In honor of
the men and women
the City of Richmond, Virginia,
who gave their lives in
The World War
for the principles of
justice, freedom and democracy.
Erected by their comrades of the
five Richmond posts of the . . . — Map (db m90097) WM
William Byrd II of Westover, owner of the land around
the falls of the James River, wrote in his diary on
September 19, 1733:
…we laid the foundations of two large Citys. One at Shacco’s, to be called Richmond and the other at the point of . . . — Map (db m16145) HM
Born in Fauquier County, John Marshall was admitted to the bar there in 1780 following service in the Revolutionary army. In 1783 he married Mary Willis Ambler and lived the remainder of his life in Richmond where until 1797 he accepted President . . . — Map (db m22610) HM
Because of Shockoe Slip’s convenience to both canal and rail transport, many different businesses contributed to its economic make-up. Some of the buildings in this block housed concerns that would be expected in the area, such as a cigar . . . — Map (db m40665) HM
This building, now the home of the popular Tobacco Company Restaurant, was originally built in 1866, just one year after the Evacuation Fire. Erected during the most difficult period Richmond has ever experienced, the structure was considered . . . — Map (db m40664) HM
This corner has long been dominated by restaurants and saloons which served the commercial area’s workers and clientele. Often commission merchants occupied the upstairs offices.
This handsomely detailed building erected on a site which extends . . . — Map (db m40672) HM
The keystone inscription bears the initials of the two owners of the Haxall-Crenshaw Mill, which once stood here.
The old 13th Street Bridge and the arch on the bank of the canal opposite this spot were built by Richard B. Haxall and Lewis D. . . . — Map (db m23820) HM
Part of Carrington Row, this row house was built in 1818 by the sons of Ann Adams Carrington. The architecture was inspired by the work of Benjamin Henry Latrobe and Robert Mills. The home was designed by builder-architect Otis Mason. It is the . . . — Map (db m67425) HM
28th St Draw Bridge
The lift bridge before you was built by the Norfolk and Southern Railroad in 1929 to serve the paper mills along the Pamunkey River at West Point.
A moveable bridge was always necessary to allow . . . — Map (db m47385) HM
This pole is a reproduction of the poles used by Bateau polemen. The crew of a Bateau consisted of two polemen, who walked on boards running the length of the boat on either side and a steersman who used a sweep at the stern. To navigate upstream, . . . — Map (db m23922) HM
This Italianate mansion was once the bustling home of pioneering African American entrepreneur Maggie Lena Walker (1864- 1934). Walker lived here for the final thirty years of her life and greatly expanded the home to accommodate four generations of . . . — Map (db m94571) HM
Richmond mayor Dr. John Adams built a mansion here in 1802. It became the residence of Elizabeth Van Lew (1818-1900) whose father obtained it in 1836. During the Civil War, Elizabeth Van Lew led a Union espionage operation. African Americans, such . . . — Map (db m15926) HM
The Raceway and Earlier Uses of the Site
This raceway brought water from the James River and Kanawha Canal to power waterwheels, and later turbines, that drove machinery. During its earliest use, the raceway contained at least two overshot . . . — Map (db m24411) HM
African Americans and the waterfront
The Richmond waterfront is steeped in African American history. From the early days when Richmond was a colonial trading post, free, indentures, and enslaved African Americans lived and worked in the . . . — Map (db m23856) HM
In 1916, the Dixie Paper Company opened a paper mill in the building of the closed Brown’s Island electric plant. By 1919, the mill was taken over by Albemarle Paper Company, which had been operating a paper mill just upriver at Hollywood since . . . — Map (db m24107) HM
Alexander H. Stephens
Vice President of the
Confederate States of America
Lived in the house that stood here in 1861
This tablet is placed by the
Confederate Memorial Literary Society, A.D., 1912, — Map (db m16272) HM
Born into slavery in Hanover County in 1860, Alfred D. “A.D.” Price moved to Richmond in the late 1870s. Soon after coming to Richmond, he set up a blacksmith shop, which expanded into a livery stable and the funeral home that stands . . . — Map (db m5601) HM
Near the Bell Tower in Capitol Square stood the barracks of the Public Guard. There, from 1801 to 1807, lived John Lane and his wife, Anna Maria Lane, the only documented woman veteran of the Revolutionary War to reside in Virginia. She disguised . . . — Map (db m4624) HM
Picket driven in
Jany 4th 1781
Col. J. Nicholas
This pylon, re-created in granite and containing a replica of the original 1834 inscription, was re-dedicated April 17, 1991, by the Sons of the Revolution in . . . — Map (db m16099) HM
[Inscription on east face of monument:]Arthur R. Ashe, Jr. 1943 - 1993
World Champion, Author, Humanitarian,
Founder of Virginia Heroes, Incorporated,
Native of Richmond, Virginia.
