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“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
 
 

Northampton County Pennsylvania Historical Markers

 
Wide view of the Slate Industry Marker image, Touch for more information
By Paul Crumlish, April 4, 2010
Wide view of the Slate Industry Marker
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bangor — Slate Industry
Robert M. Jones of Wales, who came here in 1848 as an immigrant, began the slate quarrying industry. The region became a major world center for slate. From here came slate for roofs and old-time school slates and pencils. — Map (db m29697) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bath — George Wolf
Congressman; Governor for two terms, 1829-35, was born on a nearby farm on Aug. 12, 1777. His fame rests on his support of the Free School Act of 1834, foundation of the public school system of the State. — Map (db m86252) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 1910 Bethlehem Steel Strike
In February, 1910, over 9,000 steelworkers went on strike over wages, overtime, and work conditions. A striker was shot and killed here during hostilities that ensued. The subsequent federal investigation substantiated workers' claims and . . . — Map (db m70518) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 23 — A Changing LandscapeLooking Forward to Bethlehem's Future

The sprawling steel plant once occupied close to 1800 acres between South Bethlehem and the Lehigh River. After it shut down, the company took on a major environmental clean-up, leaving the site safe for future use. In the years that . . . — Map (db m114370) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 9 — A Community of WorkersLife on the South Side of Bethlehem

The streets that stretch up from the steel plant make up South Bethlehem. Over the decades, this community grew along with Bethlehem Steel's growing workforce. Generations of workers lived, shopped, attended school and church, played . . . — Map (db m113779) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 13 — A Legacy of SteelWork, Identity, And Pride

Look down at the walkway on the Trestle. Some workers signed their names in steel, welding the letters on the deck. Working at the Steel meant you were part of something important: a huge industry that served the needs of a growing . . . — Map (db m113920) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Air Products

Air Products, founded in 1940, revolutionized the supply of industrial gases on the novel concept of building a plant next to a steel mill and piping oxygen directly to the customer. That transformative idea was reflected in the "A" of Air . . . — Map (db m111838) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Bark Shed1766
“...16 of our Brethren, who are to go to Upper Places[?] to peel bark for our tanner, had lovefeast.” Single Brethren's Diary April 16, 1757 The large forest located north of early Bethlehem contained great quantities . . . — Map (db m26923) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Bell HouseFirst Seminary for Girls
An early Germanic type of building; erected in 1745. Used first as the Family House. Girls' School, 1749. Bell, still in use, was cast in Bethlehem. Turret had first town clock, 1746. Weathervane is the church seal in metal. . . . — Map (db m27109) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 11 — Bethlehem BuiltSteel From This Plant Built, Bridged & Powered America

Across all its facilities, Bethlehem Steel produced over 1 billion tons of steel between 1905 and 1999-that's over 12,000 Golden Gate Bridges worth of material! A high quality of steel, dependent upon rigorous testing during the many . . . — Map (db m113800) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Bethlehem Steel Plant
Headquartered here, it was one of the most important iron and steel manufacturers in the nation. In 1863, Bethlehem Iron Co. began producing railroad rails. Steel manufacturing began in 1873 with armor plate and guns forged for the US Navy. The . . . — Map (db m79612) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 4 — Blast FurnaceThe Ingredients for Iron-Making

