“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
“Bite-Size Bits of Local, National, and Global History”
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Historical Markers and War Memorials in Spotsylvania County, Virginia

Clickable Map of Spotsylvania County, Virginia and Immediately Adjacent Jurisdictions image/svg+xml 2019-10-06 U.S. Census Bureau, Abe.suleiman; Lokal_Profil;; J.J.Prats/dc:title> Spotsylvania County, VA (394) Caroline County, VA (64) Culpeper County, VA (155) Fredericksburg Ind. City, VA (423) Hanover County, VA (275) Louisa County, VA (43) Orange County, VA (159) Stafford County, VA (202)  SpotsylvaniaCounty(394) Spotsylvania County (394)  CarolineCounty(64) Caroline County (64)  CulpeperCounty(155) Culpeper County (155)  (423) Fredericksburg (423)  HanoverCounty(275) Hanover County (275)  LouisaCounty(43) Louisa County (43)  OrangeCounty(159) Orange County (159)  StaffordCounty(202) Stafford County (202)
Spotsylvania Courthouse is the county seat for Spotsylvania County
Adjacent to Spotsylvania County, Virginia
      Caroline County (64)  
      Culpeper County (155)  
      Fredericksburg (423)  
      Hanover County (275)  
      Louisa County (43)  
      Orange County (159)  
      Stafford County (202)  
Touch name on this list to highlight map location.
Touch blue arrow, or on map, to go there.
1Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — 11th United States InfantryMajor Delancey Floyd-Jones — 17 officers 360 enlisted —
During the Chancellorsville Campaign, the 1st Battalion, 11th United States Infantry formed a part of Colonel Sidney Burbank's 2nd Brigade, Major General George Sykes's 2nd Division, 5th Army Corps. Advancing eastward along the Orange Turnpike, . . . Map (db m158922) HM WM
2Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — 15th Reg’t. N. J. Vol’s
1861 - 1865 (South face): To commemorate the services of the 15th Regiment, New Jersey Volunteer Infantry, commanded by Colonel William H. Penrose, U.S.A., engaged two hours on this line of battle on the Federal side. May 3rd, 1863. . . . Map (db m3516) HM
3Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — 23rd Regt., N. J. Vols.
1861 - 1865 (North face): Monument to commemorate the services of the Twenty-Third Regiment New Jersey Volunteers Infantry, in the battle of Salem Church, Virginia, May 3rd, 1863. Erected by the State of New Jersey, under the . . . Map (db m3514) HM
4Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — A Midnight Conference
After being driven from the Chancellorsville crossroads by Lee on May 3, 1863, Hooker retreated to a new line of defenses covering U.S. Ford, 3.5 miles to your rear. For two days, Hooker strengthened his defenses and awaited attack. Lee took . . . Map (db m12857) HM
5Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — A Southern Memorial
The cleared vista to the left offers a framed view of a 30-foot square, 23-foot high pyramid. It marks the left of the Northern penetration into Confederate lines on Dec. 13, 1862. Federal troops under Gen. George Meade took advantage of an . . . Map (db m4090) HM
6Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Apex of Hooker’s Last Line
Earthworks to your right rear mark the apex of Hooker's last line of defense. The Federals retreated to this position late in the morning of May 3, guarding the roads to Ely's and United States Fords. The defensive minded Union commander sat . . . Map (db m3695) HM
7Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Battle of Chancellorsville
On May 2-3, 1863, the Army of Northern Virginia under Lee defeated the Army of the Potomac under Hooker on this field. “Stonewall” Jackson, Lee’s great lieutenant was mortally wounded in the flank attack on Hooker’s right which resulted in victory . . . Map (db m14514) HM
8Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — J-40 — Battle of Chancellorsville
Hooker reached this point, April 30, 1863; Next day he entrenched, with his left wing on the river and his right wing on this road several miles west. That wing was surprised by Jackson and driven back here, May 2. The Confederates stormed the . . . Map (db m3511) HM
9Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Battle of FredericksburgThe Slaughter Pen
On December 13, 1862, Union and Confederate troops clashed here, on muddy fields dubbed the "Slaughter Pen." Union Gen. William B. Franklin had 65,000 troops, but employed only two divisions, numbering 8,000 men, under Generals George G. Meade . . . Map (db m21106) HM
10Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Battle of FredericksburgWinter War on the Rappahannock
In November 1862, Union Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside led his 115,000-man army southward toward Richmond, the Confederate capital. Delayed by tardy pontoon boats, Burnside was slow to cross the Rappahannock River, which allowed Confederate Gen. Robert . . . Map (db m21109) HM
11Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Battle of Salem Church
of May 3, 4, 1863 fought by Lee and Hooker concluded the Chancellorsville Campaign here. The followers of Lee, in imperishable bronze respond to the noble sentiment of the followers of Grant and pay highest tribute to the patriotism of both. . . . Map (db m3506) HM
12Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Battle of Salem Church
