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Native Americans Historical Markers

 
"The Magic Dog" Marker image, Touch for more information
Google Street View (©2014 Google), October 9, 2010
"The Magic Dog" Marker
Colorado (Alamosa County), Alamosa — "The Magic Dog"
The Utes called this valley “Tavi-we-a-gat” or Big Valley. They came here following in the footsteps of their ancestors along this Camino; their dogs pulled their belongings along the now paved byway. This fertile valley provided . . . — Map (db m71876) HM
Colorado (Alamosa County), Alamosa — On Sacred Ground
Majestic Mount Blanca that stands bgefore you is surrounded by history and legend from the first people who inhabited this valley. Many Native American groups believe that this valley is the source of life where humans and spirit enter and leave . . . — Map (db m71875) HM
Colorado (Alamosa County), Alamosa — Welcome "Caminante" to ...
¡Bienvenidos! Caminantes! Come! Take a walk with us. We know an old song, El Caminante, which tells of taking a long walk along the ancient roads. Like the first prehistoric inhabitants, you too are a ‘caminante’, or one who walks upon this . . . — Map (db m71877) HM
Colorado (Archuleta County), Pagosa Springs — Pagosa Springs
Pagosa Springs has a rich history, beginning with the Anasazi Indians. Later the Utes, Navajos and Apaches inhabited this beautiful corner of the Southwest. They also visited the great “Pagosah” hot springs which they believed had . . . — Map (db m27527) HM
Colorado (Baca County), Campo — Changing Hands --- Changing Lands
"There really is a Place Called Baca County; I think she’s mighty fine; She was good enough for my dad’s kids; Likewise she’ll do for mine; Her sunrises are all colors; Her sunsets are all the same; The only thing she needs more . . . — Map (db m106474) HM
Colorado (Bent County), Las Animas — Welcome to Bent County
This region was once buffalo hunting grounds for the Cheyenne, Apache, Arapaho, Kiowa and Comanche. Tribes followed the buffalo throughout the plains and controlled the land. During this time, everything south of the Arkansas river was Mexico and . . . — Map (db m120709) HM
Colorado (Chaffee County), Buena Vista — Getting from There to Here
Native peoples traveled through the Upper Arkansas Valley for centuries before European and American explorers. Ute, Comanche and other tribes traveled on foot until the arrival of the Spanish and the introduction of the horse in the 1600’s. . . . — Map (db m107827) HM
Colorado (Chaffee County), Salida — 130 — Christmas 1806
Frustrated in their attempt to climb Pike’s Peak on November 27, 1806, Zebulon Pike and his party of 15 trudged on through South Park looking for the Red River, southern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. After crossing Trout Creek Pass, the . . . — Map (db m127876) HM
Colorado (Chaffee County), Salida — Finding Our Roots / New Faces Along the River / Pike Explores the Valley
Marker A:Finding Our Roots Following ancient paths The history of Chaffee County as part of the United States began in 1803, with the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France. But human history was established here . . . — Map (db m116085) HM
Colorado (Costilla County), Fort Garland — 16 — Fort Garland
This memorial is the property of the State of Colorado ——— Fort Garland United States military outpost to protect settlers from hostile Indians. Named for Brig. Gen. John . . . — Map (db m22731) HM
Colorado (Costilla County), Fort Garland — 190 — Fort Garland / Buffalo Soldiers
Front The Soldier’s Life Fort Garland housed infantry and cavalry units. During the 1870’s the famed Buffalo Soldiers—African-American cavalrymen—were also posted here. For all soldiers—and their . . . — Map (db m71032) HM WM
Colorado (Delta County), Delta — Ute Council Tree
This ancient tree was once part of a grove of native cottonwoods under which the local Ute Indians would camp and hold council prior to 1881. An Indian trail passed nearby. It has been identified as the Ute Council Tree since 1930, when the local . . . — Map (db m119897) HM
Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 5e — All Washed UpWall Street of the Rockies — Seventeenth Street Denver, Colorado —
The legend says that Denver's early settlers, who made their camp on the banks of Cherry Creek, laughed at the Arapaho, a local Indian tribe, for making their camp inconveniently far from the water's edge. The Arapaho warned the settlers of . . . — Map (db m135440) HM
Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 6e — Arapahoe StreetWall Street of the Rockies — Seventeenth Street Denver, Colorado —
