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Spotsylvania County Virginia Historical Markers

380 markers matched your search criteria. The first 200 markers are listed. Next 180
 
Jerrell’s Mill Marker E-31 image, Touch for more information
By Forest McDermott, February 6, 2009
Jerrell’s Mill Marker E-31
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Arcadia — E-31 — Jerrell’s Mill
Here, on May 9, 1864, Sheridan was attacked by Wickham’s cavalry. Nearby, on May 22, 1864, Warren’s (Fifth) Corps, moving to the North Anna, fought Rosser's cavalry. — Map (db m3320) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Arcadia — E-30 — Turn in Sheridan’s Raid
At this point in his Richmond raid, Gen. Sheridan, after a fight with Confederate cavalry commanded by General Williams C. Wickham, turned off the Telegraph Road to Beaver Dam, May 9, 1864. This change of route caused Sheridan to approach Richmond . . . — Map (db m3316) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — A Southern Memorial
The cleared vista to the left offers a framed view of a 30-foot square, 23-foot high pyramid. It marks the left of the Northern penetration into Confederate lines on Dec. 13, 1862. Federal troops under Gen. George Meade took advantage of an . . . — Map (db m4090) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — Battle of FredericksburgThe Slaughter Pen
On December 13, 1862, Union and Confederate troops clashed here, on muddy fields dubbed the "Slaughter Pen." Union Gen. William B. Franklin had 65,000 troops, but employed only two divisions, numbering 8,000 men, under Generals George G. Meade . . . — Map (db m21106) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — Battle of FredericksburgWinter War on the Rappahannock
In November 1862, Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside led his 115,000-man army southward toward Richmond, the Confederate capital. Delayed by tardy pontoon boats, Burnside was slow to cross the Rappahannock River, which allowed Confederate Gen. Robert E. . . . — Map (db m21109) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — Bernard's Cabin TrailThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
This mile-long trail leads to the site of Bernard’s Cabins. On the eve of the Civil War, these cabins (now gone) were home to as many as thirty-five slaves. During the Battle of Fredericksburg, the Confederates turned the terrain surrounding the . . . — Map (db m5619) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — E-46 — Colonial Fort
The Virginia General Assembly authorized the construction of a fort built nearby along the Rappahannock River in 1676. It served as a defensive fortification for settlers of European descent on the frontier when periodic conflicts occurred between . . . — Map (db m1655) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — Death of Maxcy GreggThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
General Maxcy Gregg fell mortally wounded near this spot on December 13, 1862. Fiery and uncompromising on the issues of slavery and states’ rights, the South Carolina lawyer had been an early and ardent proponent of secession. When war came, . . . — Map (db m4092) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — Engines of DestructionThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
On December 13, 1862, nine Confederate cannon on this knoll helped repulse one of two major Union attacks against Jackson's front. At noon, Union infantry crashed into the Confederate infantry line to your right-front. Captain Greenlee Davidson's . . . — Map (db m7975) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — Hamilton's CrossingThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
This footpath leads to the site of Hamilton's Crossing, a critical supply base for Confederate troops camped near Fredericksburg during the winter of 1862-63. Prior to the Civil War, Hamilton's Crossing had been merely a flag-stop on the . . . — Map (db m21797) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — Jackson Holds Prospect HillThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
You are standing on the right of the Confederate army, held by Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's corps on December 13, 1862. His 35,000 troops spread along a mile front - some in the woods, some in fields, some on ridgetops, some in swampy bottoms. . . . — Map (db m21916) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — E-38 — Lee’s Winter Headquarters
During the winter of 1862-1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee maintained his headquarters in a small clearing in the woods in this vicinity. The camp contained only a few tents and nothing but a flag to indicate it was Lee’s headquarters. By . . . — Map (db m1724) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Artillery Ridge — Union BreakthroughThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
At 1:30 p.m., little more than an hour after Union troops began their assaults on Marye’s Heights, Gen. George G. Meade’s division penetrated “Stonewall” Jackson’s line here at Prospect Hill. Meade’s 3,800 Pennsylvanians advanced . . . — Map (db m4094) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Bernard's CabinsThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
On this knoll stood Bernard's Cabins, a small community that in 1860 was home to about three dozen slaves. The complex consisted of three two-room cabins, a stone-lined well, and perhaps two additional buildings. This was only one of several such . . . — Map (db m7973) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — E-42 — Cox House
Across the road to the northeast stood the Cox House, also known as the Wiatt House. In December 1862, Confederate Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws’s division used it as a hospital, and there on 13 December, Brig. Gen. Thomas R. R. Cobb died from wounds . . . — Map (db m1713) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Dead Horse HillThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The crescent-shaped earthworks in front of you protected the 14 guns of Lieutenant Colonel Reuben Lindsey Walker's artillery battalion, which held this position on December 13, 1862. Prior to the assault of Union infantry, artillery blanketed this . . . — Map (db m21901) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — E-41 — Longstreet’s Winter Headquarters
Following the Battle of Fredericksburg in Dec. 1862, Confederate Lt. Gen. James Longstreet established his headquarters in a tent near here. His command center was in close proximity to Generals Robert E. Lee and J. E. B. Stuart. Longstreet . . . — Map (db m1715) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Riverside Plantation: MannsfieldThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
In 1862, the patterns of forest and field in this area reflected historic uses of local farmers. The woods around you were in fact a working part of the Mannsfield Plantation, owned by Arthur Bernard. They provided timber for construction, wood for . . . — Map (db m21771) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Slaughter Pen FarmThe Walking Trail
Welcome to the Civil War Preservation Trust's Slaughter Pen Farm Battlefield. Here starts a 1¾ mile walking tour. Wayside exhibits provide information and orientation along the way. Allow at least 90 minutes if you plan to walk the entire trail. . . . — Map (db m21115) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Slaughter Pen FarmInto the Field
You are standing near the center of the most successful Union attack at the Battle of Fredericksburg. Two Union divisions, Gen. George G. Meade's on your left and Gen. John Gibbon's on your right, advanced into this field and soon encountered the . . . — Map (db m21139) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Slaughter Pen FarmMeade's Attack
With artillery projectiles flying in every direction, Union Gen. George G. Meade galloped through the fields in front of you, encouraged his men, and looked for an opportunity to attack. When Union artillery blew up two Confederate ammunition . . . — Map (db m21169) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Slaughter Pen FarmKilling Range
Before the battle, Confederate artillerists used a lone tree on this ridge as a mark to establish a "killing range," to punish any Federals who attacked. As Gen. George G. Meade's men surged past the unassuming tree, the Confederates trapped Union . . . — Map (db m21171) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Slaughter Pen FarmRetreat and Counterattack
"For my part the more I think of that battle, the more annoyed I am that such a great chance should have failed me." - Gen. George G. Meade, USA "Our cannon flamed and roared, and the roar of musketry was terrific. The foe halts, wavers, . . . — Map (db m21173) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Slaughter Pen FarmHand-to-Hand Combat at the Railroad
Just before 2 p.m., Gen. John Gibbon ordered Col. Adrian Root's men to cross the railroad in front of you and enter the woods beyond. With flags in front and bayonets fixed, Root's and remnants from Taylor's and Lyle's brigades advanced through a . . . — Map (db m21175) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Slaughter Pen FarmSecond Assault
With the failur of Gen. Nelson Taylor's advance, Gen. John Gibbon sent in Col. Peter Lyle's Brigade. Taylor shifted some of his remaining regiments to the right and joined in Lyle's assault. Together, Taylor and Lyle formed a six-regiment front and . . . — Map (db m21176) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — Slaughter Pen FarmGibbon's Advance