This Monument was placed at Monument Avenue and . . . — Map (db m22823) HM
There were several dozen such houses in Shockoe Bottom, typically selling human “goods” along with corn, coffee, and other commodities. Some sales were part of a larger business; other auctioneers dealt exclusively in slaves. Most slave . . . — Map (db m41822) HM
Nathaniel Bacon (1647–1676), leader of Bacon’s Rebellion, acquired land in 1674 at Curles Neck in Henrico County and property near the falls on the north side of the James River that became known as Bacon’s Quarter in what is now present-day . . . — Map (db m1895) HM
The Burying Ground Society of the Free People of Color of Richmond established its cemetery (later renamed Cedarwood) here in 1815. African Americans eventually founded five more cemeteries here: Union Burial Ground (later called Union Mechanics), . . . — Map (db m1028) HM
The Great Basin of the James River & Kanawha Canal covered three square blocks directly in front of this plaque: between Cary and Canal, and 8th and 12th Streets. By 1834, millers had realized the Basin’s water could be used to turn waterwheels, and . . . — Map (db m26573) HM
Nearby is the site where Chief Totopotomoy of the Pamunkey died in 1656. The English colonists had become concerned over the recent settlement nearby of the Rickohockans along the falls of the James River. They called upon Totopotomoy to assist in . . . — Map (db m16046) HM
James River Park System
The Virginia Company of London instructed the first English colonists to choose a river for their settlement and to “let Captain Newport discover how far that river may be found navigable.” Following this . . . — Map (db m23719) HM
During the winter of 1863-1864, the island visible from this spot held up to 8,000 Union army prisoners.
After the outbreak of the Civil War, prisoners poured into Richmond. Camps built only as transport stations soon became permanent. Over the . . . — Map (db m24097) HM
Once called Washington’s or Broad Rock Island, Belle Isle was bought by Captain John Smith from Chief Powatan in 1608. Early travelers found the island natural and idyllic and current visitors only see hints of the island’s industrial past. In 1815, . . . — Map (db m24375) HM
In front of you are the remains of a hydroelectric power plant. It powered the trolley system on the south of the river and the steel company at the east end of the island.
To your left and up are the remains of the Transformer . . . — Map (db m64046) HM
Directly in front of you, in mid-river, is Belle Isle. Despite the large number of Union prisoners brought to Richmond during the Civil War, the city had only two full-time prisons. Libby Prison for Union officers, a mile and a half downriver, was . . . — Map (db m26595) HM
During the Civil War over 1,000 Union soldiers perished in the 6 acre prison site before you. Of those who survived, in bothe Northern and Southern camps, many were exchanged in such wretched condition that they were often unfit to return to duty. . . . — Map (db m64035) HM WM
Through the arched doorway mules pulled carts of scrap iron from England. Water powered the machinery. European immigrants and black slaves provided the labor. The nails, wire and horseshoes were famous throughput the South.
Sign donated by . . . — Map (db m64045) HM
This site commemorates the pioneering basic, clinical and translational research that laid the foundation for successful cardiac transplantation. On this campus, Dr. Richard Lower performed the first heart transplant in Virginia on May 25, 1968. . . . — Map (db m19180) HM
Black Sparrow Hawk (Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak) led the Sauk Nation in defense of land taken from them in the 1830s. Displaced from three Midwestern locations, the Sauk resisted another federal relocation. Led by Black Hawk, the Sauk fought . . . — Map (db m24336) HM
Richmond’s flour, milled here in Shockoe Slip, was known all over the world for its high quality. On their return from delivering flour and the popular Virginia tobacco, ships were laden with coffee, tea, and exotic spices, which were then sold by . . . — Map (db m40670) HM
John Patterson Branch (1830–1915), banker, philanthropist and community leader, erected Richmond’s first public bath here in 1909 at 1801 East Broad Street as a gift to the city. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, cities such as . . . — Map (db m1902) HM
On 4 Jan. 1781, British troops led by Brig. Gen. Benedict Arnold landed at Westover in Charles City County and began marching to Richmond. Learning of the threat, Governor Thomas Jefferson directed the removal of public records and military stores . . . — Map (db m1905) HM
Broad Street Station served passengers of the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railway and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad from 6 Jan. 1919 until 15 Nov. 1975. The Neoclassical Revival station was the only commercial building designed by John . . . — Map (db m9209) HM
Brown’s Island was created when the Haxall Canal was extended west to the Tredegar Iron Works.
Encircled by the waterways that provided power and transportation to flour mills, foundries, and paper companies, Brown’s Island has been at the . . . — Map (db m24095) HM
Brown’s Island is named for Elijah Brown who acquired it in 1826. Brown came from Rhode Island in 1811 to be a gunsmith at the Virginia Manufactory of Arms. In 1818, he entered the Public Guard, which was stationed at the Manufactory, and served . . . — Map (db m24105) HM
On March 13, 1863, an explosion destroyed much of the Confederate States Laboratory, a munitions facility on Brown's Island in the James River. 47 workers died, mostly girls under the age 17, who helped fill manpower needs and whose small hands . . . — Map (db m79713) HM WM
More than 1,000 buildings burned between 4th and 15th Streets, from Main Street to the river.
“The sky in the direction of Richmond is lurid with the glare of burning houses. …It was as if a great battle were going on around us.” . . . — Map (db m24290) HM
Richmond has been a railroad center since the 1830’s.