Before the founding of the City of Denver, the tribe that camped in the area called themselves “Inuna-ina" meaning, “Our people.” This tribe was also known as “Arapaho,” the word for “trader” or . . . — Map (db m135442) HM
Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Edward W. Wynkoop
This building is named for Edward W. Wynkoop (1836-1891) to honor his peacemaking efforts, though unsuccessful, to resolve the Indian-white conflict which resulted tragically in the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864. Exaggerated reports of . . . — Map (db m97294) HM
Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 280 — Sand Creek Massacre
The controversy surrounding this Civil War Monument has become a symbol of Coloradens' struggle to understand and take responsibility for our past. On November 29, 1864, Colorado's First and Third Cavalry, commanded by Colonel John Chivington, . . . — Map (db m6755) HM
Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Silas S. Soule
At this location on April 23, 1865, assassins shot and killed 1st Colorado Cavalary Officer Capt. Silas S. Soule. During the infamous Sand Creek Massacre of November 29, 1864, Soule had disobeyed orders by refusing to fire on Chief Black Kettle's . . . — Map (db m67133) HM
Colorado (Denver County), Denver — 9e — Take Your PickWall Street of the Rockies — Seventeenth Street Denver, Colorado —
. . . — Map (db m135315) HM
Colorado (Denver County), Denver — Wynkoop Street RR Bridge1908 — Lower Downtown Walking Tour —
Denver's first settlement was along the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek. Arapahoe Indians named Cherry Creek for the wild chokecherries they harvested here in the fall. They respected the stream's power and warned the first . . . — Map (db m96283) HM
Colorado (Douglas County), Franktown — 57 — Franktown
This tablet is the property of the State of Colorado —— Franktown Named for J. Frank Gardiner, a pioneer who settled here in 1859. First known as "California Ranch," it was a way . . . — Map (db m96174) HM
Colorado (Douglas County), Parker — 54 — Twenty Mile House
This tablet is the property of the State of Colorado — — Due West ¼ mile stood the TWENTY MILE HOUSE (Twenty miles from Denver) First house built in Parker, 1864. On the . . . — Map (db m96176) HM
Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Indian Trail
This stone marks the Indian Trail used by the Plains Indians to Ute Pass — Map (db m52001) HM
Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Old Fort and Stockade
This marks the site of the Old Fort and Stockade built by Pioneers of Colorado City used in defense against the Indians in 1864 and 1868 Constructed of logs set on end _____ Erected by Old . . . — Map (db m96054) HM
Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Rock Ledge Ranch Historic Site
Welcome! Rock ledge Ranch Historic Site is a living history museum that allows visitors to experience the lives of the people who dwelled, worked, hunted, herded and raised families here from the 1700s to the early 20th century. This . . . — Map (db m46002) HM
Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Rock Ledge Ranch Historic Site
1775-1835 American Indian Area Discover the history and culture of the American Indians who lived in the Central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Visitors will have an opportunity to see an elk or buffalo hide tepee, a wide variety of tools . . . — Map (db m135562) HM
Colorado (El Paso County), Colorado Springs — Welcome to Garden of the Gods Park
The Central Garden Trail is a moderate, one-mile round-trip loop. It is paved and wheelchair accessible. This trail will take you between the towering Gateway Rocks into the heart of Garden of the Gods Park. Along the way you will have the . . . — Map (db m72936) HM
Colorado (El Paso County), Manitou Springs — 13 — Ute Pass
This memorial is the Property of the State of Colorado Ute Pass Named from the old Ute Trail which led from South Park through Manitou to the Plains. Traversed by the Utes on hunting and war expeditions. Improved highway built . . . — Map (db m32663) HM
Colorado (El Paso County), Monument — Old Stone Fort
This tablet is the property of the State of Colorado _____ Due south 610 feet is the Old Stone Fort built at the pioneer home of David McShane. Constructed as a defense against Arapaho and . . . — Map (db m104869) HM
Colorado (Elbert County), Kiowa — 272 — Trail Under Siege / Rising to the Challenge
Trail Under Siege Indians of Colorado’s High Plains Kiowa and Comanche Indians migrated to these prairies in the 1700s, followed by Cheyennes and Arapahos in the early 1800s. The region’s vast grasslands, thick bison herds, and brisk fur . . . — Map (db m45756) HM
Colorado (Fremont County), Cotopaxi — 269 — Rainbow Route / Western Fremont County