When Gen. George G. Meade's division surged unexpectedly forward through the fields on your left, Gen. John Gibbon's men scrambled to advance on Meade's right. Gibbon arranged his forces and ordered Gen. Nelson Taylor's brigade to attack the . . . — Map (db m21177) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — E-39 — Start of Sheridan's Raid
Here Sheridan, moving from camp, came into the Telegraph Road on his raid to Richmond, May 9, 1864, while Lee and Grant were fighting at Spotsylvania. The 10,000 Union Cavalry filled the road for several miles. Turning from the road ten miles south, . . . — Map (db m9639) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Bellvue — E-8 — Stuart
At this point J. E. B. Stuart had his headquarters and cavalry camp in December 1862. — Map (db m9638) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Carters Store — E-113 — James Farmer, Civil Rights Leader
James Leonard Farmer was born in Texas on 12 Jan. 1920. In 1942, he and other Civil Rights leaders founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in Chicago. CORE used Gandhi-inspired tactics of nonviolent civil . . . — Map (db m1716) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — 11th United States InfantryMajor Delancey Floyd-Jones — 17 officers 360 enlisted —
During the Chancellorsville Campaign, the 1st Battalion, 11th United States Infantry formed a part of Colonel Sidney Burbank's 2nd Brigade, Major General George Syke's 2nd Division, 5th Army Corps. Advancing eastward along the Orange Turnpike, . . . — Map (db m112301) HM WM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — EM-3 — 23rd USCT At the Alrich Farm
The first combat in the Civil War between United States Colored Troops and Confederates north of the James River occurred near here. On 15 May 1864, Confederate Brig. Gen. Thomas Rosser pushed forward a cavalry detachment along Catharpin Road . . . — Map (db m75706) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — Chancellorsville CampaignLee’s Greatest Victory
After the Union defeat at Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln replaced Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside in January 1863 with the aggressive Gen. Joseph Hooker. At the end of April, Hooker sent most of the Army of the Potomac . . . — Map (db m3634) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — Chancellorsville CampaignHooker vs. Lee
"May God have mercy on General Lee for I will have none." -Gen. Joseph Hooker, U.S. Army On May 1, 1863, the head of Union Gen. Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac arrived on these fields, apparently completing one of the most successful and . . . — Map (db m11418) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvillePivot Point of a Campaign
"The battle of Chancellorsville was lost right there." - Union Staff Officer. Here, in a few hours on the afternoon of May 1, 1863, the Chancellorsville Campaign took a dramatic turn. Just a day earlier, Union Gen. Joseph Hooker had . . . — Map (db m11419) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleNot Just Armies
"On the first day of the Chancellorsville fight...[our] farm was between our and the enemy's lines of battle." -James H. Leitch, farmer. The Battle of Chancellorsville started here - amid the homes of families living along the Orange . . . — Map (db m11420) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleThe Union Attack
"The advance was irresistible... in a few minutes the brigade occupied the crest of the hill." -Union brigade commander Col. Sidney Burbank You now stand at the farthest point of the Union infantry advance on May 1. From here, Federal troops . . . — Map (db m11421) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleThe Confederate Flank Attack
The enemy were in force in my immediate front... the country was favorable for a flank attack." - Gen. Lafayette McLaws "Flanked!" one of the most feared words in any army. It meant that the enemy positioned upon the end of your line could . . . — Map (db m11425) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleDifficult Country
"We were in a perfect jungle of rank vines and undergrowth." - Col. A. J. McBride, 10th Georgia Infantry, CSA Few Civil War sites evoke such indelible, mental images as the Wilderness. Densely forested and dark, fighting in the Wilderness of . . . — Map (db m11427) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleThe Enemy Within
"If possible before the battle I will try to be better posted about the rebble armey." - Local spy Isaac Silver Both armies employed soldiers as spies or scouts, but some of the most valuable information came from local civilians. The . . . — Map (db m11429) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleRetreat Over Mott's Run
"The road, the woods, and fields on either side, over which the enemy retired, were strewn with knapsacks, blankets, overcoats, and many other valuable articles." - Gen. Paul Semmes, CSA Union Gen. George Sykes, simultaneously flanked out of . . . — Map (db m11431) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleSafer Ground
Among the Union troops facing the closing grip of Confederate forces were the experienced veterans of the 5th New York Infantry and the novice soldiers of the 146th New York Infantry. The Confederates, however, did not discriminate between . . . — Map (db m75948) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleMcGee Family: Divided Loyalties
The Civil War in Spotsylvania County is steeped in McGee family history. Reuben McGee, the patriarch, lived behind you on the opposite side of Lick Run. Among Reuben McGee's five sons were one ardent Confederate (Reuben McGee, Jr.), two Southern . . . — Map (db m75954) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleA Dangerous Field Hospital
The shell(s) fell pretty thick around me at first but that soon stopped and I went on operating." — Surgeon John Shaw Billings As the Union army fell back, the structures atop this ridge made convenient targets for Confederate . . . — Map (db m75955) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleAbsalom McGee House
They tore up five of our sheets and about 12 dresses and undergarments into strips for bandage. — Harriet McGee Union Surgeon John Shaw Billings moved his field hospital to the relative safety of Absalom McGee's house, which . . . — Map (db m75956) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — First Day at ChancellorsvilleThe End of the First Day
The Rebel Band plays in the distance a triumphant air, as if to mock the sorrow of my heart. — Friedrich Emil Grossman, USA As the sun dipped below the horizon in front of them, Confederate generals disagreed on whether to . . . — Map (db m75957) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellor — The First Day at ChancellorsvilleLee Seizes the Initiative
You are standing where the Battle of Chancellorsville began. On May 1, 1863, Union Gen. Joseph Hooker ordered three columns to advance eastward on three roads: the River Road a mile to your left, the Plank Road a mile to your right, and the Orange . . . — Map (db m3633) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — 154th New York State Volunteer Infantry
(front): 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 11th Corps "The Hardtack Regiment" Anchor of the Buschbeck Line Near Dowdall's Tavern Battle of Chancellorsville May 2, 1863 (back): 590 present for duty 240 killed, wounded, and captured Dedicated . . . — Map (db m5460) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — A Bold PlanThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Here, on the evening of May 1, 1863, Generals Robert E. Lee and "Stonewall" Jackson hatched one of the boldest schemes in military history. Hunched over maps beside a small fire, the two generals plotted how to destroy the Union army, now entrenched . . . — Map (db m3579) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — A Fatal ReconnaissanceThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
When "Stonewall" Jackson reached this point at about 9 p.m. on May 2, 1863, he stood at the peak of his military career. Four hundred yards in front of you, a shaken Union army hastily built earthworks to halt the Confederate tide. One hundred . . . — Map (db m3980) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — A Midnight Conference
After being driven from the Chancellorsville crossroads by Lee on May 3, 1863, Hooker retreated to a new line of defenses covering U.S. Ford, 3.5 miles to your rear. For two days, Hooker strengthened his defenses and awaited attack. Lee took . . . — Map (db m12857) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — A Missed OpportunityThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The morning of May 3d found the Confederate army heavily outnumbered and dangerously divided. "Stonewall" Jackson's flank attack the evening before had staggered the Union army but had not irretrievably damaged it. As the day broke, Jackson's . . . — Map (db m112313) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — A Region of GloomThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
From the time of its earliest settlement, this region was known as "The Wilderness of Spotsylvania" because of its dense thickets and poor soil. Locals called the countryside just west of the Wilderness "The Poison Fields." High concentrations of . . . — Map (db m3603) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — A Very Hot PlaceThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
At Hazel Grove, Lee's artillerists enjoyed perhaps their greatest success of the war. No sooner had the Union army evacuated the ridge than Southern cannon appeared - first four pieces, then eight, twelve, sixteen. Within an hour more than thirty . . . — Map (db m3618) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — About a mile in the distance...