In 1838, the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad had its main depot and shops at 8th & Byrd streets. A short north-south link, the R&P was the parent . . . — Map (db m26586) HM
First envisioned by George Washington in 1774, the canals were to be part of a continuous transportation route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River. By 1789, initial construction of portions of the canal around the . . . — Map (db m23793) HM
One hundred and fifty years ago, Richmond’s waterfront bustled with business and trade, workers and travelers, hotels, saloons, and tobacco warehouses. Along the canals, barges were towed by teams of horses and mules. Batteaux . . . — Map (db m23854) HM
One hundred and fifty years ago, Richmond’s waterfront bustled with business and trade, workers and travelers, hotels, saloons, and tobacco warehouses. Along the canals, barges were towed by teams of horses and mules. Batteaux for . . . — Map (db m23866) HM
One hundred and fifty years ago, Richmond’s waterfront bustled with business and trade, workers and travelers, hotels, saloons, and tobacco warehouses. Along the canals, barges were towed by teams of horses and mules. Batteaux for . . . — Map (db m23887) HM
The Belle Isle prisoner-of-war camp that stood before you here was a prison without walls. Federal soldiers were confined by the James River and by the low earthen "dead line," such as the one replicated in front of you, surrounding the camp. About . . . — Map (db m64041) HM
Big guns on the hill deterred riots - in the over crowded prison encampment to your left. Few escaped, most died of starvation, dysentery, and disease. In total about 1,000 perished. The cemetery, now empty, was to your right where trees grow today. — Map (db m13994) HM
Origins in the James River & Kanawha Canal Co. (1785) and the Louisa Railroad (1836). Headquarted in Richmond. Profits came from hauling WVA coal to Newport News shipyards. Merged with B&O in 1972 to form Chessie System. Chessie System merged with . . . — Map (db m70491) HM
On this hill stood Chimborazo Hospital 1862-1865
Established by Surgeon General S.P. Moore, C.S.A. Directed by Dr. James B. McCaw.
At that time, it was the largest military hospital in the world. It consisted of 150 buildings and 100 tents . . . — Map (db m15507) HM
In this park Dr. James B. McCaw developed for the Confederate States of America a military hospital which was then the largest in human history. It received 17,000 wounded, served more than 76,000 patients, and had a mortality of less than 10%. Dr. . . . — Map (db m16047) HM
On this 40-acre plateau the Confederates built Chimborazo Hospital, one of the largest and best-known Civil War military hospitals: 78,000 sick and wounded Confederate soldiers passed through the hospital from 1861-1865. Chimborazo’s neat rows of . . . — Map (db m34784) HM
Christopher Newport Cross
On May 24, 1607, Captain Christopher Newport and a party of explorers who had landed at Jamestown just days earlier arrived at the site of modern-day Richmond. Hoping to find a passage to the Pacific, they found . . . — Map (db m23819) HM
Capt. Christopher Newport
Hon. George Percy
With gentlemen, mariners, soldiers numbering twenty-one explored James River to the falls, and set up a cross
Whitsunday, May 24th 1607
This monument is . . . — Map (db m23818) HM
About 200 feet east is the western portal of the Church Hill Tunnel. On 11 Dec. 1873, Chesapeake and Ohio locomotive number 2 passed through the tunnel, marking the completion of one of the longest tunnels in the United States. The tunnel was being . . . — Map (db m54853) HM
The building before you holds equipment that measures the level of the James River leaving Richmond
How it works:
The gauge is a tube of air with a standard amount of pressure inside. How much the river water rises up the tube determines . . . — Map (db m61821) HM
On July 2, 1782, the people of Richmond gathered near this site to elect twelve citizens and constitute their first city government, known as the Common Hall. The next day, the Richmond Common Council held its first meeting on the same site and . . . — Map (db m16306) HM
You are looking at the nationally significant site of the notorious Belle Isle prisoner-of-war camp where during the Civil War thousands of captured U.S. soldiers were confined.
After the war began in 1861, military prisoners jammed Richmond’s . . . — Map (db m64034) HM
You are standing amid the remains of the Tredegar Iron Works, the nation’s largest and best-equipped ironworks in 1860. Some Tredegar iron industries operated until the 1950s.
Today, Tredegar’s Pattern Storage Building, constructed around 1867, . . . — Map (db m24474) HM
The large wood and steel rectangles before you are the walls of temporary dams.
They are designed to be placed by crane at either end of the stone locks to your right. --- This allows the locks to be closed off, the water pumped out, and . . . — Map (db m61822) HM
This tablet is dedicated
to the memory of
Colonel Thomas Stegge, Jr.
the Falls Plantation, 1659-70
first land-patentee permanently
to reside at the falls of James River;
uncle and benefactor of William
Byrd I., . . . — Map (db m30357) HM
The Columbian Block at the dawn of the 20th Century. This building, probably erected in 1871 to house the grain and Cotton Exchange, also housed the original “Sam Miller Exchange Cafe.” The business of the Richmond Commodities Exchange . . . — Map (db m40671) HM
This commercial row of warehouses and retail structures was built immediately after the Civil War, in 1866, to serve the nearby James River and Kanawha Canal.
The Doric colonnade framing the doorways and windows on this building was produced in . . . — Map (db m40668) HM
The Tredegar Company operated a company store, or commissary, in this two story brick building. The company store was opened shortly after Tredegar resumed production at the end of the Civil War (c.1868) and remained in business until just after the . . . — Map (db m24129) HM
Also known as Yarbrough's factory,
Turpin's factory. Original building
Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee
Yarbrough Turpin Tobacco Factory
1853 - 1909
Pohlig Bros. Paper Box . . . — Map (db m32309) HM
Here on this 40-acre plateau the Confederates built Chimborazo Hospital, one of the largest and best known Civil War military hospitals. Its neat rows of pavilion buildings enhanced ventilation and served as a model for many postwar hospitals. None . . . — Map (db m16143) HM
Brown’s Island was the site of the Confederate Laboratory, a major powder-loading and cartridge-producing plant during the Civil War.
