Montford Point. Recruit training depot for black Marines, 1942-49. Renamed 1974 Camp Johnson for Sgt. Maj. Gilbert Johnson, drill instructor. One mi. SE.
Montford Point. Acquired by the government with the rest of Camp Lejeune, Montford Point became the site of the first training camp for African American Marines. Executive Order 8802, issued by President Franklin Roosevelt on June 25, 1941, ensured full participation in the nation’s defense, opening the door for blacks to enter the United States Marine Corps. Instruction began in the summer of 1942 for a small number of eager recruits such as Arnold R. Bostic, who later recalled that after the first tough day of training, his platoon “decided we are going to complete boot camp and become Marines no matter how hard they made it for us, or what anyone said.” . . The training site for more than 22,000 African American Marines, Montford Point was deactivated on September 9, 1949. President Truman’s Executive Order 9981, issued earlier that year, effectively ended racial segregation in the armed forces. In 1974, in honor of Sgt. Major Gilbert H. “Hashmark” Johnson, Montford Point became Camp Johnson, the first military installation to be named after an African-American Marine. . . (sidebar) . Courageous Honored . The courage of the Montford Point Marines laid the foundation for equal opportunity in the United States Marine Corps. . . In recognition of their contributions, President Barack Obama signed into law a bill to award the Congressional Gold Medal to the Montford Point Marines on 23 November 2011. . . (captions) . (center) Gilbert “Hashmark” Johnson guides one of his Marines at Montford Point . (right) Drill Instructor Edgar Huff with one of the many platoons he trained.
Honoring the men who gave their lives in Lebanon 1982 - 1984 May we always remember those who are ready to protect our freedom Commissioned by the people of Jacksonville North Carolina Dedicated October 23, 1986. On the back of the marker is engraved:
They came in peace. and a list of those American servicemen who died in Beirut: Terry W. Abbott USMC . Clemon Alexander USMC . John R. Allman USMC . Moses Arnold, Jr. USMC . Charles K. Bailey USMC . Nicholas Baker USMC . Johansen Banks USMC . Richard E Barrett USMC . Ronny K. Bates USN . David L. Battle USMC . James R. Baynard USMC . Jesse W. Beamon USN . Alvin Belmer USMC . Shannon D. Biddle USMC . Stephen Bland USMC . Richard L. Blankenship USMC . John W Blocker USMC . Joseph J. Boccia, Jr. USMC . Leon Bohannon USMC . John R. Bohnet, Jr. USMC . John J. Bonk, Jr. USMC . Jeffrey L. Boulos USMC . David R. Bousum USMC . John N. Boyett USMC . Anthony Brown USMC . David W. Brown USMC . Bobby S. Buchanan, Jr. USMC . John B. Buckmaster USMC . William F. Burley USMC . Alfred Butler III USMC . Jimmy R. Cain USN . Paul L. Callahan USMC . Mecot E. Camara USMC . Bradley J. Campus USMC . Randall A. Carlson USA . Johnnie D. Ceasar USMC . Sam Cherman USMC . Randy W. Clark USMC . Marc L. Cole USMC . Marcus A. Coleman USA . Juan M. Comas USMC . Robert A. Conley USMC . Charles D. Cook USMC . Curtis J. Cooper USMC . Johnny L. Copeland USMC . Bert D. Corcoran USMC . David L. Cosner USMC . Kevin P. Coulman USMC . Manuel A. Cox USMC . Brett A. Croft USMC . Rick R. Crudale USMC . Kevin P. Custard USMC . Russell E. Cyzick USMC . David L. Daugherty USMC . Andrew L. Davis USMC . Sidney James Decker USMC . Michael J. Devlin USMC . Thomas A. Dibenedetto USMC . Nathaniel G. Dorsey USMC . Frederick B. Douglass USMC . George L. Dramis USMC . Timothy J. Dunnigan USMC . Bryan L. Earle USN . Roy L. Edwards USMC . William D. Elliot, Jr. USN . Jesse Ellison USMC . Danny R. Estes USMC . Sean F. Estler USMC . Thomas A. Evans USMC . James E. Faulk USN . Richard A. Fluegel USMC . Steven M. Forrester USMC . William B. Foster, Jr. USN . Michael D. Fulcher USMC . Benjamin E. Fuller USMC . Michael S. Fulton USMC . William Gaines Jr . Sean R. Gallagher USMC . David B. Gander USMC . George M. Gangur USMC . Leland E. Gann USMC . Randall J. Garcia USMC . Ronald J. Garcia USMC . Edward J. Gargano USMC . David D. Gay USMC . Harold D. Ghumm USMC . Warner Gibbs, Jr. USMC . Timothy R. Giblin USMC . Michael W. Gorchinski USN . Richard J. Gordon USMC . Harold F. Gratton USMC . Robert B. Greaser USMC . Davin M. Green USMC . Thomas A. Hairston USMC . Freddie Haltiwanger, Jr. USMC . Virgil D. Hamilton USMC . Gilbert Hanton USMC . William Hart USMC . Michael S. Haskell USMC . Michael A. Hastings USMC . Jeffrey T. Hattaway USMC . Paul A. Hein USMC . Douglas E. Held USMC . Mark A. Helms USMC . Ferrandy D. Henderson USMC . Matilde Hernandez, Jr. USMC . Rodolfo Hernandez USMC . Stanley G. Hester USMC . John Hendrickson USMC . Donald W. Hildreth USMC . Richard H. Holberton USMC . Robert S. Holland USN . Bruce A. Hollingshead USMC . Melvin D. Holmes USMC . Bruce L. Howard USMC . John R. Hudson USNR . Terry L. Hudson USMC . Lyndon J. Hue USMC . Maurice E. Hukill USMC . Edward F. Iacovino, Jr. USMC . John J. Ingalls USMC . Paul G. Innocenzi, III USMC . James J. Jackowski USMC . Jeffrey W. James USMC . Nathaniel W. Jenkins USMC . Michael H. Johnson USN . Edward A. Johnston USMC . Steven Jones USMC . Thomas A. Julian USMC . Marion E. Kees USN . Thomas C. Keown USMC . Edward E. Kimm USMC . Walter V. Kingsley USMC . Daniel S. Kluck USA . James C. Knipple USMC . Todd A. Kraft USMC . Freas H. Kreischer, III USMC . Keith J. Laise USMC . Thomas G. Lamb USMC . Mark A. Lange USN . James J. Langon, IV USMC . Michael S. Lariviere USMC . Steven B. Lariviere USMC . Richard L. Lemnah USMC . David A. Lewis USMC . Val S. Lewis USMC . Joseph R. Livingston USMC . Donald G. Losey, Jr. USMC . Paul D. Lyon, Jr. USMC . John W. Macroglou USMC . Samuel Maitland USMC . Charlie R. Martin USMC . Jack L. Martin USMC . David S. Massa USMC . Michael R. Massman USMC . Joseph J. Mattacchione USMC . Ben Henrey Maxwell USA . John McCall USMC . James E. McDonough USMC . Timothy R. McMahon USMC . Robert V McMaugh USMC . Timothy D. McNeely USMC . George N. McVicker, II USN . Louis Melendez USMC . Richard H. Menkins, II USMC . Michael D. Mercer USMC . Ronald W. Meurer USMC . Joseph P. Milano USN . Joseph P. Moore USMC . Richard A. Morrow USMC . John F. Muffler USMC . Alex Munoz USMC . Harry D. Myers USMC . David J. Nairn USMC . Luis A. Nava USMC . Michael J Ohler USMC . John A. Olson USMC . Robert P. Olson USMC . Alexander M Ortega USMC . Richard C. Ortiz USMC . Jeffrey B. Owen USMC . Joseph A. Owens USMC . Ray Page USMC . Ulysses G. Parker USMC . Mark W. Payne USMC . John L. Pearson USMC . Marvin H. Perkins USMC . Thomas S. Perron USMC . John A. Phillips, Jr. USMC . George W. Piercy USN . Clyde W. Plymel USMC . William H. Pollard USMC . Rafael Pomalestorres USMC . Victor M. Prevatt USMC . James C. Price USMC . Patrick K. Prindeville USMC . Eric A. Pulliam USMC . Diomedes J. Quirante USN . David M. Randolph USMC . Charles R. Ray USMC . David L Reagan USMC . Rui A. Relvas USMC . Terrence L. Rich USMC . Warren Richardson USMC . Juan C. Rodriguez USMC . Louis J. Rotondo USMC . Mark E Salazar USA . Guillermo San Pedro, Jr. USMC . Michael C. Sauls USMC . Charles J. Schnorf USMC . Scott L. Schultz USMC . Peter J. Scialabba USMC . Gary R. Scott USMC . Ronald L. Shallo USMC . Thomas A. Shipp USMC . Jerryl D. Shropshire USMC . James F. Silvia USMC . Larry H. Simpson, Jr. USMC . Stanley J. Sliwinski USMC . Kirk H. Smith USMC . Thomas G. Smith USMC . Vincent L. Smith USMC . Edward Soares USMC . Alan H Soifert USMC . William S. Sommerhof USMC . Michael C. Spaulding USMC . John W. Spearing USMC . Stephen E. Spencer USMC . Bill J. Stelpflug USMC . Horace R. Stephens USMC . Craig S. Stockton USMC . Jeffrey G. Stokes USMC . Thomas D. Stowe USMC . Eric D. Sturghill USMC . Devon L. Sundar USMC . James F. Surch, Jr. USN . Dennis A. Thompson USMC . Thomas P. Thorstad USMC . Stephen D. Tingley USMC . John J. Tishmack USMC . Henry Townsend, Jr. USMC . Lex D. Trahan USMC . Richard Twine USA . Pedro J Valle USMC . Donald H. Vallone, Jr. USMC . Michael R. Wagner USN . Eric R. Walker USMC . Leonard W. Walker USMC . Eric G. Washington USMC . Obrian Weekes USMC . Kenneth Welch USA . Tandy W. Wells USMC . Steven B. Wentworth USMC . Allen D. Wesley USMC . Lloyd D. West USMC . John R. Weyl USMC . Burton D. Wherland USMC . Dwayne W. Wigglesworth USMC . Rodney J. Williams USMC . Scipio Williams, Jr. USMC . Johnny A. Williamson USMC . Walter E. Wint, Jr. USMC . William E. Winter USMC . John E. Wolfe USMC . Donald E. Woollett USMC . David E. Worley USN . Craig L. Wyche USMC . James G. Yarber USA . Jeffrey D. Young USMC . William A. Zimmerman USMC John P. Giguere USMC . Jeffery B. Scharver USMC . Jeb F. Seagle USMC . Kenneth V. Welch USA
Onslow County 9/11 Memorial.