May 3, 1863 Brooks – Newton vs Wilcox – Semmes MahoneMap (db m196285) HM
13Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Bernard's Cabin TrailThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
This mile-long trail leads to the site of Bernard’s Cabins. On the eve of the Civil War, these cabins (now gone) were home to as many as thirty-five slaves. During the Battle of Fredericksburg, the Confederates turned the terrain surrounding the . . . Map (db m5619) HM
14Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Bernard's CabinsThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
On this knoll stood Bernard's Cabins, a small community that in 1860 was home to about three dozen slaves. The complex consisted of three two-room cabins, a stone-lined well, and perhaps two additional buildings. This was only one of several such . . . Map (db m7973) HM
15Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — ChancellorsvilleMay 3, 1863
Following “Stonewall Jackson’s” successful flank attack and his subsequent wounding on the night of May 2nd, Lee appointed Major General “Jeb” Stuart to command Jackson’s Corps. Faced with an imminent threat from the direction of . . . Map (db m79637) HM
16Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville
In 1816, an innkeeper named George Chancellor announced that his “large and commodious” roadside inn, named Chancellorsville, was open. By the 1860’s the inn had gone out of operation, as central Virginia became a vast battleground. Headquarters for . . . Map (db m159169) HM
17Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville Campaign
May 1-3, 1863. "Our enemy must either ingloriously fly or come out from behind his entrenchments and give us battle on our own ground, where certain destruction awaits him." With these words, "Fighting Joe" Hooker, on May 1, started toward the rear . . . Map (db m3559) HM
18Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville Campaign
Early on May 3, 1863, elements of Howard's battered XI Corps retired to this vicinity. As the battle swirled around the Chancellorsville crossroads, one mile to the southwest. Howard's men hastily dug and constructed lines of rifle pits and . . . Map (db m126607) HM
19Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville Campaign
April 10 - May 3, 1863. These trenches were part of Hooker's original line. On May 2, Couch's II Corps skirmishers, under command of Col. Nelson A. Miles, beat off repeated Confederate attacks launched to draw attention from Jackson's flanking . . . Map (db m159157) HM
20Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville Campaign
April 10 - May 3, 1863. These trenches were part of Hooker's original line. On May 2, Couch's II Corps skirmishers, under command of Col. Nelson A. Miles, beat off repeated Confederate attacks launched to draw attention from Jackson's flanking . . . Map (db m159158) HM
21Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville CampaignLee’s Greatest Victory
After the Union defeat at Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln replaced Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside in January 1863 with the aggressive Gen. Joseph Hooker. At the end of April, Hooker sent most of the Army of the Potomac . . . Map (db m181506) HM
22Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville CampaignHooker vs. Lee
"May God have mercy on General Lee for I will have none." -Gen. Joseph Hooker, U.S. Army On May 1, 1863, the head of Union Gen. Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac arrived on these fields, apparently completing one of the most successful and . . . Map (db m181507) HM
23Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville Campaign
Federal earthworks we’re erected here along the Mineral Spring Road on May 2, 1863. They anchored on the Rappahannock River to the northeast and extended to the southwest apex on Ely’s Ford Road. This line was backed up by a second and third line of . . . Map (db m192277) HM
24Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville Campaign
By May 5, 1863, Union General Joseph Hooker knew that he had lost the Battle of Chancellorsville and faced the necessity of retreating across the Rappahannock. Troops of the Federal Fifth Corps dug trenches that stretched a mile on either side of . . . Map (db m192279) HM
25Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville Clearing
Vicious fighting surged back and forth across this large clearing on the morning of May 3. From here, you can clearly see the two key Union positions; Fairview, to your right front near the brick wall of the Chancellor Cemetery; and the . . . Map (db m3785) HM
26Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Chancellorsville Home of Mrs. Sanford Chancellor
In the spring of 1863, Chancellorsville was the home of Mrs. Sanford Chancellor and seven of her children. The old inn hosted a steady flow of Southern military men as soldiers and officers from Lee’s army stopped to pay their compliments to Mrs. . . . Map (db m159165) HM
27Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Churchyard to BattlegroundThe Battle of Salem Church — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