About a mile in the distance, beyond the vista cut through the trees, you can see modern buildings on high ground which at the time of the battle of Chancellorsville was called Hazel Grove. When "Stonewall" Jackson began his famous flank march early . . . — Map (db m3583) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Apex of Hooker’s Last Line
Earthworks to your right rear mark the apex of Hooker's last line of defense. The Federals retreated to this position late in the morning of May 3, guarding the roads to Ely's and United States Fords. The defensive minded Union commander sat . . . — Map (db m3695) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Artillery DuelThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
On the morning of May 3, 1863, Union artillery at Fairview suffered the most intense artillery bombardment of the battle. More than 40 Confederate guns at Hazel Grove (visible 1,200 yards in front of you) concentrated their fire on 34 Union cannon . . . — Map (db m3638) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — J-40 — Battle of Chancellorsville
Hooker reached this point, April 30, 1863; Next day he entrenched, with his left wing on the river and his right wing on this road several miles west. That wing was surprised by Jackson and driven back here, May 2. The Confederates stormed the . . . — Map (db m3511) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Battle of Chancellorsville
On May 2-3, 1863, the Army of Northern Virginia under Lee defeated the Army of the Potomac under Hooker on this field. “Stonewall” Jackson, Lee’s great lieutenant was mortally wounded in the flank attack on Hooker’s right which resulted . . . — Map (db m14514) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Birthplace of Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873)The Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
This jumble of bricks and stones tucked deep within Spotsylvania's Wilderness marks the birthplace of Matthew Fontaine Maury, the "Pathfinder of the Seas." All but forgotten now, Maury was a legend during his lifetime. While superintendent of the . . . — Map (db m21934) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — BivouacLee and Jackson
Bivouac Lee and Jackson Night of May 1, 1863. — Map (db m3581) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Bloody MorningThe Battle of Chancellorsville
Long after the Civil War, Sergeant Rice Bull of the 123rd New York Volunteers remembered the early morning hours of May 3, 1863. "Never was there a more beautiful sunrise," he wrote, "not a cloud in the sky. It was an ideal Sunday morning, warm and . . . — Map (db m112311) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Brig. Gen. E. F. Paxton, C.S.A.
In this vicinity Brig. Gen. E. F. Paxton, C.S.A. Aged 35 years, of Rockbridge County, VA. Was killed on the morning of May 3, 1863 While leading his command, the Stonewall Brigade in the attack on Fairview — Map (db m3607) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Catharine FurnaceThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The stone stack in front of you is all that remains of the Catharine Furnace, built in 1837. Close a decade later, the furnace was reborn to meet the Confederacy’s wartime need for iron. Union cavalrymen under General George A. Custer destroyed . . . — Map (db m2752) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellor CemeteryThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
This is the Chancellor family cemetery. In the first half of the 19th century the Chancellors dominated this section of Spotsylvania County. Fairview was the original family seat, but branches of the family eventually lived at Chancellorsville, . . . — Map (db m3642) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — ChancellorsvilleThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The Civil War had entered its third year, and the Army of the Potomac was again on the march. Led by its new commander, "Fighting Joe" Hooker, the 134,000-man Union juggernaut crossed the Rappahannock River beyond Lee's left flank on April 28, . . . — Map (db m10703) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — ChancellorsvilleMay 3, 1863
Following “Stonewall Jackson’s” successful flank attack and his subsequent wounding on the night of May 2nd, Lee appointed Major General “Jeb” Stuart to command Jackson’s Corps. Faced with an imminent threat from the . . . — Map (db m79637) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville
In 1816, an innkeeper named George Chancellor announced that his “large and commodious” roadside inn, named Chancellorsville, was open. By the 1860’s the inn had gone out of operation, as central Virginia became a vast battleground. . . . — Map (db m93526) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
April 27-May 6, 1863. Leaving a large detachment under Sedgwick in front of Fredericksburg, Hooker marched a flanking column around and behind the Confederates. Lee then left a small unit to face Sedgwick and advanced westward to meet Hooker. . . . — Map (db m3517) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
Just ahead is the crossing of the Orange Plank Road, a mid-nineteenth century trade route from the mountains to the navigable Rappahannock at Fredericksburg. Loaded wagons had the right-of-way on the planking, which covered half the roadbed. . . . — Map (db m3552) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 1-3, 1863. "Our enemy must either ingloriously fly or come out from behind his entrenchments and give us battle on our own ground, where certain destruction awaits him." With these words, "Fighting Joe" Hooker, on May 1, started toward the rear . . . — Map (db m3559) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 2, 1863. Shortly after noon, Sickles’ Corps advanced from the Union right-center to attack the "retreating" Confederates. Posey's and Wright's brigades, part of Lee's holding line, met the advance. A rear guard from Jackson's marching column . . . — Map (db m3599) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 3, 1863 - Battle cries break the stillness of the dawn as 25,000 Confederate soldiers move up through the dark woods on both sides of the Plank Road to attack the Union position guarding Fairview heights, 800 yards to the east. Leading them in . . . — Map (db m3606) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 2-3, 1863. In this vicinity, holding Hooker's original center, Slocum's Corps curved northwestward (reader's right rear) to form an interior line behind Howard's Corps. When Jackson smashed Howard, Slocum's western line fell also. The rest of . . . — Map (db m3645) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 2-3, 1863. Units of Slocum's Federal XII Corps held this line. Its left extended a little beyond the Orange Plank Road (reader's left) where it connected with the right of Couch's II Corps. A mile to the southeast the Orange Plank Road . . . — Map (db m3646) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
April 10 - May 3, 1863. These Trenches were part of Hooker's original line. On May 2, Couch's II Corps skirmishers, under command of Col. Nelson A. Miles, beat off repeated Confederate attacks launched to draw attention from Jackson's flanking . . . — Map (db m3866) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 2, 1863. Having lost the Furnace, the 23rd Georgia Regiment established a new line here in the bed of the Unfinished Railroad. Other troops reinforced the position. During late afternoon, while Jackson's front lines were hitting the Federal . . . — Map (db m3906) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 2, 1863. Jackson's two leading lines, battling the tangled undergrowth and the retreating Federal XI Corps, became disorganized. In this vicinity, Jackson halted his successful advance and ordered A.P. Hill's Division to the front. While the . . . — Map (db m3954) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 3, 1863. At daylight Hooker ordered the withdrawal of Sickles' troops from this height, called Hazel Grove, key position of Hooker's front after Jackson's flanking movement. Promptly occupying it with Archer's Confederate Brigade, Stuart, now in . . . — Map (db m14681) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 1, 1863, Union troops advancing toward Fredericksburg along this road, the Orange Plank, met the Confederates about a mile to your left and retreated to this point. Hooker, not waiting to be attacked, ordered these troops back to . . . — Map (db m15151) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 3-6, 1863. About noon on May 3, Hooker’s army fell back to a new position covering the roads to Ely’s and United States fords. With the center here, the right of his line rested on the Rapidan and the left on the Rappahannock. On May 4, Hooker’s . . . — Map (db m93538) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 3-6, 1863. The Confederate trench remains crossing the Bullock Road at this point mark a line held by “Stonewall” Jackson’s Corps after the severe fighting of May 3. Jackson’s forces, now commanded by “Jeb” Stuart, held . . . — Map (db m93585) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Campaign