During the Civil War, the hazardous work of loading powder was carried out here on Brown’s Island because of . . . — Map (db m24098) HM
The chapel was erected in 1887 in memory of the more than 260,000 Confederate war dead and as a place of worship for the veterans who resided here in the Robert E. Lee Camp Confederate Soldiers' Home. The veterans themselves, many of them disabled . . . — Map (db m15908) HM
Between 1885 and 1941 the present-day location of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts was the site of a large residential complex for poor and infirm Confederate veterans of the Civil War. Established by R. E. Lee Camp, No. 1, Confederate Veterans, the . . . — Map (db m41812) HM
Begun in 1862, the Confederate Navy Yard occupied both banks of the James River, including the community and port of Rocketts Landing on the north bank. The Yard was the base, construction site, and headquarters for the James River Squadron, . . . — Map (db m23663) HM
In 1862, during the Civil War, Confederates established an ordnance laboratory and complex on the western part of nearby Brown’s Island. Workers there, many of them women and children who were forced to find employment because of the economic . . . — Map (db m64016) HM
The Craig House, perhaps Richmond’s second oldest structure, was built between 1784 and 1787 by Adam Craig (b. ca. 1760–d. 1808). He was clerk of the Richmond Hustings Court, the Henrico County Court, and the General Court. To save the house, . . . — Map (db m1901) HM
In October of 1841, Madison Washington and over 100 other men were sold from Richmond’s slave jails and ordered for export to New Orleans. Although the infamous Robert Lumpkin did not own his jail until 1844, he was one of several shippers in . . . — Map (db m41828) HM
Spanning nearly 350 years, the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade displaced over 12 million Africans from their native lands to foreign soils. European traders eager to fill the labor vacuum in the New World participated in the capture and sale of African . . . — Map (db m41821) HM
The cupolas you see here sat atop the Virginia State Penitentiary building that stood not far from here. Benjamin Henry Latrobe's original penitentiary was replaced by the building below in the 20th century, but was torn down in 1992 when the state . . . — Map (db m24143) HM
The brick structure before you once held the Davenport Trading Company. While it was primarily a dry goods business, it also functioned as a general auction site. This included farm animals, equipment …and slaves. The large open area on the . . . — Map (db m40675) HM
“I had noticed the bad condition of this gang several times on the road, the poor wretches being travel-worn and half starved, and having large sores caused by their loads and the blows and cuts they received. The ropes that confined them were . . . — Map (db m41872) HM
Seven sites in downtown Richmond have been locations for water-powered industry:
HOLLYWOOD: A flour mill was operating by 1800. Canal water powered a paper mill beginning in 1887, and a 2,100 kilowatt hydroelectric plant from 1940 to 1972. . . . — Map (db m26580) HM
The Pattern Building’s origins reflect the uses of the Valentine Riverside site by several industries that were key to America’s, and Richmond’s industrial development. The building’s stone and brick foundations are from a water-powered flour mill . . . — Map (db m24154) HM
Near this site a meetinghouse was built in 1797 to 1798 by members of the Religious Society of Friends. Called Quakers, the earliest had arrived in Virginia from England in 1655. The building was the second house of worship in Richmond after St. . . . — Map (db m32317) HM
"We laid the foundation of two large cities, one at Shacco's, to be called Richmond." William Byrd II, 1733
"In those days the river was the road to town. Tobacco was boated down to Westham, seven miles above the falls, and then brought . . . — Map (db m23950) HM
Free blacks and slaves living west of Second St. and north of Broad St. founded the Third African Baptist Church in 1857. In 1858, it was dedicated on this site as Ebenezer Baptist Church, with a white minister, the Rev. William T. Lindsay, as . . . — Map (db m56178) HM
Presented to the people of Virginia by George Edward Barksdale, M.D. and gratefully accepted by the Commonwealth of Virginia as a tribute of admiration for Poe's scholarly genius as an eminent and vigorous writer and poet. — Map (db m4637) HM
In Oct. 1844, Hampden-Sydney College’s medical department first held classes in this Egyptian Revival structure designed by Philadelphia architect Thomas S. Stewart. Completed in 1846, it provided educational and clinical facilities for the medical . . . — Map (db m18855) HM
This building in the Egyptian style has been used continuously since its completion in 1845. During the War Between the States it was the chief Southern center for the education of physicians and surgeons.
This tablet is erected by the Alumni . . . — Map (db m42672) HM
In 1888, Richmond built the first commercially successful electric trolley system in the world.
The tops of the new cars were connected to an electrical line called a "troller" and thus became known as "trolleys."
Richmond's horse-drawn . . . — Map (db m23929) HM
Power from Brown’s Island began to run streetcars in 1894, when Richmond Railway & Electric built a coal-fired generating plant.
In 1888, the Richmond Union Passenger Railway became the first streetcar line in the world to be successfully . . . — Map (db m24106) HM
On 1 July 1950, the first professional Afro-American firefighters in Virginia were hired and in September were stationed on the northeast corner of this intersection. These courageous pioneers created a loyalty and dedication to each other and their . . . — Map (db m22323) HM
By 1844, Tredegar Iron Works managers used this building for an office and as a residence. After the Civil War, it became the principal iron works office. It was rebuilt after being damaged by fire in 1903. During most of the history of Tredegar, . . . — Map (db m24128) HM
The Evacuation Fire destroyed roughly 1,000 buildings. It spread from here to the James River, and from the foot of Gambles Hill east to beyond 14th Street.