Look around you, these five blast furnaces were the heart of the plant for many decades. Ordinarily up to three of the five furnaces would be operating at one time. They ran continuously-night and day, seven days a week-and required . . . — Map (db m113751) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Brethren's House
Built 1748 by Moravians as house for single men. Early industry center: bell foundry, silkworm culture, other crafts and trades. Military hospital in Revolution. Girls' school from 1815. Now part of Moravian College and a museum. — Map (db m26904) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Butchery1756
Newly slaughtered cattle provided fresh, or “green,” hides for the tanner to process into leather. The tannery stood directly to the south, or left; of the butchery so that these two industries could work together in Bethlehem. . . . — Map (db m26927) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Catherine Drinker Bowen(1897-1973)
Author & historian. Her works include books on Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. “Yankee from Olympus”, Sir Edward Coke “Lion and the Throne”, & the U.S. Constitution “Miracle at Philadelphia”. She lived here during her . . . — Map (db m79688) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Central Moravian ChurchA Landmark of American Music
The annual festivals of the Bach Choir of Bethlehem were initiated on March 27, 1900 by the first American performance of the “Mass in B Minor” of Johann Sebastian Bach. — Map (db m27140) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Charles M. Schwab(1862-1939)
American industrialist and pioneer of the US steel industry. Schwab established Bethlehem Steel Corporation in 1904. By World War I, it was among the largest steel producers in the world and a major contributor to the war effort. Schwab's South . . . — Map (db m79657) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Colonial Industrial Quarter1741 - 1800
“They have carried the mechanical Arts to greater Perfection here than in any Place which I have seen.” John Adams to Abigail Adams April, 1777 Early Industrial History By 1745, only four years after they founded . . . — Map (db m26917) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Continental Army Honored Dead
In memory of the soldiers of the Continental Army who suffered and died in this building used as a military hospital from Dec. 1776 to April 1777 and Sept. 1777 to April 1778 — Map (db m27115) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Crown Inn
A two-story log inn, built here in 1745, was Bethlehem's first public house. Located near the ferry that crossed the Lehigh River, it was visited by famous political and military leaders of the era. A bridge replaced the ferry, 1794, and the inn . . . — Map (db m29831) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — David Tannenberg(1728-1804)
One of America’s foremost pipe organ builders. Tannenberg, born at Berthelsdorf, Germany, emigrated to the Moravian community at Bethlehem in 1749. From 1760-65 he lived at Burnside Plantation, where he built organs as an apprentice of Johann . . . — Map (db m29781) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Dye House1771
“Br. Schenk began erection of new dye shop.” Single Brethren's Diary June 27, 1771 Early Bethlehem's dyers used natural materials such as indigo (blue), madder (red), logwood (purple), and fustic (yellow) to add . . . — Map (db m27068) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Edwin L. Drake
Drilled first oil well in America in 1859 at Titusville, Pa. Lived at Bethlehem in this house for last seven years of his life, 1873-1880. In 1902 his remains were moved from Bethlehem to memorial monument erected at Titusville. — Map (db m26836) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Eugene Gifford Grace(1876-1960)
President, Bethlehem Steel, 1913-45, & chairman, 1946-57, lived here. A protégé of industrialist Charles M. Schwab, he helped make the company the U.S.'s largest shipbuilder & 2nd largest steelmaker - a formidable supplier in two world wars. — Map (db m29826) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — First Bethlehem Pharmacy
First Bethlehem Pharmacy, In Clergy House 1743 - 1752 Established at this stand, 1752. — Map (db m27154) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — First House of Moravian Settlement
The first house of the Moravian settlement occupied March 9, 1741, stood on this site. In this house on Christmas Eve 1741 COUNT ZINZENDORF, conducting a love feast, named the place Bethlehem. — Map (db m29793) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Gemein Haus(Clergy House)
Erected in 1741 The first house of worship in Bethlehem Home for the clergy among whom were Zinzendorf - Spangenberg Nitschmann - Ettwein - Seidel Scene of the Great Wedding July 15, 1749 Place of the only school for the . . . — Map (db m27144) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Gemeinhaus(Clergy House)
Erected in 1741. First place of worship in Bethlehem was on the second floor. Count von Zinzendorf had quarters here, 1742. Place of many notable conferences in the Colonial and Revolutionary periods. ————— . . . — Map (db m27138) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 24 — Heat TreatingThe High House

What is Heat Treating? If you look towards the bridge to your left, you can see a tall and narrow building. This is the High House, or No. 3 Treatment Facility. Its tall shape accommodates the heat treating process, where gun barrels and . . . — Map (db m114372) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Heckewelder House
One-half block south, stands the home of John Heckewelder, famed Indian missionary and interpreter, author of works on American Indians. House was erected in 1810. — Map (db m27192) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Henry Noll(1871-1925)
The productivity of this Bethlehem Steel worker, referred to as "Schmidt," was key to Frederick W. Taylor's landmark book, "Principles of Scientific Management." Noll was credited with loading 45 tons of pig iron a day in 1899, to increase his day's . . . — Map (db m29931) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Hilda Doolittle(H.D.)
The renowned poet was born here on September 10, 1886; died in Zurich, September 27, 1961. H. D. sought the Hellenic spirit and a classic beauty of expression. She is buried in nearby Nisky Hill Cemetery. "O, give me burning blue." — Map (db m29796) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Horsfield House
Built A.D. 1749. First store in the Lehigh Valley Opened A.D. 1753 in the west end of this house. Torn down A.D. 1879. — Map (db m27193) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 8 — Hot, Loud, & DangerousWork Conditions Ignite Labor Reform

Steelworkers often labored six or even seven days a week in long and exhausting shifts. Accidents were common. Over 500 men died on the job between 1905 and 1941. Hundreds, if not thousands, were badly injured by burning metal, toxic . . . — Map (db m113775) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 6 — Immigration & IndustryGenerations of Workers, Waves of Immigrants