Early on May 3, 1863, elements of Howard's battered XI Corps retired to this vicinity. As the battle swirled around the Chancellorsville crossroads, one mile to the southwest. Howard's men hastily dug and constructed lines of rifle pits and . . . — Map (db m126607) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Clearing
Vicious fighting surged back and forth across this large clearing on the morning of May 3. From here, you can clearly see the two key Union positions; Fairview, to your right front near the brick wall of the Chancellor Cemetery; and the . . . — Map (db m3785) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Chancellorsville Home of Mrs. Sanford Chancellor
In the spring of 1863, Chancellorsville was the home of Mrs. Sanford Chancellor and seven of her children. The old inn hosted a steady flow of Southern military men as soldiers and officers from Lee’s army stopped to pay their compliments to Mrs. . . . — Map (db m93531) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Civil War Earthworks
Federal soldiers of the 12th Corps built these earthworks on May 1, 1863. "Stonewall" Jackson's flank attack the following day placed them in Confederate hands. At about 6:00 a.m. on May 3, North Carolinians under William Dorsey Pender and Georgians . . . — Map (db m5457) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Civilians in the CrossfireThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
In seventy-two hours the Chancellor family's world was turned upside down. A Union soldier described the Chancellor women on April 30: "Upon the upper porch was quite a bevy of ladies in light, dressy, attractive spring costumes. They were not . . . — Map (db m3840) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Climactic Struggle
On the morning of May 3, 1863, more than 17,500 men fell killed or wounded in the woods and fields around you - one man shot every second for five hours. Entrenched Union lines in front of you collapsed, and the Confederates surged forward to seize . . . — Map (db m3801) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Collis Zouaves
Erected to mark the line of battle of the 114th Reg't. Pennsylvania Vol's. on the memorable 3rd day of May 1863, where it lost 3 officers and 35 enlisted men killed List of Killed Major Joseph S. Chandler Captain Frank Eliot, Co. F. Lieu't. . . . — Map (db m3639) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Colquitt Turns Tyler’s Flank11:00 A.M.
“I at once saw the enemy outnumbered us, as they were in double lines, and extended beyond our right. I immediately asked for reinforcements, but was informed they could not be furnished. Colonel Webb, who has remained in front for some . . . — Map (db m79639) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Colquitt’s Attack10:00 A.M.
"My brigade was thrown to the left. Forming line of battle parallel to the road. I advanced in face of a severe fire to a line of breastworks from which the enemy had been driven. The contest was sharp and fierce for a few moments. I . . . — Map (db m79638) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Confederate Breakthrough
At about 7:00 a.m. on May 3, a dangerous gap in the Union line opened near the Orange Turnpike, 1/4 mile to your right. Federal troops on your right, led by Hiram Berry, retreated about 1/2 mile and established a new position. The blue-clad soldiers . . . — Map (db m12789) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Confederate CatastropheThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Near this spot around 9:15 p.m. on the night of May 2, 1863, the Confederate cause suffered disaster. As "Stonewall" Jackson and his party returned from their reconnaissance down the Mountain Road, Confederate musketry erupted south of the Plank . . . — Map (db m3978) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Elisha Franklin PaxtonThe Battle of Chancellorsville
The monument across the road marks where General Elisha Franklin Paxton, commander of the famed Stonewall Brigade, fell on May 3, 1863. Before the war, Frank Paxton had practiced law in "Stonewall" Jackson's hometown of Lexington, Virginia, When, in . . . — Map (db m112303) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — J-38 — Ely’s Ford
On this hill, May 3, 1863, Confederate General "J.E.B." Stuart was notified that General "Stonewall" Jackson had been wounded at Chancellorsville and that he was to take command of Jackson's Corps. Moments before, Stuart had ordered his 1,000 men . . . — Map (db m3473) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — FairviewThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Just ahead of you stood a story-and-a-half log house known as Fairview. This was originally a Chancellor home, but during the Civil War James Moxley and his family occupied it. Moxley was overseer of Frances Chancellor's 20 slaves. Moxley likely . . . — Map (db m3641) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — FairviewThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Formerly a Chancellor farmstead, on May 3, 1863, Fairview became a gory landscape. That morning all the energy and violence of the Battle of Chancellorsville focused here - on the fields and woods around a commonplace log house. Here, the contending . . . — Map (db m3643) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Final Meeting, Fateful MarchThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
To reach the Union army's right flank, Jackson would have to march his corps twelve miles over narrow, unpaved roads. The general hoped to have his men moving by dawn on May 2, but he got an unusually late start. It was past 7 a.m. before his . . . — Map (db m3555) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Flanking of Hays' Brigade
On this ridge, the Union brigade of Brig. Gen. William Hays, supported by artillery, temporarily stopped the Confederate advance across the ground below you. A member of the 12th New Jersey described what happened next: "We were in open sight, . . . — Map (db m12794) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Hazel GroveThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
On the morning of May 3, this large, open plateau, known as "Hazel Grove," was the key to the Union position. "Stonewall" Jackson's flank attack the evening before had staggered the Union army but had not seriously damaged it. As the new day . . . — Map (db m3610) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Hazel Grove—Fairview TrailThe Battle of Chancellorsville
This trail leads to Fairview, a key Union position. The fighting that occurred between here and Fairview on May 3, 1863, was some of the most desperate of the war—exceeding, for the time engaged, both Antietam and Gettysburg. Signs along the . . . — Map (db m112316) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — High Drama, Human TragedyThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The climactic fighting of the Battle of Chancellorsville took place in the woods and fields around Fairview. Here on the morning of May 3, 1863, Union troops struggled to maintain their position long enough to allow General Hooker time to . . . — Map (db m3637) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Hooker's Final BastionThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The low earthworks opposite are the apex of the final Union line at Chancellorsville. After suffering defeat in the massive fighting on May 3, Hooker's army started digging. The result: a powerful, U-shaped line six miles long supported by 100 . . . — Map (db m3691) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Jackson
(South Face): On this Spot fell mortally wounded Thomas J. Jackson Lt. Gen. C.S.A. May 2nd 1863 (East Face): There is Jackson standing like a stone wall Bee at Manassas. (North Face): Could I have directed events, I should have chosen for the good . . . — Map (db m3975) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Jackson Monuments
The effort to erect a monument at the site of Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson's mortal wounding began in February 1887, when Fredericksburg newspaper editor Rufus Merchant founded the Stonewall Jackson Monument Association. On June 13, 1888, a crowd of . . . — Map (db m3977) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Jackson on the MoveThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
