly Mezaarliǧi, Arıburnu
Lone Pine Mezarlıǧı ve Âbidesi, Arıburnu

Johnston's Jolly, bir Avustralyalı Topçu Subayının karşı tarafın birliklerine şaka yapması anlamına gelen "jolly-up" kelimesinden esinlenerek bu isim konmuş olup 400 rakımlı Platonun kuzeyinde; tek çam anlamına gelen Lone Pine ise, bu platonun güneyinde yer alırlar. Her iki mevkii de, Arıburnu
The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 image. Click for full size.
By Imperial War Museum
7. The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915
çıkarmalarının başlangıcında ele geçirilmiş fakat ertesi günü akşamında tekrar Türkler tarafından geri alınmıştı. Lone Pine mevkii, Türk hatlarının en kuvvetli istihkâm edilmiş yerlerinden biri iken Avustralyalılar tarafından 6 Ağustos'da tekrar ele geçirilmiş ve son çekilme ve boşaltmağa kadar elde tutulmuştu. Johnston's Jolly ise hiç bir zaman tekrar ele geçirilememiştir. Bu iki mezarlığa gömülme işlemi daha çok Mütareke'den sonra yapılmış olup bu mezarlıklarda yatanların milliyetleri aşağıda yazıldığı gibidir:

O zamanlar burada mevcut bulunan tek bir çam aǧacının tohumundan yetiştirilmiş olan tek çam ağacı şimdi gene Lone Pine (Tek Çam) mezarlığında bulunmakta olup mezarları bilinmeyen 4223 Avustralyalı ve 709 Yeni Zelandalının isimleri de yazılı Lone Pine Âbidesi ise, ele geçirilmiş siperlerin üzerinde yükselmektedir.
 
Erected by Commonwealth War Graves Commission.
 
Location. 40° 13.834′ N, 26° 17.225′ E. Marker is near Eceabat, Çanakkale Province
The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915 image. Click for full size.
By Unknown, March 20, 2015
8. The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915
, in Eceabat district. Marker is on Edirne Çanakkale Yolu (Route E87/D55). Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Eceabat, Çanakkale Province 17900, Turkey.
 
Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Lone Pine Cemetery (within shouting distance of this marker); Beach Cemetery (approx. 0.9 kilometers away); Anzac Cove (approx. 0.9 kilometers away); 57th Infantry Regiment (approx. 1.2 kilometers away); Monument of Respect for the Mehmetcik (approx. 1.2 kilometers away); North Beach & Sphinx (approx. 1.2 kilometers away); Ariburnu (approx. 1.2 kilometers away); Atatürk's Tribute (approx. 1.2 kilometers away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Eceabat.
 
More about this marker. This marker is located at the entrance to the Lone Pine Cemetery in the Çanakkale Savaşı (Battle of Çanakkale, Battle of Gallipoli) memorial park grounds. Internal park roads are not named, at least on the park map or Google maps. Most road inside the park are one-way and signs point the way to the various cemeteries and sights.
 
Also see . . .  Gallipoli Campaign - Wikipedia. The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of World War I that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916. The peninsula forms the northern bank of the Dardanelles, a strait that provided a sea route to the Russian Empire, one of the Allied powers during the war. Intending to secure it, Russia's allies Britain and France launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula, with the aim of capturing the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (modern Istanbul).[6] The naval attack was repelled and after eight months' fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt/ (Submitted on July 6, 2015, by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California.) 
 
Categories. War, World I
 
 
Credits. This page was last revised on June 16, 2016. This page originally submitted on July 6, 2015, by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California. This page has been viewed 181 times since then and 20 times this year. Photos:   1, 2, 3, 4. submitted on July 6, 2015, by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California.   5, 6. submitted on July 6, 2015.   7, 8. submitted on July 6, 2015, by Barry Swackhamer of San Jose, California. • Andrew Ruppenstein was the editor who published this page.
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