Imagine leaving behind all you know and starting a new life in a foreign place with few friends and little money. From the 1880s to the 1920s, millions of European immigrants arrived in the US in hope of finding work and a better life. Many . . . — Map (db m113758) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 2 — Iron and Steel: A History

People have been producing iron and steel for thousands of years, heating up iron ores and limestone by burning charcoal, anthracite coal or coke (a fuel derived from coal) to create a sturdy metal. Iron-whether it is hammered ("wrought") . . . — Map (db m111844) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — John Frederick Wolle(1863 - 1933)
Organist, composer, and conductor. A major interpreter of J.S. Bach's music. He founded the Bethlehem Bach Festival and conducted the Bach Choir of Bethlehem, 1898-1905 and 1911-1932. Wolle was born and raised here in Main Hall. — Map (db m27164) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — John Fritz(1822-1913)
The famed mechanical engineer was superintendent of Johnstown's Cambria Iron Works, 1854-60, & Bethlehem Iron Company, 1860-92. Pioneered in production of rails and armor plate. A Lehigh trustee, he endowed the engineering laboratory here. — Map (db m79837) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Lafayette
Here stood the George Frederick Beckel house, 1762-1872, famed as the place where General Lafayette convalesced from a leg wound suffered at the Battle of Brandywine, 1777. Beckel was then superintendent of the community farm here in Bethlehem. — Map (db m26877) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Luckenbach Mill1869
The high quality flour produced by the Luckenbach Mill was obtained from grain grown in Pennsylvania, Michigan, Minnesota, and other parts of the mid-west. After processing in Bethlehem, the flour was marketed throughout the Lehigh Valley and the . . . — Map (db m27069) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 7 — Making IronFrom Ore to Molten Metal

The Blast Furnaces reduced iron ore to metallic pig iron. The furnaces had differing production capabilities, ranging from 800 to 3300 tons of iron per day. Most of this would later be processed into steel.

1 . . . — Map (db m113767) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Miller's House1782 / 1834
“Last night about 11 o-clock the alarm of fire was heard in our streets...It was occasioned by the discovery of fire in the old ‘Bethlehem Mill,’...A narrow escape of a sick lady was among the serious events of this memorable night...” . . . — Map (db m27075) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Monocacy Creek and Johnston Park
”Every municipality is morally bound to furnish to its inhabitants an abundant supply of pure water, and a well-drained soil... " Archibald Johnston First Mayor of the unified City of Bethlehem Monocacy Creek . . . — Map (db m114647) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Moravian Archives
Repository for records of the Moravian Church, first organized in 1757. The Archives holds a unique collection of manuscripts, books, music and images relating to the history of the Moravians in North America from 1740 to the present. — Map (db m29782) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Moravian Cemetery
Used as a burial place, 1742-1910. Site selected and consecrated by Count von Zinzendorf. Only flat gravestones were permitted. Here are the graves of persons of various nationalities and races. — Map (db m29784) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Moravian Community
Community organized June 25, 1742. The oldest buildings are on West Church Street. Those marked are; Gemeinhaus, Sisters' House, Bell House, Brothers' House, and Old Chapel. — Map (db m26907) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 3 — Moving MaterialsThe Hoover-Mason Trestle

The walkway you're standing on is the Hoover-Mason Trestle, an elevated rail line built to transport raw materials to the blast furnaces. Named after the engineering firm that designed and built it, the Trestle was in use from 1907 until . . . — Map (db m111847) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Non-Native PlantsAlong The Hoover-Mason Trestle

NON-NATIVE PLANTS ARRIVED HERE BY HUMAN ACTIVITY either deliberate or accidental. American colonists brought seeds and plants from their home countries for food production, medicinal purposes and ornamental gardening.

Seeds arrived in the . . . — Map (db m114091) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Oil Mill1765
“Notice is hereby given to the Public, that the new oil Mill at Bethlehem for rubbing Hemp will be a going before Christmas. But the new Oil Mill will not be finished till the Latter end of Januario or in Febr. next year 1766...” Oil . . . — Map (db m27080) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Old Chapel
The second place of worship, 1751-1806. Here many noted persons of the American Revolution heard early Moravian music and the Gospel. Prominent clergy were Bishops Nitschmann, Spangenberg, de Watteville, and Ettwein. — Map (db m27165) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Old Waterworks
As early as 1754, water was pumped from a spring to a water tower, that stood east of here, through hollowed trunks of trees. It then flowed by gravity to five cisterns or reservoirs. Original engine house stands about 60 yds. S.W. — Map (db m27146) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 14 — One Of The Hardest Jobs In The WorldA Day In The Life: A Tough Job Has Its Rewards