About 10 a.m. on May 2, 1863, Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's flanking column approached this then-cleared ridge on the Furnace Road. Union infantrymen perched in trees at Hazel Grove, three-quarters of a mile to the . . . — Map (db m3585) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — J-37 — Jackson’s Amputation
Near here stood the hospital tent to which the wounded "Stonewall" Jackson was brought during the Battle of Chancellorsville. In that tent his left arm was amputated on May 3, 1863. He died seven days later at Guinea. — Map (db m3515) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Jackson's Flank MarchThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Shortly after 8 a.m., May 2, "Stonewall" Jackson's corps marched down the hill behind you and passed Catharine Furnace, bound for the Union Army's right flank. When the Federals spotted Jackson's column, they assumed the Confederates were . . . — Map (db m3604) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Jackson's ImpactThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Around you is tangible and dramatic evidence of the impact "Stonewall" Jackson's flank attack had on the Union army. The artillery emplacements (lunettes) in front of you were constructed at a fairly leisurely rate on May 1 and 2, 1863. They face . . . — Map (db m3636) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Junction of Earthworks
Maj. Gen. Hiram G. Berry's division formed the front of the Union defense north of the Orange Turnpike on the morning of May 3. Although virtually all of Berry's entrenchments have disappeared, this small segment of works on the right marks the . . . — Map (db m12785) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Lee Renews the AttackThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Confederate artillery here supported one of the largest infantry attacks of the Civil War. At dawn "Stonewall" Jackson's corps, now led by J.E.B. Stuart, struck the Union line from the west, in the woods to your left-front. At the same time, . . . — Map (db m3617) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Lee's Greatest TriumphThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
As Union resistance around the Chancellor house dissolved, Robert E. Lee rode into the clearing behind his victorious battalions. Though badly outnumbered, Lee in three days had stopped the initial Union advance, brazenly split his own army to . . . — Map (db m3818) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Lives TransformedThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
In 1860, Oscar Bullock and his wife, Catharine, lived in a modest two-and-one-half-story white frame house on this site. With them lived their two infant children and Catharine's 16-year-old brother, David Kyle (who would serve as a guide to . . . — Map (db m3697) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Matthew Fontaine MauryPathfinder of the Seas
Near this spot was born Matthew Fontaine 1806 Maury 1873 —— Pathfinder of the Seas Author of physical geography of the sea Founder of the science of meteorology First to conceive the idea of an Atlantic Cable Under his . . . — Map (db m3597) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Maury Birthplace
These scattered bricks and this shallow depression are all that remain of Matthew Fontaine Maury's birthplace. Maury's parents purchased this house and 103 acres of land from "Lighthorse Harry" Lee, Robert E. Lee's father, in 1797. The future . . . — Map (db m3598) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Maury House TrailThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
This short trail leads to the birthplace of Matthew Fontaine Maury, one of America's greatest scientists. By the time of the Civil War, Maury's birthplace was gone, replaced by a simple brick house. Few of the 28,000 Confederate soldiers who . . . — Map (db m21933) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — McLaws TrailThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
This trail will take you across the swampy headwaters of Ninemile Run, where for three days Confederate skirmishers of General Lafayette McLaws' division sparred with elements of Joseph Hooker's Union army. McLaws' spirited attacks fixed Hooker's . . . — Map (db m25644) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Memorializing Jackson's DeathThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Of his soldiers he was the idol; of his country he was the hope; of war he was the master. Senator John Warwick Daniel When General "Stonewall" Jackson died eight days after being wounded in these woods, shock waves rippled through the . . . — Map (db m19166) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Night-time HorrorThe Battle of Chancellorsville
Civil war combat rarely continued after dark, but on the night of May 2, 1863, desperation and fear filled these gloomy woods. At midnight, about 3,000 Union soldiers of Brigadier General David B. Birney's division moved through these woods, intent . . . — Map (db m112310) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Ordeal of the WellfordsThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
In December 1862 the Wellford family fled Fredericksburg to escape the ravages of battle. Five months later war found them again - here, in a commodious brick home that stood in the field in front of you. On April 30, Union troops arrived. "About . . . — Map (db m3919) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Ordeal of the WoundedThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
After the May 3, 1863, fighting at Chancellorsville, the Confederates gathered up 500 wounded Union soldiers and brought them here to Fairview. For more than a week the helpless men lay in the yard around the house, receiving little medical care, . . . — Map (db m3640) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Stone's Reconnaissance
Union soldiers on the front line probably utilized these rifle pits on May 3-5. Trenches on the other side of the creek possibly served Confederate skirmishers. While the fighting raged near Salem Church, Union Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds believed . . . — Map (db m12856) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — The 27th Indiana Infantry
3rd Brigade, 1st Div., 12th Corps Held this position from 7p.m. May 2nd to 9 a.m. May 3rd, 1863. Present for duty 300 Killed 36, Wounded 114 ——— Mustered in Aug. 1861, Mustered out Sept. 1864 Total enrollment 1,101. Killed 172. . . . — Map (db m3644) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — The Chancellor SlavesThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Their names are unrecorded, their labors are rarely noted. No images of them survive. But slaves outnumbered Chancellor family members when Frances Chancellor moved into this house in 1861. Likely only a few of the 20 slaves owned by the . . . — Map (db m5618) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — The Chancellorsville IntersectionThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The intersection in front of you was the focal point of the Chancellorsville Battlefield. From here roads radiated in five directions. Four of them are visible; the fifth, River Road, lies just beyond the trees to your left. From this . . . — Map (db m3800) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — The Union Army Escapes
After dark, May 5, 1863, Union soldiers left their trenches and began making their way toward U.S. Ford. A cold rain drenched the soldiers to the skin and turned the woodland roads to mud. At the ford, the Rappahannock River rose five feet in three . . . — Map (db m12858) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — The Union CenterThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Upon reaching Chancellorsville on April 30, 1863, General Joseph Hooker deployed the Army of the Potomac in a defensive perimeter around the intersection. General Henry W. Slocum's Twelfth Corps held the center of the Union line. For three days . . . — Map (db m21931) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — The Wilderness of Spotsylvania County
The armies fought the Battle of Chancellorsville in the heart of a 70-square-mile region of tangled undergrowth known locally as the Wilderness. This inhospitable terrain added a new dimension of horror to the fighting on May 3. Fires erupted from . . . — Map (db m5458) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Tyler’s Withdrawal To This Line1:00 P.M.