For the first two days of May 1863, the boom of distant guns rattled the windows of Salem Church. Eight miles to the west, at Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee’s main Confederate army battered a Union army nearly twice its size. Four miles to the . . . Map (db m3497) HM
28Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Civilians in the CrossfireThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
In seventy-two hours the Chancellor family's world was turned upside down. A Union soldier described the Chancellor women on April 30: "Upon the upper porch was quite a bevy of ladies in light, dressy, attractive spring costumes. They were not . . . Map (db m159166) HM
29Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Climactic Struggle
On the morning of May 3, 1863, more than 17,500 men fell killed or wounded in the woods and fields around you - one man shot every second for five hours. Entrenched Union lines in front of you collapsed, and the Confederates surged forward to seize . . . Map (db m3801) HM
30Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-46 — Colonial Fort
The Virginia General Assembly authorized the construction of a fort built nearby along the Rappahannock River in 1676. It served as a defensive fortification for settlers of European descent on the frontier when periodic conflicts occurred between . . . Map (db m1655) HM
31Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — N-10 — Colonial Post Office
Here was Newpost, headquarters of Alexander Spotswood (Governor of Virginia, 1710-22), Deputy Postmaster General for the colonies, 1730-39. Spotswood also had an iron furnace here.Map (db m1658) HM
32Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Colquitt Turns Tyler’s Flank11:00 A.M.
“I at once saw the enemy outnumbered us, as they were in double lines, and extended beyond our right. I immediately asked for reinforcements, but was informed they could not be furnished. Colonel Webb, who has remained in front for some moments, . . . Map (db m79639) HM
33Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Colquitt’s Attack10:00 A.M.
"My brigade was thrown to the left. Forming line of battle parallel to the road. I advanced in face of a severe fire to a line of breastworks from which the enemy had been driven. The contest was sharp and fierce for a few moments. I . . . Map (db m79638) HM
34Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Confederate Defense Turns to OffenseBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
Confronted by overwhelming numbers, Confederate forces fell back from Chancellorsville (three and a half miles in front of you) and established a defensive position here on April 30. General Robert E. Lee instructed Richard H. Anderson, who . . . Map (db m7532) HM
35Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Confederate EarthworksThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg, Virginia —
Twisting through the woods one hundred yards ahead of you are two well-preserved lines of earthworks constructed by Confederate forces in the winter of 1862-1863. General Robert E. Lee had ordered his troops to build the trenches in anticipation of . . . Map (db m19313) HM
36Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-42 — Cox House
Across the road to the northeast stood the Cox House, also known as the Wiatt House. In December 1862, Confederate Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws’s division used it as a hospital, and there on 13 December, Brig. Gen. Thomas R. R. Cobb died from wounds . . . Map (db m1713) HM
37Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Dead Horse HillThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The crescent-shaped earthworks in front of you protected the 14 guns of Lieutenant Colonel Reuben Lindsey Walker's artillery battalion, which held this position on December 13, 1862. Prior to the assault of Union infantry, artillery blanketed this . . . Map (db m21901) HM
38Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Death of Maxcy GreggThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
General Maxcy Gregg fell mortally wounded near this spot on December 13, 1862. Fiery and uncompromising on the issues of slavery and states’ rights, the South Carolina lawyer had been an early and ardent proponent of secession. When war came, . . . Map (db m4092) HM
39Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — EarthworksBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
"We were digging and fortifying all night." Charles E. DeNoon, Mahone's Brigade Civil War earthworks, sometimes referred to as breastworks, were built in a fashion much different than modern military trenches. Soldiers started at . . . Map (db m7530) HM
40Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — J-38 — Ely’s Ford
On this hill, May 3, 1863, Confederate General "J.E.B." Stuart was notified that General "Stonewall" Jackson had been wounded at Chancellorsville and that he was to take command of Jackson's Corps. Moments before, Stuart had ordered his 1,000 men . . . Map (db m3473) HM
41Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Engines of DestructionThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
On December 13, 1862, nine Confederate cannon on this knoll helped repulse one of two major Union attacks against Jackson's front. At noon, Union infantry crashed into the Confederate infantry line to your right-front. Captain Greenlee Davidson's . . . Map (db m7975) HM
42Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-33 — Federal Raid
On 5 Aug. 1862, two detachments of Union troops left Fredericksburg with the intention of damaging the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. Brig. Gen. John Gibbon led a brigade of some 2,000 men down Telegraph Road toward Hanover Junction, while Col. . . . Map (db m1718) HM
43Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvillePivot Point of a Campaign
"The battle of Chancellorsville was lost right there." - Union Staff Officer. Here, in a few hours on the afternoon of May 1, 1863, the Chancellorsville Campaign took a dramatic turn. Just a day earlier, Union Gen. Joseph Hooker had . . . Map (db m11419) HM
44Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleThe Union Attack
"The advance was irresistible... in a few minutes the brigade occupied the crest of the hill." -Union brigade commander Col. Sidney Burbank You now stand at the farthest point of the Union infantry advance on May 1. From here, Federal troops . . . Map (db m11421) HM
45Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleThe Confederate Flank Attack
The enemy were in force in my immediate front... the country was favorable for a flank attack." - Gen. Lafayette McLaws "Flanked!" one of the most feared words in any army. It meant that the enemy positioned upon the end of your line could . . . Map (db m11425) HM
46Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleRetreat Over Mott's Run
"The road, the woods, and fields on either side, over which the enemy retired, were strewn with knapsacks, blankets, overcoats, and many other valuable articles." - Gen. Paul Semmes, CSA Union Gen. George Sykes, simultaneously flanked out of . . . Map (db m11431) HM
47Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleMcGee Family: Divided Loyalties
The Civil War in Spotsylvania County is steeped in McGee family history. Reuben McGee, the patriarch, lived behind you on the opposite side of Lick Run. Among Reuben McGee's five sons were one ardent Confederate (Reuben McGee, Jr.), two Southern . . . Map (db m75954) HM
48Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleA Dangerous Field Hospital
The shell(s) fell pretty thick around me at first but that soon stopped and I went on operating." — Surgeon John Shaw Billings As the Union army fell back, the structures atop this ridge made convenient targets for Confederate . . . Map (db m75955) HM
49Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleAbsalom McGee House
They tore up five of our sheets and about 12 dresses and undergarments into strips for bandage. — Harriet McGee Union Surgeon John Shaw Billings moved his field hospital to the relative safety of Absalom McGee's house, which stood on . . . Map (db m75956) HM
50Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleThe End of the First Day
The Rebel Band plays in the distance a triumphant air, as if to mock the sorrow of my heart. — Friedrich Emil Grossman, USA As the sun dipped below the horizon in front of them, Confederate generals disagreed on whether to advance to . . . Map (db m75957) HM
51Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleDifficult Country
"We were in a perfect jungle of rank vines and undergrowth." - Col. A. J. McBride, 10th Georgia Infantry, CSA Few Civil War sites evoke such indelible, mental images as the Wilderness. Densely forested and dark, fighting in the Wilderness of . . . Map (db m158884) HM
52Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleNot Just Armies
"On the first day of the Chancellorsville fight...[our] farm was between our and the enemy's lines of battle." -James H. Leitch, farmer. The Battle of Chancellorsville started here - amid the homes of families living along the Orange . . . Map (db m158920) HM
53Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleThe Enemy Within
"If possible before the battle I will try to be better posted about the rebble armey." - Local spy Isaac Silver Both armies employed soldiers as spies or scouts, but some of the most valuable information came from local civilians. The . . . Map (db m158926) HM
54Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — First Day at ChancellorsvilleSafer Ground
Among the Union troops facing the closing grip of Confederate forces were the experienced veterans of the 5th New York Infantry and the novice soldiers of the 146th New York Infantry. The Confederates, however, did not discriminate between “green” . . . Map (db m158939) HM
55Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — For All Anguish – For Some FreedomFredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Few communities suffered more in the face of war than did Spotsylvania County. For two years armies traversed, occupied, or fought over this ground. Most residents simply tried to stay out of the way; a few left altogether. Virtually every farm . . . Map (db m5621) HM
56Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-84 — Fort Hood
In November 1862, Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood constructed this fort a half mile northeast on the Rappahannock River in an effort to prevent Union gunboats from ascending the river toward Fredericksburg. Four rifled guns of . . . Map (db m4123) HM
57Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. In these gunpits stood 14 cannon of Walker’s Artillery Battalion, guarding the right of the Confederate line. While the youthful Maj. John Pelham’s light and mobile horse artillery, about a mile to the front, daringly challenged . . . Map (db m4087) HM
58Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. “Lee’s War Horse,” Longstreet, easily beat off repeated attacks against Marye’s Heights to the northward. Meanwhile, here in the Hamilton’s Crossing sector “Stonewall” Jackson had more trouble, but his . . . Map (db m4088) HM
59Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. Here in the Lansdowne Valley Longstreet’s right flank joined with “Stonewall” Jackson’s left. Confederate infantry was deployed on the valley floor and cannon rimmed the hills behind, forming a deep pocket in the . . . Map (db m4116) HM
60Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. Here, on the wood’s edge facing the fields of the Lansdowne Valley, Gen. George Pickett’s 9,000 men, including soldiers from Fredericksburg, held a vital part of Lee’s line. The enemy did not attack Pickett’s Division and the men . . . Map (db m4124) HM
61Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. This is Hamilton's Crossing, the crossing of the Old Mine Road over the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad. Since the railroad was threatened from here to Fredericksburg by long range Federal cannon, Hamilton's . . . Map (db m8865) HM
62Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg Campaign
December 13, 1862. This highway, the Old Richmond Stage Road, here passes wartime Smithfield, now the Fredericksburg Country Club. Out of the ravine alongside the present golf links (your left front), Meade’s Division emerged to form lines of battle . . . Map (db m110493) HM
63Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — From Church to HospitalThe Battle of Salem Church — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
As the tumult of battle subsided, new sounds filled the air; the cries and moans of wounded soldiers. Two days of fighting around Salem Church left about 4,000 men killed or wounded. As soon as the battle ended, Confederate surgeons turned the . . . Map (db m3510) HM
64Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — George Washington: Statesman and Public Servant
(Front): George Washington: Statesman Following the Treaty of Paris that guaranteed American independence from Great Britain in 1783, Washington became an influential mover in the steps leading to the Constitutional Convention at . . . Map (db m14184) HM
65Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-40 — Grant’s Supply Line
The Fredericksburg Road, present-day Route 208, was the Army of the Potomac's supply line during the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. For two weeks in May 1864, wagons shuttled back and forth along the road between the Union army and its supply . . . Map (db m3660) HM
66Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Hamilton's Crossing
This trail leads 0.2 miles to Hamilton’s Crossing on the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad. Named for Captain George Hamilton whos home, “Forest Hill,” once stood on a nearby knoll. Hamilton’s Crossing marks the intersection of the . . . Map (db m4086) HM
67Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Hamilton's CrossingThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
This footpath leads to the site of Hamilton's Crossing, a critical supply base for Confederate troops camped near Fredericksburg during the winter of 1862-63. Prior to the Civil War, Hamilton's Crossing had been merely a flag-stop on the . . . Map (db m21797) HM
68Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Hooker's Final BastionThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The low earthworks opposite are the apex of the final Union line at Chancellorsville. After suffering defeat in the massive fighting on May 3, Hooker's army started digging. The result: a powerful, U-shaped line six miles long supported by 100 . . . Map (db m3691) HM
69Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — JacksonOn the Field
Dec. 12 - 13, 1862.Map (db m196297) WM
70Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Jackson Holds Prospect HillThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
You are standing on the right of the Confederate army, held by Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's corps on December 13, 1862. His 35,000 troops spread along a mile front - some in the woods, some in fields, some on ridgetops, some in swampy bottoms. . . . Map (db m21916) HM
71Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-113 — James Farmer, Civil Rights Leader
James Leonard Farmer was born in Texas on 12 Jan. 1920. In 1942, he and other Civil Rights leaders founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in Chicago. CORE used Gandhi-inspired tactics of nonviolent civil . . . Map (db m1716) HM
72Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Lee’s Head Quarters
Lee’s Head Quarters Winter of 1862-3.Map (db m196294) HM
73Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-38 — Lee’s Winter Headquarters