Steel Beam From World Trade Center Dedicated July 4, 2003. Presented by The Fire Family Transport Foundation of the NYC Fire Department For the 343 Firefighters who fought a Battle in New York City on September 11, 2001 To the Marines who honored them on the Battlefields of Iraq in the Spring of 2003
Gone but not forgotten Leather Helmets Leathernecks Semper Fidelis.
Operation Desert Storm Memorial.
Onslow County, The City of Jacksonville and WCTI-TV 12 honor the men and women of Eastern North Carolina who served in Operation Desert Storm. This tribute serves as a lasting reminder of your excellence performed in the line of duty, and the dedication shown to your country. Thank you for your service to us and to others. May God bless you..
Onslow Raid. . Federal gunboat Ellis attacked this town Nov. 23, 1862, then ran aground downstream. It was abandoned under Confederate crossfire.
Edward B. Dudley. Governor, 1836-412, the first in N.C. elected by popular vote, first president of Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. Birthplace was 2 mi. W.
New River Aviation Memorial. First Marker: . "Dedicated to the brave souls who freely gave their lives while defending our freedom. They live on in our memory, may they rest in peace." . . Marine Corps Air Station New River was founded in 1944 World War II, and during each of the ensuing decades, the men and women of this station have added new chapters to the rich history of the Corps. . . In training here at home, and in far flung places from Da Nang to An Nasiriyah, they have been the epitome of selfless sacrifice, aerial prowess, and courage under fire. Vigilant in peace and deadly in war, the proud legacy forged here is known throughout the globe. . . In the wake of a tragic aviation accident that took place here in 1996, family and friends of those who lost their lives formed the New River Aviation Memorial Foundation. They dedicate this memorial to all pilots, aircrew, and embarked personnel who have lost their lives while defending our freedom. . . They live on in our memory - May they rest in peace. . . Second Marker: . The land that is now home to the premiere helicopter facility in the Marine Corps was purchased by the Marines in 1941, as a portion of the more than 100,000 acres of farmland need to house the newly minted 1st Marine Division. . . Deemed as an ideal site for the emergency landing field for aircraft supporting the division, the austere site matured significantly through the war years. Even before official activation as a Marine Corps auxiliary air facility in 1944, the three paved runways were supporting parachute, seaplane, and bombing squadron training operations, and had already seen Marines make the ultimate sacrifice as they prepared for combat in the Pacific. . . The facility closed at the end of World War II, but was soon reactivated during the Korean War. In 1954, Marine Aircraft Group 26 transferred to Marine Corps Air Facility New River from Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, creating the New River's first permanent operational presence. The small training facility continued to grow through the Vietnam years and was recommissioned in 1968 as Marine Corps Air Station (helicopter) New River. In 1972, the airfield proper was renamed for one of the fathers of Marine Corps helicopter aviation, General Keith B. McCutcheon, a highly decorated combat aviator who served in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. . . In 2006, when this memorial was dedicated, Marine Corps Air Station New River was home to nearly 200 helicopters and tilt-rotor aircraft operated by two Marine aircraft groups comprised of 16 squadrons.
Camp Lejeune. Established 1 May 1941 by the U. S. Marine Corps for amphibious training. Named for Lt. Gen. John A. Lejeune, USMC, 13th Commandant, 1920 - 1929.
Julius Valentine Hofmann.
In recognition of Julius Valentine Hofmann. This Hofmann Forest, a 78,000 acre tract established in 1934 and dedicated to demonstrate sound forestry education and practice, is the result of the pioneering vision, energy and resourcefullness of the first Director of the School of Forestry at North Carolina State University. The Board of Directors of the N.C. Forestry Foundation, Inc. erected this monument as an honor to this outstanding forester.
James Melville Jones.
In honor of James Melville Jones. Here, early on the morning of April 17, 1972, Jimmy Jones died in a forest fire burning across the Pocosin. While moving equipment he became trapped when a wind - shift brought the fire back on him. This marker, erected in the year 2000, by his fellow - firefighters former employees of the Hoerner - Waldorf Corporation and the N. C. Forest Service.
Hofmann Forest. Named for J. V. Hofmann. Research forest of 80,000 acres in Jones & Onslow counties. Acquired, 1934, for use by North Carolina State University.
First Post Road. The road from New England to Charleston, over which mail was first carried regularly in North Carolina, 1738–39, passed near this spot.
Hammocks Beach State Park. . Onslow County, with its beautiful beaches, rivers, streams and woods, was considered an ideal destination for many out of town sportsmen in the early 20th century. Dr. William Sharpe, a New York based neurosurgeon, began visiting Onslow County in 1914 to partake of its bountiful supply of fish and game. He became close friends with John Hurst, a local African-American hunting guide. Sharpe decided he wanted his own acreage for sportsman activities and requested that John Hurst commence a search for an ideal tract for his planned retreat. . . Dr. Sharpe’s desire that it be “beautiful, isolated, and have an abundance of fish and game,” was fulfilled when Hurst discovered 4,600 acres on the mainland, and Bear Island with its beautiful stretch of beach. Managed by John and Gertrude Hurst, the Sharpe family enjoyed The Hammocks for over 30 years. Sharpe originally intended to will the property to the Hursts, but he suggested and alternative; Gertrude Hurst agreed that he deed it to a black teachers organization, the North Carolina Teachers Association in 1950 for use as segregated beach resort. They donated the island in 1961 to the state for further development as a park. . . Today, Hammocks Beach State Park is a haven for the loggerhead turtle, migratory birds and other wildlife. . . (sidebar) . John Hurst . John Hurst was highly respected by Dr. Sharpe, who gave him full responsibility as his property manager. This did not please some of the locals who believed that it was not Mr. Hurst’s place to hold such a job. Dr. Sharpe asserted his faith in Hurst by offering a $5,000 reward for the arrest of anyone who might threaten the Hammocks or any of its employees. In his later life, reflecting on their friendship, Dr. Sharpe praised John Hurst as a “philosopher” and a man who “functions expertly in domains that other men would abandon.”
Huggins Island Battery. . Union Gen. Benjamin F. Butler’s capture of Hatteras Inlet in August 1861 gave Federal forces a foothold from which they could launch attacks up the rivers and sounds of eastern North Carolina. Confederate authorities decided to construct earthen fortifications to protect the mainland, especially at Roanoke Island and on the Roanoke, Pamlico, Neuse, and White Oak Rivers. . . This battery was constructed during the fall. In November, Capt. Daniel Munn occupied it with his company known as the Bladen Stars. At first considered an independent company for local defense and special service in North Carolina, the Stars were eventually designated Co. B, 36th North Carolina Infantry Regiment (2nd North Carolina Artillery). The company mustered four officers and 64 men in January 1862. . . On February 19, 1862, after Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s expedition captured Roanoke Island, Munn withdrew the company from Huggins Island. The guns and ordinance were transported to Morehead City and then to New Bern, where they fell into Burnside hands when he occupied the town on March 14. . . In August 1862, the Federals mounted a small army-navy expedition against the salt works on the White Oak River at Swansboro. Gen. Thomas G. Stevenson led seven companies of the 24th Massachusetts Infantry and a detachment of the 1st New York Marine Artillery on the raid. Seven light army steamers and the navy gunboat Ellis transported the force past Huggins Island and the abandoned position. Today, this battery is the only unspoiled Confederate earthen fortification remaining on the North Carolina coast. . . (captions) . (left) Confederate pickets at typical coastal fortification, Harper’s Weekly . (center) Capt. Daniel Munn Courtesy National Archives; Gen. Thomas G. Stevenson Courtesy National Archives . (right) The Huggins Island Battery mounted seacoast cannons similar to this one in Fort Pulaski, Ga. Courtesy Library of Congress; Hammock Beach State Park Courtesy of North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation
Col. John Starkey. Free school advocate, 1749; Southern District treasurer, 1750-1765; member of assembly for 25 years. Grave located at "The Bluff" 4 mi. N.
"Prometheus". First steamboat made in N.C. Built in 1818 by Otway Burns, privateer in War of 18 12. Shipyard located 350 feet S.W.
Port Swannsborough. Named for Samuel Swann. Town incorporated in 1783. Port, including area from New River to Bogue Inlet, established in 1786.
Huggins' Island Fort. Confederate 6-gun fort guarding the entrance to Bogue Inlet; burned by Union troops, Aug. 19, 1862. Remains, 1 mi. SW.
The Foscue Plantation House. Certified by State of North Carolina Division of Archives and History and entered on the National Register of Historic Places. . . Restored 1974 - 78
Missile Tests. . U.S. Navy successfully tested ram jet engines in rocket flights, 1946-48. Observation towers line Topsail Island; Assembly Building 2 blocks west.
Van Eeden. Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany lived, 1939-46, at agricultural colony founded in 1909 and revived by Alvin Johnson. Two mi. SW.
Hinton James. First student to enter the University of North Carolina, 1795. Civil engineer, state legislator. Grave 300 yards east.
Richard Dobbs Spaight. First native-born N.C. governor, 1792-1795; a signer of the U.S. Constitution, 1787; killed in a duel. Grave here.
New Bern Battlefield Park.