“Until near noon on May 3rd, the fighting was severe, when the ammunition of the infantry having been exhausted and repeated calls for more being unanswered, the line was forced to retire to the breast-works. The dead and most of the . . . — Map (db m79640) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Union Counterattack
On the morning of May 3, Col. Emlen Franklin's Union brigade shifted from south of the Orange Turnpike to this vicinity. Here, they met Pender and Thomas head on. Lt. Col. Jonathan H. Lockwood of the 7th Virginia (Union) remembered what happened . . . — Map (db m12847) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Union Earthworks
Men of Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock's division manned the earthworks which are located just inside this woodline. Hancock's troops confronted two Confederate divisions advancing from the south (from your right front) and east as well as the . . . — Map (db m3867) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — Union LifelineThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
On April 30, 1863, Gen. George G. Meade's Union Fifth Corps advanced along this road toward Chancellorsville. As Meade's troops approached, Confederates on the Bullock Farm briefly resisted them, then disappeared into the woods to spread word of . . . — Map (db m3690) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Chancellorsville — J-39 — Wounding of Jackson
Just 1.7 miles west, on this road (then the Orange Plank Road), Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson was wounded by "friendly fire" about 9:30 P.M. on 2 May 1863 during the Battle of Chancellorsville. Having brilliantly executed a flanking . . . — Map (db m3513) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Eagle Village — George Washington: Statesman and Public Servant
(Front): George Washington: Statesman Following the Treaty of Paris that guaranteed American independence from Great Britain in 1783, Washington became an influential mover in the steps leading to the Constitutional Convention at . . . — Map (db m14184) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Eagle Village — George Washington: Surveyor and Family Man
(Front): George Washington: Surveyor George Washington loved mathematics, a passion he put to work when he learned to survey land, a useful trade in colonial America. At the age of 15, his first surveying job was to map his brother's . . . — Map (db m14185) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Eagle Village — Historic Kenmore and George Washington's Ferry FarmGeorge Washington Birthplace National Monument
(Front): Historic Kenmore and George Washington's Ferry For George Washington, Fredericksburg was "...the place of my growing infancy." The old town on the Rappahannock River remained his home until he moved permanently to Mt. Vernon . . . — Map (db m14187) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Five Mile Fork — Confederate Defense Turns to OffenseBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
Confronted by overwhelming numbers, Confederate forces fell back from Chancellorsville (three and a half miles in front of you) and established a defensive position here on April 30. General Robert E. Lee instructed Richard H. Anderson, who . . . — Map (db m7532) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Five Mile Fork — EarthworksBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
"We were digging and fortifying all night." Charles E. DeNoon, Mahone's Brigade Civil War earthworks, sometimes referred to as breastworks, were built in a fashion much different than modern military trenches. Soldiers started at . . . — Map (db m7530) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Five Mile Fork — McCarty FarmBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
Behind you, on the Orange Turnpike, stood the home of Frances McCarty. In 1860, Frances lived here with three members of her family. She owned 120 acres, three slaves, and scratched out a living as a farmer. Like so many residents of Sptosylvania . . . — Map (db m7531) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Five Mile Fork — Opening of the CampaignBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
Following its defeat at Fredericksburg in December 1862, the Union Army of the Potomac spent the winter in Stafford County. Across the Rappahannock River, Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia kept a defensive position that covered a 25-mile . . . — Map (db m7535) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Five Mile Fork — Roads Through the BattlefieldBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
Today, much like it was in the nineteenth century, Spotsylvania County contains very few east-west roads. The few that exist, such as Route 3 before you, are heavily used and follow the same routes as their antebellum predecessors. The first . . . — Map (db m7533) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Five Mile Fork — J-42 — Spotswood’s Furnace
Four miles north, on this side road, is the site of an ancient iron furnace established about 1716 by Governor Alexander Spotswood, the first fully equipped iron furnace in the colonies. Iron was hauled along this road to the Rappahannock River for . . . — Map (db m1659) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-84 — Fort Hood
In November 1862, Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood constructed this fort a half mile northeast on the Rappahannock River in an effort to prevent Union gunboats from ascending the river toward Fredericksburg. Four rifled guns of . . . — Map (db m4123) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. In these gunpits stood 14 cannon of Walker’s Artillery Battalion, guarding the right of the Confederate line. While the youthful Maj. John Pelham’s light and mobile horse artillery, about a mile to the front, daringly challenged . . . — Map (db m4087) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. “Lee’s War Horse,” Longstreet, easily beat off repeated attacks against Marye’s Heights to the northward. Meanwhile, here in the Hamilton’s Crossing sector “Stonewall” Jackson had more trouble, but his . . . — Map (db m4088) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. Here in the Lansdowne Valley Longstreet’s right flank joined with “Stonewall” Jackson’s left. Confederate infantry was deployed on the valley floor and cannon rimmed the hills behind, forming a deep pocket in the . . . — Map (db m4116) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. Here, on the wood’s edge facing the fields of the Lansdowne Valley, Gen. George Pickett’s 9,000 men, including soldiers from Fredericksburg, held a vital part of Lee’s line. The enemy did not attack Pickett’s Division and the men . . . — Map (db m4124) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. This is Hamilton's Crossing, the crossing of the Old Mine Road over the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad. Since the railroad was threatened from here to Fredericksburg by long range Federal cannon, Hamilton's . . . — Map (db m8865) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. This highway, the Old Richmond Stage Road, here passes wartime Smithfield, now the Fredericksburg Country Club. Out of the ravine alongside the present golf links (your left front), Meade’s Division emerged to form lines of battle . . . — Map (db m110493) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — George Washington: Soldier and Virginia Planter
(Front): George Washington: Soldier George Washington gained his first military experience during the French and Indian Wars where his bravery and leadership made him a hero. When discord between the American colonies and the British . . . — Map (db m14186) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — The 124th New York Regiment’s First Battle
After the Union Army's disastrous events of May 3, 1863, the 124th New York Regiment of Franklin's Brigade, Whipple's Division of Sickles III Corps fell back to this area where the Mineral Springs Road crossed La Roque's Run (to the rear and right). . . . — Map (db m108310) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — The Battle of Fredericksburg
This landscape, now changed by commercial and residential development, once swarmed with Union soldiers. Forty thousand Northern troops, led by General William B. Franklin, having crossed the Rappahannock River, massed here on the plain south of . . . — Map (db m3825) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-118 — The Chancellorsville Campaign