The first tires were set by Confederate forces just after daybreak Monday April 3, . . . — Map (db m26582) HM
On Sunday morning, April 2, 1865, Confederate President Jefferson Davis was notified while in church that Petersburg was falling. By noon, the evacuation of the Confederate government and army from Richmond was set in motion. Late Sunday evening, a . . . — Map (db m26581) HM
In 1891, Evergreen Cemetery was established as a preeminent resting place for many of Virginia's most influential African-American residents. These include Maggie L. Walker, president and founder of the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank, and John . . . — Map (db m53937) HM
Near here is the early site of the Richmond gallows and “Burial Ground for Negroes.” On 10 Oct. 1800, Gabriel, an enslaved blacksmith from Brookfield plantation in Henrico County, was executed there for attempting to lead a mass uprising . . . — Map (db m15116) HM
The Falls of the James River are the central physical fact of Richmond, having directly influenced its history through their effect upon Trade, Energy, Community and Nourishment.
As the Falls of the James are a natural barrier . . . — Map (db m23814) HM
“As for the singing, when the vast congregation poured out its full soul in the old-fashioned songs, the long and loud bursts of praise reminded one parishioner of the ‘sound of many waters.”
Slave Missions & the Black Church in . . . — Map (db m41846) HM
Tracing its roots to 1780 as the First Baptist Church, the First African Baptist Church was bought and organized by freedmen and slaves in 1841. The present building was erected on the same site in 1876. The establishment of First African Baptist . . . — Map (db m79124) HM
In 1969 Hurricane Camille punched a hole in this dam that once funneled water to power plants on Belle Isle and below Hollywood Cemetery. It's now a popular boating site. Notice how a small current on the far side goes back upstream offering an . . . — Map (db m64050) HM
In 1888, the world’s first successful electric railway, the Richmond Union Passenger Railway, branched at this point to link downtown and Jackson Ward with the suburbs. This system, designed by Frank Julian Sprague (1857–1934), contained 12 . . . — Map (db m1899) HM
This 105-acre site was part of William Byrd III's vast 1700s holdings along the James River. In 1836, Holden Rhodes (1799-1857), noted jurist and early president of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad Company, purchased the property, named it . . . — Map (db m28854) HM
To the glory of God
and in grateful memory of
Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church
An apostle whose only home was his saddle,
his parish the continent.
With fervent love for his Lord and a zeal that . . . — Map (db m31163) HM
This Francis Type Turbine was used on the Tredegar site in the early twentieth century and is very similar to one of the five turbines located near the building to your left. It was built by the S. Morgan Smith Company of York, Pennsylvania. By . . . — Map (db m24426) HM
The first Jewish
Cemetery in Virginia
the 300th anniversary
of the first permanent
in the United States
This . . . — Map (db m37129) HM
Sievers, 1872-1966, one of the South’s most prolific sculptors, maintained his residence and studio at what is now 1206 W. 43rd Street for more than one half century. Although best known for his Virginia monument at Gettysburg and the memorials to . . . — Map (db m31785) HM
Slavery denied African Americans the education and skills required to exercise the freedoms won by the Civil War. To redress this, Congress created the Freedman Bureau and Freedman’s Bank in March 1865. In Richmond, the Bureau and its Bank first . . . — Map (db m25307) HM
The Gallego Flour Mill was located in 1835 at the east end of the Great Basin, approximately where 12th and Canal Streets are today. The Mill, which when completed, stood nine stories high, contained 31 pairs of grinding stones, and was powered by . . . — Map (db m23951) HM
Richmond's Gallego Mills were a major 19th century industry. In 1834, Joseph Gallego built a mill on the Great Basin at the northwest corner of 12th & Canal Streets. The mill used Basin water to turn its waterwheels. After an 1848 fire, Messrs. . . . — Map (db m23880) HM
Welcome to our nation’s only multistate Civil War driving trail, which links hundreds of authentic sites in three states. Established in Virginia in 1995 as the Route of Lee’s Retreat trail, the program has grown to include more than 400 sites in . . . — Map (db m23652) HM
Gen'l Joseph E. Johnston,
Confederate States Army,
desperately wounded at the
Battle of Seven Pines,
was brought to the
standing on this block,
and nursed to recovery.
This marker is placed by the
Confederate . . . — Map (db m29838) HM
(Marker conveys the impact of Virginians on our Country's history through its prominent and allegorical figures. See the "More about this marker" section and the links for more information). — Map (db m4715) HM
George Washington’s Vision
George Washington promoted the concept of a great central waterway long before he became this nation’s first President. A surveyor of western lands as a young man, and later a landowner of vast tracts beyond the . . . — Map (db m23753) HM
This tablet is dedicated
to mark the site where lie
the mortal remains of
Born 1726 - Died 1806
Jurist and Statesman
Teacher of Randolph
Jefferson and Marshall
First Professor of Law
in the United States . . . — Map (db m76535) HM
The first African American to practice law before the Supreme Court of Virginia, Jackson lived and worked in Jackson Ward. Although local tradition holds that Jackson Ward was named for him, in fact, the ward’s name first appeared during his . . . — Map (db m64017) HM
Grace Evelyn Arents worked tirelessly as an urban reformer and philanthropist to improve the daily life of individuals regardless of race, gender, or class. She developed a church complex that included St. Andrews Episcopal Church, St. Andrew’s . . . — Map (db m24338) HM
Rocks and Railroads
Riverside Drive is now on top what used to be a railroad bed. It serviced quarries you can find further to the west.