During the winter of 1862-1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee maintained his headquarters in a small clearing in the woods in this vicinity. The camp contained only a few tents and nothing but a flag to indicate it was Lee’s headquarters. By . . . Map (db m1724) HM
74Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Lee's Greatest TriumphThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
As Union resistance around the Chancellor house dissolved, Robert E. Lee rode into the clearing behind his victorious battalions. Though badly outnumbered, Lee in three days had stopped the initial Union advance, brazenly split his own army to . . . Map (db m3818) HM
75Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Lives TransformedThe Battle of Chancellorsville — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
In 1860, Oscar Bullock and his wife, Catharine, lived in a modest two-and-one-half-story white frame house on this site. With them lived their two infant children and Catharine's 16-year-old brother, David Kyle (who would serve as a guide to . . . Map (db m3697) HM
76Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-41 — Longstreet’s Winter Headquarters
Following the Battle of Fredericksburg in Dec. 1862, Confederate Lt. Gen. James Longstreet established his headquarters in a tent near here. His command center was in close proximity to Generals Robert E. Lee and J. E. B. Stuart. Longstreet . . . Map (db m1715) HM
77Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-78 — Massaponax Baptist Church
Massaponax Baptist Church, built in 1859, served a congregation founded in 1788. On 21 May 1864 Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his commanders conferred on pews in the churchyard as the Union army marched from the Spotsylvania Court House battlefield . . . Map (db m1719) HM
78Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Massaponax ChurchCouncil of War — Lee vs. Grant — The 1864 Campaign —
Two weeks of fighting at Spotsylvania had resulted in a bloody draw. On May 21, 1864, the Army of the Potomac left its trenches outside the village and began moving east and south, hoping to lure the Confederates into the open where it could attack . . . Map (db m1726) HM
79Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — McCarty FarmBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
Behind you, on the Orange Turnpike, stood the home of Frances McCarty. In 1860, Frances lived here with three members of her family. She owned 120 acres, three slaves, and scratched out a living as a farmer. Like so many residents of Sptosylvania . . . Map (db m7531) HM
80Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — McLaws TrailThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
This trail will take you across the swampy headwaters of Ninemile Run, where for three days Confederate skirmishers of General Lafayette McLaws' division sparred with elements of Joseph Hooker's Union army. McLaws' spirited attacks fixed Hooker's . . . Map (db m25644) HM
81Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Old Salem Church
This simple and sturdy edifice, constructed in 1844, is typical of the brick churches which rural Baptists build around Fredericksburg in the mid-19th century. During the campaign of November and December, 1862, the building sheltered refugees from . . . Map (db m3505) HM
82Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Opening of the CampaignBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
Following its defeat at Fredericksburg in December 1862, the Union Army of the Potomac spent the winter in Stafford County. Across the Rappahannock River, Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia kept a defensive position that covered a 25-mile . . . Map (db m7535) HM
83Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Plantations on Guinea Station RoadAntebellum Homes — Lee vs. Grant – The 1864 Campaign —
Union troops took this road on May 21, 1864, as they left Spotsylvania and headed toward Guinea Station. One year earlier, “Stonewall” Jackson’s ambulance had used this same road to carry the wounded Confederate general from a field hospital in . . . Map (db m3707) HM
84Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Refuge from HorrorThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
The arrival of contending armies in December 1862 forced thousands of residents to leave Fredericksburg. Most fled into the countryside, bound for homes or churches in Spotsylvania County. One Confederate officer remembered seeing old women, . . . Map (db m3512) HM
85Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Riverside Plantation: MannsfieldThe Battle of Fredericksburg — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
In 1862, the patterns of forest and field in this area reflected historic uses of local farmers. The woods around you were in fact a working part of the Mannsfield Plantation, owned by Arthur Bernard. They provided timber for construction, wood for . . . Map (db m21771) HM
86Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-36 — Road to Guinea Station
On 4 May 1863, the ambulance bearing wounded Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson from the Chancellorsville battlefield turned east here en route to Guinea Station, where he died on 10 May. A year later, Union troops of the Army of . . . Map (db m1717) HM
87Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Roads Through the BattlefieldBattle of Chancellorsville - 1863
Today, much like it was in the nineteenth century, Spotsylvania County contains very few east-west roads. The few that exist, such as Route 3 before you, are heavily used and follow the same routes as their antebellum predecessors. The first . . . Map (db m7533) HM
88Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Salem ChurchThe Battle of Salem Church — Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park —
Spotsylvania Baptists built this church in 1844 and named it Salem, a Biblical word meaning peace. Two decades later, Salem Church was engulfed by war. Initially the church had just 29 members, but by 1859 the number had risen to 77, 20 of whom . . . Map (db m3503) HM
89Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Sanctuaries in SpotsylvaniaFredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park — National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior —
Salem Baptist Church was one of nearly a dozen churches that dotted northern Spotsylvania County on the eve of the Civil War. Zoan, Wilderness, Massaponax, Zion, Christ, Piney Branch – They collectively served as the backbone of the Spotsylvania . . . Map (db m3499) HM
90Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Slaughter Pen FarmThe Walking Trail
Welcome to the Civil War Preservation Trust's Slaughter Pen Farm Battlefield. Here starts a 1¾ mile walking tour. Wayside exhibits provide information and orientation along the way. Allow at least 90 minutes if you plan to walk the entire trail. . . . Map (db m21115) HM
91Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Slaughter Pen FarmInto the Field
You are standing near the center of the most successful Union attack at the Battle of Fredericksburg. Two Union divisions, Gen. George G. Meade's on your left and Gen. John Gibbon's on your right, advanced into this field and soon encountered the . . . Map (db m21139) HM
92Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Slaughter Pen FarmMeade's Attack
With artillery projectiles flying in every direction, Union Gen. George G. Meade galloped through the fields in front of you, encouraged his men, and looked for an opportunity to attack. When Union artillery blew up two Confederate ammunition . . . Map (db m21169) HM
93Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Slaughter Pen FarmKilling Range
Before the battle, Confederate artillerists used a lone tree on this ridge as a mark to establish a "killing range," to punish any Federals who attacked. As Gen. George G. Meade's men surged past the unassuming tree, the Confederates trapped Union . . . Map (db m21171) HM
94Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Slaughter Pen FarmRetreat and Counterattack
"For my part the more I think of that battle, the more annoyed I am that such a great chance should have failed me." - Gen. George G. Meade, USA "Our cannon flamed and roared, and the roar of musketry was terrific. The foe . . . Map (db m21173) HM
95Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Slaughter Pen FarmHand-to-Hand Combat at the Railroad
Just before 2 p.m., Gen. John Gibbon ordered Col. Adrian Root's men to cross the railroad in front of you and enter the woods beyond. With flags in front and bayonets fixed, Root's and remnants from Taylor's and Lyle's brigades advanced through a . . . Map (db m21175) HM
96Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Slaughter Pen FarmGibbon's Advance
When Gen. George G. Meade's division surged unexpectedly forward through the fields on your left, Gen. John Gibbon's men scrambled to advance on Meade's right. Gibbon arranged his forces and ordered Gen. Nelson Taylor's brigade to attack the . . . Map (db m21177) HM
97Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Slaughter Pen FarmSecond Assault
With the failure of Gen. Nelson Taylor's advance, Gen. John Gibbon sent in Col. Peter Lyle's Brigade. Taylor shifted some of his remaining regiments to the right and joined in Lyle's assault. Together, Taylor and Lyle formed a six-regiment front and . . . Map (db m158780) HM
98Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — J-42 — Spotswood’s Furnace
Four miles north, on this side road, is the site of an ancient iron furnace established about 1716 by Governor Alexander Spotswood, the first fully equipped iron furnace in the colonies. Iron was hauled along this road to the Rappahannock River for . . . Map (db m1659) HM
99Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — E-39 — Start of Sheridan's Raid
Here Sheridan, moving from camp, came into the Telegraph Road on his raid to Richmond, May 9, 1864, while Lee and Grant were fighting at Spotsylvania. The 10,000 Union Cavalry filled the road for several miles. Turning from the road ten miles . . . Map (db m9639) HM
100Virginia (Spotsylvania County), Fredericksburg — Stone's Reconnaissance
Union soldiers on the front line probably utilized these rifle pits on May 3-5. Trenches on the other side of the creek possibly served Confederate skirmishers. While the fighting raged near Salem Church, Union Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds believed . . . Map (db m12856) HM

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Jun. 25, 2022