While General Robert E. Lee engaged the Union army at Chancellorsville, Confederate Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early confronted a smaller Union force led by Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick at Fredericksburg. On 3 May 1863, Sedgwick overran Early’s lines at . . . — Map (db m137175) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — N-3 — The Gallant Pelham
Here Major John Pelham, commanding Stuart’s Horse Artillery, executed a stunning flank attack on advancing Union troops during the Battle of Fredericksburg on 13 December 1862. Reduced to one cannon, the 24-year-old Pelham halted the Federals for . . . — Map (db m1656) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — The Gallant Pelham
The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia had no braver officer than Major John Pelham. Although just 24 years old, the blonde-haired, blue-eyed Alabamian had already proven himself on more than half a dozen battlefields in Maryland and Virginia. . . . — Map (db m3821) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — The Gallant PelhamThe Battle of Fredericksburg
Young, handsome, and modest, Major John Pelham was one of the most popular men in the Confederate army. He was also one of its premier artillerists. Time and again the twenty-four-year-old officer had engaged the enemy at close quarters, earning the . . . — Map (db m19314) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — The Rise & Fall of the Rappahannock Navigation System
Comprised of 47 locks, 20 dams, and 15 miles of canals, the Rappahannock Navigation System struggled from its beginnings. After suffering numerous construction delays due to financial problems, the heyday of canal commerce on the Rappahannock was . . . — Map (db m16541) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — The Slaughter Pen FarmWhere the Battle of Fredericksburg Was Decided — Civil War Preservation Trust —
As hard as it is to believe, the beautiful and historic landscape you see before you was once on the verge of being bulldozed for an industrial park. It was here, on December 13, 1862, that Union forces nearly broke through Confederate lines and . . . — Map (db m21113) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — The Winter LineThe Battle of Fredericksburg
The months following the Battle of Fredericksburg brought a temporary halt to the fighting in Virginia, but not to the digging. Throughout the winter of 1862-1863 Confederate troops constructed nearly thirty miles of earthworks along the south bank . . . — Map (db m19315) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Union Line Contained Along Mineral Springs Road
The old colonial Mineral Springs Road crossed here running about one mile northeast to Tubal (Spotswood's Furnace) and Scott's Dam Ford on the Rappahannock. The road straddled the ridge between La Roque's Run and Mineral Springs Creek. On May 3 thru . . . — Map (db m126609) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Glenora — EM-1 — Fredericksville Furnace
Charles Chiswell established the iron-making community of Fredericksville near this point of Douglas Run, a tributary of the North Anna River. The furnace had been in blast for about five years when William Byrd in 1732 toured the site in the . . . — Map (db m59532) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — Burying the DeadThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
At battles end, more than 2,000 Union dead lay scattered through the Wilderness. The first major effort to bury the dead came more than a year later, when a Union regiment received orders to proceed to the Wilderness and inter those Union . . . — Map (db m5443) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — Crisis in Tapp FieldBattle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Here on the morning of May 6, 1864, Confederate General Robert E. Lee and his army faced perhaps their greatest crisis. Soon after dawn, hundreds of disorganized Confederates tumbled from the woods to your left, driven by a powerful Union . . . — Map (db m6058) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — Echoes HomewardThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Once schoolmates, friends, and neighbors, they came here as soldiers from Yorkville, South Carolina; Pen Yan, New York; Clarksville, Virginia; Barre, Vermont; and a hundred other towns, North and South. Their deaths in these woods on May 5 and 6, . . . — Map (db m7526) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — Flank Attack!The Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
These woods saw some of the heaviest fighting of the Battle of the Wilderness. On May 5, then again on May 6, 1864 ragged Union and Confederate battle lines surged back and forth on both sides of the Orange Plank Road. The stalemate here finally . . . — Map (db m5390) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — Hell ItselfThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The Wilderness of today looks different than it did in 1864. Then it was a patchwork of second-growth forest. Brush obscured, briars grabbed, and thickets disrupted the battle lines. One solder described the combat here as "bushwhacking...on a . . . — Map (db m7516) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — Horror on the Orange Plank RoadThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Some of the Civil War's heaviest fighting occurred along the Orange Plank Road on May 5 and 6, 1864. One of two major roads passing through the Wilderness, the Plank Road became a magnet for both armies as they struggled to maneuver through the . . . — Map (db m4968) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — Longstreet FelledThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
It was the most successful day of James Longstreet’s career. He had arrived on the Wilderness battlefield early in the day to find the Confederate army in full retreat and in danger of being destroyed. His troops had prevented disaster. Now, at . . . — Map (db m5392) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — No Turning BackThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
When the armies departed the Wilderness, they left behind a disfigured landscape. Trenches twisted like earthen snakes through the woods, and blackened leaves marked the paths of fires. Along the Brock Road, noted one soldier, trees "were scarred . . . — Map (db m4966) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — On to Richmond!The Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Before the Wilderness, battlefield stalemate meant retreat by one side or the other - a return to the starting point to try again another day. But not here. Union General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant rendered stalemate in the Wilderness irrelevant. . . . — Map (db m4967) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — The ClimaxThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The Battle of the Wilderness climaxed here in the twilight of May 6, 1864. After a day of seesaw fighting in the woods behind you, the Confederates mounted a final effort to take the Plank Road-Brock Road intersection, 100 yards to your left. . . . — Map (db m7529) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — The Home of Widow TappThe Battle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
In front of you is the site of Catherine Tapp's house, a 1.5-story log cabin surrounded by a corn crib, orchard, and stable. Union and Confederate forces swept past the dwelling, and at one point a Union shell passed through it. When Lt. Col. . . . — Map (db m112326) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Lake Wilderness — Valuable CrossroadsBattle of the Wilderness — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Just after noon on May 5, 1864, Union troops raced toward this intersection. With Confederates from General A.P. Hill's corps sweeping down the Orange Plank Road from the west, blue-clad troops under George W. Getty arrived here just moments before . . . — Map (db m4969) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Leavells — E-40 — Grant’s Supply Line
The Fredericksburg Road, present-day Route 208, was the Army of the Potomac's supply line during the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. For two weeks in May 1864, wagons shuttled back and forth along the road between the Union army and its supply . . . — Map (db m3660) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Leavells — Pvt. James Z. Branscomb, CSA
In Memory of Pvt. James Z. Branscomb, CSA Co. D, Third Alabama Regiment, Rodes Brigade Killed here on May 19, 1864 — Map (db m149217) WM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Livingston — The Brown House