[Side A:] Rainbow Route Completion of this road opens up a scenic paradise unequalled in any other state of the Union and unsurpassed by the scenic gems of the Wild West. Governor George A. Carlson on the opening of the . . . — Map (db m55639) HM
Colorado (Grand County), Grand Lake — Grand Lake
Grand Lake was formed by glacial action, the ice gouged back into the mountains to the east. As the climate warmed, the glacier melted irregularly, leaving ridges of clay and rocks called moraines. Moraines edge the west and north shore, and are . . . — Map (db m129855) HM
Colorado (Grand County), Grand Lake — Grand LakeElevation 8367
The largest natural lake in Colorado Formed by glaciation 30,000 years ago Long known as the headwaters of the Colorado River. It is included in the Colorado-Big Thompson Project. Water from here flows through the “Adams Tunnel” to Estes . . . — Map (db m129892) HM
Colorado (Grand County), Rocky Mountain National Park — People of Kawuneeche Valley
This miner's cabin is one of the oldest buildings left standing in the Kawuneeche Valley. In 1902, Joseph Fleshuts homesteaded 160 acres here with the intent to live on the land for at least five years. Life must have been hard. In 1911 he abruptly . . . — Map (db m89117) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Native Americans on Clear Creek
For many years, the Ute Indians lived in the mountains west of the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon, hunting and trading with area travelers. The Arapaho, refugees from the Great Lakes region, and the Cheyenne arrived in the area during the mid-18th . . . — Map (db m49899) HM
Colorado (Jefferson County), Golden — Winter Wind on the Mesa
This stunning sculpture provides beauty and grace to the Clear Creek and Table Mountain backdrop. She was placed to honor the Native Americans indigenous to Golden, primarily the Arapahoe, Ute and Cheyenne. Funding was sponsored by Peak Properties . . . — Map (db m49894) HM
Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — Eads Roadside Park Exhibit
Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site memorializes the massacre of nearly two hundred Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians. Near dawn on November 29, 1864, detachments of the 1st . . . — Map (db m107179) HM
Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — HealingSand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
Though the Sand Creek Massacre has long passed, memories live on. Cheyenne and Arapaho return here to pray and pay tribute to ancestors who both perished and survived that dreadful day. Ever resilient, the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations of today . . . — Map (db m92950) HM
Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — High Plains Country
Plains Indian Life By the nineteenth century, Colorado’s southeastern plains country was home to many native peoples, including Comanches, Kiowas, Plains Apaches, Arapahos, and Cheyennes. Although vastly different in language and . . . — Map (db m107178) HM
Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — Pleas for PeaceSand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
"All we ask is that we may have peace with the whites...We want to take good tidings home to our people, that they may sleep in peace." Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle As tensions mounted, Chiefs Black Kettle and Left Hand pled . . . — Map (db m92948) HM
Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — RemainsSand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
”Many years have passed. The land is still here. We lived here, our clans lived here. The land here is our home - we have come back home.” Arapaho: Wonoo3ei’i ceciniihi’ coowoo’ou’u. Nih’iine’etiino’ hiitiino. . . . — Map (db m71872) HM
Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — TestimonySand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
In the aftermath of Sand Creek, federal investigations and military inquiry took place. Dozens of eyewitness' provided testimony. Taken in Washington, D.C., Denver City, Fort Lyon, and other locations, officers, soldiers, and civilians came forth. . . . — Map (db m92949) HM
Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — The Attack
A barrage of arms fire was leveled against the Cheyenne and Arapaho. Amid the wild confusion, soldiers noticed people at the village “... going slowly away in a sort of listless, and dazed, or confused manner ...” Throughout the morning . . . — Map (db m71873) HM
Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — The Sand Creek MassacreSand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