Former steelworkers reflect on the challenges and rewards of their occupation:

"I remember the first day I was on the job and I was like 'Oh my god, this is hell! Smoke and fire, it was just incredible. I almost ran out of there, . . . — Map (db m113921) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Pottery
“Today we made the beginning in the ground breaking for our new potter's house, which will be built toward the Monocacy, westward from the Gemein and Choir Houses, in such a way that a row of still needed shops can be added later in a . . . — Map (db m26919) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Pulaski's Banner
While Pulaski guarded this area in 1778, the Moravian women made a banner which his cavalry bore until he died at the Siege of Savannah in 1779. The banner was later immortalized in a poem by Longfellow. — Map (db m27195) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Restoration of the Nain-Schober House429 Heckewelder Place
This is the last remaining home from the American Indian mission village of Nain which existed from 1758-1765 in the vicinity of 12th and 13th Avenues in West Bethlehem. The house was originally built around 1758 by Moravian missionaries with help . . . — Map (db m27194) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Robert H. Sayre(1824-1907)
The engineer and philanthropist lived here. Directed construction, Lehigh Valley Railroad. A founder, Bethlehem Iron Co. Benefactor to St. Luke's Hospital, Church of the Nativity, and Bishopthorpe Girls School. Charter trustee, Lehigh University. — Map (db m29825) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Samuel Wetherill(1821-1890)
Chemist, industrialist, inventor, and Civil War officer. In 1852 he developed a process for extracting white zinc oxide directly from zinc ore. In 1853 he founded the Lehigh Zinc Co., with a plant here, pioneering the manufacture of zinc spelter and . . . — Map (db m29932) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Sisters' House
Built in 1744. Brothers' House until 1748. Here unmarried sisters plied many of the arts and crafts for women. In 1778, Pulaski's banner was made by them. ————— Erected A.D. 1742. Prior to 1748 used as a . . . — Map (db m27159) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Smith Complex1750 - 1761
“...The houses of the congregation were well built, and there were all sorts of manufacturing establishments there...There were good carpenters, cabinet-makers, steel-workers, and very good blacksmiths...” Baroness von Riedesel's . . . — Map (db m26918) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Springhouse1764
In 1747, the Moravians fenced in the spring to keep out domestic animals and fowl. Early recoreds also state that one a year, two men were assigned to clean the spring “by the light of the moon.” A bountiful spring was one of the . . . — Map (db m27102) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Sun Inn
Erection begun, 1758; enlarged and altered in 19th century. Considered one of the best inns of its time. Here many notable patriots and military leaders of the Revolutionary War period were entertained. — Map (db m26878) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Tawery1768
In the early years of Bethlehem, the tawer processed sheepskins almost exclusively. However, after the 1760s, inventories indicate that deerskins became the primary source of leather for the tawing industry. The tawer used sheepskins and . . . — Map (db m27103) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 1 — The Beginnings of Bethlehem Steel150 Years of Industrial History

The story of Bethlehem Steel begins in the 1840s when the Lehigh Canal and the coal it carried triggered the American Industrial Revolution in the Lehigh Valley. In the 1850s, newly-constructed railroad lines like the Lehigh Valley Railroad . . . — Map (db m113743) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 12 — The Bethlehem BeamHard As Steel

The strong, lightweight structural beam makes up the framework of buildings, bridges, and other structures. These wide flange beams were first made in 1907 right here in Bethlehem, using inventor Henry Grey's innovative rolling . . . — Map (db m113803) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 10 — The Blower HouseMaking Hot Air

The large building to the left is the Blower House. This is where giant gas-powered engines pumped pressurized air into the blast furnaces. Every ton of iron takes about 200,000 cubic feet of air to produce!

1 Building Pressure . . . — Map (db m113794) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 18 — The Flow Of Goods & MoneyBethlehem At The Crossroads

How did a small city in the Lehigh Valley become home to one of America's largest steel producers? In the early decades of the company, Bethlehem's location near major cities, raw materials, and transportation routes positioned it for . . . — Map (db m113926) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 22 — The No. 2 Machine ShopShaping Steel

Inside this long building, workers turned forged steel into finished parts and products. Through a few basic cutting processes-including milling, drilling, turning, boring, planing-machinists shaped steel with incredible precision.