Look to the left in the grassy field between the park entrance and exit. You . . . — Map (db m80855) HM
William H. Grant, a prominent Richmond tobacconist, built this mansion by 1856 on property acquired from John Wickham's estate. The house, an early example in Richmond of the Italianate style, reflected the wealth and sophistication of late . . . — Map (db m16170) HM
The Great Ship Lock connected the navigable part of the James River with the Richmond city dock, which extended for ten blocks to the west. Ocean-going vessels were raised up from sea level to the level of the city dock which accommodated ships as . . . — Map (db m23672) HM
James River Park System
Despite the presence of a large Indian village just below the falls—or perhaps because of good relations with the local ruler Parahunt and his father Powhatan—Capt. Francis West built a fort near . . . — Map (db m23706) HM
The first Great Ship Lock was built in 1816. It connected the navigable part of the James River with the Richmond city dock, which extended for 10 blocks to the west. The lock raised sailing ships and steamboats approximately 13 feet above the . . . — Map (db m47452) HM
The stones in this plaza have been arranged to suggest the outline of a typical lock on Richmond’s James River and Kanawha Canal. Where you now stand was once a part of the Great Turning Basin which served the heart of the commercial area in . . . — Map (db m26569) HM
To large pits on top of this hill were intended for cannons to guard this prison island from northern attack. Rapids actually protected the island, there was never an attack, and no guns were ever installed.
Sign funded by: Blue Ridge Mt. . . . — Map (db m64049) HM
Once home of William Wirt 1816-1818
lawyer, author, politician
Attorney General of the United States
This Federal Period house
is a superior example of its type
Acquired in 1970 by
The William Byrd Branch of the . . . — Map (db m47012) HM
State Senator 1916-26
Governor of Virginia 1926-30
United States Senator 1933-65
The General Assembly of Virginia on March 9, 1974, authorized this memorial to Harry Flood Byrd, of Winchester, Virginia, declaring that "The sum total of . . . — Map (db m4711) HM
marks the site of
eight surrounding acres of
Hartshorn Memorial College.
Founded in 1883
as a Christian College
for Negro women
by Joseph C. Hartshorn,
of Rhode Island,
in memory of his wife,
Rachel Thurber. . . . — Map (db m29207) HM
One of Richmond's early canals began as a millrace, built by David Ross in 1789.
When the Ross Mill was acquired by the Haxall family in 1809, the race became known as the Haxall Canal.
Before the American Revolution, Samuel Overton built . . . — Map (db m23921) HM
The first gristmill in Richmond was built on rocks in the river and approached by planks laid from one rock to another.
In the 19th century, fleets of schooners and brigs carried Richmond's flour to Brazil and around Cape Horn to San Francisco . . . — Map (db m23928) HM
The river brings logs and debris with every flood, but clear water is needed to push the turbine blades that turn electric generators. Logs were floated away through the gate in the dam straight ahead. (Look under the wheel.) Small debris was caught . . . — Map (db m64047) HM
Water leading to the power plant was kept clean by passing it through slats in the headgate called trash racks. Bits of wood can wear away the edges of turbine blades and make them unbalanced. Repair was complicated and expensive.
This . . . — Map (db m64048) HM
Richmond’s Hebrew Cemetery was established in the early 19th century by Congregation Beth Shalome, which was formed by 1789 and merged with Congregation Beth Ahabah in 1898. The cemetery was listed on the Virginia Landmarks Register and National . . . — Map (db m22605) HM
The concrete walls in front of you are all that is left of the once-bustling Trigg Shipyard. The yard employed 2,000 men and was comprised of 16 large industrial buildings on a 25-acre site with 20 acres in water, dock, and boat basin. In 1898, . . . — Map (db m92632) HM
In the trees, on the island in front of you, are the nests of a colony of Great Blue Herons. They look like loose bundles of sticks a yard across and are often near the ends of tree branches.
Herons usually gather in isolated areas away from . . . — Map (db m73911) HM
Belle Isle, at 54 acres, is the largest island in the James River at Richmond, and also one of the most historic sites in the city. Virginia’s native tribes, including the Powhatans, fished in the river here for thousands of . . . — Map (db m64038) HM
In front of you is Belle Isle. At 54 acres, it is the largest island in the James River at Richmond, and one of the most historic sites in the city. Virginia Indians fished in the river here long before the English arrived, Captain John Smith was . . . — Map (db m64056) HM
Richmond is one of the most historic cities in the nation. Captain John Smith was among the first Europeans to visit in 1607, and William Byrd II, the founder of Richmond laid out the original street pattern.
This photograph, taken in 1865 . . . — Map (db m67162) HM
The Tredegar Iron Works was one of the nation’s largest and best-equipped ironworks in 1860.