New Bern Historical Society welcomes you to the New Bern Battlefield Park 300 Battlefield Parkway, New Bern, NC 28562. Here you will find pristinely preserved Confederate defensive earthworks on the 27 acres owned by the New Bern Historical Society. A ferocious battle was fought here on 14 March 1862. Call 252-638-8558 to arrange for a private tour, if desired. Or, take the Self-guided Walking Tour that directs you to the 15 spots along prepared trails explaining the actions and movements of the combatants. Five miles north, in the city of New Bern, is a very significant collection of Civil War artifacts in the Attmore-Oliver House, built circa 1790-1800. It now serves as the headquarters of the New Bern Historical Society.
Battle of New Bern. . The above map is self-explanatory. For a detailed account of the battle please read the large map-marker "Battle of New Bern" on Us. Highway 17 at New Bern, 5¼ west of this road. The Croatan Earthwork, an extensive fortification not used during the battle, can be seen 6-3/10 miles southeast on this highway. Here, extensive earthworks can be seen on both sides of the highway in a direct line with this marker. . . Troops engaged in the Battle of New Bern: . . Union: Major General Ambrose Burnside - commanding Division. . Brigadier General John G. Parke's Brigade . 4th and 5th R.I. Inf.; 8th and 11th Conn. Inf. . Brigadier General Jesse L. Reno's Brigade . 21st Mass., 51st N.Y., 9th N.J., and 51st Pa. Inf. . Brigadier General John G. Foster's Brigade . 23rd, 24th, 25th, and 27th Mass. and 10th Conn. Inf. . . Confederate: Brigadier General Lawrence O'B. Branch - commanding Brigade . 7th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 33rd, 35th, and 37th N.C. Inf.; 19th N.C. Regt. (1st Cavalry); Captain Thomas H. Brem's and Captain A.C. Latham's artillery batteries. . . Confederates in Fort Thompson: Captain John N. Whitford's and Captain W.A. Herring's artillery companies. . (The men in the other Confederate forts did not directly participate in the battle).
Battle of New Bern. . The victory of Union General Ambrose Burnside here on March 14, 1862, caused the fall of New Bern.
Stag Park. Named by Barbadian explorers, 1663. Home of Gov. George Burrington and Samuel Strudwick, colonial official. The house stood ¾ miles east.
George Burrington. Colonial governor; 1724–1725, 1731–1734; opened lower Cape Fear region to settlement. His home was ¾ miles east.
S. S. Satchwell. A founder of State Medical Society, 1849, head of Confederate Hospital at Wilson, first president of the State Board of Health, 1879. Home stood here.
Our Heroes. In honor of the Confederate Soldiers of Pender County. Major General William Dorsey Pender, Feb 6, 1834 – July 18, 1863. . . Let future generations remember that these were men whom death could not terrify, whom defeat could not dishonor. That truth, courage and patriotism endure forever. . . Pender County was formed from New Hanover County by the Legislature of 1874–75 and was named in honor of Major General William Dorsey Pender of Edgecombe County.
Fort Point. . Site of Fort Caswell, built by N.C., 1775-76, to protect New Bern, renamed Fort Lane by Confederacy. Taken by U.S., Mar., 1862. ½ mi. E.
Burgaw Station, a stop on the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, was located on the rail line known as the “Lifeline of the Confederacy,” Gen. Robert E. Lee’s main supply route for his Army of Northern Virginia by 1864. This rail line transported equipment and weapons smuggled through the Union naval blockade from Wilmington, North Carolina, to the front in Virginia. Trains sometimes stopped a Burgaw Station to get wood and water and pick up passengers and mail. . . The Burgaw Station was built about 1850 as part of an improvement project on what was then called the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad (Wilmington and Weldon Railroad in 1855). William Shepperd Ashe, president of the railroad early in the war, was killed in a train accident while en route from Wilmington to his home four miles south of here. Col. Sewell L. Fremont, for whom Fremont Street in Burgaw was named, served as superintendent of the railroad by 1863. . . Federal cavalry raiders burned part of the depot in 1862-1863. After the Confederates evacuated Wilmington late in February 1865, Union prisoners of war were temporarily held here before being paroled on the rail line near the Northeast Cape Fear River as part of a general exchange program. During negotiations, the Burgaw depot telegraph connected Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg, headquartered nearby, to Richmond and Raleigh. Today Burgaw Station is one of only two remaining antebellum railroad stations in North Carolina (the other is Mitchener’s Station in Selma). . . (captions) . (lower left) Prisoners awaiting exchange from Prison Life in the South (1866) . (lower center) Lt. Henry H. Willis, 40th New York Infantry, a Union prisoner held at Burgaw Station until paroled at Northeast Station 10 miles south of here. — Courtesy Chris E. Fonvielle, Jr. . (upper right) William Shepperd Ashe, from Biographical History of North Carolina (1905); Col. Sewell L. Fremont Courtesy Robert J. Cooke
James City. Community founded here in 1863 as resettlement camp for freed slaves. Named for Horace James. Union Army chaplain.
Battle of Kinston. The yellow sidebar in the upper left provides a brief background: Late in 1862, Union Gen. John G. Foster’s garrison was well entrenched in New Bern and made several incursions into the countryside. On December 11, Foster led a raid from New Bern to burn the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad Bridge over the Neuse River at Goldsboro and to demonstrate in support of Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside’s attack at Fredericksburg, Virginia. Foster’s force consisted of 10,000 infantry, 650 cavalry, and 40 cannons. . . On December 13, 1862 as Foster and his command approached Kinston on the Wilmington Road (present-day U.S. Route 258), he first encountered Confederate Gen. Nathan G. Evans’s defensive forces at Woodington near Southwest Creek. After 3rd New York Cavalray scouts informed Foster that the Confederates (Col. James D. Radcliffe’s 61st North Carolina Infantry) were entrenched on the north side of Southwest Creek and the bridge here had been destroyed, he ordered his brigade commander to place their units in battle formation. Foster’s artillerists posted their guns on the right of the road here and opened fire. The 9th New Jersey Infantry pressed forward on your left and the 85th Pennsylvania on your right, under intense fire. They crossed the creek, which was not fordable here, using felled trees, bridge fragments, and a mill dam, as well as by swimming. About 400 of the 61st North Carolina Infantry, strongly positioned across the creek in front of you with two artillery pieces, contested the Union troops for every foot gained. After fierce fighting, Evans realized that his men were outnumbered and ordered them to fall back toward Kinston. About two miles from town, he halted them in a strong wooded and swampy position, and the troops “rested on their arms” overnight to await the next attack.
Fort Totten. Here stood one of the forts built around New Bern by Union forces after they took the town in March, 1862.
Topsail Battery. . Confederate breastworks were constructed in this vicinity in 1862 to protect Wilmington from an attack from the north and for coastal defense.
Batchelder's Creek. Site of Union outpost captured by Confederate Generals Hoke & Pickett on February 1, 1864. The earthworks are 300 yards North.
Samuel Ashe. Governor, 1795–1798; one of the first three state judges; president, Council of Safety, 1776. His grave is 3 miles east.
William S. Ashe. Railroad president, congressman, state senator. In charge rof Confederate railroad transportation, 1861–62. Home stands 1 mile west.
Jones House. This house was built about 1809 for John Jones, owner of a local turpentine distillery, and the west wing was added about 1820. After the U.S. Army defeated Confederate troops in the Battle of New Bern on March 14, 1862, and occupied the town, military authorities used the house as a jail for Confederate Sympathizers. According to local tradition, Union soldiers confined the notorious Confederate spy Emeline Pigott here. An ardent supporter of the Confederate cause who had served as a nurse, Pigott smuggled confidential military information, personal letters, clothing, food, and other items through Union lines by hiding them underneath her hoop skirts. When arrested, she carried a heavy load of contraband, but Federal officials never convicted her of a crime. She was released from jail and lived out the remainder of her life at her home in Carteret County, near Beaufort.
Washington's Southern Tour. President Washington visited in the Stanly home two nights, April 20-21, 1791.
Edward Moseley. Acting governor, 1724, president of the Council, speaker of the Assembly, leader of popular party. His home, “Moseley Hall,” was two miles east.
John Wright Stanly House. This house was the birthplace of two men who fought on opposing sides during the Civil War: Edward Stanly, the Unionist military governor of North Carolina, and Confederate Gen. Lewis Addison Armistead, who was mortally wounded during the Battle of Gettysburg. Stanly, born here in 1810, accepted the post of military governor from President Abraham Lincoln in May 1862, in the hope that he might lead his hometown and state back into the Union. He was unsuccessful and resigned in March 1863. Armistead, Stanley’s nephew, was born here in 1817. He fell at Gettysburg on July 3, 1863, during Gen. James Longstreet’s attack on the Federal position atop Cemetery Ridge (“Pickett’s Charge”) and died two days later. . . After Union forces defeated Confederate troops in the Battle of New Bern on March 14, 1862, this house was selected as the headquarters of Union commander Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. Later in the war, the house served as headquarters for Stanly General Hospital (later called Foster General Hospital) and as a convent for the Sisters of Mercy, Roman Catholic nuns who worked as nurses in the hospital. . . John Wright Stanly built his house between 1779 and 1783. During the Civil War, it stood on it original site at the southwest corner of New and Middle Streets (current site of a 1930s Federal building and parking lot). The house was moved in 1932 and moved again to this site in 1966.
John Wright Stanly House. Home of Revolutionary War leader; and his son John, Congressman & state legislator. House moved and restored 1966-70 by the Tryon Palace Commission.
Tryon Palace. . Historic Capitol and Governor's residence of N.C., 1770-1794. Burned 1798, and restored in 1952-1959. Open to the public. One block south.