On November 29, 1864, U.S. Colonel John Chivington and 700 volunteer troops attacked an encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho along Sand Creek. The thunderous approach of horses galloping toward camp at dawn sent hundreds fleeing from their tipis. Many . . . — Map (db m72552) HM
Colorado (Kiowa County), Eads — Why?Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
For years, Cheyenne and Arapaho traveled and hunted the Great Plains in the shadow of the Rocky Mountains. But in 1858, gold fever struck in Colorado Territory. Miners rushed in and tens of thousands of settlers followed. Competition for land became . . . — Map (db m92947) HM
Colorado (La Plata County), Breen — [Old] Fort Lewis College
Originated on the site of a U.S. Cavalry post established in 1880 at Hesperus. From 1891 until 1956 the old fort was operated as an Indian school, a vocational high school and a junior college. The first president of the college was Charles . . . — Map (db m22765) HM
Colorado (Lake County), Leadville — John B. "Texas Jack" Omohundro1846-1880
Born in Virginia, Texas Jack came west after the Civil War at age 16 to become a cowboy. He later made a name for himself as a plainsman and U.S. government scout who led the Pawnee Indians on their summer hunts and was guide for such notables as . . . — Map (db m121768) HM
Colorado (Lincoln County), Arriba — 245 — Arriba CountryColorado
Panel 1 Arriba In frontier Arriba (locally pronounced "AIR-uh-buh"), the only thing more scarce than water was whiskey. Charles Creel, who founded the town in 1888 to greet the advancing Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific . . . — Map (db m89381) HM
Colorado (Logan County), Merino — 2 — Fort Wicked
Due west 940 feet stood “Fort Wicked" Originally Godfrey’s Ranch Famous Overland Stage Station One of the few posts withstanding the Indian uprising of 1864 on the road to Colorado. Named from the . . . — Map (db m61998) HM
Colorado (Logan County), Sterling — 34 — Battle of Summit Springs
3 miles southeast from this point is the site of theBattle of Summit Springs Last engagement with Plains Indians in Colorado, July 11, 1869. Cheyennes who raided western Kansas were attacked by General E. A. Carr with the Fifth U.S. Cavalry . . . — Map (db m61997) HM
Colorado (Mesa County), Grand Junction — Rocky RoadsColorado National Monument
The first people to witness this view were probably Indians who had to scale the steep cliffs and talus slopes. Later, ranchers dug narrow passages up into the canyons to bring their cattle to graze in the rich highland trails below. Begun during . . . — Map (db m61910) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Mesa Verde Administrative District
. . . — Map (db m58964) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Prehistoric Mesa Verde Reservoirs
National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark [American Society of Civil Engineering 1852 Logo] Prehistoric Mesa Verde Reservoirs Mesa Verde's industrious Ancestral Puebloans designed, constructed, and maintained Morefield, . . . — Map (db m58965) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Cortez — Yucca House National Monument
Yucca House National Monument Dec. 19, 1919. A fine example of a valley pueblo being held by National Park Service — Map (db m71498) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Canyon BarriersMesa Verde National Park
Surrounded by deep canyons, villages here seem isolated, cut off from people on other mesas. Look closely at these cliffs and imagine hand and toe trails pecked into the sheer sandstone. These vertical trails were the Anasazi’s highways; steep . . . — Map (db m71206) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Oak Tree HouseMesa Verde National Park
Adapting to Alcoves To level the sloping alcove floor, the Anasazi filled in behind retaining walls. The altered floor not only supported rooms but also provided working space and a safe play area for children. Oak Tree House appears to . . . — Map (db m71209) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde — Pithouse LifeMesa Verde National Park
There is an enormous gap between identifying pithouse features—the hollows and scattered stones—and visualizing the inhabitants’ daily lives. Set in the four corner post holes, timbers supported a ceiling that was probably head-high. . . . — Map (db m71203) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde National Park — Far View Reservoir
Imagine this mesa top in A.D. 1150 with fields of corn, beans, and squash; supplemented with wild plants such as amaranth, tubers, and sunflowers. Children could be seen watering corn with clay water jars (ollas), and young men could be seen cutting . . . — Map (db m71901) HM