The . . . — Map (db m114366) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — The Old Chapel
Before and during the American Revolution many noted patriots worshiped here, including George Washington, Martha Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Count Casimir Pulaski and the Marquis de Lafayette. In 1792 . . . — Map (db m27189) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — The Unknown Soldier
Within this crypt rests the bones of an unknown soldier in the war for Independence. He was one of more than five hundred men who died in the hospital here at Bethlehem, and was buried on this hill side. — Map (db m29795) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 21 — Wartime Steel

The long building in front of you is the No. 2 Machine Shop. Built in 1890, this was one of the largest industrial buildings in the world, stretching for nearly a third of a mile. Workers in this shop milled and drilled Bethlehem's steel . . . — Map (db m114093) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — Waterworks1762
“They have a Sett of Pumps which go by Water, which force the water up through leaden Pipes, from the River to the Top of the Hill, near an hundred feet.” John Adams to Abigail Adams 1777 A bountiful spring supplied . . . — Map (db m27191) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — West Hall1859
Built as an additional dormitory five years after Main Hall during a period of rapid expansion. Now occupied by the Moravian College Music Department. — Map (db m27163) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Bethlehem — 20 — Why Did Bethlehem Close?The Last Pour

How could an industrial giant for over a century fall into a drastic decline and close?

And what would happen to the workers and facility? Many who worked here asked these questions as the plant ground to a close. Workers cast Blast . . . — Map (db m114087) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Anthracite Tidewater Canals

"Throughout the season of business, & this year [1832] is but the beginning of a navigation by Canal to tide; their business is expected to increase several fold, & so the employment for Hands." Josiah White, co-founder Lehigh [Coal . . . — Map (db m109574) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Canal Boats1831 - 1932

"I remember one day, my dad grabbed both the driver and captain and threw them in the canal. My dog Buster, got one of the captains by the seat of the pants and really tore his pants off. He got his wife to steer while he went in the cabin . . . — Map (db m109562) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Christopher Columbus Statue
A significant contribution by the Italian immigrants to Easton is this statue of Christopher Columbus, purposely located here at the city's waterfront. The statue was dedicated in a daylong celebration on December 14, 1930. This magnificent . . . — Map (db m114654) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Connecting Communities Across the Delaware River
The first commercial crossing of the Delaware River at Easton was a ferry enfranchised to David Martin in 1739. Located near the present site of Scott Park at the junction of the Lehigh and Delaware Rivers, it operated until the beginning of . . . — Map (db m114653) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Date Plate

In 1882, the Lehigh Valley Railroad replaced its original South Easton repair shops with a large, multi-building facility. The site included a forty stall roundhouse that was 300 feet in diameter and a locomotive building shop, which burned . . . — Map (db m109566) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — David Brainerd
The log house occupied by the Presbyterian missioner to the Indians in 1744 was a short distance away on the side road. It was here the youthful zealot wrote part of his famed journal. — Map (db m29617) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — David Martin's Ferry
Operated at "The Forks" on grants received in 1739 and 1741. It was an important link on a main route to the west until 1806. Transported troops and supplies in the Revolutionary War. — Map (db m29776) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Delaware CanalNational Historic Landmark
Delaware Canal has been designated a National Historic Landmark. This site possesses national significance in commemorating the history of the United States of America. — Map (db m86114) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Dr. Florence Seibert(1897-1991)
Birth site of the renowned biochemist. In spite of the handicap of polio, she developed in the 1920s a safe process for intravenous therapy. Later, in 1934, she refined the tuberculin skin test that was ultimately adopted worldwide. — Map (db m29743) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Easton
Key center of travel, trade and industry at the Forks of the Delaware since the days of the Indian. Laid out in 1752 by William Parsons. Site of several Indian peace councils. The home of Lafayette College. — Map (db m29529) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Easton
Key center of travel, trade and industry at the Forks of the Delaware since the days of the Indian. Laid out in 1752 by William Parsons. Site of several Indian peace councils. The home of Lafayette College. — Map (db m29602) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Easton & Nearby Heritage Attractions1829 - 1932

Easton is situated at the confluence of the Lehigh and Delaware Rivers. Founded in the early 1750s, it became an important river community and transportation junction. Opened by 1834, the Lehigh, Morris, and Delaware Canal systems carried . . . — Map (db m109572) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Exploring The Corridor1828 - 1932