Attmore-Oliver House. . Like many other North Carolinians, New Bern’s residents enjoyed close economic and family ties with the North and were reluctant to leave the Union. Once the war began, however, many North Carolinians passionately supported the Confederate cause: 125,000 bore arms for the Confederacy and 40,000 died. No other Southern state provided as many fighting men or suffered as many deaths. . . The men who lived here in the Attmore-Oliver House, which Hannah Attmore Oliver inherited just before the war, joined other residents under the “Stars and Bars.” William Oliver, Hannah’s husband, served as a Confederate quartermaster. Her three brothers also enlisted in the Confederate army. The oldest, Sitgreaves, of the Washington Grays, was captured with his battery at the Battle of Fort Fisher in 1865, and died of chronic dysentery on May 22. Isaac Attmore, of the Beaufort Rifles, fought in many major battles, including Gettysburg, and was killed at Spotsylvania Court House on May 12, 1864. George, the youngest at 13 when the war began, served in Manly’s Battery at Gettysburg, Spotsylvania Court House, The Wilderness, Cold Harbor, and Petersburg. He was at Appomattox Court House when Gen. Robert E. Lee capitulated, but his company left for North Carolina without surrendering. Attmore was pardoned at Greensboro on May 9, 1865, and returned to New Bern. . . The New Bern Historical Society’s Attmore-Oliver House Museum contains a collection of Civil War artifacts assembled by the local chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. For many years, one of Hannah Oliver’s daughters, Mary Oliver, was chapter president. . . (captions) . (lower left) Cavalryman; Artillery Officer; Infantryman . (upper right) Attmore-Oliver House Museum - Courtesy New Bern Historical Society
James Walker Hood. Asst. Superintendent Public Instruction, 1868-70; a founder Livingstone College, 1885; Bishop A.M.E. Zion Church; founded St. Peters, 1864. One blk. N.
Battle of Wyse Fork. The yellow sidebar in the upper left of the marker provides a brief synopsis of the Carolinas Campaign. It states: . The Carolinas Campaign began on February 1, 1865, when Union Gen. William T. Sherman led his army north from Savannah, Georgia, after the “March to the Sea.” Sherman’s objective was to join Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in Virginia to crush Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Scattered Confederate forces consolidated in North Carolina, the Confederacy’s logistical lifeline, where Sherman defeated Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s last-ditch attack at Bentonville. After Sherman was reinforced at Goldsboro late in March, Johnston saw the futility of further resistance and surrendered on April 26, essentially ending the Civil War. . . Early in March 1865, Union Gen. John M. Schofield began moving from New Bern to Goldsboro, a vital rail junction. His mission was to open railroad communications between the two cities and accumulate supplies for Gen. William T. Sherman, who was marching north to Goldsboro. Schofield ordered Gen. Jacob D. Cox to lead the way. Along Southwest Creek near Kinston, Confederate Gen. Robert F. Hoke’s division blocked Cox’s route. . . The Federals encountered the Confederates here on March 7, and Hoke struck their left flank the next morning. Confederate Gen. D. H. Hill threatened the Federal right in the afternoon, but Gen. Braxton Bragg, commanding at Kinston, recalled him. Cox received reinforcements late in the day. Action on March 9 was largely limited to skirmishing, as Hoke tested the Federal right flank. Bragg then ordered Hoke to move his division to Lower Trent Troad to attach the Federal rear near Wyse Fork. . . Hoke’s men made a cross-country march during the night and launched their assault on the morning of March 10. They encountered a strong skirmish line as well as artillery and fortifications and, after a sharp fight, were unable to break through, despite Hill’s demonstration against the Federal center. Cox’s force held this position as the Confederates retreated to Kinston, fell back to Goldsboro, and then took part in the Battle of Bentonville. After repairing bridges, Schofield occupied Kinston on March 19 and reached Goldsboro two days later. . . The yellow sidebar in the lower right of the marker reads: . The house in the distance to your left and front was the home of Confederate Lt. Robert Bond Vause, who was killed at the Battle of Fort Anderson. In 1862, the house was the headquarters of Gen. Robert Ransom, Jr.
George H. White. Lawyer; member of N.C. legislature, 1881 & 1885. U.S. Congressman, 1897-1901. Born into slavery. Home stands 2 blocks N.
Caleb Bradham. "Brad's Drink," which he created in pharmacy here, was marketed as Pepsi-Cola after 1898.
USRC Diligence. U.S. Reserve Cutter built in N.C. 1791. Ship was commissioned in 1792 by Revenue Marine (now U.S. Coast Guard), ¼ miles west.
U.S.C.G.C. Pamlico. U.S. Coast Guard Cutter stationed in New Bern from 1907 until 1947.
First House of Worship of Colonial Craven Parish. The walls on this site are erected over the brick and ballast stone foundation of the first house of worship of Colonial Craven Parish which was established in 1715. The brick Anglican Church was completed in 1750, and it continued in use until the early 1820s. The foundation underground is of the same thickness as these walls which provided the shape and form of the old church. Openings in the north and south walls indicate appropriate window locations in the church which stood here. . . George Whitefield, the famed Evangelist of the Great Awakening in the eighteenth century preached here on Easter Day in 1765. Presidents George Washington and James Monroe both worshiped in Old Christ Church on visits to New Bern.
Battle of New Bern. . On March 13, 1862, Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside prepared to capture New Bern after seizing Roanoke Island in February. Confederate Gen. Lawrence O’B. Branch defended the city in a line of fortifications located several miles down the Neuse River, but by late in the morning of March 14, Burnside’s overwhelming force had breached the line. The Confederates retreated to Kinston. Eleven thousand Federal troops were about to descend on New Bern with a large fleet of United States Navy gunboats sailing up the river in support. . . On the nearby banks of both the Trent and Neuse Rivers, the retreating Confederates set fire to warehouses filled with cotton bales, military supplies, and thousands of barrels of pine tar and turpentine. The Confederates also fired the railroad bridge across the Trent River to delay the approaching Union army. The serene beauty of today’s Union Point Park stands in sharp contrast to the scene here in 1862. Huge clouds of billowing black smoke and flames poured out of the wooden warehouses. A flank speed, the Federal gunboats charged upriver with their coal-fired steam engines spewing black smoke and their heavy guns blazing as they bombarded New Bern. . . During the next 24 hours, stray soldiers, sailors, and a few residents looted and vandalized New Bern until Burnside’s troops restored order. Soon thereafter, New Bern was transformed into a fortified city and remained under Union control for the duration of the war. . . (captions) . (lower left) “The Battle of New Bern.” published by Currier & Ives - Courtesy of the Tryon Place Collection . (upper right) Gen. Lawrence Branch; Gen. Ambrose Burnside
St. Peter's A.M.E. Zion Church.
This property has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places by the United States Department of the Interior.
William Henry Singleton. During the Civil War, thousands of enslaved blacks freed themselves by escaping to Union lines. Craven County native William Henry Singleton (1843-1938) was one of them. According to his biography, Recollections of My Slavery Days (1922), as a child he was sold south to Atlanta but later escaped and returned to Craven County, where his mother concealed him. Finally caught, he remained on a local plantation until the war, when he accompanied a local officer as his body servant. He escaped from slavery during the March 1862 engagement at Wyse Fork in Lenoir County and fled to the Federal army in New Bern. Singleton asserted that he helped raise black troops for the Union, probably African-American “pioneers” who cleared roads and built fortifications, and “drilled” them at Andrew Chapel, the forerunner of St. Peter’s African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, on Hancock Street. He also wrote that he met President Abraham Lincoln, likely at a meeting between Burnside and Lincoln at Fort Monroe in Virginia in July 1862. After the Emancipation Proclamation authorized the enlistment of black troops in 1863, Singleton served as a sergeant in the 35th U.S. Colored Troops in Georgia, Florida (where he was wounded in the leg in the Battle of Olustee), and South Carolina. He was mustered out in Charleston, S.C., on June 1, 1866. He later became a Methodist minister and resided in Connecticut and New York. During the Civil War, thousands of enslaved blacks freed themselves by escaping to Union lines. Craven County native William Henry Singleton (1843-1938) was one of them. According to his biography, Recollections of My Slavery Days (1922), as a child he was sold south to Atlanta but later escaped and returned to Craven County, where his mother concealed him. Finally caught, he remained on a local plantation until the war, when he accompanied a local officer as his body servant. He escaped from slavery during the March 1862 engagement at Wyse Fork in Lenoir County and fled to the Federal army in New Bern. Singleton asserted that he helped raise black troops for the Union, probably African-American “pioneers” who cleared roads and built fortifications, and “drilled” them at Andrew Chapel, the forerunner of St. Peter’s African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, on Hancock Street. He also wrote that he met President Abraham Lincoln, likely at a meeting between Burnside and Lincoln at Fort Monroe in Virginia in July 1862. After the Emancipation Proclamation authorized the enlistment of black troops in 1863, Singleton served as a sergeant in the 35th U.S. Colored Troops in Georgia, Florida (where he was wounded in the leg in the Battle of Olustee), and South Carolina. He was mustered out in Charleston, S.C., on June 1, 1866. He later became a Methodist minister and resided in Connecticut and New York. . . The yellow sidebar gives a brief history of the church you see behind the marker. It reads: . In 1863, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion missionary James Walker Hood came to New Bern and Beaufort, where large numbers of black Methodists lived. Here in New Bern, the congregation of Andrew Chapel, constructed as a white Methodist church about 1802 on Hancock Street, affiliated with the A.M.E. Zion Church in 1864. The congregation changed its name to St. Peter’s in 1879 and built a frame Gothic Revival-style church here. A brick building in the same style replaced it in 1914. After it was destroyed in the great fire of December 1, 1922, the congregation slowly rebuilt, completing the present building in 1942.
George E. Badger. . Secretary of the Navy, 1841; United States Senator, 1846-55; judge of the superior court; staunch nationalist. Birthplace was 80yds S.
New Bern Academy. In 1861, Confederate authorities converted the New Bern Academy from a school to a hospital. The U.S. Army commandeered the structure to care for the wounded almost immediately after defeating Confederate forces in the Battle of New Bern on March 14, 1862. Casualties were first moved here from temporary quarters on March 19. Ten days later, a newspaper reported that “ the General Hospital at Academy Green is full of severely wounded men, and those who have undergone amputation. Two houses opposite [across the street] are filled with wounded rebel prisoners under charge of their own surgeons.” Academy Green Hospital also treated victims of spinal meningitis, smallpox, and yellow fever. It served as a general hospital in conjunction with the Masonic Lodge and other nearby structures. By the end of the war, the buildings constituted a part of New Bern’s larger Foster General Hospital. . . The yellow sidebar at the lower right reads: New Bern Academy was the first school established by law in North Carolina (1766). Fire destroyed the original building in 1795, and this Federal-style structure was erected by 1810. At first, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel subsidized the teachers, who had to be Anglican Church members. Before it became a graded public school, the Academy adhered to the Lancasterian system developed by an Englishman, Joseph Lancaster. Students were grouped by level of achievement rather than by age, and a pupil who had been promoted to a higher level led each class. The Academy’s role as a school ended in 1972.