At its height, this industrial powerhouse employed Richmond’s largest industrial working force, approximately 800 free and slave . . . — Map (db m47018) HM
The rapids to your left are named for the cemetery on the hill straight ahead. The granite rocks that cause them are part of a geological scar that stretches 1000 miles from New Jersey to Georgia. It resulted from the clash of the continents . . . — Map (db m64053) HM
In the late 1800s, horse-drawn carts, wagons, and carriages dominated city streets, and southern agriculture still largely depended on the power of horses and mules. To meet the demand for horse and mule shoes, Tredegar began selling machine-made . . . — Map (db m24137) HM
Hunter Holmes McGuire, M.D., LL.D.,
President of the American Medical
and of the
American Surgical Associations;
Founder of the University College of Medicine;
Medical Director, Jackson's Corps,
Army of Northern . . . — Map (db m4735) HM
Iron companies in the late 1800s began melting down scrap metal from old machines and parts to make new products, just as we recycle materials like aluminum cans today. The “car wheel crusher” that stood here broke up old railroad car . . . — Map (db m24405) HM
This cannon marks the spot where in 1861 a large earthwork of the Inner Line of Defence was constructed Placed in 1915 by the City of Richmond at the request of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society — Map (db m15509) HM
One of the first industries to benefit from American industrial innovation was flour milling. Oliver Evans published The Young Mill-wright and Miller's Guide in 1795, and his patented principles of design spread quickly. Evans' mechanized . . . — Map (db m23883) HM
This cannon marks the intermediate line of
Confederate defenses of Richmond
1862 - 1865
Placed here in 1958 by the
Confederate Memorial Literary Society
in memory of
Alexander Wilbourne Weddell — Map (db m38902) HM
This stone storage shed was built to hold flammable lubricants and dangerous acids. The hand-cut stone likely was quarried here on Belle Isle. The shed served the Old Dominion Iron and Nail Company, which expanded from this area eastward, behind . . . — Map (db m64043) HM
Italian immigrants were a small but cohesive segment of Richmond’s population by the 1850s. Local artist Ferruccio Legnaioli, who employed many Italian immigrant artisans, influenced the cityscape with his ornamental designs for the facades of . . . — Map (db m103294) HM
Before the Civil War this neighborhood was home to free blacks and enslaved individuals, along with European immigrants and Jewish residents. The area served as a city electoral district (1871-1903) and is still called Jackson Ward. By the early . . . — Map (db m24202) HM
In 1817 George Winston built the Jacob House nearby, in the development known as Sydney. Winston (1759-1826), a Quaker who built the first Richmond Friends Meeting House at 19th and Cary Streets about 1798, employed a large number of free black . . . — Map (db m25953) HM
Born in Westmoreland County 28” April 1758.
Died in the City of New York 4“ July 1831.
By order of the General Assembly, his remains were removed to this cemetery 5” July 1858 as an evidence of the affection of Virginia for . . . — Map (db m8017) HM
Fifth President James Monroe was born April 28, 1758 in Westmoreland County, Virginia.
While attending the College of William and Mary he joined in the struggle for independence from Great Britain. James Monroe served with distinction during . . . — Map (db m95589) HM
In its peak years the canal employed 75 deck boats, 66 open boats, 54 batteaux, 6 passenger or packet boats, 425 horses, and 900 men.
"The batteaux...charmed my young eyes more than all the gondolas of Venice." George William Bagby, c. . . . — Map (db m23865) HM
The James River and Kanawha Canal was completed as far as Buchanan in 1854. The canal provided a continuous navigable waterway from Tidewater to Buchanan, a distance of 197 miles. Consisting of ninety lift locks and a total lift of seven hundred and . . . — Map (db m23870) HM
Jefferson Davis --------------- Exponent of Constitutional Principles Defender of the Rights of States --------------- Crescit occulto velut arbor aevo fama Right of Pedestal: With constancy and courage unsurpassed, he sustained the heavy . . . — Map (db m19809) HM
“The manner he preaches is only in keeping with the openness and candor of his heart.” Deacon and Officers of the Sixth Mount Zion Baptist Church, 1884
“Jasper didn’t convert me to his religion, but he did convert me to . . . — Map (db m24102) HM
John Jasper was born in a slave cabin on Peachy Plantation in Fluvanna County on July 4, 1812, and lived until 1901. In 1839, while working in a Richmond tobacco factory, he was "annointed by the Holy Ghost" and went on to become a preacher.
On . . . — Map (db m24180) HM
The third United States Supreme Court Justice lived here until his death in 1835. His family remained until 1909, and the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA) opened it to the public in 1913. — Map (db m29353) HM
John Miller, a free black cooper and minister, built this house about 1858. It is significant as a rare surviving antebellum house in Richmond constructed by and for a free African American family. More than two thousand free blacks lived in . . . — Map (db m4498) HM
Born enslaved near Richmond in 1863, John Mitchell, Jr. came of age in the tumultuous post–Civil War era. In 1883, he launched a daring journalism career, becoming editor and publisher of the black-owned Richmond Planet once located . . . — Map (db m57530) HM
State Legislator, U.S. Congressman
Governor of Virginia,
U.S. Senator, Vice President of U.S.,
Confederate Congressman and
tenth President of the United States
This marker was placed in 1949 by
the Head . . . — Map (db m4713) HM
Born February 16, 1813 in Fincastle, Virginia
Died September 7, 1892 at Isle of Shoales, New Hampshire
Buried in Hollywood Cemetery
Cadet Captain, Class of 1836, West Point Military Academy
Purchased Tredegar Iron Works, April 4, 1848 . . . — Map (db m75316) HM
Jews have participated in Virginia’s social and economic life from the colony’s beginnings. Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalome (Holy Congregation House of Peace) was founded in Richmond in 1789, when the Jewish community grew large enough to establish the . . . — Map (db m27135) HM
In Virginia and the rest of the United States, the waterways, both rivers and man-made canals served as the main avenues of commerce. Ships from across the Atlantic or from other American ports transported goods that were . . . — Map (db m41895) HM
Stone Number SB-01 from Lock Number 1 of the Tidewater Connection of the James River and Kanawha Canal. The lock was completed in 1854. The stones of this lock have been saved for future restoration. — Map (db m26584) HM
In 1895, the city of Richmond constructed the Leigh Street or First Battalion Virginia Volunteers Armory, the nation’s only 19th-century armory built for an African American militia. Several decades of noteworthy performance by Virginia’s black . . . — Map (db m94007) HM
Near this site, from about 1845 until 1889, stood the building that housed Richmond’s famous Libby Prison. Originally built as a warehouse by wealthy Richmond businessman John Enders, Sr., a portion of the structure was leased prior to the Civil War . . . — Map (db m35933) HM
Libby Prison, one of the most notorious prisons of the Civil War, housed mostly Union officers. It was located at the southeast corner of 20th and Cary streets (the doorway in the floodwall is at 20th, and the wall runs through the site of the . . . — Map (db m47433) HM
The grass and wood chips to your right mark the area of an archeological examination of the remnants of one of our nations most notorious slave jails: the Devil’s Half Acre ---- the place where run-away slaves were punished and large numbers . . . — Map (db m40679) HM
Lumpkin’s Jail was owned by Robert Lumpkin, who maximized profits in his compound by including lodging for s1ave traders, a slave holding facility, an auction house, and a residence for his family. A port city with water, . . . — Map (db m41838) HM
Maggie Lena Walker was the first woman and the first African-American woman to found and be president of a chartered bank in the United States. She was born into poverty on July 15, 1864 in Richmond, Virginia to parents who worked in the mansion of . . . — Map (db m77446) HM
Founder of the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank in 1903, now Consolidated Bank & Trust Company, whose headquarters stood here 1910-1975.