“Our residents take pride and partner in their heritage—they understand the meaning of what we have and act to preserve it” Delaware & Lehigh National Heritage Corridor and State Heritage Park, Management Action . . . — Map (db m114642) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — First Reformed Church
Congregation organized 1745. This building, enlarged and restored, was erected, 1776. Scene of Indian Treaty, 1777. During the Revolutionary War, it was used as a military hospital. — Map (db m114656) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Founding of Easton and Northampton County
Easton and Northampton County were founded by Thomas and John Penn, sons of William Penn, in 1752. They visited the forks of the Delaware in 1735 and shortly thereafter, acquired the land from the forks north to the Blue Mountains. The name . . . — Map (db m86224) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — From Mountain to Market1829 - 1942

"A few miles above Easton, the Lehigh was pocked with white water at almost every turning. To navigate it seemed impossible." Josiah White, Co-founder of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company

Pennsylvania's anthracite (hard . . . — Map (db m109529) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — From Waterways to Highways

"The Lehigh Valley was one of the great transportation hubs of America, possessing 10 major wagon roads, 3 important canals and ultimately 8 important railroads." Alfred Chandler, historian

From this unique point along the . . . — Map (db m109575) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — George Taylor
One of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, member of Continental Congress, ironmaster, lived in this house built in 1757 by William Parsons, Surveyor-General. First occupied by Parsons. — Map (db m29777) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Indian Peace Treaties
With one exception, all the Indian Peace Treaties held in Pennsylvania during the French and Indian War were held in this Square between 1756 and 1762, these councils were attended by the Governors of Pennsylvania and New Jersey and as many as 500 . . . — Map (db m86225) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — It's a Short Commute1829 - 1942

"The boatsmen had a hard life. But the locktenders did too, because they couldn't go nowhere. They had to be on the job all the time." Harvey Brant Locktender

It is early morning and still dark. Nestled in bed, six sleeping . . . — Map (db m109560) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Lafayette College Founding
At White's Hotel near here, on Dec. 27, 1824, local citizens gathered to found Lafayette College. One of their leaders, James Madison Porter, had recently met Lafayette during the French general's well-received American tour of 1824-25, that revived . . . — Map (db m29724) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Lehigh Canal
This canal's 47 miles from Mauch Chunk to Easton were constructed 1827-1829. Here the Lehigh Canal connected with the Delaware Canal to Philadelphia, and with the Morris Canal to New York. Vital to the transport of anthracite coal and to the rise of . . . — Map (db m29601) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Liberty Trust Company Bell

This bell was cast in 1922 by the McShane Bell Foundry of Baltimore, and hung in the tower of Liberty Trust Company, 830 Hamilton St. Allentown. The bank was founded in 1919, and the façade of the building was altered to evoke Independence Hall . . . — Map (db m109568) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Making Tracks1871 - 1972

"It will give some idea of the magnitude of the business done at Easton (a place the existence of which was hardly known in New York until recently) to state there are, within three miles, a total of 49 large factories, and other smaller . . . — Map (db m109573) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Mid-Atlantic HighlandsDelaware Canal State Park
The Mid-Atlantic Highlands region of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut forms 3-5 million acre forested greenbelt around the densely populated areas of Philadelphia, New York City, and Hartford.

The region stretches from . . . — Map (db m86118) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Millionaire's Row
Chipman Mansion (252 Spring Garden Street) was built c.1907 and was designed by William Michler. It served as a residence for Easton Industrialist W. Evan Chipman, a partner with his brother in the Charles Chipman Sons Hosiery Mills. . . . — Map (db m114659) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Northampton County
Formed March 11, 1752 out of Bucks County. Named for Northamptonshire in England. Easton, county seat, was incorporated in 1789. County is noted as a leading center for the steel industry and for cement and slate production. — Map (db m29597) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Northampton County’s First Court House1765-1862
Northampton County’s first Courthouse erected on this site in 1765. Torn down May, 1862. First court session held in the building March 6th, 1766; last session October 21st, 1861. — Map (db m86226) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Northampton Street Bridge
This structure replaces a covered wooden bridge of three spans, each about 155 feet clear, supported by two hollow piers, 35 feet by 55 feet and two abutments, built by Timothy Palmer, 1805. At the time of removal being next to the oldest, if . . . — Map (db m114650) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Phoenix Hose Company
. . . — Map (db m114663) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Portland Cement
This industry was born in the Lehigh Valley. David O. Saylor first made portland cement at Coplay in 1871. Here also was the first use of the rotary kiln process commercially Nov. 8, 1889. This region has continued to lead in the industry. — Map (db m29640) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Samuel Phillippe
Recognized as the inventor of the split-bamboo fishing rod in the U.S. His first rent and glued-up cane rod was made about 1846 in his gunsmith shop that stood on this site. — Map (db m29754) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Sullivan Campaign
This major expedition of the Revolution aimed at the Indian-Tory alliance in New York, was organized at Easton under Gen. John Sullivan. Over a month's preparations preceded the first day's march, begun near here June 18, 1779. — Map (db m29604) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Sullivan Expedition Against the Iroquois Indians1779
Sullivan Road over which the Army began its advance. June 18 1779. — Map (db m30108) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Sullivan’s March
In July 1779, General John Sullivan began the southern leg of one of the largest offensive campaigns of the Revolutionary War. Directed against the Indian warriors of the six nations and their British and Loyalist allies, Sullivan’s march proceeded . . . — Map (db m86229) WM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — The Canaler's Life1829 - 1942