Cedar Grove Cemetery. Those who died during the yellow fever epidemic in 1798-99 completely filled the Christ Episcopal churchyard cemetery. By 1800, the church had purchased five lots in the Dryborough area fronting on Queen Street. . . What was originally called the “Episcopal Cemetery” became, by 1853, the city cemetery and renamed Cedar Grove Cemetery. The marl perimeter wall and the entrance gates were added soon thereafter, and over the years the cemetery boundaries were extended. . . Cedar Grove Cemetery is known for having one of North Carolina’s finest collections of nineteenth century gravestones, markers, and monuments—especially its unique statuary monuments. Cedar Grove is listed on the National Register of Historic Places in recognition of its place in the city’s and state’s two-century history. . . Points of Interest . . A. Weeping Arch - constructed in 1854, dedicated by Dr. Francis Lister Hawks; Still hollowed be this spot where lies, Each dear loved one in earth’s embrace. Our God, their treasured dust doth prize. Man should protect their resting place. . B. Confederate Memorial - constructed 1878-85, beneath statue in brick vault lie remains of nearly 70 Confederate soldiers killed in Battle of New Bern, March 14, 1862. . C. Cedar Grove Fountain . 1. Thomas Tomlinson - first schoolmaster of New Bern Academy established on January 7, 1764. . 2. Francis Lowthrop - served 14 consecutive term (1792-1805) as master of St. John’s Masonic Lodge. . 3. Major John Daves - captain in NC Continental Line; member of State Society of the Cincinnati; distinguished at Germantown, Stony Point, and Eutaw Springs. First customs collector at Port of New Bern. . 4. Edward Graham Daves - grandson of John Daves, graduate of New Bern Academy and Harvard University; attorney and professor at Trinity College, Hartford, CT, founder and first president of Roanoke Colony Memorial Association dedicated to recovery and preservation of Raleigh’s colony planted on Roanoke Island. . 5. John Stanly - son of John Wright Stanly; attorney, Federalist congressman, and legislature; served in House of Commons 1789-99, 1812-15, 1817-19, and 1823-27. . 6. Francis Hawks - son of John Hawks, architect of Tryon Palace, served as customs collector at Port of New Bern; father of Dr. Francis Lister Hawks who funded and was first president of U. of Louisiana (later Tulane U.) . 7. Bayard Wooten - photographer and artist; designed first Pepsi-Cola logo (1902); photographed New Bern from Wright brothers’ airplane (1914) chief publicist for NC National Guard, photographer for UNC yearbook “Yackety Yack” (1921-47). . 8. Moses Griffin - funded free school for indigents before advent of public schools; founded Griffin Free School at New Bern (1833), fought with colonial militia during War on Regulation; wounded at Battle of Alamance. . 9. William Tisdale - silversmith; designed and struck state seal of NC; served on district committee for New Bern during the Revolutionary War and in NC General Assembly. . 10. Hardy B. Lane - prolific carpenter/builder in New Bern (1820-56); constructed St. Paul’s Catholic Church, Moses Griffin Free School, Charles Slover house, Edward R. Stanley house, and crafted interior woodwork for First Baptist Church. . 11. William Gaston - (1778-1844); lawyer, legislator, congressman, and jurist. First student at Georgetown College, graduate of College of NJ (later Princeton). Author of state song (The Old North State), City of Gaston, Lake Gaston, City of Gastonia, Gaston Co., all named after him. . 12. William Joseph Williams - born in NYC, died in New Bern, painted his 1794 pastel known as “the Masonic portrait of Geo. Washington.” . 13. Caleb Bradham - inventor of Brad’s drink that became Pepsi-Cola in 1898. . 14. Peter Custis, MD - (d. 1842) America’s first academically trained naturalist; co-leader of the Freeman and Custis expedition which explored the American Southwest (1806) as this area’s counterpart to the Lewis and Clark expedition; father of Peter Barton Custis. . 15. Peter Barton Custis, MD - (1823-63); graduate of U. of PA; surgeon of 31st Regiment, CSA; director of hospital of Wilmington, 1862-63. . 16. Robert Ransom - civil engineering graduate of West Point, 1850; resigned from Army to become commanding officer of 1st NC Cavalry, CSA; promoted to major general, fought in Battle of Harper’s Ferry and at Sharpsburg and Richmond. . 17. George Crapon - 2nd Lt . with NC 3rd Regiment and (next) . 18. John M. Hargett, 2nd Lt with NC 1st Regiment, both members of immortal 600, the CSA prisoners fired upon at Morris Island, SC. . . (sidebar) . Political Graveyard of Craven County, NC . .
Bayard v. Singleton. . American precedent for judicial review of legislation set nearby, 1787, by Samuel Ashe, Samuel Spencer, John Williams.
New Bern Academy. First school chartered in N.C. Assembly levied a tax for its support in 1766. Present building was built in 1810.
First Printing Press In N.C.. . Est. 1749 by James Davis who published the first book and newspaper in colony. Shop was nearby.
Christ Church. . Episcopal. Craven Parish created 1715. First church erected 1750, this one in 1875. Communion service, given by George II, 1752, still in use. One block S.
First Provincial Congress. In America to be called and held in defiance of British orders met in this town, Aug. 25-27, 1774, with 71 delegates present.
Craven County World Wars 1 and 2 Memorial. South face of monument, near the top: Sacred to the Memory of Craven County Dead of World War 1 and 2 Names are engraved on all four sides of the base:
World War II. Robert J. Conderman . Charles E. Cook . Elvin Allen Herring . Henry Purefoy Whitehurst Jr. . Wade Meadows Jr. . Furnifold M. Simmons . Douglas Peek . H. Edward Tilghman . Woodrow W. Connor . Donald Ivar Ryman . Clyde A Ballenger Jr. . Donald F. Patterson Jr. . Thomas Wetherington . Francis C. Caton . Joseph Rouse . Solomon Claudius Jackson . Sam N. Mills . James Cleveland Hawkins . Edward Daniel Bowden . Hardy Perry Moore . Richard Gray Morris . Harold Wetherington . George Phillip Pipkin Jr. . Charles Percy Mason . Walter Ralph Jones . Marcus Cicero Daugherty . Paul F. Mills . Leroy T. Banks . Jesse M. Bland . James H. Caton . Wallace R. Cleve . David L. Daugherty . Hal L. Dill . Thomas D. Faulkner . Clennie Marshburn . Walter R. Jones . Ed S. Laughinghouse . James J. Lewis . Ben L. Smith . Joe Stallings . Zeb Tripp Jr. . James R. Hardison . Ollen B. Tolar . John M. Powles . Richard Stapleford . Fred P. Willis . Wm. M. Mitchell . Radford Coward . Guion V. Heath . Julian C. Cherry . Carl L. Manning . Wilbur Slade Williams . Moses Allen . Joe N. Harper . George Alfred Ipock . Charles W. Hardison
William Gaston. . Justice of N.C. Supreme Court, 1833-44; lawmaker. An advocate for state's Catholics. Wrote state song. "The Old North State." Lived 1 block N.
Abner Nash. A resident of New Bern for fifteen years; born in Prince Edward County, Virginia, about 1740, but came to North Carolina in 1763; member of Colonial Assembly from Halifax Town in 1764 and 1765; from the County of Halifax in 1769, 1770 and 1771; Delegate from the Town of New Bern to the four Provincial Congresses 1773, 1774, 1775 and 1776; member of Provincial Council in 1775; Speaker of the first House of Commons in 1777; Senator from Jones County in 1779; Speaker of the Senate in 1780; Governor of the State 1780-1781; member of Continental Congress 1782-1786. Died in New York City, December 2nd 1786. Distinguished lawyer, zealous patriot, and able public servant.
Richard Dobbs Spaight. Educated in Scotland at University of Glasgow; Aide-de-Camp to Major-General Richard Caswell during the Revolution, and Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of Artillery after that war; representative of the Borough of New Bern for five terms and of the County of Craven for four terms in the North Carolina House of Commons; Speaker of the house of Commons; State Senator for two terms; member of the Continental Congress, and of the fifth and sixth Congresses of the United States; member of the National Constitutional Convention of 1787, and of the North Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1788; Governor of North Carolina for three terms; mortally wounded in duel fought in 1802. The first native North Carolinian to hold the office of Governor.
Richard Dobbs Spaight, the Younger. Graduate and for twenty-nine years a trustee of the University of North Carolina, member of the North Carolina House of Commons for one term, and of the State Senate for fourteen terms, member of the eighteenth Congress of the United States; Grand Master of the Masonic Grand Lodge of North Carolina for two terms, member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1835; and the last Governor of North Carolina elected by the General Assembly.
First Presbyterian Church. Formally organized on January 6, 1817 in the home of Mrs. Elizabeth Minor, First Presbyterian Church was formed under the leadership of the Rev. John Knox Witherspoon. Included among the charter members were the daughter and granddaughter of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, D.D. . . In 1819 log number 309 on New Street was purchased. Construction of the sanctuary began June 9, 1819 with the laying of the cornerstone by Master Masons. Uriah Sandy was contractor, assisted by Martin Stevenson and John Dewey who were members of the church. The building was completed in late 1821 and dedicated on January 6, 1822. Numbered pews were offered for sale or rent with "visitor pews" provided on both sides of the pulpit. . . To the right of the sanctuary is the Session House, built in 1858 for the sum of $1500. During the Civil War the sanctuary was used as a hospital for sick and wounded Union soldiers with planks being placed over the pews or beds. Restoration work was required in 1866 and was marked by the installation of Victorian-style gaslights and stained woodwork. In 1936 the restoration and reinstallation of the original pulpit was completed. . . In addition to its own growth and outreach, First Presbyterian Church aided in the establishment of Ebenezer Church in 1878 and following World War II in the establishment of Neuse Forest (1946) and West New Bern (1948) churches.