Colorado (Montezuma County), Mesa Verde National Park — Fire Temple
Dance Plaza Though the large alcove below is filled with Puebloan construction, there is no evidence of any habitation. The central pit – too large for domestic cook fires – held layer upon layer of ashes. Fire Temple’s size . . . — Map (db m72559) HM
Colorado (Montrose County), Montrose — Building An Empire: The Spanish Frontier
The Spanish empire's influence on the American southwest began long before the 1776 journey of Dominguez and Escalante. Indeed, Spanish conquistadors, in search of gold and silver, explored the region as early as 1540. Santa Fe, the capital of New . . . — Map (db m120221) HM
Colorado (Montrose County), Montrose — In Behalf of the Light
As Father Escalante so appropriately recorded in his diary, the Dominguez Escalante expedition was made “in behalf of the Light." Dominguez and Escalante were Franciscan priests, and their religion strongly influenced the course of their . . . — Map (db m120222) HM
Colorado (Montrose County), Montrose — So Bold, So Beautiful a Land
It took bold men to ride into a bold land—a land of raging rivers, burning deserts, towering mountains, and rugged canyons. The land of the Southwest through which Dominguez and Escalante travelled in 1776 was awesome in beauty and . . . — Map (db m120226) HM
Colorado (Montrose County), Montrose — The Dominguez-Escalante Expedition / Dominguez-Escalante Country
The Dominguez-Escalante Expedition Just south of here on August 27, 1776, the Spanish explorers Dominguez and Escalante met a Ute Indian whom they called El Surdo (The Deaf One). They were seeking a route west, the two Spaniards . . . — Map (db m120219) HM
Colorado (Montrose County), Montrose — The Utes / Uncompahgre River Country / Ouray (1833-1880) / Chipeta (1843-1924)
The Utes An Abundant Earth The bountiful food resources of the Uncompahgre Valley normally allowed the Tabeguache Utes a life free from hunger. Elk and deer ranged through the valley in profusion, as did antelope, mountain sheep, beaver, . . . — Map (db m120289) HM
Colorado (Montrose County), Montrose — The Winds of Change
For hundreds of years, American Indians were virtually the sole inhabitants of western Colorado. Isolated by the towering mountain peaks and rugged canyons and plateaus, members of the Ute Indian tribe lived relatively undisturbed here until their . . . — Map (db m120148) HM
Colorado (Otero County), La Junta — Traveling Through HistoryBent's Old Fort National Historic Site
For centuries, the Arkansas River Valley has been an important travel corridor that has shaped our nation’s history. Long before the fort was built, wildlife, native peoples, European explorers, trappers, and traders traveled through this river . . . — Map (db m71851) HM
Colorado (Park County), Hartsel — HartselAnd The Surrounding Area
At the center of Colorado, the Hartsel area served as a summer hunting ground for the Mountain Utes and other American Indian tribes. After 1860, fields of irrigated hay replaced native grasses, domestic cattle and sheep replaced the bison, and . . . — Map (db m107886) HM
Colorado (Prowers County), Lamar — Experience the Past on the Santa Fe Trail
Location, Location, Location Thousands of caravans used the Santa Fe Trail between 1821 and 1880. The trail clung close to the Arkansas River for hundreds of miles across the open plains. The Arkansas Valley offered gentle terrain . . . — Map (db m106937) HM
Colorado (Pueblo County), Pueblo — Fort PuebloSite of Indian Massacre — Dec 25, 1854 —
This memorial commemorating the Old Pueblo Fort Site erected by The Arkansas Valley & Pueblo Chapters, Daughters of the American Revolution. Dedicated Nov. 17, 1923. On Christmas Day, 1854, a massacre occurred at Fort Pueblo on the . . . — Map (db m64755) HM
Colorado (Pueblo County), Vineland — 161 — San Carlos de los Jupes
By 1700 Comanches moved south from the northern Rockies onto the plains of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. They raided the Apaches and Spanish settlements from the late 1600s until 1779 when the Governor of New Mexico, Don Juan Bautista . . . — Map (db m64775) HM
Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — If at First You Don't Succeed
Cheyenne, Arapaho and Sioux warriors burned the first Julesburg in early 1865. The second Julesburg was formed here, just outside the Fort Sedgwick Military Reservation. At its peak, the community included a store, blacksmith shop, billiards saloon, . . . — Map (db m47340) HM
Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — Julesburg in Ashes
The senseless slaughter of peaceful Cheyenne on November 29, 1864, at Sand Creek in Southeastern Colorado united the Cheyenne, Sioux and Arapaho Indians.