"One thing, you were never bothered with insomnia. You rose about 3:30 a.m. and you wouldn't retire until 11:00 p.m.." Joseph A. Lum Mule driver

Imagine working 18 hours a day, six days a week! Canalers stopped only when the . . . — Map (db m109555) HM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — The Declaration of Independence in Easton
The first proclamation of the American Declaration of Independence took place on the Court House steps in this Circle in Easton at 12:O’Clock noon in July 8, 1776, simultaneously with similar proclamation at that appointed hour in Philadelphia and . . . — Map (db m86216) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — The Great Square
Surveyor William Parsons designated the City of Easton in a grid pattern radiating from this “Great Square” and the original Northampton County courthouse was erected in the square in 1765. Robert Levers stood on the steps of the . . . — Map (db m86208) HM WM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Veterans Memorial

These honored symbols of our country, state and city presented to the Hugh Moore Parkway in solemn memory of our departed comrades by Lt. E. C. Baker Post 1290 Veterans of Foreign Wars of the U.S. Easton, Pennsylvania . . . — Map (db m109571) WM

Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Easton — Worshipping, Learning, Healing, Peacemaking
The German Reformed Church was originally constructed at 3rd and Church Streets in 1775-76 and was the largest building in Easton at the time. The church congregation's office building, on Church and Sitgreaves Streets, dates from 1778, and was . . . — Map (db m114655) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Fountain Hill — Stephen Vincent Benét
This talented author was born here July 22, 1898; died in New York March 13, 1943. “John Brown's Body” and his other poems and stories give vivid expression to the best in American spirit and tradition. — Map (db m79675) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Kreidersville — Famous Indian Walk
The famous Indian Walk of a day and a half from Wrightstown, Bucks County, to near the present Mauch Chunk was performed for the Penn Proprietors of Pennsylvania September 19-20, 1737 by Edward Marsh and his associates who slept at the end of the . . . — Map (db m86258) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Kreidersville — Walking Purchase
Measured 1737, according to a supposed Indian deed of 1686, granting lands extending a day-and-a-half walk. Using picked men to force this measure to its limit, Thomas Penn reversed his father's Indian policy, losing Indian friendship. — Map (db m86257) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Nazareth — Christian Frederick Martin(1786–1867)
Founder in 1833 of C.F. Martin & Co. (The Martin Guitar Company), one of the world's oldest musical instrument manufacturers. Its innovations in acoustic guitar design-- including the x-braced flat-top guitar and Dreadnought guitar-- were to exert a . . . — Map (db m29580) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Nazareth — Henry's Gun Factory
Here rifles and other firearms were made for use in the War of 1812. Built by William Henry, 2nd, about 1800, the famous Henry shotgun was made here as late as 1904. The site is about half a mile away. — Map (db m29570) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Nazareth — Nazareth
Moravian settlers arrived here in 1740 from a failing colony in Georgia. Bishop August B. Spangenberg led an experiment in communal living, called the "Great Economy," 1745-1765. It was designed to support Christian missionaries to the Indians. — Map (db m29528) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Nazareth — Portland Cement
This industry was born in the Lehigh Valley. David O. Saylor first made portland cement at Coplay in 1871. Here also was the first use of the rotary kiln process commercially Nov. 8, 1889. This region has continued to lead in the industry — Map (db m86232) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Nazareth — Whitefield House
Whitefield House, planned by George Whitefield in 1740 when he obtained 5,000 acres of land for a Negro school and began by Peter Boehler and several Brethern. Purchased by the Moravians, 1741. Completed for a family house, 1743. Converted into a . . . — Map (db m29583) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Nazareth — Whitefield House
Begun in 1740 at request of Methodist missionary Reverend George Whitefield as a school for Negroes. Completed by the Moravians in 1743. Served as a communal church-home for 32 newly married German couples brought over in 1744. — Map (db m29584) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Northampton — Walking Purchase
The fleet-footed Edward Marshall and associates in the day and a half walk on Sept.19-20,1737, crossed Hokendauqua Creek below this point. They spent the first night in the woods near Hockendauqua Indian Town. — Map (db m86255) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Portland — Edward Marshall
Measurer of the notorious Walking Purchase, 1737, lived in this area, 1755-1759. In the many Indian raids of this time, his wife and his oldest son were killed, 1757, supposedly in revenge. Later he returned to Bucks County. — Map (db m37945) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Raubsville — Delaware Canal