Graham A. Barden. Congressman, 1935-61. Secured military bases for eastern N.C.; advocated Taft-Hartley labor relations act. Grave 4 blocks northwest.
Greenwood Cemetery. . Greenwood Cemetery, established in 1882 on the grounds of an earlier cemetery, is New Bern’s second-oldest public cemetery and the first city-owned cemetery for African Americans. Thirteen grave markers are dated between 1816 and 1859. At least five men who served in the U.S. Colored Troops during the Civil War are buried here, as well as prominent African American legislator of the postwar period, James Edward O’Hara. . . O’Hara was born in New York City on February 26, 1844, the son of an Irish merchant and a West Indian mother. He sailed on vessels between the city and the West Indies as a youth, then settled in New Bern about 1862 and taught in freedman’s schools here and in Goldsboro after the war. He was elected to the state legislature from here in 1868, while studying law, and passed the bar examination in 1871. O’Hara represented North Carolina’s Second District in the U.S. Congress from 1883 to 1887, and served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1884. While in Congress, he was a member of the House Committees for Pensions, Mines and Mining, and Expenditures on Public Buildings. He spoke against racial violence, introduced one of the first bills to make lynching a federal crime, and tried but failed to amend an interstate commerce bill to require equal accommodations for all travelers. . . After O’Hara lost his bid for reelection in 1886, he practiced law in New Bern with his son Raphael and published a small newspaper, the Enfield Progress. He died on September 15, 1905, and was buried in Greenwood Cemetery. . . (sidebar) . At least five men who served in the U.S. Colored Troops during the Civil War are buried here. They include Thomas Fisher, Co. C, 38th USCT, which fought in Virginia in 1864 and occupied Richmond in 1865; Payton White, Battery A, and Cornelius W. Jones, Battery B, 14th U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery, which was organized nearby; Jonas McDonald, Battery B, 2nd U.S. Colored Light Artillery, which served in Virginia and Texas from 1864 to 1866; and William A. Wood, 20th USCT, which served in Louisiana and Texas between 1864 and 1866. . .
Major funding for this project was provided by the North Carolina Department of Transportation through the Transportation Enhancement Program of the Federal Transportation Efficiency Act for the 21th Century.. . (captions) . (upper left) James Edward O’Hara Courtesy North Carolina Office of Archives and History . (lower center) An unidentified U.S.C.T. enlisted man - Courtesy Library of Congress . (right) U.S. Colored Troops charging a Confederate fortification Courtesy Library of Congress
First Presbyterian Church. Organized in 1817, plaques on the interior walls recognize the thirteen founding members. Built in 1819 - 1821. It is the oldest Presbyterian Sanctuary in continuous use in North Carolina. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places and as an American Presbyterian and Reformed Historic Site.
Centenary United Methodist Church. Established in 1772 during a visit to New Bern by Rev. Joseph Pilmoor. First known as Andrews Chapel and located Southwest of this site at Hancock St. and Church Alley. Centenary is the oldest continuing Methodist Church South and East of Baltimore. The present church building was completed in 1904.
King Solomon Lodge. First African American Masonic lodge in N.C.; est. 1865. Erected in 1870, the building was moved here in 1920s.
Political Duel. John Stanly killed Richard Dobbs Spaight, former Governor of North Carolina, in a duel near this spot, September 5, 1802.
Baron Christoph von Graffenried. Was a citizen of Bern, Switzerland. Led Swiss and Palatine immigrants to N.C. where in 1710 he founded New Bern.
Samuel Cornell. Merchant, Loyalist, and Governor's Councilor. He financed construction of Tryon Palace & campaign against Regulators, 1771. House stood 2 blocks S.
F. M. Simmons. U. S. Senator, 1901-1931. Chaired Senate Finance Committee during World War I. U.S. House 1887-1889. Lived here.
First Post Road. The road from New England to Charleston, over which mail was first carried regularly in North Carolina, 1738-39, passed near this spot.
Bayard Wootten. Pioneer photographer of N. C. and the South. An advocate of equal rights for women. Began career ca. 1904 in this house where she was born.
Rains Brothers. . Brig. Gen. Gabriel Rains and Col. George Rains, graduates of West Point, inventors of explosives for Confederacy. This was their boyhood home.
A National Cemetery System. . Civil War Dead . . An estimated 700,000 Union and Confederate soldiers died in the Civil War between April 1861 an April 1865. As the death toll rose, the U.S. government struggled with the urgent but unplanned need to bury fallen Union troops. This propelled the creation of the national cemetery system. . . On September 11, 1861, the War Department directed commanding officers to keep “accurate and permanent records of deceased soldiers.” It also required the U.S. Army Quartermaster General, the office responsible for administrating to the needs of troops in life and in death, to mark each grave with a headboard. A few months later, the department mandated interment of the dead in graves marked with numbered headboards, recorded in a register. . . Creating National Cemeteries . . The authority to create military burial grounds came in an Omnibus Act of July 17, 1862. It directed the president to purchase land to be used as “a national cemetery for the soldiers who shall die in the service of the country.” Fourteen national cemeteries were established by 1862. . . When hostilities ended, a grim task began. In October 1865, Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs directed officers to survey lands in the Civil War theater to find Union dead and plan to reinter them in new national cemeteries. Cemetery sites were chosen where troops were concentrated: camps, hospitals, battlefields, railroad hubs. By 1872, 74 national cemeteries and several soldiers’ lots contained 305,492 remains, about 45 percent were unknown. . . Most cemeteries were less than 10 acres, and layouts varied. In the Act to Establish and to Protect National Cemeteries of February 22, 1867, Congress funded new permanent walls or fences, grave markers, and lodges for cemetery superintendents. . . At first only soldiers and sailors who died during the Civil War were buried in national cemeteries. In 1873, eligibility was expanded to all honorably discharged Union veterans, and Congress appropriated $1 million to mark the graves. Upright marble headstones honor individuals whose names were known; 6-inch-square blocks mark unknowns. By 1873, military post cemeteries on the Western frontier joined the national cemetery system. The National Cemeteries Act of 1973 transferred 82 Army cemeteries, including 12 of the original 14, to what is now the National Cemetery Administration. . . (sidebar) . Reflection and Memorialization . . The country reflected upon the Civil War’s human toll—2 percent of the U.S. population died. Memorials honoring war service were built in national cemeteries. Most were donated by regimental units, state governments and veterans’ organization such as the Grand Army of the Republic. Decoration Day, later Memorial Day, was a popular patriotic spring event that started in 1868. Visitors placed flowers on graves and monuments, and gathered around rostrums to hear speeches. Construction of Civil War monuments peaked in the 1890s. By 1920, as the number of aging veterans was dwindling, more than 120 monuments had been placed in national cemeteries. . . (captions) . (lower left) Soldiers’ graves near General Hospital, City Point, Va., c.1863. Library of Congress. . (center) Knoxville was established after the siege of the city and Battle of Fort Sanders in 1863. Cemetery plan, 1892, National Archives and Records Administration. . (upper right) Lodge at City Point, Va., pre-1928. The first floor contained a cemetery office, and living room and kitchen for the superintendent’s family; three bedrooms were upstairs. . (lower right) National cemetery monuments, left to right: Massachusetts Monument, Winchester Va., 1907; Maryland Sons Monument, Loudon Park, Baltimore, Md., 1885; and Women’s Relief Corps/Grand Army of the Republic Monument to the Unknown Dead, Crown Hill, Indianapolis Ind., 1889.
New Bern National Cemetery. On March 14, 1862, Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside captured New Bern after seizing Roanoke Island in February and moving his army inland. After the battle for the town, the Federals established hospitals in the New Bern Academy, the Masonic Lodge, and other structures, all later known as Foster General Hospital. After the war, the remains of Union dead buried in New Bern and the surrounding area, including Beaufort, Hatteras, and locations along the coast, were reinterred here. Confederate soldiers in Cedar Grove Cemetery, southeast of here. . . New Bern National Cemetery was established on February 1, 1867. More than 1,000 unknown soldiers are buried in a separate section. Another section contains the graves of more than forty U.S. Colored Troops. New Bern National Cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. . . The cemetery contains several notable monuments. The granite 9th New Jersey Infantry Monument was erected by that state in 1905. Union and Confederate veterans, as well as the governors of both states, attended the elaborate dedication ceremony. Massachusetts erected a granite memorial in 1908 in memory of its soldiers who died in North Carolina during the war. Also in 1908, the Connecticut Monument was constructed to commemorate the Connecticut men who died of yellow fever as well as combat casualties. The Rhode Island Monument consists of a granite base topped by a bronze figure, donated by that state and dedicated on October 6, 1909.
Major funding for this project was provided by the North Carolina Department of Transportation, through the Transportation Enhancement Program of the Federal Transportation Efficiency Act for the 21st Century.. (captions) . (left) Three drummer boys in the 2nd Rhode Island Infantry posed with their drums sometime during the Civil War. Most of the young men like these—both Northern and Southern—who fell in battle were interred in shallow, hastily dug graves with no identification, and in many cases their families never knew exactly what happened to them or where they were buried. After the war, the remains of thousands of Union soldiers were reburied ion national cemeteries, often in graves marked simply “Unknown.” Courtesy Library of Congress . (upper right) Gen. Ambrose Burnside Courtesy Library of Congress
General Robert Hoke Monument. Near this spot, March 8, 1865, about 9 a.m., Hoke's Division, C.S.A. under the immediate command of Major-General Robert E. Hoke, broke the advanced columns of Cox's First Division, 23rd Corps, U.S.A. and captured principally from Upham's brigade 1500 prisoners and three pieces of artillery and at this spot General Braxton Bragg met General Hoke and congratulated him in person upon his glorious victory.