Near here on January 7, 1865, a small band of Cheyenne Dog Soldiers attacked a stagecoach and . . . — Map (db m47344) HM

Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — 223 — Last Days of the Buffalo
For thousands of years, these grasslands have supported tens of millions of buffalo, from the giant species of ancient times to the smaller version of today. As North America's largest land animal, buffalo dominated life on the Great Plains. In . . . — Map (db m47319) HM
Colorado (Sedgwick County), Julesburg — 223 — Welcome to Colorado
Colorado's vast plains, rugged mountains, and grand plateaus, so magnificent in their beauty and variety, seem at times to overshadow the state's history and people. But look closely. The story of Colorado is every bit as dramatic as the physical . . . — Map (db m47324) HM
Colorado (Sedgwick County), Ovid — Early Campsites and River Crossings
Native American hunters on the trail of bison and other game found a favorite river crossing and campsite here where the South Platte River and Lodgepole Creek come together. After burning the first Julesburg in 1865, Indian raiders camped here . . . — Map (db m47362) HM
Colorado (Summit County), Breckenridge — Riverwalk - Blue River Restoration
Pre-Mining Landscape This valley once held beaver ponds, wet meadows, shrub thickets and open grasslands. Fires started by Native Americans supported herds of mountain bison and favored growth of grasses and wildflowers on the valley floor. . . . — Map (db m58592) HM
Colorado (Weld County), Firestone — Fort Junction
This memorial is the property of the state of Colorado. — Two Hundred feet due east of this point stood Fort Junction a sod enclosure erected in 1864 by the pioneers of Boulder and St. Vrain Valleys . . . — Map (db m119519) HM
Colorado (Weld County), Fort Lupton — Fort Lupton
This memorial is the property of the State of Colorado Due west ¼ mile is the site of Fort Lupton Established in 1836 by Lieut. Lancaster P. Lupton A rendezvous of the early . . . — Map (db m119520) HM
Colorado (Weld County), Platteville — Fort Vasquez
Established in 1837 by Louis Vasquez and Andrew W. Sublette. Maintained until 1842 as a post for trade in buffalo robes and beaver skins with Arapahoes and Cheyennes. Rendezvous of early trappers. Emigrant station on Platte River Trail after . . . — Map (db m89597) HM
Colorado (Weld County), Rockport — Majestic Plains
On these widespread plains blown clean by the wind and rains large herds of buffalo roamed and gained in number. Then the warriors of Indian tribes hunted them for food and skins. Later white men came to trap beaver in the prairie channels and the . . . — Map (db m119615) HM
Colorado (Yuma County), Wray — Buffalo Soldiers to the Rescue
Troops H & I, 10th Calvary {sic}, Buffalo Soldiers, were dispatched from what is now, Cheyenne Wells, Co. Troop H arrived on September 25, 1868 to the relief of the Forsyth Scouts, who were known to be in danger of total . . . — Map (db m131269) HM

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Apr. 9, 2020