Before dawn on May 12, 1864, 20,000 Union troops of General Winfield Hancock's Second Corps slogged into position at the Brown House, one-half mile to your left, preparatory to making an attack on the Confederate-held Muleshoe Salient. Tired from . . . — Map (db m52965) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Livingston — Union Earthworks
Early on May 10, 1864, General Gershom Mott's division of 1,500 Union soldiers arrived on this ground and began constructing earthworks amid the harassing fire of Confederate sharpshooters concealed in the timber, just a few hundred yards away. The . . . — Map (db m52962) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Locust Grove — The Chewning FarmThe Battle of the Wilderness
On the ridge ahead of you stood the Chewning house, an important landmark on the Wilderness Battlefield. Sixty-nine-year-old William V. Chewning scratched out a living on this 150-acre farm during the war with the help of his wife Permelia and their . . . — Map (db m7454) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Marye — Z-156 — Spotsylvania County / Caroline County
Spotsylvania County Straddling the fall line, Spotsylvania County was formed from Essex, King William, and King and Queen Counties in 1720. It was named for Alexander Spotswood, lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1710 to 1722. The Civil War . . . — Map (db m3319) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Massaponax — E-33 — Federal Raid
On 5 Aug. 1862, two detachments of Union troops left Fredericksburg with the intention of damaging the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. Brig. Gen. John Gibbon led a brigade of some 2,000 men down Telegraph Road toward Hanover Junction, while Col. . . . — Map (db m1718) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Massaponax — E-78 — Massaponax Baptist Church
Massaponax Baptist Church, built in 1859, served a congregation founded in 1788. On 21 May 1864 Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his commanders conferred on pews in the churchyard as the Union army marched from the Spotsylvania Court House battlefield . . . — Map (db m1719) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Massaponax — Massaponax ChurchCouncil of War — Lee vs. Grant — The 1864 Campaign —
Two weeks of fighting at Spotsylvania had resulted in a bloody draw. On May 21, 1864, the Army of the Potomac left its trenches outside the village and began moving east and south, hoping to lure the Confederates into the open where it could attack . . . — Map (db m1726) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Massaponax — Plantations on Guinea Station RoadAntebellum Homes
Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign Union troops took this road on May 21, 1864, as they left Spotsylvania and headed toward Guinea Station. One year earlier, “Stonewall” Jackson’s ambulance had used this same road to carry . . . — Map (db m3707) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Massaponax — E-36 — Road to Guinea Station
On 4 May 1863, the ambulance bearing wounded Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson from the Chancellorsville battlefield turned east here en route to Guinea Station, where he died on 10 May. A year later, Union troops of . . . — Map (db m1717) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), New Post — N-10 — Colonial Post Office
Here was Newpost, headquarters of Alexander Spotswood (Governor of Virginia, 1710-22), Deputy Postmaster General for the colonies, 1730-39. Spotswood also had an iron furnace here. — Map (db m1658) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), New Post — Confederate EarthworksThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg, Virginia —
Twisting through the woods one hundred yards ahead of you are two well-preserved lines of earthworks constructed by Confederate forces in the winter of 1862-1863. General Robert E. Lee had ordered his troops to build the trenches in anticipation of . . . — Map (db m19313) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), New Post — Hamilton's Crossing
This trail leads 0.2 miles to Hamilton’s Crossing on the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad. Named for Captain George Hamilton whos home, “Forest Hill,” once stood on a nearby knoll. Hamilton’s Crossing marks the . . . — Map (db m4086) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), New Post — JacksonOn the Field
Dec. 12 - 13, 1862. — Map (db m4085) WM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), New Post — Stuart and Pelham
Battle of Fredericksburg Dec. 13, 1862 ——— — Map (db m3918) WM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), New Post — The Meade PyramidThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Usually thought of as a Union monument, the large pyramid in front of you was in fact erected by the Confederate Memorial Literary Society. In 1897, the society contacted Virginia railroad executives asking them to erect markers at historically . . . — Map (db m7977) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Parker — JJ-25 — Gaspar Tochman
A mile south is the unmarked grave of Gaspar Tochman (1797-1880), a major in the Polish army who participated in the failed 1830 revolt against Russia. Exiled, in 1837 he immigrated to the United States, where he practiced law, wrote, and lectured. . . . — Map (db m5456) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Post Oak — E-129 — Penny’s Tavern Site
Nearby stood Penny’s (Penney’s) Tavern, named for Lincefield Penney who purchased the site in 1811. The tavern catered to travelers making their way to the old Spotsylvania courthouse site (1781–1837), located approximately one mile north of . . . — Map (db m65082) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Snell — EH-8 — Asbury’s Deathplace
A short distance southeast is the site of the George Arnold House where Bishop Francis Asbury died, March 31, 1816. Asbury, born in England in 1745, came to America in 1771 and labored here until his death. He was ordained one of the first two . . . — Map (db m1723) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Snell — John J. Wright Parksite
. . . — Map (db m3708) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Snell — EM 4 — John J. Wright School
Representatives from local African American churches organized the Spotsylvania Sunday School Union in 1905 to secure a secondary school for black children. The Union, led by educator John J. Wright, purchased 158.5 acres here in 1910 and later . . . — Map (db m148423) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Snell — Secondary Education for African American Children
The Spotsylvania Sunday School Union (SSSU) was formed in 1905 by 12 African American Baptist churches for the purpose of promoting education past the 7th grade for their children. Initially they helped the growth of the Fredericksburg Normal & . . . — Map (db m84589) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Snell — Spotsylvania Sunday School Union Parksite
Formerly the John J. Wright Parksite, the renamed Spotsylvania Sunday School Union (SSSU) Parksite is an example of long- standing community partnership and involvement. The parksite comprises 10 acres - a portion of 158.5 acres originally owned by . . . — Map (db m84591) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Spotsylvania — 126th Ohio Volunteer Infantry
(West Side): Dedicated to the memory of the gallant 126th Reg't O.V.I. commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Smith and Lieut. Colonel Aaron W. Ebright 2nd Brigade 3rd Division 6th Army Corps. Army of the Potomac (North Side):Ohio's . . . — Map (db m10314) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Spotsylvania — 12th Regiment New Jersey Volunteers 1862 - 1865
"We can not dedicate we can not consecrate we can not hallow this ground the brave men living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract." The State of New Jersey merely marks the surrounding twenty . . . — Map (db m4970) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Spotsylvania — 15th Regiment New Jersey Volunteers
(Front): 1861-1865 15th Reg't N.J. Vol's. Erected by the State of New Jersey to mark the portion of the Confederate line held by the 14th Georgia Regiment. and assaulted May 12, 1864, by the 15th Regiment New Jersey Volunteer Infantry, . . . — Map (db m115891) HM
Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Spotsylvania — 17th Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment9th Corps, 3rd Division, 1st Brigade
(Front): 17th Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment 9th Corps 3rd Division 1st Brigade Michigan units on the field in the 9th Corps 17th Michigan Vol. Infantry 20th Michigan Vol. Infantry 8th Michigan Vol. Infantry 27th Michigan Vol. Infantry . . . — Map (db m10431) HM

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Jun. 2, 2020