Battle of Wyse Fork. In the late stages of the Civil War Union forces were intent on moving up the rail line from New Bern through Kinston to Goldsboro. Their objective was to unite with Sherman and open a supply route through eastern North Carolina. Confederate troops entrenched on Southwest Creek sought to impede their progress. For three days the opposing armies clashed in the fields and woods south and east of the creek. Union Maj. Gen. Jacob D. Cox commanded over 13,000 soldiers, most belonging to the divisions of Brig. Gen. Innis N. Palmer and Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Carter. Gen. Braxton Bragg led a Confederate force of 12,500 men, organized in divisions led by fellow North Carolinians Gen. Robert F. Hoke and Gen. D. H. Hill. The Junior Reserves, mostly seventeen-year-olds mustered in only months before, came under Hill’s command. . . By March 6 Union troops were gathered in Gum Swamp three miles east of Wyse Fork. Travel, along the bed of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad and through swampy terrain, was difficult, made more so by heavy rains and a lack of wagons. Meanwhile Gen. Bragg had moved his army up from the lower Cape Fear region. On the evening of March 7 advance Union guards skirmished with Confederates at Wyse Fork as Palmer’s division moved into position 800 yards east of the creek. . . Friday, March 8, was the high point for the Confederates. In mid-morning Hoke’s division moved down Upper Trent Road and around the head of the millpond. With whoops and yells, they “burst through like a torrent,” striking the Federal’s left flank. Concurrent with Hoke’s move, Hill’s division crossed the creek and struck the right flank. The 15th Connecticut, positioned south of Dover Road and 500 yards east of Jackson’s Mill, was besieged. Col. Charles L. Upham’s brigade shattered, with 890 men taken prisoner and horses and guns abandoned. By the end of the day Confederates, with the support of artillery fire, occupied a line along British Road. That evening a division led by Brig. Gen. Thomas H. Ruger arrived to offer additional Federal support. . . On Gen. Cox’s orders, Union forces hastily threw up a continuous line of breastworks on both sides of Lower Trent Road. Short of supplies they used boards as shovels. Confederates on March 9 tested the Union’s right flank by conducting a reconnaissance survey down the Neuse Road. Artillery exchanges continued through the night of March 9. At 11:30 AM on March 10 a “vigorous assault” was made on the extreme left of the Union line. An hour later the Confederates left the field, soon thereafter returning to attack the center. Union positions were tested and driven in, but held. The 66th NC Regiment, organized in Kinston, came within 50 yards of the Federal works, withstanding a “galling fire.” At 2:30 PM the Confederates made their final charge and Union skirmishers fell back to their main rifle pits. With nightfall Gen. Bragg’s troops withdrew from their trenches and retired to Kinston. With the exit of Bragg’s force, the crew of the ironclad Neuse burned and sank their ship. . . The Battle of Wyse Fork (also known as the Battle of Kinston and the Battle of Southwest Creek) involved one of the largest concentrations of troops ever on North Carolina soil. The armies engaged were exceeded in size only by those at Bentonville. Over 225 Confederates were taken prisoner and an unknown number left dead or dying on the field. Total Union casualties for the three days were fewer, with 57 killed and 265 wounded. As a delaying maneuver the battle was a success for the Confederates. Gen. Bragg’s ultimate failure to defeat Gen. Cox and his subsequent withdrawal came about in the face of rapidly mounting Federal strength. IN the days thereafter forces on both sides pressed on the Goldsboro and to the last major conflict in the state, at Bentonville on March 19-21, 1865.
General John Ashe. Stamp Act patriot; Speaker of the House. Colonel under Tryon in “War of Regulation.” Revolutionary General. Home stood 2 mi. east.
Battle of Wyse Fork. The yellow sidebar in the upper left of the marker provides a brief synopsis of the Carolinas Campaign. It states: . The Carolinas Campaign began on February 1, 1865, when Union Gen. William T. Sherman led his army north from Savannah, Georgia, after the “March to the Sea.” Sherman’s objective was to join Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in Virginia to crush Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Scattered Confederate forces consolidated in North Carolina, the Confederacy’s logistical lifeline, where Sherman defeated Gen. Joseph E. Johnston’s last-ditch attack at Bentonville. After Sherman was reinforced at Goldsboro late in March, Johnston saw the futility of further resistance and surrendered on April 26, essentially ending the Civil War. . . Early in March 1865, Union Gen. John M. Schofield began moving from New Bern to Goldsboro, a vital rail junction. His mission was to open railroad communications between the two cities and accumulate supplies for Gen. William T. Sherman, who was marching north to Goldsboro. Schofield ordered Gen. Jacob D. Cox to lead the way. Along Southwest Creek near Kinston, Confederate Gen. Robert F. Hoke’s division blocked Cox’s route. . . The Federals entrenched here after dark on March 7, facing west toward the position on the western bank of Southwest Creek occupied by the Confederates. Dover Road crossed Southwest Creek here at Jackson’s Mill Pond, and the Confederates had constructed a series of trenches on the west bank to protect the approaches to Kinston. . . On the morning of March 8, Hoke assaulted the Union left flank, and later in the day Gen. D. H. Hill attached the Federal right in support. Hoke’s attack fell on Col. Charles L. Upham’s brigade, which included the 15th Connecticut and 27th Massachusetts Infantry regiments, and most of the brigade was killed, wounded, or captured. Between them, Hoke and Hill seized about a thousand prisoners, the last large capture of Union troops in the war. The remnants of Upham’s command fell back east to a position in front of Wyse Fork and entrenched. . . Fighting continued for the next two days. The Confederates retreated to Kinston, fell back to Goldsboro, and then took part in the Battle of Bentonville. After repairing bridges, Schofield occupied Kinston on March 19 and reached Goldsboro two days later. . . The yellow sidebar in the lower right of the marker reads: . The Cobb House, to your front and right, served during the battle as the headquarters of Lt. Col. Samuel Tolles, commander of the first battalion of the 15th Connecticut Infantry. The house stood in the midst of Hoke’s attack on March 8, 1865. After the battle, the house served as a Confederate hospital, but treated the wounded of both sides. The names of at least six Union soldiers remain written on the attic walls.
Alexander Lillington. Revolutionary leader; Whig colonel in the Battle of Moores Creek Bridge, 1776. His grave is 9 miles northeast.
Confederate Headquarters. At this location was the site of the Howard House, used as Confederate Headquarters during the Battle of Wyse Fork, March 8-10, 1865. General Braxton Bragg commanded the Confederate Army that was composed of the forces of Major General D.H. Hill and Major General Robert F. Hoke. . . This house was used to plan the battle that resulted in probably what was the last major Confederate tactical victory of the war, when Hoke’s forces surprised and captured, killed or wounded most (900+0 of Union Brigade Commander Colonel Charles L. Upham’s force. Upham’s brigade was composed of the 15th Connecticut and the 27th Massachusetts infantry regiments and a section of Battery D, 3rd New York Artillery. This was the last mass capture of Union troops by Confederates in the war. . . It is documented that the planning was conducted at “the front of the little white house” when on the night of March 7, 1865, Generals Bragg, Hill and Hoke planned the final strategy to stop the Union advance of Major General Jacob D. Cox’s corps. Cox’s force was the lead corps of General John M. Schofield’s army, which was moving from his base at New Bern towards Goldsboro. Schofield was to unite with General William T. Sherman’s army, also advancing towards Goldsboro, which is approximately 30 miles west. . . The Howard house, pictured left, was fronted by the Dover Road near its juncture with the Neuse Road. The Dover Road, approximately 100 feet south at this point, was the principal road connecting Kinston and New Bern. It was ideally suited for its purpose as it was situated behind Southwest Creek, which was the main Confederate defensive line and it was also protected by artillery placed near Jackson’s Mill. The house was demolished in the 1960s. . . The yellow sidebar on the lower right reads: . The entire eastern line of defense for mid-Eastern NC was erected along the west bank of Southwest Creek. These substantial fortifications ran from the Neuse River to Jackson’s millpond on the Dover Road (present Highway 70) and were erected to protect the approaches to Kinston and the interior of North Carolina from attacks launched from the Union base at New Bern. These works covered several main routes of approach to Kinston that could be used by the Federals, namely the Neuse Road, the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad and the Dover Road.
Battle of Kinston. (Preface): Late in 1862, Union Gen. John G. Foster's garrison was well entrenched in New Bern and made several incursions into the countryside. On December 11, Foster led a raid from New Bern to burn the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad Bridge over the Neuse River at Goldsboro and to demonstrate in support of Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside's attack at Fredericksburg, Virginia. Foster's force consisted of 10,000 infantry, 650 cavalry, and 40 cannons. . . As Foster approached Kinston on December 13, he encountered Confederate defensive forces under Gen. Nathan G. Evans six miles southwest of here at Woodington on the Wilmington Road (present-day U.S. Route 258). After a fierce fight, Evans withdrew to earthworks here near the Neuse River and prepared for Foster's second attack, which came about 9 a.m. on December 14. . . Evans stationed about 2,000 troops from the Carolinas here in a semicircular position extending from the river on your left about a mile to a swamp across Wilmington Road to your right. You are standing where the South Carolinians stood. Foster positioned his men for the attack in front of you. Gen. Henry W. Wessells, commanding one of Foster's brigades, divided his unit to attack Evans' left flank here. The Federals encountered thick woods, brambles, and a determined resistance. Eventually, however, with superior numbers and heavy artillery fire, they succeeded in breaking through the Confederate left flank. The South Carolinians gave way, crossing the Jones bridge (which stood just downstream from the modern one) into Kinston. Evans ordered the bridge set afire before the North Carolinians, on the right flank, had a chance to cross over, and many of them were captured as they fled in panic. After a brief stand on the north side of Kinston, Evans withdrew his troops. Foster and his men spent the night of December 14 in Kinston and departed for Goldsboro the next morning.