The canal channel, which parallels the Delaware River, lies just below the highway. Here are Locks No. 22 and 23, the last lift locks in the 60 miles of canal from Bristol to the Lehigh River at Easton. — Map (db m86092) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Raubsville — Life Along The Canal1831-1932 — Delaware Canal
Canallers You became a captain as young as sixteen by showing “The Company” what you could do. You demonstrate how to “snub” (slow down and brake for lock operations), keep accurate cargo records (pay based on number of . . . — Map (db m86113) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Raubsville — Mules and Men1831-1932 — Delaware Canal
Mule Power Mules provided the power to move boats along the Delaware Canal. The mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. Compared to a horse, the surefooted mule ate less, had stronger endurance and better health. It was . . . — Map (db m86094) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Raubsville — Pennsylvania Canal
A system of State-built public works to connect Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Lake Erie. The Delaware Division, Bristol-Easton, begun 1827; operated by the State 1831-58, and by private owners to 1931. A State Park since 1940 — Map (db m86091) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Slateford — Slateford
One of the first attempts to quarry slate in this country was made here at Slateford by a company chartered in 1808. Some of the quarries and slate factories in this vicinity were operated until 1917. — Map (db m87066) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Tatamy — Moses Tunda Tatamy(ca. 1695 - ca. 1760)
A Delaware Indian of the Munsee branch, he exemplified the spirit of reconciliation. He lived on 315 acres northeast of here, patented to him by the Penns, 1738. Tatamy was the first Native American baptized by the famed David Brainerd, 1745. An . . . — Map (db m29595) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Walnutport — Anchor Hotel
Built in 1834, the Anchor Hotel was a 2 ½ story, 6 bay stone building which included a 2 story double veranda. It originally served as a rest stop and tavern for both canal boat crews and passengers. The Anchor has served Walnutport as an inn, . . . — Map (db m85528) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Walnutport — Floating From Mine to MarketThe Lehigh Canal — 1829-1942
The Lehigh Navigation, built by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, was used to transport anthracite coal from mines in north eastern Pennsylvania to New York, Easton, Philadelphia, and beyond. Workers dug much of the canal by hand, constructing . . . — Map (db m85561) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Walnutport — Lehigh Canal
Completed in 1829 under the guidance of entrepreneur Josiah White, this 46 mile canal was constructed in only two years. Operated by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, this hand dug canal contained 52 locks and 8 dams. Canal boats transported . . . — Map (db m85529) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Walnutport — Lehigh River
Once owned by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, the Lehigh River was the only privately owned river in the United States. In 1818 the Pennsylvania Legislature gave the company the right to make the river navigable for the transportation of . . . — Map (db m85532) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Walnutport — Pennsylvania House Slate Exchange Hotel
The Pennsylvania House and Slate Exchange Hotels provided lodging for railroad passengers and travelers on the Lehigh Canal. Phaon Bittner and Daniel Muse constructed the Pennsylvania House in 1868. After purchasing Muse’s interests, Bittner ran the . . . — Map (db m85519) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Walnutport — Walnutport
Incorporated as a borough in 1909, Walnutport was originally a part of Lehigh Township. The area’s first settlers were from Germany, Switzerland, Ireland and Scotland. Walnutport was established as a boat repair center along the Lehigh Canal. The . . . — Map (db m85517) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Williams Township — Williams Township Totem Poles
The southeast coast of Alaska Indians, the Tlingit and Haida Groups, enjoyed a rich tradition of stories and myths passed down orally from one generation to the next which helped to create and develop totem poles. Totem poles were carved and erected . . . — Map (db m97266) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Wind Gap — Sullivan Expedition Against the Iroquois Indians1779
Heller's Tavern The end of the day's march June 18, 1779 Distance 12 miles — Map (db m30152) HM
Pennsylvania (Northampton County), Wind Gap — Sullivan's March
Heller's Tavern near Wind Gap was the site for Sullivan's army at the end of the first day's march from Easton, June 18, 1779. The army was astir at 4 the next morning, crossing the mountains at Wind Gap. — Map (db m29722) HM

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