"What do we need to still further develop and prosper us, numerically and financially? Let us put our moneys . . . — Map (db m25957) HM
[Monument's east side]:
Commanding Cavalry Corps
Army Northern Virginia
Confederate States of America
This statue erected by his comrades
and the City of Richmond
[Monument's south side]:
“Tell . . . — Map (db m9150) HM
During the 1880’s the Tredegar Iron Works made many of the specialized machines necessary in iron production. This was especially true for machinery used in the rolling mills. Two major parts of the stand of rolls you see in the display behind you, . . . — Map (db m24427) HM
By 1873, complaints about Mayo’s’ tolls led to the opening of the Free Bridge.
The day after the Free Bridge opened, thousands crowded onto it to watch the Reverend John Jasper conduct a large group-baptism ceremony in the river.
For . . . — Map (db m24104) HM
The still water in front of you once flowed freely to the right. It once spun the water wheels and turbines of several paper companies (like the one to your left), ...grist mills (where the grain elevator is now to your right) ...and an . . . — Map (db m30068) HM
Here on the site of the old market
square the Manchester Elliott Grays,
the first volunteer company in this
section, was mustered into service
May 9, 1861, commanded by Louis
Francis Bossieux. After attending
services at . . . — Map (db m30071) HM
On September 19, 1795, Manchester Lodge No. 14, A.F.&A. M., laid the cornerstone of its first temple on this site. The ceremony was conducted by the worshipful master Archibald Campbell, grand master John Marshall, and deputy grand master Robert . . . — Map (db m19683) HM
In the late 1700s, newly captured Africans walked this route from the docks to the slave jails near 15th and Franklin Streets. Chained at the neck and legs, they were marched at night to avoid offending citizens with their oozing sores, filth and . . . — Map (db m30065) HM
Mary-Cooke Branch Munford received her primary and secondary education in Richmond and New York. Prevented from attending college by her mother, Munford became an avid reader and developed an active social conscience. She served as the first woman . . . — Map (db m25622) HM
Originally built in 1846 at 1105 East Clay, Street, this Greek Revival townhouse was reconstructed on this site in1993 using much of the original architectural fabric. The builder, Dr. Socrates Maupin, was one of the founders of the medical . . . — Map (db m30001) HM
“The Union soldiers would put out the fires and push into the city within hours of the Confederates passing over the bridges. Among the first Union soldiers to put down their muskets and pick up fire hoses and axes would be several regiments . . . — Map (db m41840) HM
“But the circumstance which struck us most forcibly was how it was possible for such a number of human beings to exist, packed up and wedged together as tight as they could cram, in low cells three feet high, the greater part of which, except . . . — Map (db m41871) HM
To the Glory of God and in Memory of James Thomas, Jr.
This Bell Tower is the gift of Mrs. Laura Thomas Rutherford
who has presented this memorial to her father, as a tribute to his love for and loyalty to the First Baptist Church, of which . . . — Map (db m64125) HM
This site was a part of the Academy of Sciences and Fine Arts where the Virginia Convention of 1788 voted to approve the proposed U.S. Constitution on June 25th.
Richmond Theatre opened in three-story brick building. . . . — Map (db m79129) HM
Opened in 1904 and demolished in 2009, the hotel that stood here hosted regional and national black luminaries, celebrities, tourists, and leaders including Booker T. Washington. Built by William “Buck” Miller, Miller’s Hotel was one of . . . — Map (db m89521) HM
In 1851 the City of Richmond planned a series of parks including Western Square now known as Monroe Park. In the 1850s it served as grounds for what became the state fair organized by the Virginia State Agricultural Society. During the Civil War it . . . — Map (db m20534) HM
The church is a memorial to the 72 people, including Virginia Governor George W. Smith, who died when the Richmond Theatre burned here in 1811. Several survivors owed their lives to the bravery of Gilbert Hunt, a slave blacksmith. A committee . . . — Map (db m18853) HM
In April and May, the Falls of the James is the richest source of food available. 400 years ago, Native American men would wade with nets and spears among the rocks and rapids to catch migrating shad, herring and striped bass. Enormous . . . — Map (db m64054) HM
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