Starr's Battery. In front of you is the position held by Capt. Joseph B. Starr’s Battery. Starr’s Battery defended this position against the Union advance on December 14. Finally, his ammunition exhausted, Starr withdrew across the Neuse River. . . Capt. Starr had lost one gun at Southwest Creek the day before but his remaining fire smoothbore cannon fought tenaciously that cold December Sunday. The Confederates deployed artillery at key positions along the line to aid the thinly stretched infantry. A South Carolina soldier witnessed it effectiveness: “The enemy first attacked our right and were repulsed several times by our artillery and infantry. Our artillery did good execution, sending the vandals back at every onset…” . . Starr and the rest of the Confederate line held for hours against the much larger Union force. A soldier in the 17th Massachusetts wrote of the Confederate artillery fire as it pounded them: “The fire of the rebels upon our attacking columns was rapid and well directed, and did great havoc among them…” . . Capt. Starr held until his ammunition was exhausted. With no ammunition and Union infantry pressing them Starr had little choice but to pull back across the Neuse River. Starr abandoned one gun, all of its horses killed by Union fire. . . (captions) . (upper left) A Confederate battery at Charleston, South Carolina . . (upper right) Starr’s battery probably looked much like this captured Confederate fortification. . . (lower right) Each gun in a battery had eight horses, six to pull the gun and caisson and two spare.
The Union Artillery. Twenty-four guns of the 3rd New York Artillery supported Gen. Wessells’ infantry as they advanced through the swamp toward the Confederate line. The overwhelming firepower of Union infantry and artillery eventually forced the Confederates to abandon the line and fall back to Jones Bridge. . . When Wessells gave the order to attack, two guns of Battery B came forward and opened fire. The battery’s remaining four guns soon joined them, all firing at the Confederate line near Harriet’s Chapel. . . Col. James H. Ledie, chief of the Union artillery, then brought batteries E, F and I—eighteen guns—into action, Lt. H.F. Scaife wrote: “…the battery we were supporting was ripping up the woods in fine style—at every discharge cracking off pine trees as it they had been pipe stems.” . . As the battle progressed, Col. Ledie moved Battery F to the extreme right of the Union line in support of infantry near the Confederate earthworks. A South Carolina officer described the Union assault: “Already the firing in the front was incessant, and balls and shells from the Federal guns were falling about the bridge.” The Confederates abandoned their position. . . (captions) . (upper left) Guidon attributed to the 3rd Light Artillery, New York Volunteers . (upper right) Lt. Manning Livingston, Battery F, 3rd New York Artillery
The Action in the Swamp. A large swamp separated the advancing Union army and the Confederate defenders one-half mile north. Described by one Union soldier as, “difficult to cross, and densely covered with a growth of small trees and pine,” the swamp slowed the Union advance and provided cover for the Confederates. . . Gen. Henry Wessell’s infantry waded into the swamp, determined to reach the Confederate line. It was an action the Confederate engineers who designed the defenses did not anticipate. . . A solder in the 45th Massachusetts wrote: “We quickly found ourselves in the midst of a regular North Carolina swamp, which in ordinary times would be considered impenetrable. Mud and water waist deep, how much deep none stopped to see, roots to trip the careless foot, briars innumerable to make havoc with our clothes…” In spite of the harsh conditions, Wessells extended and strengthened his line while taking heavy fire from the Confederates. . . The swamp that tried the Union troops protected the Confederates. Thick trees and underbrush masked the Confederate positions, making it difficult for the Federals to fire accurately. Capt. William H. Edwards, 17th South Carolina, observed: “The Yankee advance was greatly obstructed by the swamp, and their fire upon our lines was very heavy and continuous, but fortunately for us they could not see our position and they were firing above us all the time.” . . (captions) . (left) “Mud and water waist deep, how much deeper none stopped to see…” . (center) Col. Charles R. Codman, right, commanded the 45th Massachusetts at Kinston.
The Center of the Confederate Line. Harriet’s Chapel stood in the center of the Confederate line. A heavily wooded wetland stood in front of the line. Behind it was the Neuse River. Three regiments of infantry and two batteries of artillery held this portion of the Confederate line. . . The Confederate earthworks stretched from the Neuse River on the east to a deep swamp on the west. This line crossed the Wilmington road (now US 258) which in 1862 made a sharp turn to the west (your right) just south of Harriet’s Chapel. The Confederates used a fence row on the north side of the road and the deep swamp to the west to their advantage. From the near ninety-degree bend in the road the line stretched east in front of Harriet’s Chapel, bending north to the Neuse River. The church sat at the center of the line. . . Gen. Nathan Evans placed the 61st North Carolina Infantry under Col. James D. Radcliffe here—in the center of the line. Starr’s Battery—Battery B, 13th North Carolina Artillery—-commanded by Capt. Joseph B. Starr, was also on the line near Harriet’s Chapel. Three South Carolina regiments held the eastern end of the Confederate line. . . (captions) . (lower left) Col. James D. Radcliffe . (lower right) Col. Fitz W. McMasters commanded the 17th South Carolina at the eastern end of the Confederate line.
Wessells' Advance—December 14, 1862. Gen. John Gray Foster’s long blue line slowly marched north from Southwest Creek toward the Confederate line. The Confederates, behind a formidable line of earthworks protected by a swamp in their front, braced for the Union assault. . . Gen. Henry W. Wessells commanded the Union forces on the field. He deployed this forces in line of battle, placing his brigade on the right side of the road and Gen. Thomas Amory’ s brigade on the left side. He put his artillery in the road. . . At Wessell’s command the whole line surged forward. Confederate Gen Nathan Evans planned to hold out as long as possible against the overwhelming number of Union troops before crossing the river into Kinston and burning Jones Bridge behind him. . . The Confederate strategy worked for a while. The guns found their mark and held the Union infantry. “The rebel guns opened upon their flank, raking their position. The of these guns was so concentrated and powerful that it cut a perfect path, two rods wide, for some distance through the forest.” . . A Confederate barrage hit the 103rd Pennsylvania as it advanced deep into the swamp. The Pennsylvanians took cover and returned fire. The volley hit the 85th Pennsylvania, which in the smoke and confusion had moved ahead of Col. Lehmann’s regiment. . . (captions) . (left) Gen. Henry W. Wessells . (right) Col. Theodore Lehmann
The Confederate Defenses of Kinston. Confederate engineers built fortifications around Kinston and along the approaches from New Bern. You can see a portion of these earthworks from the boardwalk. This line of earthworks originally straddled the road to Jones Bridge, which was near the site of the current US 258/Queen Street bridge. The earthworks on this side of the road ended at the Neuse River. Those on the other side ended at a deep swamp. . . Confederate engineers used Southwest Creek as a natural barrier, fortifying three bridges across the creek. They constructed earthworks on both sides of roads just north of the bridges, anchoring the works on swamps. The engineers believed that the Union troops could not or would not try to cross the swamps. They would have to assault the works head on. . . North of Kinston, a ring of earthworks stretched from the river to the railroad on the city’s west edge. Camp Pool, a large fortified encampment east of the city, mounted heavy artillery protecting the Neuse River approach to Kinston. Obstructions placed in the river forced boats to pass through a narrow channel, making them easy targets. . . (captions) . (left) Gen. Nathan G. “Shanks” Evans, commander of the Confederate forces at Kinston. . . (upper center) Earthworks at Southwest Creek near Hines Mill. . . (lower center) Swamps provided a formidable natural barrier. . . (lower right) The earthworks around Kinston probably resembled this earthwork near Atlanta.
Caring for the Wounded. As the fighting surged past the church and the battle moves into Kinston, surgeons of both armies began the task of caring for the wounded. Harriet’s Chapel became a refuge and men from both sides found care at the church. . . The fighting around Harriet’s Chapel was some of the fiercest of the battle. The building served as a defensive position while the battle raged. When Union forces arrived at the church, “Dead bodies lay scattered about the floor and our surgeons immediately appropriated it for a hospital.” Soldiers brought the wounded to the church for treatment. Surgeons using bone saws went about the gruesome task of amputation. Others did their best to treat and comfort the men who lay on the floor or on the pews. . . The Union troops carried most of their wounded back to New Bern but the wounded Confederates remained in Kinston. The land around Harriet’s Chapel became a burial ground for both the Union and Confederate dead. The Federal government removed the Union remains to New Bern National Cemetery in the 1860s. The Confederate dead remained here until 1881, when they were reinterred in Maplewood Cemetery. . . (captions) . (lower left) The grounds around Harriet’s Chapel must have looked like this after the battle. This hand-tinted photograph was taken at Savage Station, Virginia, in 1862. . . (upper right) Union doctors care for Confederate wounded. . . (lower right) The Confederate Monument in Maplewood Cemetery marks the resting place of forty-four Confederate soldiers.
The Site of Harriet's Chapel. Harriet’s Chapel saw some of the most intense fighting of the Battle of Kinston. In 2010, Historical Preservation Group moved this building, once New Beaverdam Primitive Baptist Church, to this site to interpret Harriet’s Chapel’s role in the battle. . . Harriet’s Chapel . Harriet’s Chapel vanished long ago and no photograph or drawing survives. It probably looked much like this building, which is typical of Civil War-era church buildings in this area. Union and Confederate regimental histories describe Harriet’s Chapel. Most agree that it was an unpainted wood frame building supported by piers. . . New Beaverdam Primitive Baptist Church . Its congregation built New Beaverdam Primitive Baptist Church shortly after the Civil War. The interior was left unfinished “in the primitive way.” A pastor held services in the church once a month until the early 1950s, when the church closed. As was the customary, the deed passed to the last living member of the church, who sold the building. Moved from its original site, it became a tenant house and then a storage building. Michele Waller donated the building to Historical Preservation Group’s Lenoir County Battlefields Commission in 2009. It stands near where Harriet’s Chapel is thought to have stood. . . (captions) . (lower center) Elder Joshua E. Mewborn served as the Elder of New Beaverdam Primitive Baptist Church from 1925 until the early 1950s, when the church closed. This photo was taken about 1949. . . (upper right) The restored interior of the New Beaverdam Primitive Baptist Church building. . . (center right) A Primitive Baptist Church baptizing, ca. 1940. . . (lower right) Red Bank Primitive Baptist Church, Greenville, North Carolina, ca. 1950. Courtesy Bill Kittrell, Pitt County Historical Society
At least 100 markers are within 36 miles of this location, as the crow flies. Touch for map.